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Lung cancer, NSCLC, SCLC

David J Pinato, Robert J Shiner, Solomon D T White, James R M Black, Pritesh Trivedi, Justin Stebbing, Rohini Sharma, Francesco A Mauri
Purpose: There is inconclusive evidence to suggest the expression of programmed cell death (PD) ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a putative predictor of response to PD-1/PD-L1-targeted therapies in lung cancer. We evaluated the heterogeneity in the expression of PD-1 ligands in isogeneic primary and metastatic LC specimens. Experimental Design: From 12,580 post mortem cases, we identified 214 patients with untreated metastatic LC, of which 98 had adequately preserved tissues to construct a syngeneic primary LC/metastasis tissue microarray...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Ying Liu, Lijun Miao, Ran Ni, Hui Zhang, Ling Li, Xinhua Wang, Xin Li, Jing Wang
Formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and increased cells proliferation are involved in tumorigenesis, tumour recurrence and therapy resistance and microRNA is essential for the development of the biological traits of CSCs and the increased cells proliferation. Studying molecular mechanism of tumorigenesis, tumour recurrence and therapy resistance of lung cancer will help us to further understand the pathogenesis and progression of the disease and offer new targets for effective therapies. In the present study, we found that miR-520a-3p expression is downregulated in NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) and SCLC (small cell lung cancer)...
October 5, 2016: Oncology Reports
Emily Hopkins, David Moffat, Ian Parkinson, Peter Robinson, Hubertus Jersmann, Brendan Dougherty, Mohammed I Birader, Kate Francis, Phan Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Rapid on site examination (ROSE) is encouraged at endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needles aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) to improve diagnostic yield. Due to new therapeutic options in lung cancer, it is not sufficient to merely distinguish between non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) distinction is now standard practice, as well as additional molecular testing where clinically indicated. We investigated the diagnostic yield of on-site smears vs...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Hyung-Joo Oh, Ha-Young Park, Ki-Hyun Kim, Cheol-Kyu Park, Hong-Joon Shin, Jung-Hwan Lim, Yong-Soo Kwon, In-Jae Oh, Yu-Il Kim, Sung-Chul Lim, Young-Chul Kim, Soo-Hyun Kim, Myung-Geun Shin
BACKGROUND: Progastrin-releasing peptide (proGRP) is a recently identified biomarker of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We evaluated the usefulness of plasma proGRP level as a tumor marker for diagnosis and treatment monitoring in patients with SCLC. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected prospectively from 452 [212 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 105 SCLC, and 135 other diseases] patients who visited the hospital for tissue diagnosis. Plasma proGRP levels were measured using a two-step automated immunoassay...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Kristen A Marrone, Jarushka Naidoo, Julie R Brahmer
The treatment paradigm for lung cancer has been transformed in recent years by the use of immunotherapy, specifically, immune checkpoint antibodies (mAb), which are agents designed to reinvigorate an immune-mediated anticancer response by releasing the effects of tumor-mediated immunosuppression. Late-phase clinical trials of these agents in patients with advanced lung cancers have translated into improved clinical outcomes compared with standard-of-care chemotherapy for the treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, and have resulted in FDA approvals for two immune checkpoint mAbs in the second-line setting...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Eva Katharina Masel, Sophie Schur, Romina Nemecek, Michael Mayrhofer, Patrick Huber, Feroniki Adamidis, Bruno Maehr, Matthias Unseld, Herbert Hans Watzke, Robert Pirker
OBJECTIVE: Palliative care plays a crucial role in the overall management of patients with advanced lung cancer and was shown to lead to clinically meaningful improvement in quality of life, less aggressive endof-life care, and potentially prolonged survival. Here we summarize our single institution experience on palliative care in patients with lung cancer. METHODS: The data of patients with lung cancer treated at the palliative care unit of the Medical University of Vienna between June 2010 and March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed...
September 1, 2016: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Rita Dorantes-Heredia, José Manuel Ruiz-Morales, Fernando Cano-García
Lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The use of targeted therapies, especially tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), in specific groups of patients has dramatically improved the prognosis of this disease, although inevitably some patients will develop resistance to these drugs during active treatment. The most common cancer-associated acquired mutation is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Thr790Met (T790M) mutation. During active treatment with targeted therapies, histopathological transformation to small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) can occur in 3-15% of patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) tumors...
