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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445612/influence-of-adjuvant-formulation-on-inducing-immune-response-in-mice-immunized-with-a-recombinant-serpin-from-trichinella-spiralis
#1
Jing Xu, Xue Bai, Libo Wang, Hai Ning Shi, Joke W B van der Giessen, Pascal Boireau, Ming Yuan Liu, Xiao Lei Liu
Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are one of the most widespread zoonotic pathogens on the world and they can still cause major public health problems in many parts of the world. Vaccination against the helminth nematode Trichinella could be a good strategy to reduce the risk of human and animal infection. It was our aim to evaluate three adjuvants, which could be used as an efficient vaccine for animals in combination with rTs-Serpin antigen. In this study, BALB/c mice were vaccinated by an intramuscular route with rTs-Serpin antigen from the parasite Trichinella spiralis in combination with three different adjuvant formulations: Montanide ISA201, Montanide IMS 1313 N PR VG and Freund's complete adjuvant / Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FCA/FIA)...
April 26, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443978/characterisation-of-the-vascular-pathology-in-sigmodon-hispidus-rodentia-cricetidae-following-experimental-infection-with-angiostrongylus-costaricensis-nematoda-metastrongylidae
#2
Danielle Ingrid Bezerra de Vasconcelos, Ester Maria Mota, Marcelo Pelajo-Machado
BACKGROUND: Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a nematode that causes human abdominal angiostrongyliasis, a disease found mainly in Latin American countries and particularly in Brazil and Costa Rica. Its life cycle involves exploitation of both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Its natural reservoir is a vertebrate host, the cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus. The adult worms live in the ileo-colic branches of the upper mesenteric artery of S. hispidus, causing periarteritis. However, there is a lack of data on the development of vasculitis in the course of infection...
May 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442366/regulating-distal-tip-cell-migration-in-space-and-time
#3
REVIEW
Alyssa D Cecchetelli, Erin J Cram
Gonad morphogenesis in the nematode C. elegans is guided by two leader cells, the distal tip cells (DTC). The DTCs migrate along a stereotyped path, executing two 90° turns before stopping at the midpoint of the animal. This migratory path determines the double-U shape of the adult gonad, therefore, the path taken by the DTCs can be inferred from the final shape of the organ. In this review, we focus on the mechanism by which the DTC executes the first 90° turn from the ventral to dorsal side of the animal, and how it finds its correct stopping place at the midpoint of the animal...
April 22, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442240/cercopithifilaria-bainae-in-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-sensu-lato-ticks-from-dogs-in-brazil
#4
Marcos Antônio Bezerra Santos, Islanne Barbosa de Souza, Lucia Oliveira de Macedo, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento Ramos, Ana Gabriela de Oliveira Rego, Leucio Câmara Alves, Rafael Antonio Nascimento Ramos, Gílcia Aparecida de Carvalho
Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) ticks act as intermediate host for a range of canine vector-borne pathogens, including nematodes ranked in the genus Cercopithifilaria. Though being the object of several studies in the last years, information on the distribution of these parasites is still lacking. In this study, the occurrence of Cercopithifilaria spp. was investigated in on-host population of R. sanguineus s.l. collected from naturally infested dogs. Ticks (n=1906, including one larva, 294 nymphs and 1611 adults) were sampled on domestic dogs (n=155) living in the municipality of Garanhuns (northeastern Brazil)...
April 17, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441568/neuromodulation-the-fevered-mind-of-the-worm
#5
Niels Ringstad
A landmark study has revealed that an interleukin-17-like signaling system modulates a neural circuit that controls the aggregation behavior of nematodes.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441492/caenorhabditis-elegans-prmt-7-and-prmt-9-are-evolutionarily-conserved-protein-arginine-methyltransferases-with-distinct-substrate-specificities
#6
Andrea Hadjikyriacou, Steven Gerard Clarke
Caenorhabditis elegans protein arginine methyltransferases PRMT-7 and PRMT-9 are two evolutionarily conserved enzymes, with distinct orthologs in plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. Biochemical characterization of these two enzymes reveals that they share much in common with their mammalian orthologs. C. elegans PRMT-7 produces only monomethyl arginine (MMA) and preferentially methylates R-X-R motifs in a broad collection of substrates, including human histone peptides and RG-rich peptides. In addition, the activity of the PRMT-7 enzyme is dependent on temperature, the presence of metal ions, and the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT)...
April 25, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441332/pregnant-sheep-in-a-farm-environment-did-not-develop-anaemia
#7
Gabrielle C Musk, Amanda James, Matthew W Kemp, Sara Ritchie, Andrew Ritchie, Michael Laurence
The aim of this study was to document the haematological profile of pregnant ewes throughout gestation. Sheep were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group): non-pregnant, singleton, or twin pregnancy. Blood samples were collected every 14 days from day 55 of gestation for haemoglobin concentration; packed cell volume; total protein; and albumin concentration. On days 55 and 125 of gestation blood was collected for trace element estimation: soluble copper and zinc; glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx); and methylmalonic acid (MMA)...
