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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928454/the-role-of-oral-sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-in-maintaining-acid-base-balance-and-its-influence-on-the-cardiovascular-system-in-chronic-hemodialysis-patients-results-of-a-prospective-study
#1
Voiculeț C, Zară O, Bogeanu C, Văcăroiu I, Aron G
Background: Major acid-base variations during dialysis and the imbalances in serum calcium levels intensified by them play a role in cardiovascular damage of hemodialysis patients. Early vascular walls modifications can be objectified by determining the pulse wave velocity (PWV) - a marker of vascular stiffness that is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. Material and methods: This was a prospective study conducted on 63 chronic hemodialysis patients with diuresis above 500 mL/ 24 hours and predialysis blood pressure below 160 mmHg (treatment controlled) randomized in two groups for 12 months - the study group receiving interdialitic oral sodium bicarbonate doses and control group, without oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation, but receiving higher bicarbonate prescriptions in dialysis...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919025/ip3-still-on-the-move-but-now-in-the-slow-lane
#2
REVIEW
Luc Leybaert
In this issue of Science Signaling, Dickinson et al show that the intracellular messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), which triggers the release of calcium (Ca(2+)) from the endoplasmic reticulum, is a slowly diffusing local signal, rather than a rapidly diffusing global one. These findings have implications for the understanding of the mechanisms of Ca(2+) wave propagation, especially long-range, cell-to-cell propagating Ca(2+) waves.
November 8, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904490/antidepressant-effect-of-electroacupuncture-regulates-signal-targeting-in-the-brain-and-increases-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels
#3
Dong-Mei Duan, Ya Tu, Ping Liu, Shuang Jiao
Electroacupuncture improves depressive behavior faster and with fewer adverse effects than antidepressant medication. However, the antidepressant mechanism of electroacupuncture remains poorly understood. Here, we established a rat model of chronic unpredicted mild stress, and then treated these rats with electroacupuncture at Yintang (EX-HN3) and Baihui (DU20) with sparse waves at 2 Hz and 0.6 mA for 30 minutes, once a day. We found increased horizontal and vertical activity, and decreased immobility time, at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903724/a-comparison-of-visual-response-properties-in-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-and-primary-visual-cortex-of-awake-and-anesthetized-mice
#4
Séverine Durand, Ramakrishnan Iyer, Kenji Mizuseki, Saskia de Vries, Stefan Mihalas, R Clay Reid
: The cerebral cortex of the mouse has become one of the most important systems for studying information processing and the neural correlates of behavior. Multiple studies have examined the first stages of visual cortical processing: primary visual cortex (V1) and its thalamic inputs from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), but more rarely in the lateral posterior nucleus (LP) in mice. Multiple single-unit surveys of dLGN and V1, both with electrophysiology and two-photon calcium imaging, have described receptive fields in anesthetized animals...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894841/in%C3%A2-vitro-investigation-of-ultrasound-induced-oxidative-stress-on-human-lens-epithelial-cells
#5
Patrick Rwei, Cihun-Siyong Alex Gong, Li-Jyuan Luo, Meng-Bo Lin, Jui-Yang Lai, Hao-Li Liu
The effect of ultrasound exposure on human lens epithelial cells (HLE-B3) was investigated in vitro, specifically on the generation of oxidative stress upon ultrasound application using various clinically-relevant settings. In addition to ultrasound-induced heat effects, oxidative stress has been recently proposed as one of the main mechanisms for ultrasound-induced effects on human cells. In this work, the levels of biocompatibility and generation of oxidative stress by exposure of ultrasound to HLE-B3 were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively by the MTT assay, Live/Dead assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular calcium level...
November 26, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882093/atherosclerotic-coronary-artery-disease-the-accuracy-of-measures-to-diagnose-preclinical-atherosclerosis
#6
Xianchi Li, Min Liu, Rongrong Sun, Yi Zeng, Shuang Chen, Peiying Zhang
Different methods can be used to diagnose early pre-clinical stage atherosclerosis. The present study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of these methods. Measures including carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and coronary calcium score (CCS) were evalutated for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). We studied the clinical and biochemical profiles of individuals with non-CAD and CAD to assess measures of pre-clinical atherosclerosis. The association between CIMT, PWV and CCS on the one hand, and the coronary atherosclerosis on the other, was studied...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869805/engineered-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-intestinal-tissues-with-a-functional-enteric-nervous-system
#7
Michael J Workman, Maxime M Mahe, Stephen Trisno, Holly M Poling, Carey L Watson, Nambirajan Sundaram, Ching-Fang Chang, Jacqueline Schiesser, Philippe Aubert, Edouard G Stanley, Andrew G Elefanty, Yuichiro Miyaoka, Mohammad A Mandegar, Bruce R Conklin, Michel Neunlist, Samantha A Brugmann, Michael A Helmrath, James M Wells
The enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal tract controls many diverse functions, including motility and epithelial permeability. Perturbations in ENS development or function are common, yet there is no human model for studying ENS-intestinal biology and disease. We used a tissue-engineering approach with embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to generate human intestinal tissue containing a functional ENS. We recapitulated normal intestinal ENS development by combining human-PSC-derived neural crest cells (NCCs) and developing human intestinal organoids (HIOs)...
