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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627488/diversity-of-veronaea-botryosa-from-different-hosts-and-evaluation-of-laboratory-challenge-models-for-phaeohyphomycosis-in-acipenser-transmontanus
#1
Esteban Soto, Christine Richey, Stephen R Reichley, Brittany Stevens, Kirsten V Kenelty, Janiee Lewis, Barbara Byrne, Nathan P Wiederhold, Thomas B Waltzek, Matthew F Sheley, Alvin C Camus, Matt J Griffin
Veronaea botryosa has been identified as a pathogen of cultured white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. In 2015, samples from 19 white sturgeon were received for diagnosis, of which 14 cultured positive for V. botryosa. Intraspecific variability among V. botryosa isolates from different clinically affected hosts and geographic regions was investigated using repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting (rep-PCR). The rep-PCR profiles of 16 V. botryosa isolates from a human, sea turtles, and cultured fish were distinct from those of other phaeoid fungi belonging to the genera Cladophialophora and Exophiala...
June 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625618/low-incidence-of-plastics-in-food-loads-delivered-to-nestlings-by-a-zooplanktivorous-seabird-over-a-21-year-period
#2
J M Hipfner, K R Studholme, M Galbraith
We quantified the amount of plastic found in food loads delivered to nestlings in Cassin's Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), a small, zooplanktivorous seabird, on Triangle Island, British Columbia, in 1996-2016. The density of plastic in surrounding waters is moderately high, yet few food loads contained any plastic (3 of 850), and none more than two pieces. That result accords well with previous observations on the other four North Pacific auklets (Aethia spp.), leading us to conclude that true auklets rarely transfer plastic to nestlings...
June 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553131/antipollution-skin-protection-a-new-paradigm-and-its-demonstration-on-two-active-compounds
#3
Meital Portugal-Cohen, Miriam Oron, Dror Cohen, Zeevi Ma'or
BACKGROUND: Urban pollution is a major source of concern for human health and is a complex of many environmental factors. The topical exposure to pollution activates cutaneous stress. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we tested the antipollution protection of two active components: Dead Sea minerals (Dead Sea mineral-rich water [DSW]) and anionic polysaccharide (PolluStop® [PS]). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two representative pollution models were studied using reconstructed epidermis: 1) mixture of pollutants (MOP) containing heavy metals and atmospheric particulate matter and 2) ozone exposure...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545324/postmortem-examination-of-australian-sea-snakes-hydrophiinae-anatomy-and-common-pathologic-conditions
#4
Amber K Gillett, Richard Ploeg, Mark Flint, Paul C Mills
There is limited published information about disease in wild sea snakes and no standardized guideline for postmortem examination of sea snakes. Identifying causes of morbidity and mortality of marine vertebrate species has been pivotal to understanding disease factors implicated in stranding events and assisting with the formulation of conservation plans. Additionally, postmortem findings can provide valuable information on life history traits and the ecology of these reclusive species. Sick, moribund, or dead sea snakes are intermittently washed ashore along Australian and international beaches and provide an opportunity to examine a subset of the population and identify causes of population decline...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532267/body-disposal
#5
Jonghan Sea, Eric Beauregard
This study explores the body disposal patterns in a sample of 54 Korean homicides that occurred between 2006 and 2012. Based on information collected by the police during their investigation, factors that could influence body disposal patterns were examined, such as homicide classification, intention, whether an accomplice was present, and offender mental disorder. Bivariate analyses showed that the majority of the victims who were disposed of were acquaintances of the offenders. Moreover, several offenders were more likely to dispose of the dead body "within hours" of killing the victim...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515171/mutualistic-damselfish-induce-higher-photosynthetic-rates-in-their-host-coral
#6
Nur Garcia-Herrera, Sebastian C A Ferse, Andreas Kunzmann, Amatzia Genin
Coral reefs are amongst the most diverse ecosystems on Earth where complex inter-specific interactions are ubiquitous. An example of such interactions is the mutualistic relationship between damselfishes and branching corals in the Northern Red Sea, where the fish use corals as shelter and provide them with nutrients, enhance the flow between their branches, and protect them from predators. By enhancing the flow between the coral branches, the fish ventilate the coral's inner zone, mitigating hypoxic conditions that otherwise develop within that zone during the night...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495302/optically-stimulated-luminescence-of-natural-nacl-mineral-from-dead-sea-exposed-to-gamma-radiation
#7
J Roman-Lopez, Y I Piña López, E Cruz-Zaragoza, J Marcazzó
In this work, the continuous wave - optically stimulated luminescence (CW-OSL) emissions of natural salt minerals, collected from Dead Sea in summer of 2015, were studied. The CW-OSL dose response of natural salt showed a linear range between 0.5Gy and 10Gy of gamma radiation of (60)Co. Samples exposed at 3Gy exhibited good repeatability with a variation coefficient of 4.6%. The CW-OSL response as function of the preheating temperature (50-250°C) was analyzed. An increase of 15% of the CW-OSL response was observed in NaCl samples during storage period of 336h...
