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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931721/neuropeptidergic-integration-of-behavior-in-trichoplax-adhaerens-an-animal-without-synapses
#1
Adriano Senatore, Thomas S Reese, Carolyn L Smith
Trichoplax adhaerens is a flat, millimeter-sized marine animal that adheres to surfaces and grazes on algae. Trichoplax displays a repertoire of different feeding behaviors despite the apparent absence of a true nervous system with electrical or chemical synapses. It glides along surfaces to find food, propelled by beating cilia on cells at its ventral surface, and pauses during feeding by arresting ciliary beating. We found that when endomorphin-like peptides are applied to an animal, ciliary beating is arrested, mimicking natural feeding pauses...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917183/visualisation-of-an-nspef-induced-calcium-wave-using-the-genetically-encoded-calcium-indicator-gcamp-in-u87-human-glioblastoma-cells
#2
Lynn Carr, Sylvia M Bardet, Delia Arnaud-Cormos, Philippe Leveque, Rodney P O'Connor
Cytosolic, synthetic chemical calcium indicators are typically used to visualise the rapid increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration that follows nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) application. This study looks at the application of genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) to investigate the spatiotemporal nature of nsPEF-induced calcium signals using fluorescent live cell imaging. Calcium responses to 44kV/cm, 10ns pulses were observed in U87-MG cells expressing either a plasma membrane targeted GECI (GCaMP5-G), or one cytosolically expressed (GCaMP6-S), and compared to the response of cells loaded with cytosolic or plasma membrane targeted chemical calcium indicators...
September 8, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914607/cortex-wide-bold-fmri-activity-reflects-locally-recorded-slow-oscillation-associated-calcium-waves
#3
Miriam Schwalm, Florian Schmid, Lydia Wachsmuth, Hendrik Backhaus, Andrea Kronfeld, Felipe Aedo Jury, Pierre-Hugues Prouvot, Consuelo Fois, Franziska Albers, Timo van Alst, Cornelius Faber, Albrecht Stroh
Spontaneous slow oscillation-associated slow wave activity represents an internally generated state which is characterized by alternations of network quiescence and stereotypical episodes of neuronal activity - slow wave events. However, it remains unclear which macroscopic signal is related to these active periods of the slow wave rhythm. We used optic fiber-based calcium recordings of local neural populations in cortex and thalamus to detect neurophysiologically defined slow calcium waves in isoflurane anesthetized rats...
September 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911022/hypertensive-cardiovascular-risk-pulsatile-hemodynamics-gender-and-therapeutic-implications
#4
Michel E Safar, Harold Smulyan
PURPOSE: In recent years, the predictive value of 2 pulsatile parameters has been extensively studied in hypertension: aortic stiffness and pulse pressure (PP) amplification. Aortic stiffness is an index of aortic rigidity and PP-amplification is the ratio between central and brachial PP, an indirect evaluation of wave reflections. Both are safe, independent, noninvasive predictors of overall and cardiovascular risk. Our purpose is to determine the validity of these parameters in 2 different circumstances: gender and therapeutic implications...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903493/editor-s-highlight-formulation-and-toxicology-evaluation-of-the-intrathecal-ayx1-dna-decoy-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#5
Julien Mamet, David C Yeomans, Tony L Yaksh, Donald C Manning, Scott Harris
The longevity of pain after surgery is debilitating and limits the recovery of patients. AYX1 is a double-stranded, unprotected, 23 base-pair oligonucleotide designed to reduce acute post-surgical pain and prevent its chronification with a single intrathecal perioperative dose. AYX1 mimics the DNA sequence normally bound by EGR1 on chromosomes, a transcription factor transiently induced in the dorsal root ganglia-spinal cord network following a noxious input. AYX1 binds to EGR1 and prevents it from launching waves of gene regulation that are necessary to maintain pain over time...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891499/astroglial-hydro-ionic-waves-guided-by-the-extracellular-matrix-an-exploratory-model
#6
Alfredo Pereira
Calcium waves are generated from the astrocyte endoplasmatic reticulum, in response to neuronal electrochemical stimulation. The waves feed back on neurons, modulating (reinforcing or depressing) their activity and the resulting behavior. How do these waves propagate from the astrocyte endoplasmatic reticulum to the synaptic space and reach neuron membrane channels? An exploratory model is elaborated, on the basis of complex interactions of ions, water negative exclusion zones and charged sites of proteins...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884380/role-of-calmodulin-and-calcineurin-in-regulating-flagellar-motility-and-wave-polarity-in-leishmania
#7
Aakash Gautam Mukhopadhyay, Chinmoy Sankar Dey
We have previously reported the involvement of cyclic AMP in regulating flagellar waveforms in Leishmania. Here, we investigated the roles of calcium, calmodulin, and calcineurin in flagellar motility regulation in L. donovani. Using high-speed videomicroscopy, we show that calcium-independent calmodulin and calcineurin activity is necessary for motility in Leishmania. Inhibition of calmodulin and calcineurin induced ciliary beats interrupting flagellar beating in both live (in vivo) and ATP-reactivated (in vitro) parasites...
