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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098180/an-aposymbiotic-primary-coral-polyp-counteracts-acidification-by-active-ph-regulation
#1
Yoshikazu Ohno, Akira Iguchi, Chuya Shinzato, Mayuri Inoue, Atsushi Suzuki, Kazuhiko Sakai, Takashi Nakamura
Corals build their skeletons using extracellular calcifying fluid located in the tissue-skeleton interface. However, the mechanism by which corals control the transport of calcium and other ions from seawater and the mechanism of constant alkalization of calcifying fluid are largely unknown. To address these questions, we performed direct pH imaging at calcification sites (subcalicoblastic medium, SCM) to visualize active pH upregulation in live aposymbiotic primary coral polyps treated with HCl-acidified seawater...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087911/-aortic-stiffness-and-its-influencing-factors-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
Binxian Ye, Li Zhao, Wei Shen, Yan Ren, Bo Lin, Maosheng Chen, Junda Tang, Xinxin Jiang, Yiwen Li, Qiang He
Objective: To investigate the changes of aortic stiffness and its influencing factors in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Methods: Eightyfour patients with CKD from Department of Nephrology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital were divided into the dialysis group (CKD stage 5, n=48) and non-dialysis group (CKD stage 3-5, n=36). Clinical data, biochemical parameters and echocardiography findings were collected. SphygmoCor pulse wave analysis system was used to obtain pulse wave analysis (PWA) parameters including central aortic systolic blood pressure (CSP), central pulse pressure (CPP), augmented pressure (AP), augmentation index (AIX), and heart rate 75-adjusted augmentation index (HR75AIX)...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073210/the-importance-of-citrates-in-treatment-and-prophylaxis-of-calcium-oxalate-urinary-stones
#3
Michele Barbera, Andreas Tsirgiotis, Mauro Barbera, Quintino Paola
About 10% of the people is the subject of an episode of kidney stones during their lifetime, about 70% of these people undergoes relapses. About 80% of the urinary stones contains calcium, of wich 80% is formed of calcium oxalate, in pure form or associated with calcium phosphate. Therefore we can saythat in most cases (about 65%) the urinary stones are composedof calcium oxalate. Use of supplements of potassium citrate and magnesium citrate can help in the prevention of kidney stones of calcium oxalate, but mostly they can be used in the days before a shockwaves lithotripsy treatment to make the stones more fragile to the effect of the shock waves...
December 30, 2016: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068560/effect-of-sarpogrelate-a-selective-5-ht2a-receptor-antagonist-on-characteristics-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#4
Dong-Hwa Lee, Eun Ju Chun, Jee Hye Hur, Se Hee Min, Jie-Eun Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Kyoung Min Kim, Hak Chul Jang, Seung Jin Han, Doo Kyoung Kang, Hae Jin Kim, Soo Lim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sarpogrelate, a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2A antagonist, is a potential antiplatelet agent. We performed a randomized study to evaluate the effect of sarpogrelate on vascular health in Korean patients with diabetes. METHODS: Forty diabetic patients aged 58.6 ± 6.8 years with 10-75% coronary artery stenosis, as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography, were randomly assigned to sarpogrelate 300 mg/day plus aspirin 100 mg/day (SPG + ASA group) or aspirin 100 mg/day alone (ASA group) for 6 months...
December 10, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056168/conformational-changes-and-competitive-adsorption-between-serum-albumin-and-hemoglobin-on-bioceramic-substrate
#5
Cristina Gruian, Christian Rickert, Sascha Nicklisch, Emilia Vanea, Heinz-Jürgen Steinhoff, Simion Simon
Traditional methods to analyze interactions and conformational changes of proteins adsorbed onto biomaterials are limited by the protein's associations with the substrate material and the complexity of the surrounding media. We used EPR spectroscopy in combination with site directed spin labeling (SDSL) to investigate single protein and competitive adsorption kinetics of horse hemoglobin (Hgb) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on a silica-calcium-phosphate bioceramic substrate. Combined continuous wave and pulsed (DEER) EPR techniques were employed to monitor local mobility/flexibility changes within the proteins and tertiary structure dynamics upon adsorption...
