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Waleed S Albihlal, André P Gerber
RNA-binding proteins play essential roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. While hundreds of RNA-binding proteins can be predicted computationally, the recent introduction of proteome-wide approaches has dramatically expanded the repertoire of proteins interacting with RNA. Besides canonical RNA-binding proteins that contain characteristic RNA-binding domains, many proteins that lack such domains but have other well-characterised cellular functions were identified; including metabolic enzymes, heat shock proteins, kinases, as well as transcription factors and chromatin-associated proteins...
June 16, 2018: FEBS Letters
Ioana Raluca Păstrav, Angela Monica Ionică, Cosmin Peştean, Eva Novakova, David Modrý, Andrei Daniel Mihalca
Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens are mosquito-borne nematodes, primarily infecting dogs, but also other species of carnivores and even humans. Given their impact on animal and human health, the transmission of these filarioids has been widely studied. The microfilariaemia has been shown to have a circadian variation for both Dirofilaria species infecting dogs. Due to methodological difficulties, the periodicity was only studied using venous blood samples, while the mosquitoes feed, in fact, on capillary blood...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Kim Hamer, Dave Bartley, Amy Jennings, Alison Morrison, Neil Sargison
Monepantel resistance was diagnosed during routine monitoring of the effectiveness of a farm's roundworm control strategy. Weaned lambs had become ill thrifty and developed diarrhoea, despite the routine use of monepantel. This clinical presentation was caused by trichostrongylosis. The faecal egg count reduction was 76.7% (95% CI: 55.1-82.2%) following treatment with 2.5 mg/kg monepantel. Predominantly Trichostrongylus vitrinus along with small proportions of Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichostrongylus vitrinus were identified by deep amplicon sequencing of pools of larvae recovered from pre and post monepantel treatment coprocultures and on postmortem examinations...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Kelsey L Paras, Melissa M George, Anand N Vidyashankar, Ray M Kaplan
Gastrointestinal nematode parasites are important pathogens of all domesticated livestock species. Fecal egg counts (FEC) are routinely used for evaluating anthelmintic efficacy and for making targeted anthelmintic treatment decisions. Numerous FEC techniques exist and vary in precision and accuracy. These performance characteristics are especially important when performing fecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT). The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy and precision of three commonly used FEC methods and determine if differences existed among livestock species...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Anindo Choudhury, Steven A Nadler
Nematodes are common in the parasite communities of North American freshwater fishes, and the majority of them belong to 1 conventional order, Spirurida Chitwood, 1933. Within the Spirurida, the superfamilies Habronematoidea Chitwood and Wehr, 1932 and Thelazioidea Sobolev, 1949 have undergone considerable diversification. The dominant families of these 2 superfamilies, Cystidicolidae Skrjabin 1946 and Rhabdochonidae Railliet, 1916, respectively, are particularly common, widely distributed and diverse, especially in North America, yet their phylogenetic relationships remain largely unexplored...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Yan Yan Song, Li Ang Wang, Hua Na Ren, Xin Qi, Ge Ge Sun, Ruo Dan Liu, Peng Jiang, Xi Zhang, Jing Cui, Zhong Quan Wang
Cysteine protease is a superfamily of widespread proteolytic enzymes and plays a major role in larval invasion, migration, exsheathing, survival and immune evasion in parasites. In the present study, the gene coding cysteine proteinase of the nematode Trichinella spiralis (Owen, 1835) was cloned into pQE-80L and subsequently expressed in E. coli JM109. The rTsCP was purified and its antigenicity was identified by Western blot and ELISA. Using anti-rTsCP serum the native TsCP was identified in muscle larval crude proteins...
May 29, 2018: Folia Parasitologica
Elizabeth D Clawson, Val Blair, Julia F Nepper, Matthew D Stilwell, Travis Tangen, Douglas B Weibel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Adedotun Akintayo, Gregory L Tylka, Asheesh K Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar
In order to identify and control the menace of destructive pests via microscopic image-based identification state-of-the art deep learning architecture is demonstrated on the parasitic worm, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines. Soybean yield loss is negatively correlated with the density of SCN eggs that are present in the soil. While there has been progress in automating extraction of egg-filled cysts and eggs from soil samples counting SCN eggs obtained from soil samples using computer vision techniques has proven to be an extremely difficult challenge...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Robert I Holbrook, Beth Mortimer
Mechanical sensing is important for all organisms, but is the least understood of the senses. As mechanical stimuli come in diverse forms, organisms often have sensors or sensory systems that specialise in a form of mechanical stimuli, such as touch or vibration. Here we tested the hypothesis that the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits a behavioural response to vibration that is distinct from its responses to touch. We show that wild type strain worms respond to sustained low frequency vibration in a manner distinct from the known responses to non-localised mechanical stimuli...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Deepak Vashisht, Bhavni Oberoi, Ruby Venugopal, Sukriti Baveja
Hansen's disease is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The disease is known to involve the visceral organs including the testis apart from the skin and nerves in the lepromatous pole of leprosy due to widespread hematogenous dissemination of lepra bacilli. Furthermore, there can be testicular pain during the type 2 reaction in Hansen's disease. Filariasis is a disease caused by the parasitic nematode, Wuchereria bancrofti. This infection most commonly results in lymphedema and secondary vaginal hydrocele with an associated epididymo-orchitis...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Ralf Lopes, Sarina Tsui, Priscila J R O Gonçalves, Marisa Vieira de Queiroz
One of the major challenges of agriculture currently is to obtain higher crop yield. Environmental conditions, cultivar quality, and plant diseases greatly affect plant productivity. On the other hand, several endophytic Bacillus species have emerged as a complementary, efficient, and safe alternative to current crop management practices. The ability of Bacillus species to form spores, which resist adverse conditions, is an advantage of the genus for use in formulations. Endophytic Bacillus species provide plants with a wide range of benefits, including protection against phytopathogenic microorganisms, insects, and nematodes, eliciting resistance, and promoting plant growth, without causing damage to the environment...