April 25, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440732/expression-of-microrna-let-7a-positively-correlates-with-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-tissues
#8
Dongni Qiu, Jian Chen, Jie Liu, Zhongguang Luo, Weiru Jiang, Jianping Huang, Zhibing Qiu, Wenjie Yue, Lijun Wu
Let-7a miRNA is downregulated in various cancers. However, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), the relationship between let-7a and HBV replication has not been fully elucidated. Liver specimens were collected from 23 HCC patients with chronically active HBV. The serum levels of the HBV antigens hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg), and the HBV antibodies, anti-HBs, anti-HBe and anti-hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) were measured using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438611/low-dietary-cholesterol-availability-during-lactation-programs-intestinal-absorption-of-cholesterol-in-adult-mice
#9
Lidiya G Dimova, Jan Freark de Boer, Josee Plantinga, Torsten Plösch, Menno Hoekstra, Henkjan J Verkade, Uwe J F Tietge
In nematodes, the intestine senses and integrates early-life dietary cues that lead to lifelong epigenetic adaptations to a perceived nutritional environment-it is not clear whether this process occurs in mammals. We aimed to establish a mouse model of reduced dietary cholesterol availability from maternal milk and investigate the consequences of decreased milk cholesterol availability, early in life, on metabolism of cholesterol in adult mice. We blocked intestinal absorption of cholesterol in milk fed to newborn mice by supplementing the food of dams (for 3 weeks between birth and weaning) with ezetimibe, which is secreted into milk...
April 21, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438225/meta-analysis-of-the-parasitic-phase-traits-of-haemonchus-contortus-infection-in-sheep
#10
Mathilde Saccareau, Guillaume Sallé, Christèle Robert-Granié, Tom Duchemin, Philippe Jacquiet, Alexandra Blanchard, Jacques Cabaret, Carole R Moreno
BACKGROUND: The parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus shows highly variable life history traits. This highlights the need to have an average estimate and a quantification of the variation around it to calibrate epidemiological models. METHODS: This paper aimed to quantify the main life history traits of H. contortus and to identify explanatory factors affecting these traits using a powerful method based on a systematic review and meta-analysis of current literature...
April 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434869/worms-on-the-spectrum-c-elegans-models-in-autism-research
#11
REVIEW
Kathrin Schmeisser, J Alex Parker
The small non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used in neuroscience thanks to its well-understood development and lineage of the nervous system. Furthermore, C. elegans has been used to model many human developmental and neurological conditions to better understand disease mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic strategies. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the most prevalent of all neurodevelopmental disorders, and the C. elegans system may provide opportunities to learn more about this complex disorder...
April 20, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434762/synthesis-and-nematicidal-activities-of-1-2-3-benzotriazin-4-one-derivatives-containing-thiourea-and-acylthiourea-against-meloidogyne-incognita
#12
Yaning Chang, Jingwei Zhang, Xiulei Chen, Zhong Li, Xiaoyong Xu
Two series of novel 1,2,3-benzotriazin-4-one derivatives containing thiourea and acylthiourea were designed and synthesized. The bioassay results showed that most of the test compounds showed good nematicidal activity against M. incognita at the concentration of 10.0mgL(-1)in vivo. The compounds A13, A17 and B3 showed excellent nematicidal activity on the second stage juveniles of the root-knot nematode with the inhibition rate of 51.3%, 58.3% and 51.3% at the concentration of 1.0mgL(-1) respectively. It suggested that the structure of 1,2,3-benzotriazin-4-one derivatives containing thiourea and acylthiourea could be optimized further...
December 29, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434412/molecular-characterization-and-transcriptional-analysis-of-the-female-enriched-chondroitin-proteoglycan-2-of-toxocara-canis
#13
G X Ma, R Q Zhou, L Hu, Y L Luo, Y F Luo, H H Zhu
Toxocara canis is an important but neglected zoonotic parasite, and is the causative agent of human toxocariasis. Chondroitin proteoglycans are biological macromolecules, widely distributed in extracellular matrices, with a great diversity of functions in mammals. However, there is limited information regarding chondroitin proteoglycans in nematode parasites. In the present study, a female-enriched chondroitin proteoglycan 2 gene of T. canis (Tc-cpg-2) was cloned and characterized. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to measure the transcription levels of Tc-cpg-2 among tissues of male and female adult worms...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433568/the-role-of-copulatory-plugs-in-the-mosquito-parasitic-nematode-strelkovimermis-spiculatus
#14
Yu-Han Lan, Yi Wang, Randy Gaugler
The mosquito-parasitic nematode, Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Mermithidae: Nematoda) emerges from hosts and aggregates to form mating clusters characterized by intense male-male competition for females. Successful males deposit an adhesive copulatory plug over the female vulva after insemination. In choice experiments, males strongly preferred virgin females, whereas plugged females were ignored. Males made no attempt to displace copulatory plugs deposited by previous males. Plugged females repelled males without the need for physical contact...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432859/the-impact-of-global-climate-change-on-the-spread-of-parasitic-nematodes
#15
Anna Okulewicz
Climate changes may influence the frequency, intensity and geographical distribution of parasites, directly affecting their dispersive stages in the environment (eggs, larvae) and, indirectly, the larvae living mainly in invertebrate intermediate hosts. In biologically diverse nematodes climate warming contributes to the increase in the range of distribution, colonization of new hosts and modification of their development cycles. This is particularly acute in the Arctic and pertains, for instance, to nematodes Ostertagia gruehneri and Setaria tundra parasitizing reindeer Rangifer tarandus and Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis in musk oxen (Ovibos moschatus)...
