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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453265/integrated-metabolomics-and-morphogenesis-reveals-volatile-signaling-of-the-nematode-trapping-fungus-arthrobotrys-oligospora
#1
Bai-Le Wang, Yong-Hong Chen, Jia-Ning He, Hua-Xi Xue, Ni Yan, Zhi-Jun Zeng, Joan W Bennett, Ke-Qin Zhang, Xue-Mei Niu
The adjustment of metabolic patterns is fundamental to fungal biology and plays vital roles in adaption to diverse ecological challenges. Nematode trapping fungi can switch lifestyles from saprophytic to pathogenic by developing specific trapping devices induced by nematodes to infect their prey as a response to nutrient depletion in nature. However, the chemical identity of the specific fungal metabolites used during the switch remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that these important signal molecules might be volatile in nature...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452179/massively-parallel-c-elegans-tracking-provides-multi-dimensional-fingerprints-for-phenotypic-discovery
#2
Michele Perni, Pavan K Challa, Julius B Kirkegaard, Ryan Limbocker, Mandy Koopman, Maarten C Hardenberg, Pietro Sormanni, Thomas Müller, Kadi L Saar, Lianne W Y Roode, Johnny Habchi, Giulia Vecchi, Nilumi W Fernando, Samuel Casford, Ellen A A Nollen, Michele Vendruscolo, Christopher M Dobson, Tuomas P J Knowles
BACKGROUND: The nematode worm C. elegans is a model organism widely used for studies of genetics and of human disease. The health and fitness of the worms can be quantified in different ways, such as by measuring their bending frequency, speed or lifespan. Manual assays, however, are time consuming and limited in their scope providing a strong motivation for automation. NEW METHOD: We describe the development and application of an advanced machine vision system for characterizing the behaviour of C...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449071/do-the-morphological-and-functional-traits-of-free-living-marine-nematodes-mirror-taxonomical-diversity
#3
F Semprucci, L Cesaroni, L Guidi, M Balsamo
The taxonomical structure and diversity of nematode assemblages are the main attributes analyzed in ecology, but nematode adaptations to their habitats are still understudied. Accordingly, a survey on some known and other newly proposed morpho-functional traits was carried out in order to: determine if the morpho-functional diversity of nematodes mirrors their taxonomical diversity; and assess potential nematode adaptations to sediment type and hydrodynamic stress. Morpho-functional traits were investigated both singularly and together and showed significant differences related to these environmental factors...
February 7, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448039/development-of-sirna-mediated-rna-interference-and-functional-analysis-of-novel-parasitic-nematode-specific-protein-of-setaria-digitata
#4
M B C L Somarathne, Y I N S Gunawardena, N V Chandrasekharan, R S Dassanayake
Despite the differences of the host, parasitic nematodes may share commonalities in their parasitizing genes. Setaria digitata novel protein (SDNP) is such an entity which is parasitic nematode-specific and having sequence similarities with those of W. bancrofti, B. malayi, Loa loa and Onchocerca volvulus. Post-transcriptional gene silencing by siRNA mediated RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used technique in functional genomics. Though the technique has been used in several free-living, plant and animal parasitic nematodes, it has not yet been tried out for the filarial worm S...
February 12, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447162/early-experiences-mediate-distinct-adult-gene-expression-and-reproductive-programs-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Maria C Ow, Kirill Borziak, Alexandra M Nichitean, Steve Dorus, Sarah E Hall
Environmental stress during early development in animals can have profound effects on adult phenotypes via programmed changes in gene expression. Using the nematode C. elegans, we demonstrated previously that adults retain a cellular memory of their developmental experience that is manifested by differences in gene expression and life history traits; however, the sophistication of this system in response to different environmental stresses, and how it dictates phenotypic plasticity in adults that contribute to increased fitness in response to distinct environmental challenges, was unknown...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446034/molecular-genetic-diversity-of-gongylonema-neoplasticum-fibiger-ditlevsen-1914-spirurida-gongylonematidae-from-rodents-in-southeast-asia
#6
Aogu Setsuda, Alexis Ribas, Kittipong Chaisiri, Serge Morand, Monidarin Chou, Fidelino Malbas, Muchammad Yunus, Hiroshi Sato
More than a dozen Gongylonema spp. (Spirurida: Spiruroidea: Gongylonematidae) have been described from a variety of rodent hosts worldwide. Gongylonema neoplasticum (Fibiger & Ditlevsen, 1914), which dwells in the gastric mucosa of rats such as Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout) and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus), is currently regarded as a cosmopolitan nematode in accordance with global dispersion of its definitive hosts beyond Asia. To facilitate the reliable specific differentiation of local rodent Gongylonema spp...
