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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912797/helminth-infections-and-gut-microbiota-a-feline-perspective
#1
Ana M Duarte, Timothy P Jenkins, Maria S Latrofa, Alessio Giannelli, Elias Papadopoulos, Luís Madeira de Carvalho, Matthew J Nolan, Domenico Otranto, Cinzia Cantacessi
BACKGROUND: Investigations of the relationships between the gut microbiota and gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes are attracting growing interest by the scientific community, driven by the need to better understand the contribution of parasite-associated changes in the composition of the gut flora to both host malnutrition and immune modulation. These studies have however been carried out mainly in humans and experimental animals, while knowledge of the make-up of the gut commensal flora in presence or absence of infection by parasitic nematodes in domestic animals is limited...
December 3, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911941/copper-oxide-nanoparticles-impact-several-toxicological-endpoints-and-cause-neurodegeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Michael J Mashock, Tyler Zanon, Anthony D Kappell, Lisa N Petrella, Erik C Andersen, Krassimira R Hristova
Engineered nanoparticles are becoming increasingly incorporated into technology and consumer products. In 2014, over 300 tons of copper oxide nanoparticles were manufactured in the United States. The increased production of nanoparticles raises concerns regarding the potential introduction into the environment or human exposure. Copper oxide nanoparticles commonly release copper ions into solutions, which contribute to their toxicity. We quantified the inhibitory effects of both copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulfate on C...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910895/arabidopsis-thaliana-as-a-suitable-model-host-for-research-on-interactions-between-plant-and-foliar-nematodes-parasites-of-plant-shoot
#3
Dong-Wei Wang, Xiao-Fang Peng, Hui Xie, Chun-Ling Xu, De-Qiang Cheng, Jun-Yi Li, Wen-Jia Wu, Ke Wang
The rice white tip nematode (RWTN), Aphelenchoides besseyi and the chrysanthemum foliar nematode (CFN), Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi are migratory plant parasitic nematodes that infect the aboveground parts of plants. In this research, Arabidopsis thaliana was infected by RWTN and CFN under indoor aseptic cultivation, and the nematodes caused recognizable symptoms in the leaves. Furthermore, RWTN and CFN completed their life cycles and proliferated. Therefore, A. thaliana was identified as a new host of RWTN and CFN...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908637/response-of-three-cyprinid-fish-species-to-the-scavenger-deterrent-factor-produced-by-the-mutualistic-bacteria-associated-with-entomopathogenic-nematodes
#4
Ramalingam Karthik Raja, Dilipkumar Aiswarya, Baris Gulcu, Manickam Raja, Pachiappan Perumal, Sivaperumal Sivaramakrishnan, Harry K Kaya, Selcuk Hazir
The symbiotic bacteria, Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus associated with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively, produce a compound(s) called the Scavenging Deterrent Factor (SDF). SDF deters a number of terrestrial insect scavengers and predators and one bird species from feeding on host insects killed by the nematode-bacterium complex but has not been tested against aquatic vertebrates. Moreover, the Heterorhabditis-Photorhabdus association is believed to have evolved in an aquatic environment...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907104/a-new-member-of-the-growing-family-of-contact-dependent-growth-inhibition-systems-in-xenorhabdus-doucetiae
#5
Jean-Claude Ogier, Bernard Duvic, Anne Lanois, Alain Givaudan, Sophie Gaudriault
Xenorhabdus is a bacterial symbiont of entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes and is pathogenic for insects. Its life cycle involves a stage inside the insect cadaver, in which it competes for environmental resources with microorganisms from soil and the insect gut. Xenorhabdus is, thus, a useful model for identifying new interbacterial competition systems. For the first time, in an entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus doucetiae strain FRM16, we identified a cdi-like locus. The cdi loci encode contact-dependent inhibition (CDI) systems composed of proteins from the two-partner secretion (TPS) family...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907064/nad-is-a-food-component-that-promotes-exit-from-dauer-diapause-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Mykola Mylenko, Sebastian Boland, Sider Penkov, Julio L Sampaio, Benoit Lombardot, Daniela Vorkel, Jean-Marc Verbavatz, Teymuras V Kurzchalia
The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans adapts its development to the availability of food. When food is scarce and population density is high, worms enter a developmentally arrested non-feeding diapause stage specialized for long-term survival called the dauer larva. When food becomes available, they exit from the dauer stage, resume growth and reproduction. It has been postulated that compound(s) present in food, referred to as the "food signal", promote exit from the dauer stage. In this study, we have identified NAD+ as a component of bacterial extract that promotes dauer exit...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906129/the-evolutionary-origin-of-bilaterian-smooth-and-striated-myocytes
#7
Thibaut Brunet, Antje Hl Fischer, Patrick Rh Steinmetz, Antonella Lauri, Paola Bertucci, Detlev Arendt
The dichotomy between smooth and striated myocytes is fundamental for bilaterian musculature, but its evolutionary origin is unsolved. In particular, interrelationships of visceral smooth muscles remain unclear. Absent in fly and nematode, they have not yet been characterized molecularly outside vertebrates. Here, we characterize expression profile, ultrastructure, contractility and innervation of the musculature in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii and identify smooth muscles around the midgut, hindgut and heart that resemble their vertebrate counterparts in molecular fingerprint, contraction speed, and nervous control...
