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Lung cancer, NSCLC, SCLC

Xiaomeng Wan, Yuanzeng Min, Herdis Bludau, Andrew Keith, Sergei S Sheiko, Rainer Jordan, Andrew Z Wang, Marina Sokolsky-Papkov, Alexander V Kabanov
Nanoparticle-based systems for concurrent delivery of multiple drugs can improve outcomes of cancer treatments, but face challenges because of differential solubility and fairly low threshold for incorporation of many drugs. Here we demonstrate that this approach can be used to greatly improve the treatment outcomes of etoposide (ETO) and platinum drug combination ("EP/PE") therapy that is the backbone for treatment of prevalent and deadly small cell lung cancer (SCLC). A polymeric micelle system based on amphiphilic block copolymer poly(2-oxazoline)s (POx) poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline-block-2-butyl-2-oxazoline-block-2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (P(MeOx-b-BuOx-b-MeOx) is used along with an alkylated cisplatin prodrug to enable co-formulation of EP/PE in a single high-capacity vehicle...
March 13, 2018: ACS Nano
Yifeng Xia, Cheng Zhan, Mingxiang Feng, Mathias Leblanc, Eugene Ke, Narayana Yeddula, Inder M Verma
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most deadly subtype of lung cancer due to its dismal prognosis. We have developed a lentiviral vector-mediated SCLC mouse model and have explored the role of both the NF-κB and CREB families of transcription factors in this model. Surprisingly, induction of NF-κB activity, which promotes tumor progression in many cancer types including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), is dispensable in SCLC. Instead, suppression of NF-κB activity in SCLC tumors moderately accelerated tumor development...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Timothy D O'Brien, Peilin Jia, Neil E Caporaso, Maria Teresa Landi, Zhongming Zhao
BACKGROUND: There are two main types of lung cancer: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC has many subtypes, but the two most common are lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). These subtypes are mainly classified by physiological and pathological characteristics, although there is increasing evidence of genetic and molecular differences as well. Although some work has been done at the somatic level to explore the genetic and biological differences among subtypes, little work has been done that interrogates these differences at the germline level to characterize the unique and shared susceptibility genes for each subtype...
February 27, 2018: Genome Medicine
Yangyang Liu
Epithelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have markedly improved the response of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with EGFR-mutant patients. However, these patients inevitably come cross acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs. The transformation of lung adenocarcinoma to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) following treatment with EGFR-TKIs is rare, which leads to resistance to EGFR-TKIs. The present case concerns a case of a 38-year-old man presenting with cough and dyspnea. Radical resection was performed and confirmed an EGFR exon 21 L858R lung adenocarcinoma...
February 20, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
J L Derks, N Leblay, S Lantuejoul, A M Dingemans, E J M Speel, L Fernandez-Cuesta
Carcinoids and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC) are rare neuroendocrine lung tumors. Here we provide an overview of the most updated data on the molecular characteristics of these diseases. Recent genomic studies showed that carcinoids generally contain a low mutational burden and few recurrently mutated genes. Most of the reported mutations occur in chromatin-remodeling genes (e.g. MEN1), and few affect genes of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. Aggressive disease has been related to chromothripsis, DNA-repair gene mutations, loss of OTP/CD44, and upregulation of RET gene expression...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Haibo Wang, Xianyang Zhang, Irving Vidaurre, Renzhi Cai, Wei Sha, Andrew V Schally
We investigated the effects of novel antagonists of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), MIA602 and MIA690, on three human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) lines (H446, DMS53 and H69) and two non-SCLC (NSCLC) lines (HCC827 and H460). In vitro exposure of cancer cells to these GHRH antagonists significantly inhibited cell viability, increased cell apoptosis, decrease cellular levels of cAMP and reduced cell migration. In vivo, the antagonists strongly inhibited tumor growth in xenografted nude mice models. Subcutaneous administration of MIA602 at the dose of 5μg/day for 4-8 weeks reduced the growth of HCC827, H460 and H446 tumors by 69...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Christian L Barney, Nicholas Scoville, Eric Allan, Ahmet Ayan, Dominic DiCostanzo, Karl E Haglund, John Grecula, Terence Williams, Meng Xu-Welliver, Gregory A Otterson, Jose G Bazan
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that increasing radiation therapy (RT) dose to the thoracic vertebral bodies (TVBs) contributes to the development of hematologic toxicities (HTs) in patients with lung cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) treated with definitive chemoradiation with concurrent platinum-based doublet chemotherapy at our institution from 2007 to 2016 were identified. Mean TVB dose and the volume of TVBs receiving at least 5 to 60 Gy (V 5 -V 60 ) were retrospectively recorded...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Randeep Singh, Nitesh Rohtagi
Aims: The primary objective of this study was to estimate the clinicopathological and molecular profile of lung cancer patients along with the evaluation of their clinical characteristics at a tertiary care hospital in Northern India. Subjects and Methods: A total of 421 patients with lung cancer histology who were treated at Max Super Speciality Hospitals were included in the study. The study protocol conforms to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki and permission was obtained from the Ethics Committee before the start of the study...
