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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064556/pd-1-checkpoint-blockade-alone-or-combined-pd-1-and-ctla-4-blockade-as-immunotherapy-for-lung-cancer
#1
Tawee Tanvetyanon, Jhanelle E Gray, Scott J Antonia
Signaling through T-cell surface, an immune checkpoint protein such as PD-1 or CTLA-4 helps dampen or terminate unwanted immune responses. Blocking a single immune checkpoint or multiple checkpoints simultaneously can generate anti-tumor activity against a variety of cancers including lung cancer. Area covered: This review highlights the results of recent clinical studies of single or combination checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The authors discuss pembrolizumab and pembrolizumab plus ipilimumab, durvalumab and durvalumab plus tremelimumab, nivolumab and nivolumab plus ipilimumab for NSCLC as well as nivolumab and nivolumab plus ipilimumab for SCLC...
January 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048179/su-f-r-54-ct-texture-based-early-tumor-treatment-response-assessment-during-radiation-therapy-delivery-small-cell-versus-non-small-cell-lung-cancers
#2
J Paul, E Gore, X Li
PURPOSE: Tumor treatment response may potentially be assessed during radiation therapy (RT) by analyzing changes in CT-textures. We investigated the different early RT-responses between small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as assessed by CT-texture. METHODS: Daily diagnostic-quality CT acquired during routine CT-guided RT using a CT-on-Rails for 13-NSCLC and 5-SCLC patients were analyzed. These patient had ages ranging from 45-78 and 38-63 years, respectively, for NSCLC and SCLC groups, and tumor-stages ranging from T2-T4, and were treated with either RT or chemotherapy and RT with 45-66Gy/ 20-34 fractions...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028034/rapamycin-insensitive-companion-of-mtor-rictor-amplification-defines-a-subset-of-advanced-gastric-cancer-and-is-sensitive-to-azd2014-mediated-mtorc1-2-inhibition
#3
S T Kim, S Y Kim, S J Klempner, J Yoon, N Kim, S Ahn, H Bang, K-M Kim, W Park, S H Park, J O Park, Y S Park, H Y Lim, S H Lee, K Park, W K Kang, J Lee
PURPOSE: Targeting oncogenic genomic aberrations is an established therapeutic strategy in multiple tumor types. Molecular classification has uncovered a number of novel targets, and rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR (RICTOR) amplification has been identified in lung cancer. Further investigation assessing the therapeutic potential of RICTOR amplification as a novel target across advanced cancers is needed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor samples from 640 patients with metastatic solid tumors, primarily gastrointestinal and lung cancers were prospectively subjected to a next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay to identify molecular targets...
December 27, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993895/mutation-patterns-in-small-cell-and-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-suggests-a-different-level-of-heterogeneity-between-primary-and-metastatic-tumors
#4
Ali Saber, T Jeroen N Hiltermann, Klaas Kok, M Martijn Terpstra, Kim de Lange, Wim Timens, Harry J M Groen, Anke van den Berg
Several studies have shown heterogeneity in lung cancer, with parallel existence of multiple subclones characterized by their own specific mutational landscape. The extent to which minor clones become dominant in distinct metastasis is not clear. The aim of our study was to gain insight in the evolution pattern of lung cancer by investigating genomic heterogeneity between primary tumor and its distant metastases. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed on 24 tumor and five normal samples of two small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and three non-SCLC (NSCLC) patients...
