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Dead Sea

Nicholas J Lunn, Sabrina Servanty, Eric V Regehr, Sarah J Converse, Evan Richardson, Ian Stirling
Changes in the abundance and distribution of wildlife populations are common consequences of historic and contemporary climate change. Some Arctic marine mammals, such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), may be particularly vulnerable to such changes due to the loss of Arctic sea ice. We evaluated the impacts of environmental variation on demographic rates for the Western Hudson Bay (WH), polar bear subpopulation from 1984 to 2011 using live-recapture and dead-recovery data in a Bayesian implementation of multistate capture-recapture models...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Aleksija S Neimanis, Charlotta Moraeus, Anders Bergman, Anders Bignert, Johan Höglund, Karl Lundström, Annika Strömberg, Britt-Marie Bäcklin
The biliary trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum parasitizes a wide range of fish-eating mammals, including humans. Here we report the emergence of this parasite in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Baltic Sea. One hundred eighty-three of 1 554 grey seals (11.9%) examined from 2002-2013 had detectable hepatobiliary trematode infection. Parasite identification was confirmed as P. truncatum by sequencing the ITS2 region of a pool of five to 10 trematodes from each of ten seals collected off the coast of seven different Swedish counties...
2016: PloS One
Matthew T Bizjack, Susan M Kidwell, Ronald G Velarde, Jill Leonard-Pingel, Adam Tomašových
Molluscan shell debris is an under-exploited means of detecting, sourcing, and age-dating dredged sediments in open-shelf settings. Backscatter features on the Southern California shelf are suggestive of dredged sediment hauled from San Diego Bay but deposited significantly inshore of the EPA-designated ocean disposal site. We find that 36% of all identifiable bivalve shells >2mm (44% of shells >4mm) in sediment samples from this 'short dump' area are from species known to live exclusively in the Bay; such shells are absent at reference sites of comparable water depth, indicating that their presence in the short-dump area signals non-compliant disposal rather than natural offshore transport or sea level rise...
October 10, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Nadia Amanzougaghene, Kosta Y Mumcuoglu, Florence Fenollar, Shir Alfi, Gonca Yesilyurt, Didier Raoult, Oleg Mediannikov
The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is subdivided into several significantly divergent mitochondrial haplogroups, each with particular geographical distributions. Historically, they are among the oldest human parasites, representing an excellent marker for tracking older events in human evolutionary history. In this study, ancient DNA analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), combined with conventional PCR, was applied to the remains of twenty-four ancient head lice and their eggs from the Roman period which were recovered from Israel...
2016: PloS One
Vipaporn Cheewinthamrongrod, Hakuto Kageyama, Tanapat Palaga, Teruhiro Takabe, Rungaroon Waditee-Sirisattha
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are a group of natural sunscreen compounds that possess highly photoprotective properties. The most commonly found MAAs in marine organisms is shinorine, porphyra-334, and mycosporine-glycine. However, the halophilic species accumulate mycosporine-2-glycine (M2G) as the major MAA. In this study, we have investigated the protective effect of M2G against oxidative stress. In vitro radical scavenging activity revealed that M2G exhibited a significant inhibition with scavenging concentration (SC) 50 value of 22±1...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Justin R Perrault, Katherine D Bauman, Taylor M Greenan, Patricia C Blum, Michael S Henry, Catherine J Walsh
Blooms of Karenia brevis (also called red tides) occur almost annually in the Gulf of Mexico. The health effects of the neurotoxins (i.e., brevetoxins) produced by this toxic dinoflagellate on marine turtles are poorly understood. Florida's Gulf Coast represents an important foraging and nesting area for a number of marine turtle species. Most studies investigating brevetoxin exposure in marine turtles thus far focus on dead and/or stranded individuals and rarely examine the effects in apparently "healthy" free-ranging individuals...
October 1, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
William Brent Seales, Clifford Seth Parker, Michael Segal, Emanuel Tov, Pnina Shor, Yosef Porath
Computer imaging techniques are commonly used to preserve and share readable manuscripts, but capturing writing locked away in ancient, deteriorated documents poses an entirely different challenge. This software pipeline-referred to as "virtual unwrapping"-allows textual artifacts to be read completely and noninvasively. The systematic digital analysis of the extremely fragile En-Gedi scroll (the oldest Pentateuchal scroll in Hebrew outside of the Dead Sea Scrolls) reveals the writing hidden on its untouchable, disintegrating sheets...
