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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801517/effect-of-densely-ionizing-radiation-on-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Erdene Baljinnyam, Sundararajan Venkatesh, Richard Gordan, Satvik Mareedu, Jianyi Zhang, Lai-Hua Xie, Edouard I Azzam, Carolyn K Suzuki, Diego Fraidenraich
The process of human cardiac development can be faithfully recapitulated in a culture dish with human pluripotent stem cells, where the impact of environmental stressors can be evaluated. The consequences of ionizing radiation exposure on human cardiac differentiation are largely unknown. In this study, human-induced pluripotent stem cell cultures (hiPSCs) were subjected to an external beam of 3.7 MeV α-particles at low mean absorbed doses of 0.5, 3, and 10 cGy. Subsequently, the hiPSCs were differentiated into beating cardiac myocytes (hiPSC-CMs)...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800362/nucleotide-transmitters-atp-and-adp-mediate-intercellular-calcium-wave-communication-via-p2y12-13-receptors-among-bv-2-microglia
#2
Pengchong Jiang, Fulin Xing, Bu Guo, Jianyu Yang, Zheming Li, Wei Wei, Fen Hu, Imshik Lee, Xinzheng Zhang, Leiting Pan, Jingjun Xu
Nerve injury is accompanied by a liberation of diverse nucleotides, some of which act as 'find/eat-me' signals in mediating neuron-glial interplay. Intercellular Ca2+ wave (ICW) communication is the main approach by which glial cells interact and coordinate with each other to execute immune defense. However, the detailed mechanisms on how these nucleotides participate in ICW communication remain largely unclear. In the present work, we employed a mechanical stimulus to an individual BV-2 microglia to simulate localized injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794898/a-multicenter-cohort-study-of-primary-hypertension-in-korea-study-design-and-interim-analysis-of-the-korean-registry-of-target-organ-damage-in-hypertension-korhr
#3
Suk-Won Choi, Seong Woo Han, Jong Sun Ok, Byung-Su Yoo, Mi-Seung Shin, Sung Ha Park, Kyu-Hyung Ryu
BACKGROUND: The Korean Registry of Target Organ Damage in Hypertension aims to evaluate the clinical characteristics and prevalence of subclinical target organ damage in Korean hypertensive patients. METHOD: This is a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study in which 23 university hospitals participated. Since May 2013, we have enrolled 1,318 consecutive hypertensive patients without known cardiovascular disease who met the following inclusion criteria: 1) age older than 30 years and 2) the first visit to the participating hospitals was within the last 5 years...
2017: Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794407/focal-cortical-seizures-start-as-standing-waves-and-propagate-respecting-homotopic-connectivity
#4
L Federico Rossi, Robert C Wykes, Dimitri M Kullmann, Matteo Carandini
Focal epilepsy involves excessive cortical activity that propagates both locally and distally. Does this propagation follow the same routes as normal cortical activity? We pharmacologically induced focal seizures in primary visual cortex (V1) of awake mice, and compared their propagation to the retinotopic organization of V1 and higher visual areas. We used simultaneous local field potential recordings and widefield imaging of a genetically encoded calcium indicator to measure prolonged seizures (ictal events) and brief interictal events...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793220/mechanism-for-triggered-waves-in-atrial-myocytes
#5
Yohannes Shiferaw, Gary L Aistrup, J Andrew Wasserstrom
Excitation-contraction coupling in atrial cells is mediated by calcium (Ca) signaling between L-type Ca channels and Ryanodine receptors that occurs mainly at the cell boundary. This unique architecture dictates essential aspects of Ca signaling under both normal and diseased conditions. In this study we apply laser scanning confocal microscopy, along with an experimentally based computational model, to understand the Ca cycling dynamics of an atrial cell subjected to rapid pacing. Our main finding is that when an atrial cell is paced under Ca overload conditions, Ca waves can then nucleate on the cell boundary and propagate to the cell interior...
August 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774158/regulation-of-intracellular-calcium-by-endoplasmic-reticulum-proteins-in-small-intestinal-interstitial-cells-of-cajal
#6
Chan Guk Park, Mei Jin Wu, Chansik Hong, Ju Yeon Jo, Han Yi Jiao, Hyun Park, Jae Yeoul Jun, Seok Choi
Background/Aims: We investigated the role of representative endoplasmic reticulum proteins, stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), and store-operated calcium entry-associated regulatory factor (SARAF) in pacemaker activity in cultured interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) isolated from mouse small intestine. Methods: The whole-cell patch clamp technique applied for intracellular calcium ions ([Ca(2+)]i) analysis with STIM1 or SARAF overexpressed cultured ICCs from mouse small intestine...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765190/reversible-central-neural-hyperexcitability-an-electroencephalographic-clue-to-hypocalcaemia
#7
Bhagyadhan A Patel, Rahul T Chakor, Kaumil V Kothari, Swaleha Nadaf
A 23-year-old male patient presented with cognitive decline and seizures. Examination revealed Chvostek's and Trousseau's signs. Investigations revealed hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphatemia and normal intact parathyroid hormone levels. Imaging showed calcifications in bilateral basal ganglia, thalamus and dentate nuclei. Interictal electroencephalogram showed theta range slowing of background activity and bilateral temporo-occipital, irregular, sharp and slow wave discharges, which accentuated during hyperventilation, photic stimulation and eye closure...