December 17, 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938382/emerging-therapeutic-agents-for-lung-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Bhagirathbhai Dholaria, William Hammond, Amanda Shreders, Yanyan Lou
Lung cancer continues to be the most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics and immunotherapeutics have propelled the rapid development of novel treatment agents across all cancer subtypes, including lung cancer. Additionally, more pharmaceutical therapies for lung cancer have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in the last 5 years than in previous two decades. These drugs have ushered in a new era of lung cancer managements that have promising efficacy and safety and also provide treatment opportunities to patients who otherwise would have no conventional chemotherapy available...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910778/mirsnps-of-mir1274-and-mir3202-genes-that-target-mecp2-and-dnmt3b-are-associated-with-lung-cancer-risk-a-study-conducted-on-massarray-genotyping
#6
Cansu Ozbayer, Irfan Degirmenci, Derya Ustuner, Guntulu Ak, Faruk Saydam, Ertugrul Colak, Hasan Veysi Gunes, Muzaffer Metintas
Genetic variants of miRNAs that target DNMTs and MBDs involved in DNA methylation were scanned with current databases, and 35 miRSNPs in 22 miRNA genes were identified. The aim of the study was to determine the association between these variants of miRNA genes and lung cancer (LC). DNA samples were isolated from blood samples and genotyped using a Sequenom MassARRAY System. An association between the rs188912830 gene variant of miR3202 that targets the MeCP2 protein and LC was indicated in both subtypes. The presence of the C-allele in patients with LC and its subtypes was significantly lower, and the absence of the C-allele was determined to increase the risk of LC by 7,429-times compared to the presence (p=0,010)...
2016: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907860/co-delivery-of-vp-16-and-bcl-2-targeted-antisense-on-peg-grafted-omwcnts-for-synergistic-in-vitro-anti-cancer-effects-in-non-small-and-small-cell-lung-cancer
#7
Zbynek Heger, Hana Polanska, Sona Krizkova, Jan Balvan, Martina Raudenska, Simona Dostalova, Amitava Moulick, Michal Masarik, Vojtech Adam
Present study describes the preparation of a polyethylene glycol-grafted oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs-PEG) hybrid nanosystem as a carrier of etoposide (VP-16) and Bcl-2 phosphorothioate antisense deoxyoligonucleotides (Aso) to achieve a superior cytostastic efficacy in non-small and small cell lung cancer in vitro. We have demonstrated that the adsorption of hydrophobic VP-16 and Bcl-2 Aso results in a stable nanotransporter exhibiting good dispersion with excellent release profiles (both, in pH 7...
November 19, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904042/risk-factors-associated-with-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-patients-with-advanced-lung-cancer
#8
Takanori Miyoshi, Nobuhiro Misumi, Mikako Hiraike, Yuki Mihara, Takashi Nishino, Minako Tsuruta, Yosei Kawamata, Yoichi Hiraki, Aki Kozono, Masao Ichiki
Cisplatin (CDDP) combination chemotherapy is widely administered to patients with advanced lung cancer. The dose depends on multiple factors, including whether the tumor is non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Although efficacy is limited by cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN), little is known about the risk factors for this complication. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for CIN in patients with advanced lung cancer, both NSCLC and SCLC. We retrospectively reviewed clinical data for 148 patients who underwent initial chemotherapy including CDDP ≥50 mg/m(2) per patient per day for the first course at Kyushu Medical Center between October 2010 and September 2013...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877227/incidence-and-predictors-of-bone-metastases-bm-and-skeletal-related-events-sres-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-sclc-a-swiss-patient-cohort
#9
Katrin Conen, Raphael Hagmann, Viviane Hess, Alfred Zippelius, Sacha I Rothschild
Objectives: Bone metastases (BM) and skeletal-related events (SREs) are frequent complications in patients with lung cancer. Whereas in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) incidence, prognostic impact, and risk factors are well established, there is only little knowledge in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We retrospectively evaluated the incidence of BM, SRE and their treatment in a SCLC patient cohort treated at our hospital. We further assessed the role of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), a possible predictor of BM development in SCLC patients...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856126/patterns-of-care-and-survival-among-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-experience-from-a-tertiary-center-in-india
#10
Pramod K Julka, Daya Nand Sharma, Renu Madan, Supriya Mallick, Rony Benson, Haresh Kunhi P, Subhash Gupta, Goura K Rath
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Lung cancer is the commonest malignancy and the most common cause of cancer related mortality in males worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the commonest histology while small cell lung cancer (SCLC) contributes to only 15% of all cases of lung cancer. This report intended to present the patterns of care, survival outcomes and prognostic factors of SCLC treated in a tertiary care institute. RESULTS: A total of 85 patients of SCLC were registered in radiotherapy unit I during the period January, 2005 to December, 2012...