September 2016: Science Advances
Navin Chandrakanth Chandrasekaran, Washington Y Sanchez, Yousuf H Mohammed, Jeffrey E Grice, Michael S Roberts, Ross T Barnard
Magnesium is an important micronutrient essential for various biological processes and its deficiency has been linked to several inflammatory disorders in humans. Topical magnesium delivery is one of the oldest forms of therapy for skin diseases, for example Dead Sea therapy and Epsom salt baths. Some anecdotal evidence and a few published reports have attributed amelioration of inflammatory skin conditions to the topical application of magnesium. On the other hand, transport of magnesium ions across the protective barrier of skin, the stratum corneum, is contentious...
June 1, 2016: Magnesium Research: Official Organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium
Dandan Zhang, Claudia P Coronel-Aguilera, Patricia L Romero, Lynda Perry, Udit Minocha, Carla Rosenfield, Andrew G Gehring, George C Paoli, Arun K Bhunia, Bruce Applegate
Rapid detection of the foodborne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 is of vital importance for public health worldwide. Among detection methods, reporter phages represent unique and sensitive tools for the detection of E. coli O157:H7 from food as they are host-specific and able to differentiate live cells from dead ones. Upon infection, target bacteria become identifiable since reporter genes are expressed from the engineered phage genome. The E. coli O157:H7 bacteriophage ΦV10 was modified to express NanoLuc luciferase (Nluc) derived from the deep-sea shrimp Oplophorus gracilirostris...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yingying Jiang, Xiaomin Wei, Xiu Chen, Yi Jiang, Quanhong Xue, Hangxian Lai, Chenglin Jiang
A novel halotolerant actinomycete, designated strain AFM 10238(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the Dead Sea of Israel. The isolate grew at 15-45 °C, pH 6-12 and with 0-15 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain AFM 10238(T) contains meso-diaminopimelic acid as cell wall diamino acid, and galactose and arabinose as the whole cell sugars. The major polar lipids are phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol. Major fatty acids are iso-C16:0, iso-C17:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and C17:1 ω8c...
September 7, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
W D Roe, S Michael, J Fyfe, E Burrows, S A Hunter, L Howe
CASE HISTORY: A 1-year-old female New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) was intermittently observed in the Otago region of New Zealand over an 11-month period, always dragging her hind flippers. In December 2012 the sea lion was found dead, after a period of several days being observed to be harassed by male sea lions. PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: At gross postmortem examination the sea lion was in moderate body condition with signs of recent bite wounds and bruising...
September 2, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Chen Huang, Jean-Étienne Rl Morlighem, Hefeng Zhou, Érica P Lima, Paula B Gomes, Jing Cai, Inchio Lou, Carlos D Pérez, Simon Ming Lee, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista
Protopalythoa is a zoanthid that, together with thousands of predominantly marine species, such as hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones, composes the oldest eumetazoan phylum, i.e., the Cnidaria. Some of these species, such as sea wasps and sea anemones, are highly venomous organisms that can produce deadly toxins for preying, for defense or for territorial disputes. Despite the fact that hundreds of organic and polypeptide toxins have been characterized from sea anemones and jellyfish, practically nothing is known about the toxin repertoire in zoanthids...
October 5, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Matthew R Hodanbosi, Blair Sterba-Boatwright, Andreas Fahlman
Theoretical models are used to predict how breath-hold diving vertebrates manage O2, CO2, and N2 while underwater. One recent gas dynamics model used available lung and tracheal compliance data from various species. As variation in respiratory compliance significantly affects alveolar compression and pulmonary shunt, the current study objective was to evaluate changes in model output when using species-specific parameters from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). We explored the effects of lung and dead space compliance on the uptake of N2, O2, and CO2 in various tissues during a series of hypothetical dives...
August 22, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Gilles Lepoint, André Heughebaert, Loïc N Michel
BACKGROUND: The seagrass Posidonia oceanica L. Delile, commonly known as Neptune grass, is an endemic species of the Mediterranean Sea. It hosts a distinctive and diverse epiphytic community, dominated by various macroalgal and animal organisms. Mediterranean bryozoans have been extensively studied but quantitative data assessing temporal and spatial variability have rarely been documented. In Lepoint et al. (2014a, b) occurrence and abundance data of epiphytic bryozoan communities on leaves of Posidonia oceanica inhabiting Revellata Bay (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea) were reported and trophic ecology of Electra posidoniae Gautier assessed...
