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Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147667/metastasectomy-of-solitary-adrenal-metastasis-from-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
Dat Cao Pham, Ziad Awad, Bradford S Hoppe, Jason Hew, Ke Ning
Most extensive-stage small cell lung cancers have disseminated disease at diagnosis, and solitary adrenal metastasis from small cell lung cancer is rare. We report the case of a 51-year-old man with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer with solitary right adrenal metastasis (T2N0M1), who was cured with resection of primary tumor, chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide), adrenalectomy, consolidative thoracic radiotherapy, and prophylactic cranial irradiation. He remained cancer free, 7.5 years since diagnosis...
October 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128167/a-prospective-evaluation-of-hippocampal-radiation-dose-volume-effects-and-memory-deficits-following-cranial-irradiation
#2
Ting Martin Ma, Jimm Grimm, Riley McIntyre, Heather Anderson-Keightly, Lawrence R Kleinberg, Russell K Hales, Joseph Moore, Tracy Vannorsdall, Kristin J Redmond
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate hippocampal radiation dose volume effects and memory decline following cranial irradiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Effects of hippocampal radiation over a wide range of doses were investigated by combining data from three prospective studies. In one, adults with small cell lung cancer received hippocampal-avoidance prophylactic cranial irradiation. In the other two, adults with glioblastoma multiforme received neural progenitor cell sparing radiation or no sparing with extra dose delivered to subventricular zone...
November 8, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125928/the-tippy-barstool-of-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation
#3
James J Urbanic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125923/prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-for-extensive-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Steven E Schild, Terence T Sio, Thomas B Daniels, Stephen G Chun, Dirk Rades
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) has a high predilection for metastasizing to the brain after chemotherapy. This has been blamed on the blood-brain barrier, which prevents chemotherapy from penetrating into the brain, thus creating a sanctuary site. It has been estimated that up to three quarters of patients with SCLC will eventually develop brain metastases. This led investigators to administer prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) to decrease this risk. Several trials were performed in patients with SCLC after initial therapy (chemotherapy with or without thoracic radiotherapy) that compared the outcomes of PCI versus no PCI...
November 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125922/is-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-the-standard-of-care-for-extensive-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
Angel Qin, Gregory P Kalemkerian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077861/the-role-of-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-for-patients-with-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Yoshiro Nakahara, Jiichiro Sasaki, Tomoya Fukui, Sakiko Otani, Satoshi Igawa, Kazushige Hayakawa, Noriyuki Masuda
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) has a particular propensity to metastasize to the brain, affecting ~10% of SCLC patients at diagnosis, but may occur in more than 50% of 2-year survivors. Most cytotoxic drugs have limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, and the effectiveness of chemotherapy for brain metastasis is limited. Therefore, prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has been proposed to treat SCLC. A meta-analysis revealed that PCI significantly decreased the risk of brain metastasis and increased the 3-year survival rate; it has been established as a standard therapy for limited-disease SCLC...
October 25, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034208/prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-following-surgical-resection-of-early-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-review-of-the-literature
#7
REVIEW
Brooke C Bloom, Alexander Augustyn, Boris Sepesi, Sunil Patel, Shalin J Shah, Ritsuko U Komaki, Steven E Schild, Stephen G Chun
With increasing use of low-dose screening CT scans, the diagnosis of early-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) without evidence of mediastinal nodal or distant metastasis is likely to become more common, but the role of adjuvant therapies such as prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) are not well understood in this population. We performed a review of the literature pertaining to the impact of PCI in patients who underwent surgical resection of early-stage SCLC. Four studies were identified that were pertinent including three single-institution retrospective analyses and a National Cancer Database analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029885/cost-effectiveness-of-thoracic-radiation-therapy-for-extensive-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-using-evidence-from-the-chest-radiotherapy-extensive-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-trial-crest
#8
Grace I Patrice, Nataniel H Lester-Coll, James B Yu, Jordan Amdahl, Thomas E Delea, Stephen J Patrice
PURPOSE: The Chest Radiotherapy Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Trial (CREST) showed that adding thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) to the standard treatment (ST) paradigm of chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation improves overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of adding TRT to ST in ES-SCLC patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A cost-utility analysis was performed comparing TRT plus ST versus ST alone...