November 14, 2016: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845189/genome-analyses-identify-the-genetic-modification-of-lung-cancer-subtypes
#11
REVIEW
Yong Zhang, Diane C Wang, Lin Shi, Bijun Zhu, Zhihui Min, Jianjun Jin
Lung cancer is a highly intricate and heterogeneous disease with genomic diversity in each subtype. Global analyses of gene expression and sequencing provided us new understanding of the genetic variation between small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), including adenocarcinoma (ADC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The genetic variations of lung cancer subtypes in genomic studies were integrated and further analyzed using bioinformatics methods. The lung cancer subtypes share some genetic variations such as the dysfunction of tumor suppressor gene TP53, and also harbor specific variations of their own such as MET in ADC, FGFR1 and FGFR3 in SCC and MYC in SCLC...
November 11, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835869/otx015-mk-8628-a-novel-bet-inhibitor-exhibits-antitumor-activity-in-non-small-cell-and-small-cell-lung-cancer-models-harboring-different-oncogenic-mutations
#12
Maria E Riveiro, Lucile Astorgues-Xerri, Ramiro Vazquez, Roberta Frapolli, Ivo Kwee, Andrea Rinaldi, Elodie Odore, Keyvan Rezai, Mohamed Bekradda, Giorgio Inghirami, Maurizio D'Incalci, Kay Noel, Esteban Cvitkovic, Eric Raymond, Francesco Bertoni
Inhibitors targeting epigenetic control points of oncogenes offer a potential mean of blocking tumor progression in small cell and non-small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC, NSCLC). OTX015 (MK-8628) is a BET inhibitor selectively blocking BRD2/3/4. OTX015 was evaluated in a panel of NSCLC or SCLC models harboring different oncogenic mutations. Cell proliferation inhibition and cell cycle arrest were seen in sensitive NSCLC cells. MYC and MYCN were downregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, OTX015-treatment significantly downregulated various stemness cell markers, including NANOG, Musashi-1, CD113 and EpCAM in H3122-tumors in vivo...
November 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757309/intra-tumoral-heterogeneity-in-the-expression-of-programmed-death-pd-ligands-in-isogeneic-primary-and-metastatic-lung-cancer-implications-for-immunotherapy
#13
David J Pinato, Robert J Shiner, Solomon D T White, James R M Black, Pritesh Trivedi, Justin Stebbing, Rohini Sharma, Francesco A Mauri
Purpose: There is inconclusive evidence to suggest the expression of programmed cell death (PD) ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a putative predictor of response to PD-1/PD-L1-targeted therapies in lung cancer. We evaluated the heterogeneity in the expression of PD-1 ligands in isogeneic primary and metastatic LC specimens. Experimental Design: From 12,580 post mortem cases, we identified 214 patients with untreated metastatic LC, of which 98 had adequately preserved tissues to construct a syngeneic primary LC/metastasis tissue microarray...
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748920/microrna-520a-3p-inhibits-proliferation-and-cancer-stem-cell-phenotype-by-targeting-hoxd8-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
Ying Liu, Lijun Miao, Ran Ni, Hui Zhang, Ling Li, Xinhua Wang, Xin Li, Jing Wang
Formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and increased cells proliferation are involved in tumorigenesis, tumour recurrence and therapy resistance and microRNA is essential for the development of the biological traits of CSCs and the increased cells proliferation. Studying molecular mechanism of tumorigenesis, tumour recurrence and therapy resistance of lung cancer will help us to further understand the pathogenesis and progression of the disease and offer new targets for effective therapies. In the present study, we found that miR-520a-3p expression is downregulated in NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) and SCLC (small cell lung cancer)...