November 21, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857313/piezo-and-elasto-optic-coefficients-for-calcium-tungstate-crystals
#8
B G Mytsyk, N M Demyanyshyn, I M Solskii, O M Sakharuk
A general equation describing the rotation of an optical indicatrix of tetragonal crystals (4, 4¯, 4/m symmetry classes) around the X<sub>3</sub> axis (optical axis) depending on the direction of uniaxial pressure in the plane perpendicular to crystal optical axis is written. Partial cases of the general equation, when pressure is acting along the X<sub>1</sub> (X<sub>2</sub>) axis or along the diagonal between the X<sub>1</sub> and X<sub>2</sub> axes, are received...
November 10, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848113/calcium-waves-in-a-grid-of-clustered-channels-with-synchronous-ip3-binding-and-unbinding
#9
M Rückl, S Rüdiger
Calcium signals in cells occur at multiple spatial scales and variable temporal duration. However, a physical explanation for transitions between long-lasting global oscillations and localized short-term elevations (puffs) of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) is still lacking. Here we introduce a phenomenological, coarse-grained model for the calcium variable, which is represented by ordinary differential equations. Due to its small number of parameters, and its simplicity, this model allows us to numerically study the interplay of multi-scale calcium concentrations with stochastic ion channel gating dynamics even in larger systems...
November 2016: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825452/neuroscience-what-are-cortical-neurons-doing-during-sleep
#10
Barbara E Jones
Through application of the latest calcium imaging techniques, a new study shows that pyramidal neurons generally decrease their activity during slow wave sleep and, remarkably, REM sleep, whereas parvalbumin interneurons increase their activity and could thus inhibit particular pyramidal cells during REM sleep.
November 7, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821619/increased-aortic-calcification-is-associated-with-arterial-stiffness-progression-in-multiethnic-middle-aged-men
#11
Jingchuan Guo, Akira Fujiyoshi, Bradley Willcox, Jina Choo, Abhishek Vishnu, Takashi Hisamatsu, Vasudha Ahuja, Naoyuki Takashima, Emma Barinas-Mitchell, Aya Kadota, Rhobert W Evans, Katsuyuki Miura, Daniel Edmundowicz, Kamal Masaki, Chol Shin, Lewis H Kuller, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Akira Sekikawa
Arterial stiffness is established as an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The objective was to prospectively evaluate association of aortic calcification burden with progression of arterial stiffness in population-based samples of healthy middle-aged men from ERA JUMP cohort (Electron-Beam Computed Tomography and Risk Factor Assessment in Japanese and US Men in the Post-World War II Birth Cohort). Men (n=635) aged 40 to 49 years (207 white American, 45 black American, 142 Japanese American, and 241 Japanese in Japan) were examined at baseline and 4 to 7 years later...