August 1, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762933/-optimization-of-bp-control-and-arterial-elasticity-with-fixed-combination-therapy-perindopril-and-amlodipine-in-patients-with-arterial-hypertension-and-increased-pulse-wave-velocity
#8
S V Nedogoda, A O Konradi, N E Zvartau, E V Chumachek, A A Ledyaeva, V V Tsoma, A S Salasyuk, J S Judina, V O Smirnova, V J Khripaeva, R V Palashkin
The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of fixed combination perindopril+amlodipine to improve arterial elesticity in patients with hypertension and high pulse wave velocity, despite previous combination antihypertensive therapy. In an open, multicenter, observational study duration of 24 weeks 80 patients were included, divided into 4 equal-sized groups, depending on initial antihypertensive therapy: Group 1 - the combination of ACE inhibitor and diuretic, Group 2 - the combination of ACE inhibitor and calcium channel blocker, Group 3 - the combination of diuretic and angiotensin receptor blocker, Group 4 - the combination of angiotensin receptor blocker and calcium antagonist...
March 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757442/endothelin-receptor-mediated-ca-2-signaling-in-coronary-arteries-after-experimentally-induced-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rat
#9
Sarah Brøgger Kristiansen, Kristian A Haanes, Majid Sheykhzade, Lars Edvinsson
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death. It is caused by a blockage of a coronary artery leading to reduced blood flow to the myocardium and hence ischemic damage. In addition, a second wave of damage after the flow has been restored, named reperfusion injury greatly exacerbate the damage. For the latter, no medical treatment exist. In this study the aim was to characterize Ca(2+) sensitivity in coronary arteries following experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746859/release-of-applied-mechanical-loading-stimulates-intercellular-calcium-waves-in-drosophila-wing%C3%A2-discs
#10
Cody E Narciso, Nicholas M Contento, Thomas J Storey, David J Hoelzle, Jeremiah J Zartman
Mechanical forces are critical but poorly understood inputs for organogenesis and wound healing. Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) are critical second messengers in cells for integrating environmental and mechanical cues, but the regulation of Ca(2+) signaling is poorly understood in developing epithelial tissues. Here we report a chip-based regulated environment for microorgans that enables systematic investigations of the crosstalk between an organ's mechanical stress environment and biochemical signaling under genetic and chemical perturbations...
July 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745686/-effects-of-keto-amino-acids-and-a-low-protein-diet-on-the-nutritional-status-of-patients-with-stages-3b-4-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
S Yu Milovanova, Yu S Milovanov, M V Taranova, I A Dobrosmyslov
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of keto/amino acids in maintaining protein balance and preventing mineral metabolic disturbances and the development of uremic hyperparathyroidism in the long-term use of a low-protein diet (LPD) in patients with Stages 3B-4 chronic kidney disease (CKD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety patients with CKD caused by chronic latent glomerulonephritis in 65 patients and chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis of various etiologies (gout, drug-induced, and infection) in 25 were examined...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742117/comparison-of-gcamp3-and-gcamp6f-for-studying-astrocyte-ca2-dynamics-in-the-awake-mouse-brain
#12
Liang Ye, Mateen A Haroon, Angelica Salinas, Martin Paukert
In recent years it has become increasingly clear that astrocytes play a much more active role in neural processes than the traditional view of them as supporting cells suggests. Although not electrically excitable, astrocytes exhibit diverse Ca2+ dynamics across spatial and temporal scales, more or less dependent on the animal's behavioral state. Ca2+ dynamics range from global elevations lasting multiple seconds encompassing the soma up to the finest processes, to short elevations restricted to so-called microdomains within fine processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740456/carotid-artery-stiffness-digital-endothelial-function-and-coronary-calcium-in-patients-with-essential-thrombocytosis-free-of-overt-atherosclerotic-disease
#13
Matjaz Vrtovec, Ajda Anzic, Irena Preloznik Zupan, Katja Zaletel, Ales Blinc
BACKGROUND: Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are at increased risk for atherothrombotic events. Our aim was to determine if patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET), a subtype of MPNs, free of symptomatic atherosclerosis, have greater carotid artery stiffness, worse endothelial function, greater coronary calcium and carotid plaque burden than control subjects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 40 ET patients without overt vascular disease, and 42 apparently healthy, age and sex-matched control subjects with comparable classical risk factors for atherosclerosis and Framingham risk of coronary disease were enrolled...