December 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747007/cell-block-samples-from-endobronchial-ultrasound-transbronchial-needle-aspiration-provide-sufficient-material-for-ancillary-testing-in-lung-cancer-a-quaternary-referral-centre-experience
#15
Emily Hopkins, David Moffat, Ian Parkinson, Peter Robinson, Hubertus Jersmann, Brendan Dougherty, Mohammed I Birader, Kate Francis, Phan Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Rapid on site examination (ROSE) is encouraged at endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needles aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) to improve diagnostic yield. Due to new therapeutic options in lung cancer, it is not sufficient to merely distinguish between non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) distinction is now standard practice, as well as additional molecular testing where clinically indicated. We investigated the diagnostic yield of on-site smears vs...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747005/progastrin-releasing-peptide-as-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-biomarker-of-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
Hyung-Joo Oh, Ha-Young Park, Ki-Hyun Kim, Cheol-Kyu Park, Hong-Joon Shin, Jung-Hwan Lim, Yong-Soo Kwon, In-Jae Oh, Yu-Il Kim, Sung-Chul Lim, Young-Chul Kim, Soo-Hyun Kim, Myung-Geun Shin
BACKGROUND: Progastrin-releasing peptide (proGRP) is a recently identified biomarker of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We evaluated the usefulness of plasma proGRP level as a tumor marker for diagnosis and treatment monitoring in patients with SCLC. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected prospectively from 452 [212 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 105 SCLC, and 135 other diseases] patients who visited the hospital for tissue diagnosis. Plasma proGRP levels were measured using a two-step automated immunoassay...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732998/immunotherapy-for-lung-cancer-no-longer-an-abstract-concept
#17
Kristen A Marrone, Jarushka Naidoo, Julie R Brahmer
The treatment paradigm for lung cancer has been transformed in recent years by the use of immunotherapy, specifically, immune checkpoint antibodies (mAb), which are agents designed to reinvigorate an immune-mediated anticancer response by releasing the effects of tumor-mediated immunosuppression. Late-phase clinical trials of these agents in patients with advanced lung cancers have translated into improved clinical outcomes compared with standard-of-care chemotherapy for the treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, and have resulted in FDA approvals for two immune checkpoint mAbs in the second-line setting...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701880/palliative-care-units-in-lung-cancer-in-the-real-world-setting-a-single-institution-s-experience-and-its-implications
#18
Eva Katharina Masel, Sophie Schur, Romina Nemecek, Michael Mayrhofer, Patrick Huber, Feroniki Adamidis, Bruno Maehr, Matthias Unseld, Herbert Hans Watzke, Robert Pirker
OBJECTIVE: Palliative care plays a crucial role in the overall management of patients with advanced lung cancer and was shown to lead to clinically meaningful improvement in quality of life, less aggressive endof-life care, and potentially prolonged survival. Here we summarize our single institution experience on palliative care in patients with lung cancer. METHODS: The data of patients with lung cancer treated at the palliative care unit of the Medical University of Vienna between June 2010 and March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed...
September 1, 2016: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652204/histopathological-transformation-to-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-in-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-tumors
#19
REVIEW
Rita Dorantes-Heredia, José Manuel Ruiz-Morales, Fernando Cano-García
Lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The use of targeted therapies, especially tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), in specific groups of patients has dramatically improved the prognosis of this disease, although inevitably some patients will develop resistance to these drugs during active treatment. The most common cancer-associated acquired mutation is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Thr790Met (T790M) mutation. During active treatment with targeted therapies, histopathological transformation to small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) can occur in 3-15% of patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) tumors...
August 2016: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652203/targeting-angiogenesis-in-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Michalis Stratigos, Alexios Matikas, Alexandra Voutsina, Dimitrios Mavroudis, Vassilis Georgoulias
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive and lethal malignancy. Despite high initial response rates to systemic chemotherapy, the disease eventually relapses; further treatment only modestly improves outcomes and overall survival (OS) for patients with extensive stage disease is less than one year. Little progress has been made during the past decades, with no new drugs approved. Consequently, the development of novel strategies is an unmet need. The inhibition of angiogenesis, a defining characteristic of cancer, has demonstrated modest efficacy in several human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
August 2016: Translational Lung Cancer Research
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