September 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879040/comparison-of-effects-between-calcium-channel-blocker-and-diuretics-in-combination-with-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blocker-on-24-h-central-blood-pressure-and-vascular-hemodynamic-parameters-in-hypertensive-patients-study-design-for-a-multicenter-double-blinded
#8
Gyu Chul Oh, Hae-Young Lee, Wook Jin Chung, Ho-Joong Youn, Eun-Joo Cho, Ki-Chul Sung, Shung Chull Chae, Byung-Su Yoo, Chang Gyu Park, Soon Jun Hong, Young Kwon Kim, Taek-Jong Hong, Dong-Ju Choi, Min Su Hyun, Jong Won Ha, Young Jo Kim, Youngkeun Ahn, Myeong Chan Cho, Soon-Gil Kim, Jinho Shin, Sungha Park, Il-Suk Sohn, Chong-Jin Kim
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke, and is one of the leading causes of death. Although over a billion people are affected worldwide, only half of them receive adequate treatment. Current guidelines on antihypertensive treatment recommend combination therapy for patients not responding to monotherapy, but as the number of pills increase, patient compliance tends to decrease. As a result, fixed-dose combination drugs with different antihypertensive agents have been developed and widely used in recent years...
2017: Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877492/spatially-organized-%C3%AE-cell-subpopulations-control-electrical-dynamics-across-islets-of-langerhans
#9
Matthew J Westacott, Nurin W F Ludin, Richard K P Benninger
Understanding how heterogeneous cells within a multicellular system interact and affect overall function is difficult without a means of perturbing individual cells or subpopulations. Here we apply optogenetics to understand how subpopulations of β-cells control the overall [Ca(2+)]i response and insulin secretion dynamics of the islets of Langerhans. We spatiotemporally perturbed electrical activity in β-cells of channelrhodopsin2-expressing islets, mapped the [Ca(2+)]i response, and correlated this with the cellular metabolic activity and an in silico electrophysiology model...
September 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874951/severe-hyperkalemia-can-the-electrocardiogram-risk-stratify-for-short-term-adverse-events
#10
Nicole Durfey, Brian Lehnhof, Andrew Bergeson, Shayla N M Durfey, Victoria Leytin, Kristina McAteer, Eric Schwam, Justin Valiquet
INTRODUCTION: The electrocardiogram (ECG) is often used to identify which hyperkalemic patients are at risk for adverse events. However, there is a paucity of evidence to support this practice. This study analyzes the association between specific hyperkalemic ECG abnormalities and the development of short-term adverse events in patients with severe hyperkalemia. METHODS: We collected records of all adult patients with potassium (K+) ≥6.5 mEq/L in the hospital laboratory database from August 15, 2010, through January 30, 2015...