January 5, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056022/l-type-calcium-channel-inhibition-contributes-to-the-proarrhythmic-effects-of-aconitine-in-human-cardiomyocytes
#6
Jianjun Wu, Xiangchong Wang, Ying Ying Chung, Cai Hong Koh, Zhenfeng Liu, Huicai Guo, Qiang Yuan, Chuan Wang, Suwen Su, Heming Wei
Aconitine (ACO) is well-known for causing lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmias. While cardiac Na+ channel opening during repolarization has long been documented in animal cardiac myocytes, the cellular effects and mechanism of ACO in human remain unexplored. This study aimed to assess the proarrhythmic effects of ACO in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). ACO concentration-dependently (0.3 ~ 3.0 μM) shortened the action potentials (AP) durations (APD) in ventricular-like hiPSC-CMs by > 40% and induced delayed after-depolarization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054347/ano1-in-intramuscular-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-plays-a-key-role-in-the-generation-of-slow-waves-and-tone-in-the-internal-anal-sphincter
#7
C A Cobine, E E Hannah, M H Zhu, H E Lyle, J R Rock, K M Sanders, S M Ward, K D Keef
The mechanism underlying tone generation in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) is controversial. We examined the hypothesis that tone depends upon generation of electrical slow waves (SWs) initiated in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-IM) by activation of Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (encoded by Ano1) and voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channels (encoded by Cacna1c). Phasic contractions and tone in the IAS were nearly abolished by ANO1 and CavL antagonists. ANO1 antagonists also abolished SWs as well as transient depolarizations that persisted after addition of CavL antagonists...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054154/interstitial-cell-modulation-of-pyeloureteric-peristalsis-in-the-mouse-renal-pelvis-examined-using-fibsem-tomography-and-calcium-indicators
#8
Hikaru Hashitani, Michael J Nguyen, Haruka Noda, Retsu Mitsui, Ryuhei Higashi, Keisuke Ohta, Kei-Ichiro Nakamura, Richard J Lang
Typical and atypical smooth muscle cells (TSMCs and ASMCs, respectively) and interstitial cells (ICs) within the pacemaker region of the mouse renal pelvis were examined using focused ion beam scanning electron (FIB SEM) tomography, immunohistochemistry and Ca(2+) imaging. Individual cells within 500-900 electron micrograph stacks were volume rendered and associations with their neighbours established. 'Ribbon-shaped', Ano1 Cl(-) channel immuno-reactive ICs were present in the adventitia and the sub-urothelial space adjacent to the TSMC layer...
January 4, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049836/stochastic-initiation-and-termination-of-calcium-mediated-triggered-activity-in-cardiac-myocytes
#9
Zhen Song, Zhilin Qu, Alain Karma
Cardiac myocytes normally initiate action potentials in response to a current stimulus that depolarizes the membrane above an excitation threshold. Aberrant excitation can also occur due to spontaneous calcium (Ca(2+)) release (SCR) from intracellular stores after the end of a preceding action potential. SCR drives the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current inducing a "delayed afterdepolarization" that can in turn trigger an action potential if the excitation threshold is reached. This "triggered activity" is known to cause arrhythmias, but how it is initiated and terminated is not understood...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049234/chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-bone-disorder-in-korean-patients-a-report-from-the-korean-cohort-study-for-outcomes-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-know-ckd
#10
Chang Seong Kim, Eun Hui Bae, Seong Kwon Ma, Seung Hyeok Han, Kyu Beck Lee, Joongyub Lee, Kook Hwan Oh, Dong Wan Chae, Soo Wan Kim
This study examined the characteristics of biochemical parameters, bone diseases, and vascular calcification in Korean patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not yet on dialysis. Serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D); lumbar spine, total hip, and femur neck bone mineral densities; and brachial-to-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) representing vascular calcification were measured at baseline for 2,238 CKD patients in the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With CKD (KNOW-CKD)...
February 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049233/baseline-cardiovascular-characteristics-of-adult-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-from-the-korean-cohort-study-for-outcomes-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-know-ckd
#11
Hyoungnae Kim, Tae Hyun Yoo, Kyu Hun Choi, Kook Hwan Oh, Joongyub Lee, Soo Wan Kim, Tae Hee Kim, Suah Sung, Seung Hyeok Han
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We report the baseline cardiovascular characteristics of 2,238 participants by using the data of the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD) study. The cohort comprises 5 subcohorts according to the cause of CKD: glomerulonephritis (GN), diabetic nephropathy (DN), hypertensive nephropathy (HTN), polycystic kidney disease (PKD), and unclassified. The average estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 50...
February 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044323/production-amplification-and-systemic-propagation-of-redox-messengers-in-plants-the-phloem-can-do-it-all
#12
Frank Gaupels, Jörg Durner, Karl-Heinz Kogel
Rapid long-distance signalling is an emerging topic in plant research, and is particularly associated with responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to pathogen attack is dependent on nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). By comparison, systemic wound responses (SWRs) and systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) to abiotic stress encounters are triggered by rapid waves of H2 O2 , calcium and electrical signalling. Efforts have been made to decipher the relationship between redox messengers, calcium and other known systemic defence signals...