February 14, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445761/oxidative-stress-assays-arsenite-and-tbhp-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Collin Yvès Ewald, John M Hourihan, T Keith Blackwell
Cells and organisms face constant exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS), either from the environment or as a by-product from internal metabolic processes. To prevent cellular damage from ROS, cells have evolved detoxification mechanisms. The activation of these detoxification mechanisms and their downstream responses represent an overlapping defense response that can be tailored to different sources of ROS to adequately adapt and protect cells. In this protocol, we describe how to measure the sensitivity to oxidative stress from two different sources, arsenite and tBHP, using the nematode C...
July 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442317/zic-genes-in-nematodes-a-role-in-nervous-system-development-and-wnt-signaling
#8
Guillaume Bordet, Vincent Bertrand
Transcription factors of the Zic family play important roles during animal development, and their misregulation has been implicated in several human diseases. Zic proteins are present in nematodes, and their function has been mostly studied in the model organism C. elegans. C. elegans possesses only one Zic family member, REF-2. Functional studies have shown that this factor plays a key role during the development of the nervous system, epidermis, and excretory system. In addition, they have revealed that the C...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442315/cnidarian-zic-genes
#9
Michael J Layden
To understand the ancestral and evolved roles of zic homologs, it is important to reconstruct the putative roles of ancient zic homologs in the animal phylogeny. Most studies of zic genes have been conducted in model systems that are members of the bilaterian phylum. However, two additional phyla have zic homologs encoded in their genomes. The three animal phyla that contain zic homologs all share a common ancestor and collectively are termed the parahoxozoans (cnidarians (corals, sea anemones, and jellyfish), placozoans (Trichoplax adhaerens), and bilaterians (chordates, insects, nematodes, annelids, echinoderms, etc...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441842/crowding-in-the-first-intermediate-host-does-not-affect-infection-probability-in-the-second-host-in-two-helminths
#10
D P Benesh
When many worms co-infect the same host, their average size is often reduced. This negative density-dependent growth is called the crowding effect. Crowding has been reported many times for worms in their intermediate hosts, but rarely have the fitness consequences of crowding been examined. This study tested whether larval crowding reduces establishment success in the next host for two parasites with complex life cycles, the nematode Camallanus lacustris and the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. Infected copepods, the first host, were fed to sticklebacks, the second host...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441415/novel-approach-to-study-gastropod-mediated-innate-immune-reactions-against-metastrongyloid-parasites
#11
Felipe Penagos-Tabares, Malin K Lange, Anika Seipp, Ulrich Gärtner, Helena Mejer, Anja Taubert, Carlos Hermosilla
The anthropozoonotic metastrongyloid nematodes Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis, as well as Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are currently considered as emerging gastropod-borne parasites and have gained growing scientific attention in the last years. However, the knowledge on invertebrate immune responses and on how metastrongyloid larvae are attacked by gastropod immune cells is still limited. This work aims to describe an in vitro system to investigate haemocyte-derived innate immune responses of terrestrial gastropods induced by vital axenic metastrongyloid larvae...
February 13, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436902/both-live-and-dead-enterococci-activate-caenorhabditis-elegans-host-defense-via-immune-and-stress-pathways
#12
Grace J Yuen, Frederick M Ausubel
The innate immune response of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been extensively studied and a variety of Toll-independent immune response pathways have been identified. Surprisingly little, however, is known about how pathogens activate the C. elegans immune response. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are closely related enterococcal species that exhibit significantly different levels of virulence in C. elegans infection models. Previous work has shown that activation of the C. elegans immune response by Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves P...
February 13, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435938/transgene-like-animal-models-using-intronic-micrornas
#13
Shi-Lung Lin, Shin-Ju E Chang, Shao-Yao Ying
Transgenic animal models are valuable tools for testing gene functions and drug mechanisms in vivo. They are also the best similitude for a human body for etiological and pathological research of diseases. All pharmaceutically developed medicines must be proven to be safe and effective in animals before approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in clinical trials. To this end, the transgenic animal models of diseases serve as the front line of drug evaluation. However, there is currently no transgenic animal model for microRNA (miRNA)-related research...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435716/helminth-parasites-of-mabuya-arajara-rebou%C3%A3-as-spieker-1981-lacertilia-mabuyidae-from-chapada-do-araripe-northeastern-brazil
#14
Arthur do Nascimento Cabral, Diego Alves Teles, Samuel Vieira Brito, Waltécio de Oliveira Almeida, Luciano Alves Dos Anjos, Míriam Camargo Guarnieri, Samuel Cardozo Ribeiro
We provide data on the helminth fauna from the digestive tract of the lizard Mabuya arajara Rebouças-Spieker, 1981 from Chapada do Araripe, northeastern Brazil. Seventy one of the 127 lizards examined (56%) were infected with four nematode species: Physalopteroides venancioi and Physaloptera sp. (Physalopteridae), Strongyluris oscari (Heterakidae), and Parapharyngodon alvarengai (Pharyngodonidae), the latter being the component species (prevalence 53.5%; mean intensity of infection 3.37 ± 2.0; discrepancy index D = 0...