May 3, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439534/the-arctic-ocean-as-a-dead-end-for-floating-plastics-in-the-north-atlantic-branch-of-the-thermohaline-circulation
#8
Andrés Cózar, Elisa Martí, Carlos M Duarte, Juan García-de-Lomas, Erik van Sebille, Thomas J Ballatore, Victor M Eguíluz, J Ignacio González-Gordillo, Maria L Pedrotti, Fidel Echevarría, Romain Troublè, Xabier Irigoien
The subtropical ocean gyres are recognized as great marine accummulation zones of floating plastic debris; however, the possibility of plastic accumulation at polar latitudes has been overlooked because of the lack of nearby pollution sources. In the present study, the Arctic Ocean was extensively sampled for floating plastic debris from the Tara Oceans circumpolar expedition. Although plastic debris was scarce or absent in most of the Arctic waters, it reached high concentrations (hundreds of thousands of pieces per square kilometer) in the northernmost and easternmost areas of the Greenland and Barents seas...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395870/dongsha-atoll-a-potential-thermal-refuge-for-reef-building-corals-in-the-south-china-sea
#9
Konstantin S Tkachenko, Keryea Soong
Dongsha Atoll (also known as the Pratas Islands), the northernmost atoll in the South China Sea, experiences two contrasting physical phenomena: repetitive anomalies of the sea surface temperature exceeding the coral bleaching threshold and regular effects of the world's strongest internal waves resulting in the rhythmic upwelling of cold deep waters at the outer reef slopes of the atoll. This unique combination may result in significant differences in coral species composition and structure between the lagoon and forereef...
April 4, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331802/molecular-epidemiology-and-pathology-of-spirorchiid-infection-in-green-sea-turtles-chelonia-mydas
#10
Phoebe A Chapman, Helen Owen, Mark Flint, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães, Rebecca J Traub, Thomas H Cribb, Myat T Kyaw-Tanner, Paul C Mills
Spirorchiid blood fluke infections affect endangered turtle populations globally, and are reported as a common cause of mortality in Queensland green sea turtles. Both the flukes and their ova are pathogenic and can contribute to the stranding or death of their host. Of particular interest are ova-associated brain lesions, which have been associated with host neurological deficits. Accurate estimations of disease frequency and the relative effect of infection relating to different spirorchiid species are made difficult by challenges in morphological identification of adults of some genera, and a lack of species-level identifying features for ova...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323589/preventing-high-altitude-cerebral-edema-in-rats-with-repurposed-anti-angiogenesis-pharmacotherapy
#11
Samantha Tarshis, Joanne Maltzahn, Zoe Loomis, David C Irwin
BACKGROUND: High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a fulminant, deadly, and yet still unpredictable brain disease. A new prophylactic treatment for HACE and its predecessor, acute mountain sickness (AMS), needs to be developed without the contraindications or adverse effect profiles of acetazolamide and dexamethasone. Since neovascularization signals are likely key contributors to HACE/AMS, our approach was to examine already existing anti-angiogenic drugs to inhibit potential initiating HACE pathway(s)...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286714/true-s-beaked-whale-mesoplodon-mirus-in-macaronesia