October 2017: South Asian Journal of Cancer
Lijie He, Jing Wang, Dandan Chang, Dandan Lv, Haina Li, Heping Zhang
The present study investigated the aptness of assessing the levels of progastrin-releasing peptide (Pro-GRP) in addition to the T lymphocyte subpopulation in lung cancer patients prior to and after therapy for determining immune function. A total of 45 patients with lung cancer were recruited and stratified in to a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and an SCLC group. Prior to and after treatment by combined biological therapy comprising chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy followed by three cycles of retransformation of autologous dendritic cells-cytokine-induced killer cells (DC-CIK), the peripheral blood was assessed for populations of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and regulatory T cells (Treg) by flow cytometry, and for the levels of pro-GRP, carcinoembryonic antigen, neuron-specific enolase and Cyfra 21-1...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
M Simó, A Gurtubay-Antolin, L Vaquero, J Bruna, A Rodríguez-Fornells
No previous event-related potentials (ERPs) study has explored the error-related negativity (ERN) - an ERP component indexing performance monitoring - associated to cancer and chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment in a lung cancer population. The aim of this study was to examine differences in performance monitoring in a small-cell lung cancer group (SCLC, C +) 1-month following chemotherapy and two control groups: a non-small cell lung cancer patient group (NSCLC, C -) prior to chemotherapy and a healthy control group (HC)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Qiang Du, Ruofei Yu, Han Wang, Dong Yan, Qi Yuan, Yixin Ma, Dennis Slamon, Dongmei Hou, Huiling Wang, Qi Wang
OBJECTIVES: Autoantibodies tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) could be a valuable tool for the diagnosis or early detection of cancer due to their relatively high specificity and stability. The purpose of this study is to detect the level of tumor-associated autoantibodies in lung cancer and assess the diagnostic potential of autoantibodies in screening strategy for early stage lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Levels of tumor-associated autoantibodies (AAbs) were measured against a panel of seven tumor-associated antigens (p53, PGP9...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Ilaria Fiordoliva, Tania Meletani, Maria Giuditta Baleani, Silvia Rinaldi, Agnese Savini, Marzia Di Pietro Paolo, Rossana Berardi
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in lung cancer patients. This condition may be related to many causes including incidental medications, concurrent diseases and side effects of antineoplastic treatments or the disease itself. Although not frequently life-threatening, it is usually associated with prolonged hospitalization, delays in scheduled chemotherapy, worsening of patient performance status and quality of life and may also negatively affect treatment response and survival. Most of the available data focus on thoracic tumors, especially small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), where hyponatremia is frequently related to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
Roberto Ferrara, Laura Mezquita, Benjamin Besse
The treatment paradigm of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) underwent a major revolution during the course of 2017. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) brought remarkable improvements in response and overall survival (OS) both in unselected pretreated patients and in untreated patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50%. Furthermore, compelling preliminary results were reported for new combinations of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents with chemotherapy or anti-CTLA4 inhibitors. The success of the ICIs appeared to extend to patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), mesothelioma or thymic tumors...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Xiaoling Xu, Zhiyu Huang, Lei Zheng, Yun Fan
Checkpoint inhibitors show promising efficacy in advanced lung cancer, especially in non-small cell lung cancer. This meta-analysis was conducted to explore the therapeutic efficacy and safety of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies combined with chemotherapy or CTLA4 antibody as first-line treatments for patients with advanced lung cancer. A systematic search was performed in databases for this system review and quantitative meta-analysis. Twelve trials were finally enrolled in the meta-analysis. Our analyses revealed that the combined overall response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) for immune checkpoint inhibitors combined with chemotherapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were 47...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Agnes Balla, Kenneth J Hampel, Farrah Khan, Dara L Aisner, Nikoletta Sidiropoulos
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements are present in approximately 5% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). These rearrangements occur because of a chromosomal inversion within the short arm of chromosome 2, which results in the formation of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK fusion oncogene. While NSCLC transformation to SCLC is a rare phenomenon described in EGFR mutant cancers primarily after treatment with targeted therapy, it is exceedingly rare in ALK rearranged adenocarcinomas (Toyokawa et al...