February 12, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435603/integration-of-sudden-death-syndrome-resistance-loci-in-the-soybean-genome
#15
REVIEW
Hao-Xun Chang, Mitchell G Roth, Dechun Wang, Silvia R Cianzio, David A Lightfoot, Glen L Hartman, Martin I Chilvers
Complexity and inconsistencies in resistance mapping publications of soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) result in interpretation difficulty. This review integrates SDS mapping literature and proposes a new nomenclature system for reproducible SDS resistance loci. Soybean resistance to sudden death syndrome (SDS) is composed of foliar resistance to phytotoxins and root resistance to pathogen invasion. There are more than 80 quantitative trait loci (QTL) and dozens of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with soybean resistance to SDS...
February 12, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434393/the-mycotoxin-zearalenone-hinders-candida-albicans-biofilm-formation-and-hyphal-morphogenesis
#16
Satish Kumar Rajasekharan, Jin-Hyung Lee, Yueju Zhao, Jintae Lee
Yeast-mold mycobiota inhabit several natural ecosystems, in which symbiotic relationships drive strategic pathoadaptation. Mycotoxins are metabolites produced by diverse mycotoxigenic fungi as a defense against yeasts, though at times yeasts secrete enzymes that degrade, detoxify, or bio-transform mycotoxins. The present study is focused on the in vitro inhibitory effects of zearalenone (ZEN), a F2 mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium and Gibberella species, on different microbial strains. ZEN exhibited no effect on the planktonic growth or biofilms of several Gram positive and negative bacteria at the tested concentrations...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434068/molecular-characterization-of-human-dirofilaria-isolates-from-kerala
#17
Najuma Nazar, Bindu Lakshmanan, K K Jayavardhanan
Background & objectives: Human dirofilariosis is a well-recognized zoonosis caused by several species of the genus Dirofilaria. The disease is prevalent among canines and human beings in Kerala. The objective of the present study was to confirm the human Dirofilaria isolates by molecular characterization. Methods: The worms or segments obtained from human sources were subjected to diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes of Dirofilaria repens...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432910/lactobacillus-paracasei-28-4-reduces-in-vitro-hyphae-formation-of-candida-albicans-and-prevents-the-filamentation-in-an-experimental-model-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Liliana Scorzoni, Felipe de Camargo Ribeiro, Luciana Ruano de Oliveira Fugisaki, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Rodnei Dennis Rossoni
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of microbe-microbe interactions to identify a strain of Lactobacillus that could reduce the filamentation of Candida albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. Thus presenting a probiotic effect against the fungal pathogen. First, we analyzed the ability of 25 clinical isolates of Lactobacillus to reduce filamentation in C. albicans in vitro. We found that L. paracasei isolate 28.4 exhibited the greatest reduction of C. albicans hyphae (p = 0...
February 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432681/pharming-for-genes-in-neurotransmission-combining-chemical-and-genetic-approaches-in-c-elegans
#19
Stephen M Blazie, Yishi Jin
Synaptic transmission is central to nervous system function. Chemical and genetic screens are valuable approaches to probe synaptic mechanisms in living animals. The nematode C. elegans is a prime system to apply these methods to discover genes and dissect the cellular pathways underlying neurotransmission. Here, we review key approaches to understand neurotransmission and the action of psychiatric drugs in C. elegans, starting with early studies on cholinergic excitatory signaling at the neuromuscular junction and moving into mechanisms mediated by biogenic amine and psychiatric drugs...
February 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429741/the-nematophagous-fungus-duddingtonia-flagrans-reduces-the-gastrointestinal-parasitic-nematode-larvae-population-in-faeces-of-orally-treated-calves-maintained-under-tropical-conditions-dose-response-assessment
#20
Pedro Mendoza-de-Gives, María Eugenia López-Arellano, Liliana Aguilar-Marcelino, Sara Olazarán-Jenkins, David Reyes-Guerrero, Gabriel Ramírez-Várgas, Vicente E Vega-Murillo
This research was performed to assess the Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospore dose/response administered in gastrointestinal parasitic nematode (GIN) naturally infected calves and its effect in reducing the GIN infective larvae (L3) population in faeces in a cattle farm in the Mexican tropics. This study was carried out at the experimental research station "Las Margaritas" in Hueytamalco Municipality, Puebla State, Mexico. Forty zebu calves, between 6 to 12 months of age were randomly distributed into four groups of ten calves each...
January 31, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
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