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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538175/extracellular-vesicles-from-a-helminth-parasite-suppress-macrophage-activation-and-constitute-an-effective-vaccine-for-protective-immunity
#1
Gillian Coakley, Jana L McCaskill, Jessica G Borger, Fabio Simbari, Elaine Robertson, Marissa Millar, Yvonne Harcus, Henry J McSorley, Rick M Maizels, Amy H Buck
Recent studies have demonstrated that many parasites release extracellular vesicles (EVs), yet little is known about the specific interactions of EVs with immune cells or their functions during infection. We show that EVs secreted by the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus are internalized by macrophages and modulate their activation. EV internalization causes downregulation of type 1 and type 2 immune-response-associated molecules (IL-6 and TNF, and Ym1 and RELMα) and inhibits expression of the IL-33 receptor subunit ST2...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533440/identification-and-characterization-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-rnai-inheritance-machinery
#2
George Spracklin, Brandon Fields, Gang Wan, Diveena Vijayendran, Ashley Wallig, Aditi Shukla, Scott Kennedy
Gene silencing mediated by dsRNA (RNAi) can persist for multiple generations in Caenorhabditis elegans (termed RNAi inheritance). Here we describe the results of a forward genetic screen in C. elegans that has identified six factors required for RNAi inheritance: GLH-1/VASA, PUP-1/CDE-1, MORC-1, SET-32, and two novel nematode specific factors that we term here (heritable RNAi defective) HRDE-2 and HRDE-4. The new RNAi inheritance factors exhibit mortal germline (Mrt) phenotypes, which we show is likely caused by epigenetic deregulation in germ cells...
May 22, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533110/excretory-secretory-products-from-the-gastrointestinal-nematode-trichuris-muris
#3
Lucienne Tritten, Mifong Tam, Mireille Vargas, Armando Jardim, Mary M Stevenson, Jennifer Keiser, Timothy G Geary
To better control gastrointestinal nematode infections in humans and animals, it is important to understand the strategies used by these parasites to modulate the host immune system. In this regard, molecules released by parasites have been attributed crucially important roles in host-parasite negotiations. We characterized the excretory/secretory (E/S) microRNA (miRNA) and protein profiles from the mouse gastrointestinal nematode parasite Trichuris muris. Released miRNAs were subjected to miRNA sequencing and E/S proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry...
May 19, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532295/resistance-to-a-triple-combination-anthelmintic-in-trichostrongylus-spp-on-a-commercial-sheep-farm-in-new-zealand
#4
Bas Hodgson, C J Mulvaney
AIM: To evaluate anthelmintic resistance to anthelmintics containing abamectin, levamisole, and oxfendazole (AB-LEV-OX), derquantal and abamectin (DEQ-AB), moxidectin, and monepantel in naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematodes present on a sheep farm. METHODS: A faecal nematode egg count reduction test (FECRT) was carried out on lambs that were approximately 7 months-old and infected with naturally acquired nematodes. Lambs were randomly allocated to one of five groups (n=15 per group): treatment with 2 mg/kg derquantel and 0...
May 22, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531364/analysis-of-the-internal-transcribed-spacer-region-of-ascaris-suum-and-ascaris-lumbricoides-derived-from-free-range-tibetan-pigs
#5
Kun Li, Houqiang Luo, Hui Zhang, Khalid Mehmood, Muhammad Shahzad, Lihong Zhang, Jiakui Li
Ascaris suum (A. suum) is the most commonly occurring worldwide internal parasite of pigs; however, little is known about this organism in Tibetan pigs in China. A study was carried to isolate and identify the characteristics of internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) gene of A. suum derived from Tibetan pigs. Adult nematodes were collected from Tibetan pigs in 2015-2016. Total genomic DNA of the extracted parasites was performed and a fragment of the ITS of mitochondrial (mt) gene was amplified. The amplicons were cloned into PGEM®-T Easy Vector (Promega, WI) and the positive clones were sequenced by ABI 3730 × 1 sequencer...