January 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815365/xanthohumol-modulates-calcium-signaling-in-rat-ventricular-myocytes-possible-antiarrhythmic-properties
#12
Juan Jose Arnaiz-Cot, Lars Cleemann, Martin Morad
Cardiac arrhythmia is a major cause of mortality in cardiovascular pathologies. A host of drugs targeted to sarcolemmal Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+) channels have had limited success clinically. Recently, Ca(2+) signaling has been target of pharmacotherapy based on finding that leaky ryanodine receptors elevate local Ca(2+) concentrations causing membrane depolarizations that trigger arrhythmias. Here we report that xanthohumol, an antioxidant extracted from hops and showing therapeutic effects in other pathologies, may have antiarrhythmic properties by stabilizing ryanodine receptor's activity...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812021/mechanisms-of-arrhythmogenesis-related-to-calcium-driven-alternans-in-a-model-of-human-atrial-fibrillation
#13
Kelly C Chang, Natalia A Trayanova
The occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with progressive changes in the calcium handling system of atrial myocytes. Calcium cycling instability has been implicated as an underlying mechanism of electrical alternans observed in patients who experience AF. However, the extent to which calcium-induced alternation of electrical activity in the atria contributes to arrhythmogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of calcium-driven alternans (CDA) on arrhythmia susceptibility in a biophysically detailed, 3D computer model of the human atria representing electrical and structural remodeling secondary to chronic AF...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807138/critical-role-of-atp-induced-atp-release-for-ca2-signaling-in-nonsensory-cell-networks-of-the-developing-cochlea
#14
Federico Ceriani, Tullio Pozzan, Fabio Mammano
Spatially and temporally coordinated variations of the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) play a crucial role in a variety of tissues. In the developing sensory epithelium of the mammalian cochlea, elevation of extracellular adenosine trisphosphate concentration ([ATP]e) triggers [Ca(2+)]c oscillations and propagation of intercellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-dependent Ca(2+) waves. What remains uncertain is the relative contribution of gap junction channels and connexin hemichannels to these fundamental mechanisms, defects in which impair hearing acquisition...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806355/effects-of-lowering-dialysate-calcium-concentration-on-carotid-intima-media-thickness-and-aortic-stiffness-in-patients-undergoing-maintenance-hemodialysis-a-prospective-study
#15
Zhangxiu He, Lei Cui, Chunyuan Ma, Hong Yan, Tanyong Ma, Lirong Hao
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The study aimed to prospectively evaluate the effects of lowering the dialysate calcium concentration (DCa) to 1.25 mmol/l on Chinese patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD), which are largely unknown to date. METHODS: A singer-center, prospective, randomized trial was conducted for 2 years. The DCa in one group was decreased from 1.5 to 1.25 mmol/l but there was no change in the other group. The clinical outcomes, biochemical parameters, medicine treatments and markers of vascular change were compared among the 2 groups at different time intervals...
November 2, 2016: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801492/predictive-factors-of-extracorporeal-shock-wave-lithotripsy-success-for-urinary-stones
#16
Badreddine Ben Khalifa, Sahbi Naouar, Wael Gazzah, Braiek Salem, Rafik El Kamel
Objective To review with our experience the predictors of stone-free status after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on urinary stones. Methods The records of 68 consecutive patients with urinary stones treated with ESWL were reviewed. Patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), stone dimension, stone Hounsfield density (HD) and stone composition determined by infrared spectroscopic analysis were studied as potential predictors. Results Stone Hounsfield density and stone composition were found to be the only predictors of treatment outcome...
May 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799866/riding-the-calcium-wave-to-a-better-understanding-of-ictal-events
#17
Matthew P McCabe, Matthew C Weston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784844/management-of-pancreatic-calculi-an-update
#18
REVIEW
Manu Tandan, Rupjyoti Talukdar, Duvvur Nageshwar Reddy
Pancreatolithiasis, or pancreatic calculi (PC), is a sequel of chronic pancreatitis (CP) and may occur in the main ducts, side branches or parenchyma. Calculi are the end result, irrespective of the etiology of CP. PC contains an inner nidus surrounded by successive layers of calcium carbonate. These calculi obstruct the pancreatic ducts and produce ductal hypertension, which leads to pain, the cardinal feature of CP. Both endoscopic therapy and surgery aim to clear these calculi and decrease ductal hypertension...
November 15, 2016: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773880/high-calcium-exposure-to-frog-heart-a-simple-model-representing-hypercalcemia-induced-ecg-abnormalities
#19
Itsuro Kazama
By simply adding a high concentration of calcium solution to the surface of the bullfrog heart, we reproduced electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities representing those observed in hypercalcemia, such as Osborn waves and shortening of the QT interval. The rise in extracellular calcium concentration may have activated the outward potassium currents during phase 3 of the action potential, and thus decreased its duration. In addition to the known decrease in the duration of phase 2, such changes in phase 3 were also likely to contribute to the shortening of the QT interval...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771396/electroacupuncture-pretreatment-with-different-waveforms-prevents-brain-injury-in-rats-subjected-to-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-via-inhibiting-microglial-activation-and-attenuating-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#20
Ye Chen, Yu Lei, Li-Qun Mo, Jun Li, Mao-Hua Wang, Ji-Cheng Wei, Jun Zhou
Sepsis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study was to investigate the protective effects of electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment with different waveforms on septic brain injury in rats and its mechanism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated by EA with different waveforms (continuous wave, dilatational wave, or intermittent wave) at Baihui (GV20) and Tsusanli (ST36) acupoints for 30min, and underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham operation. The results showed that EA pretreatment with different waveforms improved survival rate, attenuated encephaledema, brain injury, neuronal apoptosis and cognitive dysfunction, and preserved blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
October 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
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