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Muhammad Sarfraz, Sharoon Griffin, Tamara Gabour Sad, Rama Alhasan, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Muhammad Irfan Masood, Karl Herbert Schäfer, Chukwunonso E C C Ejike, Cornelia M Keck, Claus Jacob, Azubuike P Ebokaiwe
Nanosizing represents a straight forward technique to unlock the biological activity of complex plant materials. The aim of this study was to develop herbal nanoparticles with medicinal value from dried leaves and stems of Loranthus micranthus with the aid of ball-milling, high speed stirring, and high-pressure homogenization techniques. The milled nanoparticles were characterized using laser diffraction analysis, photon correlation spectroscopy analysis, and light microscopy. The average size of leaf nanoparticles was around 245 nm and that of stem nanoparticles was around 180 nm...
April 20, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Honglong Chu, Ming Tang, Haihua Wang, Chuyan Wang
AIMS: This study was to investigate pinewood nematode's impacts on root mycoflora of P. tabulaeformis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The biomass, colonization rate, community structure and diversity of root-associated fungi were investigated in pinewood nematode infected and non-infected P. tabulaeformis. The results indicated that the roots of P. tabulaeformis were colonized highly by root-associated fungi, mainly ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) and dark septate endophytes...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Christian Mougin, Emmanuelle Artige, Frédéric Marchand, Samuel Mondy, Céline Ratié, Nadine Sellier, Philippe Castagnone-Sereno, Armelle Cœur D'Acier, Daniel Esmenjaud, Céline Faivre-Primot, Laurent Granjon, Valérie Hamelet, Frederic Lange, Sylvie Pagès, Frédéric Rimet, Nicolas Ris, Guillaume Sallé
The Biological Resource Centre for the Environment BRC4Env is a network of Biological Resource Centres (BRCs) and collections whose leading objectives are to improve the visibility of genetic and biological resources maintained by its BRCs and collections and to facilitate their use by a large research community, from agriculture research to life sciences and environmental sciences. Its added value relies on sharing skills, harmonizing practices, triggering projects in comparative biology, and ultimately proposing a single-entry portal to facilitate access to documented samples, taking into account the partnership policies of research institutions as well as the legal frame which varies with the biological nature of resources...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Priscila Gubert, Bruna Puntel, Tassia Lehmen, Joshua P Fessel, Pan Cheng, Julia Bornhorst, Lucas Siqueira Trindade, Daiana S Avila, Michael Aschner, Felix A A Soares
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element for physiological functions since it acts as an enzymatic co-factor. Nevertheless, overexposure to Mn has been associated with a pathologic condition called manganism. Furthermore, Mn has been reported to affect lipid metabolism by mechanisms which have yet to be established. Herein, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to examine Mn's effects on the dopaminergic (DAergic) system and determine which transcription factors that regulate with lipid metabolism are affected by it...
April 16, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Saad M Alzahrani, Paul R Ebert
Phosphine is the only general use fumigant for the protection of stored grain, though its long-term utility is threatened by the emergence of highly phosphine-resistant pests. Given this precarious situation, it is essential to identify factors, such as stress preconditioning, that interfere with the efficacy of phosphine fumigation. We used Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism to test the effect of pre-exposure to heat and cold shock, UV and gamma irradiation on phosphine potency. Heat shock significantly increased tolerance to phosphine by 3-fold in wild-type nematodes, a process that was dependent on the master regulator of the heat shock response, HSF-1...