June 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737174/inverted-battery-design-as-ion-generator-for-interfacing-with-biosystems
#14
Chengwei Wang, Kun Kelvin Fu, Jiaqi Dai, Steven D Lacey, Yonggang Yao, Glenn Pastel, Lisha Xu, Jianhua Zhang, Liangbing Hu
In a lithium-ion battery, electrons are released from the anode and go through an external electronic circuit to power devices, while ions simultaneously transfer through internal ionic media to meet with electrons at the cathode. Inspired by the fundamental electrochemistry of the lithium-ion battery, we envision a cell that can generate a current of ions instead of electrons, so that ions can be used for potential applications in biosystems. Based on this concept, we report an 'electron battery' configuration in which ions travel through an external circuit to interact with the intended biosystem whereas electrons are transported internally...
July 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733893/effects-of-new-generation-tmem16a-inhibitors-on-calcium-activated-chloride-currents-in-rabbit-urethral-interstitial-cells-of-cajal
#15
Stephen Fedigan, Eamonn Bradley, Timothy Webb, Roddy J Large, Mark A Hollywood, Keith D Thornbury, Noel G McHale, Gerard P Sergeant
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) isolated from the rabbit urethra exhibit Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents (I ClCa) that are important for the development of urethral tone. Here, we examined if TMEM16A (ANO1) contributed to this activity by examining the effect of "new-generation" TMEM16A inhibitors, CACCinh-A01 and T16Ainh-A01, on I ClCa recorded from freshly isolated rabbit urethral ICC (RUICC) and on contractions of intact strips of rabbit urethra smooth muscle. Real-time quantitative PCR experiments demonstrated that TMEM16A was highly expressed in rabbit urethra smooth muscle, in comparison to TMEM16B and TMEM16F...
July 21, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729692/extensive-astrocyte-synchronization-advances-neuronal-coupling-in-slow-wave-activity-in-vivo
#16
Zsolt Szabó, László Héja, Gergely Szalay, Orsolya Kékesi, András Füredi, Kornélia Szebényi, Árpád Dobolyi, Tamás I Orbán, Orsolya Kolacsek, Tamás Tompa, Zsombor Miskolczy, László Biczók, Balázs Rózsa, Balázs Sarkadi, Julianna Kardos
Slow wave activity (SWA) is a characteristic brain oscillation in sleep and quiet wakefulness. Although the cell types contributing to SWA genesis are not yet identified, the principal role of neurons in the emergence of this essential cognitive mechanism has not been questioned. To address the possibility of astrocytic involvement in SWA, we used a transgenic rat line expressing a calcium sensitive fluorescent protein in both astrocytes and interneurons and simultaneously imaged astrocytic and neuronal activity in vivo...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729115/arousal-and-drug-abuse
#17
REVIEW
Francisco J Urbano, Verónica Bisagno, Edgar Garcia-Rill
The reticular activating system (RAS) is not an amorphous region but distinct nuclei with specific membrane properties that dictate their firing during waking and sleep. The locus coeruleus and raphe nucleus fire during waking and slow wave sleep, with the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) firing during both waking and REM sleep, the states manifesting arousal-related EEG activity. Two important discoveries in the PPN in the last 10 years are, 1) that some PPN cells are electrically coupled, and 2) every PPN cell manifests high threshold calcium channels that allow them to oscillate at beta/gamma band frequencies...
July 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721356/targeted-ischemic-stroke-induction-and-mesoscopic-imaging-assessment-of-blood-flow-and-ischemic-depolarization-in-awake-mice
#18
Matilde Balbi, Matthieu P Vanni, Gergely Silasi, Yuki Sekino, Luis Bolanos, Jeffrey M LeDue, Timothy H Murphy
Despite advances in experimental stroke models, confounding factors such as anesthetics used during stroke induction remain. Furthermore, imaging of blood flow during stroke is not routinely done. We take advantage of in vivo bihemispheric transcranial windows for longitudinal mesoscopic imaging of cortical function to establish a protocol for focal ischemic stroke induction in target brain regions using photothrombosis in awake head-fixed mice. Our protocol does not require any surgical steps at the time of stroke induction or anesthetics during either head fixation or photoactivation...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679474/a-comparison-of-micro-perc-and-retrograde-intrarenal-surgery-results-in-pediatric-patients-with-renal-stones
#19
Haluk Sen, Ilker Seckiner, Omer Bayrak, Kazim Dogan, Sakip Erturhan
INTRODUCTION: With advancements in endoscopic surgery, open surgical techniques for urinary system stones have paved the way for the application of less invasive treatment modalities in patients with pediatric kidney stone disease. These treatment options include extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of RIRS and micro-PCNL techniques in the surgical treatment of kidney stones in pediatric patients...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673592/bottom-up-gamma-and-stages-of-waking
#20
E Garcia-Rill
Gamma activity has been proposed to promote the feed forward or "bottom-up" flow of information from lower to higher regions of the brain during perception. The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) modulates waking and REM sleep, and is part of the reticular activating system (RAS). The properties of PPN cells are unique in that all PPN neurons fire maximally at gamma band frequency regardless of electrophysiological or transmitter type, thus proposed as one origin of "bottom-up" gamma. This property is based on the presence of intrinsic membrane oscillations subserved by high threshold, voltage-dependent calcium channels...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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