August 2016: Translational Lung Cancer Research
Michalis Stratigos, Alexios Matikas, Alexandra Voutsina, Dimitrios Mavroudis, Vassilis Georgoulias
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive and lethal malignancy. Despite high initial response rates to systemic chemotherapy, the disease eventually relapses; further treatment only modestly improves outcomes and overall survival (OS) for patients with extensive stage disease is less than one year. Little progress has been made during the past decades, with no new drugs approved. Consequently, the development of novel strategies is an unmet need. The inhibition of angiogenesis, a defining characteristic of cancer, has demonstrated modest efficacy in several human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
August 2016: Translational Lung Cancer Research
Caner Cam, Bulent Karagoz, Tuba Muftuoglu, Oguz Bigi, Levent Emirzeoglu, Serkan Celik, Alpaslan Ozgun, Tolga Tuncel, Cihan Top
AIM OF THE STUDY: Interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23 play roles in inflammation and autoimmunity. The function of the IL-17/IL-23 pathway has not been completely evaluated in cancer patients. We aimed to investigate serum IL-17 and IL-23 levels and their relationship with clinicopathological and biochemical parameters in lung cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five lung cancer patients and 46 healthy volunteers were included in the study. IL-17 and IL-23 measurements were made with the ELISA method...
2016: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
Meiling Zhou, Jianbo Li, Chunhong Li, Ling Guo, Xinyi Wang, Qin He, Yao Fu, Zhirong Zhang
In this work, two tertiary amine-derived 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (DMEP) conjugates (DC and DP) have been designed and synthesized using N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(4-carboxyl benzyl)-1,3-propanediamine (CPDM) and 4-(4-methylpiperazinomethyl)benzoic acid (PBA) as the targeting ligands. Both DC and DP exhibited strong in vitro cytotoxicity against small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Cellular uptake efficiencies of DC and DP in human alveolar type II epithelial cells were significantly enhanced compared to DMEP and etoposide (VP-16), which were demonstrated to be concentration-, time- and energy-dependent...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Daxuan Wang, Xueqin Qu, Xibin Zhuang, Guojun Geng, Jihuan Hou, Nengluan Xu, Wenlan Li, Tianhui Hu, Yu-Sheng Chen
Brucea javanica oil (BJO), a traditional herbal medicine extracted from the seeds of B. javanica, has been clinically used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy in China. However, how BJO exerts this antitumor effect is still largely unknown. Here, effects of BJO on the growth of NSCLC and SCLC cell lines were investigated by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenytetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay, and the results showed that BJO inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells (NSCLC) and H446 cells (SCLC)...
September 16, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
Hilmi Kodaz, Ebru Taştekin, Bülent Erdoğan, İlhan Hacıbekiroğlu, Hilmi Tozkır, Hakan Gürkan, Esma Türkmen, Bora Demirkan, Sernaz Uzunoğlu, İrfan Çiçin
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers. It is mainly classified into 2 groups: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas (EPSCC) are very rare. The Ras oncogene controls most of the cellular functions in the cell. Overall, 21.6% of human cancers contain a Kirsten Ras (KRAS) mutation. SCLC and EPSCC have several similar features but their clinical course is different. AIMS: We investigated the KRAS mutation status in SCLC and EPSCC...
July 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Hak-Ryul Kim, Gyeong-Ok Lee, Keum-Ha Choi, Dong Kwan Kim, Jae-Suk Ryu, Ki-Eun Hwang, Kook-Joo Na, Chan Choi, Ja Hong Kuh, Myoung Ja Chung, Mi-Kyoung Lee, Hong-Seob So, Kwon-Ha Yoon, Min-Cheol Park, Kyong-Suk Na, Young-Suk Kim, Do-Sim Park
OBJECTIVES: SR-splicing factors (SRSFs) play important roles in oncogenesis. However, the expression of SRSF 5-7 proteins in lung cancer (LC) is unclear, and their use in the diagnosis of pleural diseases has never been assessed. We evaluated SRSF 5-7 protein levels in LC and their diagnostic potential for cancer cells in lung and pleural effusion (PE) and, for the dysregulated SRSFs, investigated their neutralization effect on LC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SRSF 5-7 levels in lung tissue and PE cell lysate samples (n=453) were compared with the results of conventional tumor markers...