August 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870545/arterial-stiffness-and-cognitive-impairment
#11
REVIEW
Xiaoxuan Li, Peiyuan Lyu, Yanyan Ren, Jin An, Yanhong Dong
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is one of the earliest indicators of changes in vascular wall structure and function and may be assessed using various indicators, such as pulse-wave velocity (PWV), the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), the ankle-brachial index (ABI), pulse pressure (PP), the augmentation index (AI), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness index-β. Arterial stiffness is generally considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870222/general-anesthetics-protects-against-cardiac-arrest-induced-brain-injury-by-inhibiting-calcium-wave-propagation-in-zebrafish
#12
Dao-Jie Xu, Bin Wang, Xuan Zhao, Yi Zheng, Jiu-Lin Du, Ying-Wei Wang
Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although many victims are initially resuscitated, they often suffer from serious brain injury, even leading to a "persistent vegetative state". Therefore, it is need to explore therapies which restore and protect brain function after cardiac arrest. In the present study, using Tg (HuC:GCaMP5) zebrafish as a model, we found the zebrafish brain generated a burst of Ca(2+) wave after cardiac arrest by in vivo time-lapse confocal imaging. The Ca(2+) wave was firstly initiated at hindbrain and then sequentially propagated to midbrain and telencephalon, the neuron displayed Ca(2+) overload after Ca(2+) wave propagation...
September 4, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870151/progression-of-arterial-stiffness-is-associated-with-changes-in-bone-mineral-markers-in-advanced-ckd
#13
Rathika Krishnasamy, Sven-Jean Tan, Carmel M Hawley, David W Johnson, Tony Stanton, Kevin Lee, David W Mudge, Scott Campbell, Grahame J Elder, Nigel D Toussaint, Nicole M Isbel
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). There are limited prospective data however on progression of arterial stiffness in CKD, including evaluating associations with bone mineral markers such as fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and soluble α-klotho (sKl). METHODS: In this prospective, single-center, observational study, arterial stiffness [measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV)] and hormones influencing mineral homeostasis, including serum FGF23 and sKl, were compared between non-dialysis CKD stages 4/5 and healthy controls at baseline and 12 months (12 m)...
September 4, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864299/the-concerted-movement-of-the-switch-region-of-troponin-i-in-cardiac-muscle-thin-filaments-as-tracked-by-conventional-and-pulsed-deer-epr
#14
Phani R Potluri, Jean Chamoun, James A Cooke, Myriam Badr, Joanna A Guse, Roni Rayes, Nicole M Cordina, Dane McCamey, Piotr G Fajer, Louise J Brown
The absence of a crystal structure of the calcium free state of the cardiac isoform of the troponin complex has hindered our understanding of how the simple binding of Ca(2+) triggers conformational changes in troponin which are then propagated to enable muscle contraction. Here we have used continuous wave (CW) and Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) pulsed EPR spectroscopy to measure distances between TnI and TnC to track the movement of the functionally important regulatory 'switch' region of the cardiac Tn...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864150/standard-and-strain-measurements-by-echocardiography-detect-early-overloaded-right-ventricular-dysfunction-validation-against-hemodynamic-and-myocyte-contractility-changes-in-a-large-animal-model
#15
Amir Hodzic, Pierre Bobin, Delphine Mika, Mohamed Ly, Florence Lefebvre, Patrick Lechêne, Emmanuel Le Bret, Elodie Gouadon, Mathieu Coblence, Grégoire Vandecasteele, André Capderou, Jérôme Leroy, Catherine Rucker-Martin, Virginie Lambert
BACKGROUND: Early detection of right ventricular (RV) failure is required to improve the management of patients with congenital heart diseases. The aim of this study was to validate echocardiography for the early detection of overloaded RV dysfunction, compared with hemodynamic and myocyte contractility assessment. METHODS: Using a porcine model reproducing repaired tetralogy of Fallot, RV function was evaluated over 4 months using standard echocardiography and speckle-tracking compared with hemodynamic parameters (conductance catheter)...