December 1, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906100/an-isothermal-dna-amplification-method-for-detection-of-onchocerca-volvulus-infection-in-skin-biopsies
#8
Ole Lagatie, Michelle Merino, Linda Batsa Debrah, Alexander Y Debrah, Lieven J Stuyver
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of infection with the nematode parasite Onchocerca volvulus are currently based on the microscopic detection of microfilariae in skin biopsies. Alternative approaches based on amplification of parasitic DNA in these skin biopsies are currently being explored. Mostly this is based on the detection of the O-150 repeat sequence using PCR based techniques. METHODS: An isothermal, loop-mediated amplification method has been designed using the mitochondrial O...
December 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905931/a-temporal-assessment-of-nematode-community-structure-and-diversity-in-the-rhizosphere-of-cisgenic-phytophthora-infestans-resistant-potatoes
#9
Vilma Ortiz, Sinead Phelan, Ewen Mullins
BACKGROUND: Nematodes play a key role in soil processes with alterations in the nematode community structure having the potential to considerably influence ecosystem functioning. As a result fluctuations in nematode diversity and/or community structure can be gauged as a 'barometer' of a soil's functional biodiversity. However, a deficit exists in regards to baseline knowledge and on the impact of specific GM crops on soil nematode populations and in particular in regard to the impact of GM potatoes on the diversity of nematode populations in the rhizosphere...
December 1, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905924/current-knowledge-and-perspectives-of-paenibacillus-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Elliot Nicholas Grady, Jacqueline MacDonald, Linda Liu, Alex Richman, Ze-Chun Yuan
Isolated from a wide range of sources, the genus Paenibacillus comprises bacterial species relevant to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. Many Paenibacillus species can promote crop growth directly via biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and release of siderophores that enable iron acquisition. They can also offer protection against insect herbivores and phytopathogens, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and viruses...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905283/comparative-analysis-of-serum-mineral-levels-and-parasite-load-in-goats-naturally-infected-with-gastrointestinal-nematodes
#11
Serap Ünübol Aypak, Süleyman Aypak, Hüseyin Voyvoda, Gülşen Güven, Evrim Dereli Fidan, Gamze Tosun, Mehmet Gültekin, Emrah Şimşek, Asude Gülçe Güler
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum mineral levels and parasite load in Saanen (n=37) and Damascus (n=13) goats, which were all approximately 2 months pregnant and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. METHODS: To determine parasite concentration individually, fecal samples were taken from each goat, and the eggs per gram (EPG) of feces was detected via a modified McMaster technique. To investigate the possible effects of parasite concentration on serum mineral levels, blood was drawn from the goats and serum calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, nickel, and cadmium levels were measured via the ICP-OES technique...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905270/gastrointestinal-helminth-fauna-of-rodents-from-cambodia-emphasizing-the-community-ecology-of-host-parasite-associations
#12
K Chaisiri, M Chou, C C Siew, S Morand, A Ribas
Extensive field surveys of rodents were conducted in Cambodia from 2008 to 2014 to study the diversity and ecology of helminth infection in wild rodent populations. Gastrointestinal helminths were isolated from 14 species of rodents (569 individuals) trapped from different habitats (forest, dry land, rain-fed land and human settlements) in four provinces of Cambodia (Krong Preah Sihanouk, Mondolkiri, Pursat and Steung Treng). The average prevalence of parasitic infection was 58.5% (range, 16.0-64.7%), and 19 helminth taxa were identified in total...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905269/climate-influences-assemblages-of-abomasal-nematodes-of-sheep-on-steppe-pastures-in-the-east-of-algeria
#13
I Zouyed, J Cabaret, B Bentounsi
It is a common view that assemblages of parasitic nematodes are influenced by climatic conditions; however, there are only a few articles available regarding those that infect farm animals. We investigated the relationship between climate variables and infection with abomasal trichostrongyles in 335 1-year-old rams grazed on steppe pastures in Eastern Algeria. Abomasa were collected from 12 local slaughterhouses located in four climatic areas (from humid to arid) and the worms extracted, identified and counted...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905107/co-operative-suppression-of-inflammatory-responses-in-human-dendritic-cells-by-plant-proanthocyanidins-and-products-from-the-parasitic-nematode-trichuris-suis
#14
Andrew R Williams, Elsenoor J Klaver, Lisa C Laan, Aina Ramsay, Christos Fryganas, Rolf Difborg, Helene Kringel, Jess D Reed, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Søren Skov, Irma van Die, Stig M Thamsborg
Interactions between dendritic cells (DCs) and environmental, dietary and pathogen antigens play a key role in immune homeostasis and regulation of inflammation. Dietary polyphenols such as proanthocyanidins (PAC) may reduce inflammation, and we therefore hypothesized that PAC may suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced responses in human DCs and subsequent T helper type 1 (Th1) -type responses in naive T cells. Moreover, we proposed that, because DCs are likely to be exposed to multiple stimuli, the activity of PAC may synergise with other bioactive molecules that have anti-inflammatory activity, e...