September 2016: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Yan Xu, Wei Zhong, Jing Zhao, Minjiang Chen, Longyun Li, Mengzhao Wang
BACKGROUND: Intradural extramedullary spinal cord metastases in lung cancer is rare, and it leads to severe neurological damage. The aim of this study is to identify the clinical features of intradural extramedullary spinal cord metastases in primary lung cancer patients. METHODS: The 8 cases of lung cancer with intradural extramedullary metastases, who were hospitalized in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) during May 2013 to May 2016, were enrolled in the retrospective study...
August 20, 2016: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Stefan Holdenrieder
Blood-based biomarkers are valuable diagnostic tools for the management of lung cancer patients. They support not only differential diagnosis and histological subtyping, but are also applied for estimation of prognosis, stratification for specific therapies, monitoring of therapy response, surveillance monitoring and early detection of residual or progressive disease. Early diagnosis of lung cancer in high risk populations (screening) is a promising future indication but poses high medical and economic challenges to marker performance...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
Emily H Castellanos, Leora Horn
Lung cancer has not traditionally been viewed as an immune-responsive tumor. However, it is becoming evident that tumor-induced immune suppression is vital to malignant progression. Immunotherapies act by enhancing the patient's innate immune response and hold promise for inducing long-term responses in select patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immune checkpoint inhibitors, in particular, inhibitors to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown promise in early studies and are currently in clinical trials in both small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer patients...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
Wan-Ling Tan, Amit Jain, Angela Takano, Evan W Newell, N Gopalakrishna Iyer, Wan-Teck Lim, Eng-Huat Tan, Weiwei Zhai, Axel M Hillmer, Wai-Leong Tam, Daniel S W Tan
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and is classically divided into two major histological subtypes: non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Although NSCLC and SCLC are considered distinct entities with different genomic landscapes, emerging evidence highlights a convergence in therapeutically relevant targets for both histologies. In adenocarcinomas with defined alterations such as EGFR mutations and ALK translocations, targeted therapies are now first-line standard of care...
August 2016: Lancet Oncology
Tomohiro Miyoshi, Shigeki Umemura, Yuki Matsumura, Sachiyo Mimaki, Satoshi Tada, Genichiro Ishii, Hibiki Udagawa, Shingo Matsumoto, Kiyotaka Yoh, Seiji Niho, Hironobu Ohmatsu, Keiju Aokage, Tomoyuki Hishida, Junji Yoshida, Kanji Nagai, Koichi Goto, Masahiro Tsuboi, Katsuya Tsuchihara
PURPOSE: Although large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung shares many clinical characteristics with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), little is known about its molecular features. We analyzed lung LCNECs to identify biologically relevant genomic alterations. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed targeted capture sequencing of all the coding exons of 244 cancer-related genes on 78 LCNEC samples (65 surgically resected cases, including 10 LCNECs combined with non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC] types analyzed separately, and biopsies of 13 advanced cases)...
August 9, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Birgitta I Hiddinga, Patrick Pauwels, Annelies Janssens, Jan P van Meerbeeck
This manuscript addresses the role of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) as a biomarker in the oncogenesis of cancer and the opportunity of turning this gene into a drugable target in neuroendocrine tumours of the lung. Studies in brain tumours conclude that MGMT promoter methylation is considered a strong predictive factor for a favourable outcome for treatment with temozolomide, e.g. alkylating agent. We conducted a systematic review of MGMT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and other pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) to evaluate whether MGMT is a prognostic and/or predictive factor to select patients with lung cancer who can benefit from treatment with temozolomide...
July 18, 2016: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Jorge J Castillo, Ilya G Glezerman, Susan H Boklage, Joseph Chiodo, Beni A Tidwell, Lois E Lamerato, Kathy L Schulman
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is prognostic of higher mortality in some cancers but has not been well studied in others. We used a longitudinal design to determine the incidence and prognostic importance of euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia in patients following diagnosis with lymphoma, breast (BC), colorectal (CRC), small cell lung (SCLC), or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Medical record and tumor registry data from two large integrated delivery networks were combined for patients diagnosed with lymphoma, BC, CRC, or lung cancers (2002-2010) who had ≥1 administration of radiation/chemotherapy within 6 months of diagnosis and no evidence of hypovolemic hyponatremia...
2016: BMC Cancer
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