September 4, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992110/nfat3-c4-mediated-excitotoxicity-in-hippocampal-apoptosis-during-radiation-induced-brain-injury
#9
Meiling Xu, Qiuhong Fan, Junjun Zhang, Yanfang Chen, Ruizhe Xu, Liesong Chen, Peifeng Zhao, Ye Tian
Whole brain irradiation (WBI) has become an indispensible tool in the treatment of head and neck cancer, and it has greatly improved patient survival rate and total survival time. In addition, prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has dramatically decreased the incidence of brain metastatic carcinoma. However, WBI may induce temporary functional deficits or even progressive, irreversible cognitive dysfunction that compromises the quality of life for survivors. Unfortunately, the exact molecular mechanisms for cognitive damage remain elusive, and no treatment or preventative measures are available for use in the clinic...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958889/prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-for-resectable-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Aditya Halthore, Anuj Goenka, Rajiv Sharma, Jonathan P S Knisely
After definitive chemoradiation for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has been established as standard of care in patients whose tumors respond to treatment. In the modern era, however, a subset of patients might receive upfront resection for SCLC, yet the role of PCI in these patients has not been elucidated. In this review, we examine the literature to better define the role of PCI in this subset of patients. For patients with ≥ T2 disease, incomplete resection, or those not receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, PCI is expected to offer a clinical benefit...
August 26, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882584/prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-pci-vs-active-mri-surveillance-for-small-cell-lung-cancer-the-case-for-equipoise
#11
REVIEW
Chad G Rusthoven, Brian D Kavanagh
Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) offers a consistent reduction in the incidence of brain metastases (BM), at the cost of measurable toxicity to neurocognitive function and quality of life in the setting of characteristic pathologic changes to the brain. The sequelae of PCI have historically been justified by the perception of an overall survival (OS) advantage specific to SCLC. This rationale has now been challenged by a randomized trial in extensive-stage SCLC demonstrating equivalent progression-free survival and a trend toward improved OS with PCI omission in the context of modern MRI staging, surveillance, and salvage therapy...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860809/perihippocampal-metastasis-following-hippocampus-avoiding-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-for-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report
#12
Seung-Gu Yeo
Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) lowers the risk of brain metastasis (BM) and increases survival in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients, but it also entails a risk of neurocognitive dysfunction (NCD). One strategy to mitigate this neurotoxicity is hippocampus-avoiding (HA) whole-brain radiation therapy, as the hippocampus is mainly responsible for radiation-related NCD and hippocampal or perihippocampal metastases are rare. A few prospective clinical trials have demonstrated a reduction in NCD following HA whole-brain radiation therapy...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854622/prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-in-patients-with-extensive-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
Ayal A Aizer, Raymond Mak, Brian M Alexander
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840978/phase-ii-study-of-celecoxib-with-docetaxel-chemoradiotherapy-followed-by-consolidation-chemotherapy-docetaxel-plus-cisplatin-with-maintenance-celecoxib-in-inoperable-stage-iii-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer
#14
Harminder Takhar, Nimit Singhal, Anna Mislang, Raj Kumar, Laurence Kim, Sid Selva-Nayagam, Ken Pittman, Chris Karapetis, Martin Borg, Ian N Olver, Michael P Brown
TITLE: Phase II study of celecoxib with docetaxel chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by consolidation chemotherapy docetaxel plus cisplatin with maintenance celecoxib in inoperable stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer. INTRODUCTION: Concurrent CRT has been associated with improvement in absolute 5-year survival by 10% and is the standard of care for inoperable stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer. Preclinical evidence suggests that cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition may increase the efficacy of CRT...