#12
Natacha Aguilar de Soto, Vidal Martín, Monica Silva, Roland Edler, Cristel Reyes, Manuel Carrillo, Agustina Schiavi, Talia Morales, Belen García-Ovide, Anna Sanchez-Mora, Nerea Garcia-Tavero, Lisa Steiner, Michael Scheer, Roland Gockel, Dylan Walker, Enrico Villa, Petra Szlama, Ida K Eriksson, Marisa Tejedor, Monica Perez-Gil, João Quaresma, Wojtek Bachara, Emma Carroll
The True's beaked whale (Mesoplodon mirus, True 1913) is a poorly known member of the Ziphiidae family. Its distribution in the northern hemisphere is thought to be restricted to the temperate or warm temperate waters of the North Atlantic, while a few stranding records from the southern hemisphere suggest a wider and antitropical distribution, extending to waters from the Atlantic coast of Brazil to South Africa, Mozambique, Australia and the Tasman Sea coast of New Zealand. This paper (i) reports the first molecular confirmation of the occurrence of the True's beaked whale at the southern limit of its distribution recorded in the northeast Atlantic: the Azores and Canary Islands (macaronesian ecoregion); (ii) describes a new colouration for this species using evidence from a whale with molecular species confirmation; and (iii) contributes to the sparse worldwide database of live sightings, including the first underwater video recording of this species and close images of a calf...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177288/novel-urease-negative-helicobacter-sp-h-enhydrae-sp-nov-isolated-from-inflamed-gastric-tissue-of-southern-sea-otters
#13
Zeli Shen, Francesca Batac, Anthony Mannion, Melissa A Miller, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu, Calvin Ho, Sean Manning, Bruce J Paster, James G Fox
A total of 31 sea otters Enhydra lutris nereis found dead or moribund (and then euthanized) were necropsied in California, USA. Stomach biopsies were collected and transected with equal portions frozen or placed in formalin and analyzed histologically and screened for Helicobacter spp. in gastric tissue. Helicobacter spp. were isolated from 9 sea otters (29%); 58% (18 of 31) animals were positive for helicobacter by PCR. The Helicobacter sp. was catalase- and oxidase-positive and urease-negative. By electron microscopy, the Helicobacter sp...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139956/bacterial-microbiota-in-harbor-seals-phoca-vitulina-from-the-north-sea-of-schleswig-holstein-germany-around-the-time-of-morbillivirus-and-influenza-epidemics
#14
Ursula Siebert, Marion Rademaker, Sophie A Ulrich, Peter Wohlsein, Katrin Ronnenberg, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff
We present microbiologic findings in harbor seal (phoca; Phoca vitulina ) carcasses collected from the North Sea of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, 1996-2014, and interpret results in relation to potential variations caused by phocine distemper virus and influenza A virus mass mortalities. We conducted microbiologic investigations on 2,124 tissue samples from lung, liver, kidney, spleen, intestine, and mesenteric lymph nodes from 549 dead harbor seals of the German North Sea. A large variety of bacteria, including potentially pathogenic species such as Bordetella bronchiseptica , Brucella spp...