August 29, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859293/impaired-calcium-homeostasis-is-associated-with-sudden-cardiac-death-and-arrhythmias-in-a-genetic-equivalent-mouse-model-of-the-human-hrc-ser96ala-variant
#16
Christos Tzimas, Daniel M Johnson, Demetrio J Santiago, Elizabeth Vafiadaki, Demetrios A Arvanitis, Constantinos H Davos, Aimilia Varela, Nikolaos C Athanasiadis, Constantinos Dimitriou, Michalis Katsimpoulas, Stephan Sonntag, Mariya Kryzhanovska, Doron Shmerling, Stephan E Lehnart, Karin R Sipido, Evangelia G Kranias, Despina Sanoudou
Aims: The histidine-rich calcium-binding protein (HRC) Ser96Ala variant has previously been identified as a potential biomarker for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Herein, the role of this variant in cardiac pathophysiology is delineated through a novel mouse model, carrying the human mutation in the homologous mouse position. Methods and results: The mouse HRC serine 81, homologous to human HRC serine 96, was mutated to alanine, using knock-in gene targeting...
September 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851305/nephrolithiasis-and-osteomalacia-associated-with-adefovir-induced-fanconi-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-hepatitis-b
#17
Jueying Lin, Yufeng Zhuo, Dongdong Zhang
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of case reports suggest that acquired renal Fanconi syndrome may be associated with prolonged use of adefovir against hepatitis B virus. Renal Fanconi syndrome is an uncommon disease, and its complication with nephrolithiasis is quite rare. Herein, we report a rare coexistence of nephrolithiasis and acquired renal Fanconi syndrome in a chronic hepatitis B-positive patient with prolonged adefovir therapy. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented with osteomalacia and nephrolithiasis...
August 29, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846932/effect-of-in-vivo-low-level-laser-therapy-on-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-ovariectomy-induced-osteoporosis-of-rats
#18
Ataroalsadat Mostafavinia, Leila Dehdehi, Seyed Kamran Ghoreishi, Behnam Hajihossainlou, Mohammad Bayat
Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) is considered by decreased bone strength that escalates the threat of fractures. Positive effects of photobiomodulation (PBM) with pulse wave have been demonstrated in cell culture and animal models. The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo effects of PBM on viability and calcium ion release of ovariectomy induced osteoporosis (OVX) - bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 18 female rats were distributed into the following groups: 1) control healthy, 2) LASER-healthy (890nm, 80Hz, 1...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823052/sensitivity-analysis-of-ventricular-activation-and-electrocardiogram-in-tailored-models-of-heart-failure-patients
#19
C Sánchez, G D'Ambrosio, F Maffessanti, E G Caiani, F W Prinzen, R Krause, A Auricchio, M Potse
Cardiac resynchronization therapy is not effective in a variable proportion of heart failure patients. An accurate knowledge of each patient's electroanatomical features could be helpful to determine the most appropriate treatment. The goal of this study was to analyze and quantify the sensitivity of left ventricular (LV) activation and the electrocardiogram (ECG) to changes in 39 parameters used to tune realistic anatomical-electrophysiological models of the heart. Electrical activity in the ventricles was simulated using a reaction-diffusion equation...
August 19, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801517/effect-of-densely-ionizing-radiation-on-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
Erdene Baljinnyam, Sundararajan Venkatesh, Richard Gordan, Satvik Mareedu, Jianyi Zhang, Lai-Hua Xie, Edouard I Azzam, Carolyn K Suzuki, Diego Fraidenraich
The process of human cardiac development can be faithfully recapitulated in a culture dish with human pluripotent stem cells, where the impact of environmental stressors can be evaluated. The consequences of ionizing radiation exposure on human cardiac differentiation are largely unknown. In this study, human-induced pluripotent stem cell cultures (hiPSCs) were subjected to an external beam of 3.7 MeV α-particles at low mean absorbed doses of 0.5, 3, and 10 cGy. Subsequently, the hiPSCs were differentiated into beating cardiac myocytes (hiPSC-CMs)...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
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