May 21, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529879/beyond-the-raccoon-roundworm-the-natural-history-of-non-raccoon-baylisascaris-species-in-the-new-world
#6
REVIEW
Sarah G H Sapp, Pooja Gupta, Melissa K Martin, Maureen H Murray, Kevin D Niedringhaus, Madeleine A Pfaff, Michael J Yabsley
A total of 10 species of Baylisascaris, a genus of ascaridoid nematodes, occur worldwide and 6 of them occur in the New World. Most of the Baylisascaris species have a similar life cycle with carnivorous mammals or marsupials serving as definitive hosts and a smaller prey host serving as paratenic (or intermediate) hosts. However, one species in rodents is unique in that it only has one host. Considerable research has been conducted on B. procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, as it is a well-known cause of severe to fatal neurologic disease in humans and many wildlife species...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528642/minimal-resin-embedding-of-multicellular-specimens-for-targeted-fib-sem-imaging
#7
Nicole L Schieber, Pedro Machado, Sebastian M Markert, Christian Stigloher, Yannick Schwab, Anna M Steyer
Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is a powerful tool to perform ultrastructural analysis of targeted tissues or cells. The large field of view of the light microscope (LM) enables quick and efficient surveys of the whole specimen. It is also compatible with live imaging, giving access to functional assays. CLEM protocols take advantage of the features to efficiently retrace the position of targeted sites when switching from one modality to the other. They more often rely on anatomical cues that are visible both by light and electron microscopy...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528533/first-report-of-angiostrongylus-vasorum-in-a-wild-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes-from-apulia-italy
#8
Giuseppe Passantino, Fabio Marino, Gabriella Gaglio, Rosa Patruno, Giovanni Lanteri, Nicola Zizzo
Severe lung strongylosis was detected in a wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes) (1/12) from Apulia (Italy). We performed routine diagnostics on 12 foxes found dead in Apulia. Eleven of them showed lesions consistent with a vehicle collision. However, the remaining fox appeared to have died from other causes. At necropsy we observed, catarrhal enteritis, fatty liver, lung congestion with some areas rm in consistence and brain haemorrhages and malacia. Histopathology revealed lung brosis with mononucleate cells in ltration, thrombosis a several larval nematodes spread in the parenchyma, interstitial nephritis, interstitial myocarditis, encephalitis, encephalomalacia, and a brain granuloma...
April 5, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528399/bacterial-microbiome-and-nematode-occurrence-in-different-potato-agricultural-soils
#9
Juan D Castillo, Jorge M Vivanco, Daniel K Manter
Pratylenchus neglectus and Meloidogyne chitwoodi are the main plant-parasitic nematodes in potato crops of the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Bacterial microbiome (16S rRNA copies per gram of soil) and nematode communities (nematodes per 200 g of soil) from five different potato farms were analyzed to determine negative and positive correlations between any bacterial genus and P. neglectus and M. chitwoodi. Farms showed differences in bacterial communities, percentage of bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes, and numbers of P...
May 20, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527817/lymphatic-filariasis-elimination-efforts-in-rufiji-south-eastern-tanzania-decline-in-circulating-filarial-antigen-prevalence-in-young-school-children-after-twelve-rounds-of-mass-drug-administration-and-utilization-of-long-lasting-insecticide-treated-nets
#10
Clarer Jones, Billy Ngasalla, Yahya A Derua, Donath Tarimo, Mwelecele N Malecela
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic infection transmitted by mosquito vectors and in sub Saharan Africa it is caused by nematode Wuchereria bancrofti. The disease has been targeted for global elimination by using annual mass drug administration (MDA) strategy. On the other hand, vector control is known to play important complementary role to the MDAs in reducing LF transmission. We report the findings of the effect of MDA and ITNs intervention implemented in endemic area of south-eastern Tanzania METHODS: A cross-sectional study for W...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526990/how-does-supplementary-feeding-affect-endoparasite-infection-in-wild-boar
#11
Ragne Oja, Kaisa Velström, Epp Moks, Pikka Jokelainen, Brian Lassen
Supplementary feeding is widely used in game management but may aid the transmission of parasites. Firstly, feeding sites attract animals and may be regarded as high-risk areas for parasite transmission. Secondly, high host population densities resulting from and supported by supplementary feeding, as well as accumulation of parasites in the environment, may increase parasite prevalence. Our aim was to investigate whether host density or the number of feeding sites drives endoparasite infection in an Estonian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population...
May 19, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526895/three-novel-xenorhabdus-steinernema-associations-and-evidence-of-strains-of-x-khoisanae-switching-between-different-clades
#12
Jonike Dreyer, Antoinette P Malan, Leon M T Dicks
Xenorhabdus species are normally closely associated with entomopathogenic nematodes of the family Steinernematidae. Strain F2, isolated from Steinernema nguyeni, was identified as Xenorhabdus bovienii and strains J194 and SB10, isolated from Steinernema jeffreyense and Steinernema sacchari as Xenorhabdus khoisanae, based on phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes dnaN, gltX, gyrB, infB and recA. All three strains produced antimicrobial compounds that inhibited the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
May 19, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526605/microevolutionary-response-of-a-gut-nematode-to-intestinal-inflammation
#13
Cédric Lippens, Bruno Faivre, Gabriele Sorci
Parasitic helminths interfere with the immune responses of their hosts to establish long-lasting, chronic infections. While favorable to the parasite, the capacity to dampen the immune response can also provide a benefit to the host in terms of reduced risk of immune disorders and immunopathology. The immunomodulatory role of nematodes has been exploited in clinical trials to treat a number of inflammatory and immune diseases. However, how parasites adapt to an inflammatory environment remains a poorly explored question...