August 25, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822604/volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-vmat-for-whole-brain-radiotherapy-not-only-for-hippocampal-sparing-but-also-for-reduction-of-dose-to-organs-at-risk
#15
Sumit Sood, Damodar Pokhrel, Christopher McClinton, Christopher Lominska, Rajeev Badkul, Hongyu Jiang, Fen Wang
A prospective clinical trial, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933, has demonstrated that whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) using conformal radiation delivery technique with hippocampal avoidance is associated with less memory complications. Further sparing of other organs at risk (OARs) including the scalp, ear canals, cochleae, and parotid glands could be associated with reductions in additional toxicities for patients treated with WBRT. We investigated the feasibility of WBRT using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to spare the hippocampi and the aforementioned OARs...
August 16, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816157/prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-for-small-cell-lung-cancer-new-insights
#16
Megan E Daly, David A Palma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798808/altered-brain-functional-connectivity-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-after-chemotherapy-treatment-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#17
Konstantinos Bromis, Kostakis Gkiatis, Irene Karanasiou, George Matsopoulos, Eustratios Karavasilis, Matilda Papathanasiou, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos Kelekis, Vasileios Kouloulias
Previous studies in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients have mainly focused on exploring neurocognitive deficits associated with prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). Little is known about functional brain alterations that might occur due to chemotherapy treatment in this population before PCI is administered. For this reason, we used resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to examine potential functional connectivity disruptions in brain networks, including the Default Mode Network (DMN), the Sensorimotor Network, and the Task-Positive Network (TPN)...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797998/the-effect-of-dose-volume-parameters-on-central-nervous-system-relapse-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-leukemia-receiving-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation
#18
Zeliha Guzeloz, Ayse Nur Demiral, Fatma Eren, Mehmet Adigul, Ahmet Ergin Capar, Handan Cakmakci, Sebnem Yilmaz, Ozlem Tufekci, Hale Oren, Riza Çetingoz
AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of dosevolume parameters of brain parenchyma, optic nerves (ONs) and cribriform plate (CP), which were determined on central nervous system (CNS) control in pediatric leukemia patients who have undergone prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) at our department. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the current study, the records of 14 patients were examined retrospectively. Along with the minimum and maximum doses for brain and CP, D95% (minimal dose received by the 95% volume of a structure) and V95% (percent volume of target receiving 95% of prescribed dose) could be obtained from the dose-volume histogram...
May 2017: Gulf Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709456/analyses-of-distribution-and-dosimetry-of-brain-metastases-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-with-relation-to-the-neural-stem-cell-regions-feasibility-of-sparing-the-hippocampus-in-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation
#19
Lei Zhao, Yan Shen, Jin-Dong Guo, Heng-Le Gu, Wen Yu, Jia-Ming Wang, Chang-Xing Lv, Jun Liu, Xu-Wei Cai, Xiao-Long Fu
BACKGROUND: This work aims to assess the feasibility of selectively sparing the hippocampus during prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). METHODS: SCLC patients with brain metastases (BMs) diagnosed with MRI were enrolled. Lesions localized to the neural stem cell (NSC) compartments [subventricular zone (SVZ) or hippocampus] were analyzed. Patients were categorized by the total number of intracranial metastases, the therapy processes and the symptoms...
July 15, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690012/prognostic-value-of-metabolic-parameters-of-metastatic-lymph-nodes-on-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-in-patients-with-limited-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-with-lymph-node-involvement
#20
Feng Jin, Bo Qu, Zheng Fu, Yan Zhang, Anqin Han, Li Kong, Jinming Yu
INTRODUCTION: We assessed the prognostic value of the metabolic parameters of different lesions, including primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes (LNs), measured by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) with LN metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present retrospective study included 46 patients with clinical stage II-III N1-N2 LS-SCLC who had undergone pretreatment fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography scanning from January 2011 to December 2014...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
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