2017: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432858/regulatory-function-of-parasites-in-autoimmune-disease-%C3%A2-outcome-from-experimental-model-infection
#16
Katarzyna Krawczak, Katarzyna Donskow-Łysoniewska, Maria Doligalska
It is estimated that more than half of the nowadays known species are pathogenic parasites. Among macroparasites gastrointestinal nematodes are one of most common and having significant impact on life and health. Those organisms reveal strong, specific immune response in host, involving primary mechanisms associated with regulatory and Th2 cells. Referring to immunomodulatory abilities of helminths, parasite infections started to be considered as a possible therapy for many autoimmune diseases. Clinical trials on 2nd and 3rd stage are conducted in spite that treatment has not been recognized as safe for common use...
2017: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432603/immunoprophylaxis-of-multi-antigen-peptide-map-vaccine-for-human-lymphatic-filariasis
#17
Christiana Immanuel, Aparnaa Ramanathan, Malathi Balasubramaniyan, Vishal Kishor Khatri, Nitin Purushottam Amdare, Donthamsetty Nageswara Rao, Maryada Venkata Rami Reddy, Kaliraj Perumal
Human lymphatic filariasis, the parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, is ranked as the second most complex clinical condition leading to permanent and long-term disability. The multiple antigen peptide (MAP) approach is an effective method to chemically synthesize and deliver multiple T and B cell epitopes as the constituents of a single immunogen. Here, we report on the design, chemical synthesis, and immunoprophylaxis of three epitopes that have been identified from promising vaccine candidates reported in our previous studies, constructed as MAP on an inert lysine core for human lymphatic filariasis in Jird model...
April 21, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432565/parapharyngodon-hugoi-n-sp-a-new-nematode-oxyuroidea-pharyngodonidae-of-the-tree-frog-trachycephalus-typhonius-linnaeus-from-the-brazilian-pantanal-including-a-key-to-the-congeners-from-amphibians-of-the-american-continent
#18
Felipe B Pereira, Karla M Campião, José L Luque, Luiz E R Tavares
A new nematode Parapharyngodon hugoi n. sp. (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae) is described parasitising the large intestine of the tree frog Trachycephalus typhonius (Linnaeus) (Anura: Hylidae) from the wetlands of Pantanal, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The new species exhibits a unique structure of the posterior cloacal lip in males, which is supported by a rigid V-shaped structure. Parapharyngodon hylidae parasitic in hylid frogs, including T. typhonius, from Mexico, is the most similar congener to P...
April 21, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431245/host-microbe-co-metabolism-dictates-cancer-drug-efficacy-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#19
Timothy A Scott, Leonor M Quintaneiro, Povilas Norvaisas, Prudence P Lui, Matthew P Wilson, Kit-Yi Leung, Lucia Herrera-Dominguez, Sonia Sudiwala, Alberto Pessia, Peter T Clayton, Kevin Bryson, Vidya Velagapudi, Philippa B Mills, Athanasios Typas, Nicholas D E Greene, Filipe Cabreiro
Fluoropyrimidines are the first-line treatment for colorectal cancer, but their efficacy is highly variable between patients. We queried whether gut microbes, a known source of inter-individual variability, impacted drug efficacy. Combining two tractable genetic models, the bacterium E. coli and the nematode C. elegans, we performed three-way high-throughput screens that unraveled the complexity underlying host-microbe-drug interactions. We report that microbes can bolster or suppress the effects of fluoropyrimidines through metabolic drug interconversion involving bacterial vitamin B6, B9, and ribonucleotide metabolism...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431211/oxyuricassis-coronatus-n-gen-n-sp-and-o-hexaspinatus-n-sp-oxyurida-pharyngodonidae-parasites-of-lasiancistrus-saetiger-siluriformes-loricariidae-in-freshwater-rivers-of-the-brazilian-amazon
#20
Allan Rodrigo Oliveira Rodrigues, Jeannie Nascimentodos Santos, Adriano Penha Furtado, Francisco Tiago Vasconcelos Melo
A new nematode genus is described from intestines of Lasiancistrus saetiger Ambruster from freshwater rivers in the Brazilian Amazon. Oxyuricassis n. gen. is characterized by, a cephalic hood, buccal cavity small , long oesophagus with a well-developed isthmus and a conical tail with spines. Two new species are described: O. coronatus n. sp. is characterized by the absence of lateral alae, a conical tail with truncated extremity with sclerotized projections spine-like around the tail tip, male of O. coronatus has a caudal alae sucker-like...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
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