May 17, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523488/morphological-and-molecular-evidence-for-a-new-species-of-pseudanisakis-layman-borovkova-1926-nematoda-ascaridida-parasitizing-rajiformes-in-southern-southwest-atlantic-waters
#14
Manuel M Irigoitia, Paola E Braicovich, Marisa D Farber, Juan T Timi
Pseudanisakis argentinensis n. sp. is proposed to accommodate parasitic nematodes found in six skate species (Rajidae and Arhynchobatidae) examined from southern Southwest Atlantic waters. The new species differs from its congeners by the following combination of characters: a cupola on each lip, males with 8-12 pairs of precloacal genital papillae, a larger size for both males and females, a greater length-to-breadth ratio of the ventriculus and the presence of a small knob on the tip of the tail. Allometric growth was observed for several morphometric features; however, the slopes of the allometric relationships across host species exhibited non-significant differences and were considered as a strong evidence for conspecificity...
May 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523422/usefulness-of-the-non-conventional-caenorhabditis-elegans-model-to-assess-candida-virulence
#15
Marcelo Ortega-Riveros, Iker De-la-Pinta, Cristina Marcos-Arias, Guillermo Ezpeleta, Guillermo Quindós, Elena Eraso
Invasive candidiasis is caused mainly by Candida albicans, but other Candida species have increasing etiologies. These species show different virulence and susceptibility levels to antifungal drugs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the usefulness of the non-conventional model Caenorhabditis elegans to assess the in vivo virulence of seven different Candida species and to compare the virulence in vivo with the in vitro production of proteinases and phospholipases, hemolytic activity and biofilm development capacity...
May 18, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523294/autophagy-in-aging-and-disease
#16
Mădălina Fîlfan, Raluca Elena Sandu, Alexandra Daniela Zăvăleanu, Andrei GreşiŢă, Daniela Gabriela Glăvan, Denissa Greta Olaru, Aurel Popa-Wagner
Autophagy is a catabolic degradation system used to destroy and recycle the unnecessary or damaged components of a cell. Autophagy is present at a basal level in all mammals and is regulated by some conditions, such as oxidative stress, starvation or hypoxia. In aged tissues, increased but also decreased expression of autophagy-specific proteins, Beclin 1, LC3, Atg5 and Atg7 has been reported. Likewise, it could be shown that the lifespan of yeast, nematodes and flies is prolonged by pharmacologically stimulated autophagy using exogenous administered spermidine...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522853/multitrophic-effects-of-belowground-parasitoid-learning
#17
Denis S Willett, Hans T Alborn, Lukasz L Stelinski
The ability to learn allows organisms to take advantage of dynamic and ephemeral opportunities in their environment. Here we show that learning in belowground entomopathogenic nematodes has cascading multitrophic effects on their hosts, other nematodes, and nematophagous fungal predators. In addition to quantifying these effects, we show that social behavioral plasticity in these belowground parasitoids can amplify signaling by plant defense pathways and results in an almost doubling of insect herbivore infection by entomopathogenic nematodes...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516228/great-sandeel-hyperoplus-lanceolatus-as-a-putative-transmitter-of-parasite-contracaecum-osculatum-nematoda-anisakidae
#18
K Nadolna-Ałtyn, M Podolska, B Szostakowska
In the Baltic Sea, the great sandeel (Hyperoplus lanceolatus), a common fish species that inhabits sandy substrates, is an important element in the diet of marine mammals, sea birds, and piscivorous fish. It can also act as a transmitter of parasites to its predators, but parasitological studies on this species are limited. We sampled great sandeels in April 2016 in two areas of the southern Baltic Sea (SB-south of Bornholm and GG-the Gulf of Gdansk) and found parasitic anisakid nematodes in both locations...
May 17, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515463/enzyme-characteristics-of-pathogen-specific-trehalose-6-phosphate-phosphatases
#19
Megan Cross, Siji Rajan, Janine Chekaiban, Jake Saunders, Chloe Hamilton, Jeong-Sun Kim, Mark J Coster, Robin B Gasser, Andreas Hofmann
Owing to the key role of trehalose in pathogenic organisms, there has recently been growing interest in trehalose metabolism for therapeutic purposes. Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) is a pivotal enzyme in the most prominent biosynthesis pathway (OtsAB). Here, we compare the enzyme characteristics of recombinant TPPs from five important nematode and bacterial pathogens, including three novel members of this protein family. Analysis of the kinetics of trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolysis reveals that all five enzymes display a burst-like kinetic behaviour which is characterised by a decrease of the enzymatic rate after the pre-steady state...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514980/evaluation-of-benzimidazole-resistance-status-in-ascaridia-galli
#20
B Tarbiat, D S Jansson, E Tydén, J Höglund
Susceptability of Ascaridia galli to benzimidazole (BZ) was investigated using faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), in ovo larval development test (LDT) and genetic markers (mutations at codons 167, 198 and 200 of β-tubulin gene). Six flocks (F1-F6) of a commercial laying hen farm with different number of exposure to BZ were recruited. The FECR was calculated by analyzing individual faeces (F1, F2, F4 and F5) before and 10 days after treatment. The LDT was performed on parasite eggs from pooled samples from F1 to F6 and LC50 and LC99 were calculated...
May 18, 2017: Parasitology
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