January 3, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035642/interactions-of-calcium-with-the-external-surfaces-of-fullerenes-and-endofullerenes-doped-with-radioactive-sodium-iodide
#13
Alejandro Valderrama, Radamés Reynoso, Raúl W Gómez, Vivianne Marquina, Martín Romero
We report first-principles calculations carried out to analyze the adsorption of calcium on the outer surface of the fullerene C60, yielding [C60 + mCa]. Geometric optimization (GO) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were performed using the plane-wave pseudopotential method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) to investigate the configurations, the associated energies in the ground state, and the stabilities of fullerenes and endofullerenes doped with radioactive sodium iodide when they interact with calcium atoms on the outer fullerene surface (i...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035182/chronic-nonmodulated-microwave-radiations-in-mice-produce-anxiety-like-and-depression-like-behaviours-and-calcium-and-no-related-biochemical-changes-in-the-brain
#14
Manoj Kumar, Surya P Singh, Chandra M Chaturvedi
The present study was aimed to investigate behavioural and biochemical effects of chronic exposure of amplitude modulated and non-modulated microwave radiation on laboratory mice. Chronic microwave exposures were executed with 2.45 GHz of either modulated (power density, 0.029 mW/cm(2); specific absorption rate, 0.019 W/Kg with sinusoidal modulation of 400 Hz) or nonmodulated continuous sinusoidal wave (power density, 0.033 mW/cm(2); specific absorption rate, 0.023 W/Kg) for 2 hrs daily for 1 month. Mice subjected to non-modulated microwave exposure had significantly increased acetylcholinesterase activity and increased intracellular calcium and nitric oxide levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and also had increased glucose and corticosterone levels in blood compared to control mice...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031243/caenorhabditis-elegans-male-copulation-circuitry-incorporates-sex-shared-defecation-components-to-promote-intromission-and-sperm-transfer
#15
Brigitte LeBoeuf, L Rene Garcia
Sexual dimorphism can be achieved using a variety of mechanisms, including sex-specific circuits and sex-specific function of shared circuits, though how these work together to produce sexually dimorphic behaviors require further investigation. Here, we explore how components of the sex-shared defecation circuitry are incorporated into the sex-specific male mating circuitry in Caenorhabditis elegans to produce successful copulation. Using behavioral studies, calcium imaging, and genetic manipulation, we show that aspects of the defecation system are co-opted by the male copulatory circuitry to facilitate intromission and ejaculation...
December 27, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027293/the-effect-of-gap-junctional-coupling-on-the-spatiotemporal-patterns-of-ca2-signals-and-the-harmonization-of-ca2-related-cellular-responses
#16
Michaël Dougoud, Laura Vinckenbosch, Christian Mazza, Beat Schwaller, László Pecze
Calcium ions (Ca2+) are important mediators of a great variety of cellular activities e.g. in response to an agonist activation of a receptor. The magnitude of a cellular response is often encoded by frequency modulation of Ca2+ oscillations and correlated with the stimulation intensity. The stimulation intensity highly depends on the sensitivity of a cell to a certain agonist. In some cases, it is essential that neighboring cells produce a similar and synchronized response to an agonist despite their different sensitivity...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019664/pyk2-inhibition-promotes-contractile-differentiation-in-arterial-smooth-muscle
#17
Mario Grossi, Anirban Bhattachariya, Ina Nordström, Karolina M Turczyńska, Daniel Svensson, Sebastian Albinsson, Bengt-Olof Nilsson, Per Hellstrand
Modulation from contractile to synthetic phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells is a central process in disorders involving compromised integrity of the vascular wall. Phenotype modulation has been shown to include transition from voltage-dependent towards voltage-independent regulation of the intracellular calcium level, and inhibition of non-voltage dependent calcium influx contributes to maintenance of the contractile phenotype. One possible mediator of calcium-dependent signaling is the FAK-family non-receptor protein kinase Pyk2, which is activated by a number of stimuli in a calcium-dependent manner...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008293/hormonal-and-echocardiographic-abnormalities-in-adult-patients-with-sickle-cell-anemia-in-bahrain
#18
Taysir S Garadah, Ahmed A Jaradat, Mohammed E Alalawi, Adla B Hassan
BACKGROUND: Adrenal, thyroid, and parathyroid gland hormonal changes are recognized in children with homozygous (HbSS) sickle-cell anemia (SCA), but are not clear in adult patients with SCA. AIM: To assess the metabolic and endocrine abnormalities in adult patients with SCA and evaluate left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions compared with patients with no SCA and further study the relationship between serum levels of cortisol, free thyroxine (T4), and testosterone with serum ferritin...
2016: Journal of Blood Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006782/indoxyl-sulfate-impairs-endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-might-contribute-to-vascular-dysfunction-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
Cheng-Jui Lin, Chih-Jen Wu, Pei-Chen Wu, Chi-Feng Pan, Tuan-Jen Wang, Fang-Ju Sun, Hsuan-Liang Liu, Han-Hsiang Chen, Hung-I Yeh
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a protein-bound uremic toxin that accumulates in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We explored the effect of IS on human early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and analyzed the correlation between serum IS levels and parameters of vascular function, including endothelial function in a CKD-based cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 128 stable CKD patients was conducted. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), pulse wave velocity (PWV), ankle brachial index, serum IS and other biochemical parameters were measured and analyzed...
2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005706/endothelin-type-a-receptor-blockade-reduces-vascular-calcification-and-inflammation-in-rats-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Richard Larivière, Alexandra Gauthier-Bastien, Roth-Visal Ung, Julie St-Hilaire, Fabrice Mac-Way, Darren E Richard, Mohsen Agharazii
OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness and calcification are nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Using a rat model of CKD with mineral imbalance, medial vascular calcification has been associated with inflammation and increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) production. We therefore hypothesized that ET-1, through the endothelin type A (ETA) receptor, induces vascular inflammation, calcification and stiffness in CKD. METHODS: CKD was induced in Wistar rats by renal mass ablation...
February 2017: Journal of Hypertension
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