2016: ZooKeys
Rickul Varshney, Jivianne T Lee
INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) affects millions of patients worldwide. The disease is multifactorial with influences including anatomic factors, immunological disturbances, and altered sinonasal microbiome. Although oral medications are effective in controlling some symptoms, they are associated with side effects and long-term use is not ideal. Thus, topical therapies have emerged as an alternative delivery method for localized, high-concentration medication with less side effects...
August 8, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
C M Wagner, K E Kierczynski, J B Hume, T M Luhring
An experimental mesocosm study suggested larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus detect and respond to an alarm cue released by dead adult conspecifics. Larvae exhibited a reduced tendency to move downstream when exposed to the cue and were less likely to move under continuous v. pulsed exposure. These findings support the hypothesis that short-term exposure to the alarm cue would probably result in retraction into the burrow, consistent with the blind, cryptic lifestyle of the larval P. marinus.
September 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Sara D Ferguson, James F X Wellehan, Salvatore Frasca, Charles J Innis, Heather S Harris, Melissa Miller, E Scott Weber, Heather Stockdale Walden, Ellis C Greiner, Constance Merigo, Brian A Stacy
Histologic lesions incidental to the cause of death were observed in the adrenal glands of 17 subadult and adult leatherback sea turtles ( Dermochelys coriacea ) found dead or moribund on or near shore in North America. Round bodies, 250-300 μm in diameter composed of an outer capsule and large multinucleated cells surrounding a central mass of acellular material were distributed throughout the affected glands. Protozoal etiology was suspected based on some resemblance to coccidia; however, features diagnostic for coccidial infection were lacking in all but one case, which had a focal area of adrenalitis containing zoites...
October 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Yepin Yu, Youhua Huang, Ying Yang, Shaowen Wang, Min Yang, Xiaohong Huang, Qiwei Qin
Laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2), a member of RIG-I like receptor (RLR) family, plays crucial roles in modulating cellular antiviral response during viral infection. However, the detailed roles of LGP2 in different virus infection were controversial up to now. Here, we cloned a LGP2 gene from orange-spotted grouper (EcLGP2) and investigated its roles in response to grouper virus infection. EcLGP2 encoded a 678-aa protein which shared 83% identity to sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicas). Amino acid alignment showed that EcLGP2 contained three conserved domains, including a DEAD/DEAH box helicase domain, a helicase superfamily C-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain of RIG-I...
September 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Martin Mascher, Verena J Schuenemann, Uri Davidovich, Nimrod Marom, Axel Himmelbach, Sariel Hübner, Abraham Korol, Michal David, Ella Reiter, Simone Riehl, Mona Schreiber, Samuel H Vohr, Richard E Green, Ian K Dawson, Joanne Russell, Benjamin Kilian, Gary J Muehlbauer, Robbie Waugh, Tzion Fahima, Johannes Krause, Ehud Weiss, Nils Stein
The cereal grass barley was domesticated about 10,000 years before the present in the Fertile Crescent and became a founder crop of Neolithic agriculture. Here we report the genome sequences of five 6,000-year-old barley grains excavated at a cave in the Judean Desert close to the Dead Sea. Comparison to whole-exome sequence data from a diversity panel of present-day barley accessions showed the close affinity of ancient samples to extant landraces from the Southern Levant and Egypt, consistent with a proposed origin of domesticated barley in the Upper Jordan Valley...
September 2016: Nature Genetics
C Axén, M Hakhverdyan, T S Boutrup, E Blomkvist, F Ljunghager, A Alfjorden, Å Hagström, N J Olesen, M Juremalm, M Leijon, J-F Valarcher
We report the first description of a new Rhabdoviridae tentatively named eelpout rhabdovirus (EpRV genus Perhabdovirus). This virus was associated with mass mortalities in eelpout (Zoarces viviparous, Linnaeus) along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast line in 2014. Diseased fish showed signs of central nervous system infection, and brain lesions were confirmed by histology. A cytopathogenic effect was observed in cell culture, but ELISAs for the epizootic piscine viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), infectious pancreas necrosis virus (IPNV), infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) were negative...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
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