November 7, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903784/terrain-following-and-applications-caenorhabditis-elegans-swims-along-the-floor-using-a-bump-and-undulate-strategy
#15
Jinzhou Yuan, Hungtang Ko, David M Raizen, Haim H Bau
Nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans are heavier than water. When submerged in water, they settle to the bottom surface. Observations reveal that the animals do not lie flat on the bottom surface, but remain substantially suspended above the surface through continuous collisions with the surface, while maintaining their swimming gaits. Consequently, the swimming animals follow the bottom surface topography. When the bottom surface is inclined, the animals swim up or down along the incline. As the magnitude of the gravitational force can be easily estimated, this behaviour provides a convenient means to estimate the animal's propulsive thrust...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902921/complete-genome-sequence-of-fictibacillus-arsenicus-g25-54-a-strain-with-toxicity-to-nematodes
#16
Ziqiang Zheng, Jinshui Zheng, Donghai Peng, Ming Sun
Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) can infect almost all crops and cause huge economic losses in agriculture worldwide. An in-depth understanding of bacteria with nematicidal activity is essential for an effective and environmentally friendly control of RKNs. Fictibacillus arsenicus G25-54, a gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium isolated from a submerged sand bank, shows nematicidal activity against free-living Caenorhabditis elegans and RKNs. Here, we report the complete genome of F. arsenicus G25-54, which contains a circular chromosome and encodes ten potential nematicidal factors with twelve secondary metabolite gene clusters...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902893/nematode-parasites-of-teiid-lizards-from-the-brazilian-amazon-rainforest
#17
Lilian Cristina Macedo, Scott L Gardner, Francisco Tiago Vasconcelos Melo, Teresa Cristina Sauer Avila-Pires, Elane Guerreiro Giese, Jeannie Nascimento Dos Santos
This study presents the helminth composition and parameters of infection by several species of nematodes in teiid lizards, Ameiva a. ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Cnemidophorus cryptus Cole & Dessauer, 1993, and Kentropyx calcarata Spix, 1825 from the Brazilian Amazonian Rainforest. The lizard populations we studied were parasitized by six species of Nemata, including: Spinicauda spinicauda (Olfers, 1919), Parapharyngodon alvarengai Freitas, 1957, Physaloptera sp. (adults), Physaloptera sp. (larvae), Piratuba digiticauda Lent and Freitas, 1941, and Anisakidae (larvae)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902875/who-s-the-boss-here-the-post-transcriptional-global-regulator-hfq-takes-over-control-of-secondary-metabolite-production-in-the-nematode-symbiont-photorhabdus-luminiscens
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902410/inhibition-of-quorum-sensing-controlled-virulence-factors-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-murraya-koenigii-essential-oil-a-study-in-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-infectious-model
#19
P Sankar Ganesh, Ravishankar Vittal Rai
The global emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa poses a major threat in hospital environments as well as in the community. P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen and it also infects a wide range of model organisms including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Quorum sensing (QS) mediates cell-to-cell communication in bacteria and has an important role in regulating virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation which are crucial for establishment of the infection...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901397/a-systems-toxicology-approach-reveals-the-wnt-mapk-crosstalk-pathway-mediated-reproductive-failure-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-exposed-to-graphene-oxide-go-but-not-to-reduced-graphene-oxide-rgo
#20
Nivedita Chatterjee, Young-Ho Kim, Jisu Yang, Carlos P Roca, Sang Woo Joo, Jinhee Choi
The potential hazards of graphene nanomaterials were investigated by exposing the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The underlying mechanisms of the nano-bio interaction were addressed with an integrated systems toxicology approach using global transcriptomics, network-based pathway analysis, and experimental validation of the in-silico-derived hypotheses. Graphene oxide was found to reduce the worms' reproductive health to a greater degree than rGO, but it did not affect survival (24 h endpoint)...
November 30, 2016: Nanotoxicology
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