January 9, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
Ramon T Li, Sanam Zahedi, Judy Trieu, Alfred S Lea, William J Calhoun, Alexander G Duarte, Jianping Zhao, Ikenna C Okereke
Lung transplantation is a definitive treatment for select patients with end-stage pulmonary disease. Following transplantation, the reported rate of lung cancer is between 1-9% and is associated with a variety of risk factors, including smoking history and chronic immunosuppression. The majority of post-transplant lung cancer reported in the literature is histologically classified as non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We report a unique case of early stage small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) identified in the native lung following single lung transplantation...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Charles Dayen, Didier Debieuvre, Olivier Molinier, Olivier Raffy, Fabrice Paganin, Jérôme Virally, Sébastien Larive, Béatrice Desurmont-Salasc, Marielle Perrichon, Francis Martin, Michel Grivaux
Background: The French College of General Hospital Respiratory Physicians conducted two studies that consecutively included all patients followed in participating general hospitals for primary small cell (SCLC) or non-small cell (NSCLC) lung cancer diagnosed in 2000 and 2010. These studies allow descriptive statistics and outcome assessment for SCLC and NSCLC separately and comparison over a 10-year period. Methods: A standardised form was completed for each patient at inclusion...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Shengxiang Ren, Shucai Zhang, Tao Jiang, Yayi He, Zhiyong Ma, Hourong Cai, Xiaohong Xu, Yan Li, Weijing Cai, Jing Zhou, Xiaopeng Liu, Xuejun Hu, Jun Zhang, Hui Yu, Caicun Zhou, Fred R Hirsch
We have previously identified a panel of autoantibodies (AABs), including p53, GAGE7, PGP9.5, CAGE, MAGEA1, SOX2 and GBU4-5, that was helpful in the early diagnosis of lung cancer. This large-scale, multicenter study was undertaken to validate the clinical value of this 7-AABs panel for early detection of lung cancer in a Chinese population. Two independent sets of plasma samples from 2308 participants were available for the assay of AABs (training set = 300; validation set = 2008). The concentrations of AABs were quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the optimal cutoff value for each AAB was determined in the training set and then applied in the validation set...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Ju Hwan Cho
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. There are 2 major subtypes of lung cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Studies show that NSCLC is the more prevalent type of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 80%-85% of cases. Although, various treatment methods, such as chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy have been used to treat lung cancer patients, there is an emergent need to develop more effective approaches to deal with advanced stages of tumors...
December 2017: Immune Network
R Minari, P Bordi, M Del Re, F Facchinetti, F Mazzoni, F Barbieri, A Camerini, C E Comin, L Gnetti, C Azzoni, R Nizzoli, B Bortesi, E Rofi, P Petreni, N Campanini, G Rossi, R Danesi, M Tiseo
OBJECTIVES: EGFR T790M mutation is the most common mechanism of resistance to first-/second-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and could be overcome by third-generation EGFR-TKIs, such as osimertinib. Liquid biopsy, a non-invasive technique used to test the presence of the resistant mutation, may help avoiding tissue re-biopsy. However, analysing only circulating-free DNA, information about other less frequent and coexisting resistance mechanisms may remain unrevealed...
January 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
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