April 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125589/habitat-use-and-spatial-variability-of-hawkfishes-with-a-focus-on-colour-polymorphism-in-paracirrhites-forsteri
#15
Darren J Coker, Veronica Chaidez, Michael L Berumen
Identifying relationships between fishes and their environment is an integral part of understanding coral reef ecosystems. However, this information is lacking for many species, particularly in understudied and remote regions. With coral reefs continuing to face environmental pressures, insight into abundance and distribution patterns along with resource use of fish communities will aid in advancing our ecological understanding and management processes. Based on ecological surveys of hawkfish assemblages (Family: Cirrhitidae) in the Red Sea, we reveal distinct patterns in the distribution and abundance across the continental shelf, wave exposure, and with depth, particularly in the four colour morphs of Paracirrhites forsteri...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075017/intrapopulation-variability-in-the-timing-of-ontogenetic-habitat-shifts-in-sea-turtles-revealed-using-%C3%AE-15-n-values-from-bone-growth-rings
#16
Calandra N Turner Tomaszewicz, Jeffrey A Seminoff, S Hoyt Peckham, Larisa Avens, Carolyn M Kurle
Determining location and timing of ontogenetic shifts in the habitat use of highly migratory species, along with possible intrapopulation variation in these shifts, is essential for understanding mechanisms driving alternate life histories and assessing overall population trends. Measuring variations in multi-year habitat-use patterns is especially difficult for remote oceanic species. To investigate the potential for differential habitat use among migratory marine vertebrates, we measured the naturally occurring stable nitrogen isotope (δ(15) N) patterns that differentiate distinct ocean regions to create a 'regional isotope characterization', analysed the δ(15) N values from annual bone growth layer rings from dead-stranded animals, and then combined the bone and regional isotope data to track individual animal movement patterns over multiple years...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073400/haloactinomyces-albus-gen-nov-sp-nov-isolated-from-dead-sea
#17
Hangxian Lai, Yingying Jiang, Xiu Chen, Qinyuan Li, Chenglin Jiang, Yi Jiang, Xiaomin Wei
A novel halophilic, filamentous actinomycete strain, designated AFM 10258T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Dead Sea of Israel. The isolate grew with 10-35% NaCl and did not grow without NaCl. The isolate formed white aerial mycelium and long spore chains, and two spores were separated by sterile mycelium. The spores were non-motile, spherical and rugose-surfaced. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and galactose and arabinose as the major whole-cell sugars...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070088/population-and-growth-related-differences-in-helminthic-fauna-of-finless-porpoises-neophocaena-asiaeorientalis-in-five-japanese-populations
#18
Akira Shiozaki, Masao Amano
A survey of helminths and ectoparasites, including epizoits, was conducted in narrow-ridged finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis) from Japanese five populations using dead stranded or incidentally caught animals. In total, 13 helminth species were found (6 nematodes, 4 trematodes, 2 cestodes and 1 acanthocephalan) in 137 porpoises. A new location record of Stenurus nanjingensis and a new host record of Tetrabothrius sp. were obtained. Eight species of helminth were considered common in the Japanese populations of the finless porpoise: Pharurus sunameri, Pharurus asiaeorientalis, Nasitrema spathulatum, Nasitrema sunameri, Halocercus pingi, Halocercus sunameri, Campula oblonga and Synthesium elongatum...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025274/mitochondrial-phylogenomics-resolves-the-global-spread-of-higher-termites-ecosystem-engineers-of-the-tropics
#19
Thomas Bourguignon, Nathan Lo, Jan Šobotník, Simon Y W Ho, Naeem Iqbal, Eric Coissac, Maria Lee, Martin M Jendryka, David Sillam-Dussès, Barbora Krížková, Yves Roisin, Theodore A Evans
The higher termites (Termitidae) are keystone species and ecosystem engineers. They have exceptional biomass and play important roles in decomposition of dead plant matter, in soil manipulation, and as the primary food for many animals, especially in the tropics. Higher termites are most diverse in rainforests, with estimated origins in the late Eocene (∼54 Ma), postdating the breakup of Pangaea and Gondwana when most continents became separated. Since termites are poor fliers, their origin and spread across the globe requires alternative explanation...
March 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957383/direct-analysis-in-real-time-mass-spectrometry-for-the-nondestructive-investigation-of-conservation-treatments-of-cultural-heritage
#20
Marcello Manfredi, Elisa Robotti, Greg Bearman, Fenella France, Elettra Barberis, Pnina Shor, Emilio Marengo
Today the long-term conservation of cultural heritage is a big challenge: often the artworks were subjected to unknown interventions, which eventually were found to be harmful. The noninvasive investigation of the conservation treatments to which they were subjected to is a crucial step in order to undertake the best conservation strategies. We describe here the preliminary results on a quick and direct method for the nondestructive identification of the various interventions of parchment by means of direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and chemometrics...
2016: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
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