2018: PloS One
Shannon K Hanna, Antonio R Montoro Bustos, Alexander W Peterson, Vytas Reipa, Leona D Scanlan, Sanem Hosbas Coskun, Tae Joon Cho, Monique E Johnson, Vincent A Hackley, Bryant C Nelson, Michael R Winchester, John T Elliott, Elijah J Petersen
The increased use and incorporation of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in consumer products requires a robust assessment of their potential environmental implications. However, a lack of standardized methods for nanotoxicity testing has yielded results that are sometimes contradictory. Standard ecotoxicity assays may work appropriately for some ENPs with minimal modification, but produce artifactual results for others. Therefore, understanding the robustness of assays for a range of ENPs is critical. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a standard Caenorhabditis elegans (C...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Ning-Ning Yang, Ning Jiang, Qing-Yun Ma, Fan-Dong Kong, Qing-Yi Xie, Li-Man Zhou, Zhi-Fang Yu, You-Xing Zhao
Chemical investigation on the cultures of the fungus Cordyceps spp., a strain from cell fusion between Cordyceps militaris and Cordyceps cicadae, resulted in the isolation of 13 compounds including 2 new ones named 2-(5-(3-oxobutyl) furan-2-yl) acetic acid (1) and cordycepone (2). Their structures were elucidated from the analysis of 1D/2D NMR and CD data. Among them, compounds 1, 7-9, at a concentration of 50 μg/ml, showed weak inhibitory activity against AChE. Moreover, compounds 6, 9, and 11 showed moderate inhibitory activity against the nematode Panagrellus redivivus with mortality ratio of 79...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
Zewdu Seyoum, Kalkidan Getnet, Mersha Chanie, Samuel Derso, Shumye Fentahun
Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections of sheep and their interaction with selected morbidity parameters were studied in smallholder farms. 120 faecal samples were collected and examined using faecal flotation to determine nematode infection in sheep. Thus, the study demonstrated overall prevalence of 57.5% GIN infections, while the mean faecal egg count (FEC) was 517.5 EPG. The severity of GIN infection was determined based on EPG as a mild infection (EPG <500), 55.1%, moderate infection (EPG = 500-1500), 30...
2018: BioMed Research International
N B Chilton, F Huby-Chilton, A Koehler, R B Gasser, I Beveridge
The phylogenetic relationships of 42 species of cloacinine nematodes belonging to three tribes (Coronostrongylinea, Macropostrongylinea and Zoniolaiminea) were examined based on sequence data of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. All nematodes examined are parasites of Australian macropodid marsupials. None of the three nematode tribes was monophyletic. Paraphyly was also encountered in three genera: Papillostrongylus, Monilonema and Wallabinema...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Shan Gao, Weiyang Chen, Yingxin Zeng, Haiming Jing, Nan Zhang, Matthew Flavel, Markandeya Jois, Jing-Dong J Han, Bo Xian, Guojun Li
BACKGROUND: Traditional toxicological studies have relied heavily on various animal models to understand the effect of various compounds in a biological context. Considering the great cost, complexity and time involved in experiments using higher order organisms. Researchers have been exploring alternative models that avoid these disadvantages. One example of such a model is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. There are some advantages of C. elegans, such as small size, short life cycle, well defined genome, ease of maintenance and efficient reproduction...
April 18, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Rubén E Varela-M, Jinney Stefany Arias, Luz Elena Velásquez
INTRODUCTION: Angiostrongyliasis is a disease caused by Angiostrongylus nematodes that is present worldwide. The infections with the highest impact on human and animal health are caused by A. cantonensis, A. costaricensis, and A. vasorum. Clinical forms of the disease in humans are eosinophilic meningitis and abdominal angiostrongyliasis, while the most common effect on dogs are cardiopulmonary damages. It is deemed as an emerging disease as the result of the global dissemination of the African snail Lissachatina fulica, an intermediary host of these parasites...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Rodrigo Adán Medina-Pinto, Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas, Manuel Emilio Bolio-González
INTRODUCTION: Dogs represent a potential public health risk because of the natural transmission of zoonotic parasitic infections. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency and to determine factors associated with the presence of intestinal nematode eggs in dog feces collected in public parks of Mérida,Yucatán, México. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 dog fecal samples collected from 20 public parks in two areas of Mérida were analyzed...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
D Alimi, M Rekik, H Akkari
One of the great challenges of veterinary parasitology is the search for alternative methods for controlling gastrointestinal parasites in small ruminants. Milk kefir is a traditional source of probiotic, with great therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the anthelmintic effects of kefir on the abomasal nematode Haemonchus contortus from sheep. The study used camel, goat, ewe and cow milk as a starting material, to produce camel, goat, cow and ewe milk kefir. All kefirs showed a significant concentration-dependent effect on H...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Ana L Sosa, Laura C Rosso, Fabricio A Salusso, Miriam G Etcheverry, María A Passone
The plant-parasitic nematode Nacobbus aberrans is an endoparasite causing severe losses to a wide range of crops from North to South America. The use of native antagonistic fungi may be considered as a possible biological control alternative to reduce the damages caused by this species. Antagonistic effects of 66 potential nematophagous fungi against eggs (J1) and second-stage juveniles (J2) of N. aberrans, were evaluated in vitro on water agar. DGC test showed significant differences (p < 0.0001) in the efficacy of some fungal isolates tested, with parasitism levels for J1 and J2 of 0-95 and 1-78%, respectively...
April 17, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Callum J Highmore, Jennifer C Warner, Steve D Rothwell, Sandra A Wilks, C William Keevil
The microbiological safety of fresh produce is monitored almost exclusively by culture-based detection methods. However, bacterial food-borne pathogens are known to enter a viable-but-nonculturable (VBNC) state in response to environmental stresses such as chlorine, which is commonly used for fresh produce decontamination. Here, complete VBNC induction of green fluorescent protein-tagged Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson was achieved by exposure to 12 and 3 ppm chlorine, respectively...
April 17, 2018: MBio
Hong Thi Bich Truong, Phuoc Van Nguyen, Phuong Thi Thanh Nguyen, Ha Manh Bui
The formation of aerobic granular sludge was carried out in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for tapioca processing wastewater treatment. The effect of organic loading rates (OLRs) in the range of 2.5-10.0 kg COD m-3 day-1 on the granulation was investigated. The size and settleability of the aerobic granular sludge increased with increasing OLR from 2.5 to 7.5 kg COD m-3 day-1 . The mature granules had an average size of 2.5 mm and good settleability with the sludge volume index (SVI) lower than 50 mL g-1 ...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Eder Alves Barbosa, Mauro Ferreira Bonfim Junior, Carlos Bloch, Thales Lima Rocha, Gilbert Engler, Janice de Almeida Engler
Nematodes are devastating pests that infect most cultivated plant species and cause considerable agricultural losses worldwide. The understanding of metabolic adjustments induced during plant-nematode interaction is crucial to generate resistant plants or to select more efficient molecules to fight against this pest. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has been used herein for in situ detection and mapping endogenous polypeptides and secondary metabolites from nematode-induced gall tissue...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Sabarinathan Devaraj, Mohankumar Amirthalingam, Poorna Chandrika Sabapathy, Shanmugam Govindan, Sundararaj Palanisamy, Preethi Kathirvel
The current research focuses on the production and characterization of glycolipid biosurfactant (GB) from Pseudomonas plecoglossicida and its anthelmintic activity against Caenorhabditis elegans. The GB was purified and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Anthelmintic activity of GB was studied at six different pharmacological doses from 10 to 320 µg/mL on C. elegans. Exposure of different developmental stages (L1, L2, L3, L4 and adult) of C...
April 16, 2018: Biodegradation
Stephen Boyle, Thomais Kakouli-Duarte
This study set out to determine the suitability of the nematode Steinernema feltiae as a bioindicator for heavy metal pollution, specifically chromium VI. Nematodes were introduced into sand contaminated with concentrations of Cr VI+ , in a range between 10 and 100 ppm, in increments of 10. Reproductive potential, development times and infectivity vs exposure times to Cr VI were employed as endpoints. It was observed that infective juveniles (IJ) from this nematode can survive and successfully infect host insects in the presence of Cr VI for as much as 13 days, and that the nematode increases its reproductive potential at concentrations up to 100 ppm Cr VI+ ...
April 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology
M Lis, E Sajnaga, A Kreft, T Skrzypek, W Kazimierczak
Four strains of entomopathogenic nematodes were isolated with a live trap method in southern Poland. The isolates were identified as Steinernema silvaticum based on morphological, morphometric and molecular data. Infective juveniles of Polish S. silvaticum isolates differ in body length from S. weiseri (951 vs 740 μm, respectively), and in the hyaline tail portion from S. kraussei (48 vs 38%, respectively). First-generation males of S. silvaticum are longer than those of S. kraussei, S. weiseri and S. ichnusae (1829 vs 1400, 1180 and 1341 μm, respectively)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
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