June 13, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Mara Thais de Oliveira Silva, Mara Andrade Colares Maia, Michele Dalvina Correia da Silva, Taffarel Melo Torres, José Carlos da Silveira Pereira, João Ronielly Campêlo Araújo, Ryan Emiliano da Silva, Anna Lopes da Costa Souza, Tallyson Nogueira Barbosa, Ana Carla Diógenes Suassuna Bezerra
In this study, we evaluated the ovicidal and larvicidal activity of protein preparations obtained from Cassia fistula L. and Combretum leprosum Mart. leaves on the gastrointestinal parasites of goats. Protein preparations were obtained after the extraction of C. fistula L. and C. leprosum Mart. leaves, followed by protein fractionation (with ammonium sulfate saturation percentages of 30%, 30%-60%, and 60%-90%) and dialysis, which resulted in protein fractions (called F1, F2, and F3, respectively). The fractions were evaluated by egg hatching (the eggs were recovered in stool samples from naturally infected goats) and larval development tests...
June 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Paulo Eduardo Ferlini Teixeira, Christiane Leal Corrêa, Fernanda Bittencourt de Oliveira, Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros Alencar, Leandro Batista das Neves, Daniel Daipert Garcia, Fernanda Barbosa de Almeida, Luis Cláudio Muniz Pereira, José Roberto Machado-Silva, Rosângela Rodrigues-Silva
Although sheep farming has grown in the state of Acre over the past four decades, little is known about occurrences of helminthiases in the herds of this region. The objective of the study was to assess the occurrences of non-intestinal helminthiasis among sheep slaughtered in Rio Branco. A total of 110 sheep livers were inspected from two slaughter batches (july 2014 and march 2015) in a slaughterhouse in Rio Branco. Livers with macroscopic lesions were photographed and were then subjected to histopathological analysis under an optical microscope...
June 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Hamed Biglari, Maryam Tatari, Mohammad Reza Narooie, Gholamreza Ebrahimzadeh, Hooshmand Sharafi
Sometimes free-living nematodes in conventional water treatment processes are not eliminated and cause adverse health effects in water consumer. So, the efficiency of UV lamps (125 W) with irradiation intensity 1020 μW cm-2 on inactivation of free-living nematode Rhabditida released in water samples has been investigated along with the investigation of the effects of turbidity and change of temperature and exposure time in constant of pH 8 ± 0.2. The results showed that UV radiation could disabled the larval and adult nematodes after 12 and 15 min in the presence of turbidity 5 NTU, respectively...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Yee-Chin Wong, Moataz Abd El Ghany, Raeece N M Ghazzali, Soon-Joo Yap, Chee-Choong Hoh, Arnab Pain, Sheila Nathan
A Burkholderia cenocepacia infection usually leads to reduced survival and fatal cepacia syndrome in cystic fibrosis patients. The identification of B. cenocepacia essential genes for in vivo survival is key to designing new anti-infectives therapies. We used the Transposon-Directed Insertion Sequencing (TraDIS) approach to identify genes required for B. cenocepacia survival in the model infection host, Caenorhabditis elegans . A B. cenocepacia J2315 transposon pool of ∼500,000 mutants was used to infect C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alex C Keene, Erik R Duboue
Sleep is nearly ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom, yet little is known about how ecological factors or perturbations to the environment shape the duration and timing of sleep. In diverse animal taxa, poor sleep negatively impacts development, cognitive abilities and longevity. In addition to mammals, sleep has been characterized in genetic model organisms, ranging from the nematode worm to zebrafish, and, more recently, in emergent models with simplified nervous systems such as Aplysia and jellyfish...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jia Chen, Quan Liu, Guo-Hua Liu, Wen-Bin Zheng, Sung-Jong Hong, Hiromu Sugiyama, Xing-Quan Zhu, Hany M Elsheikha
BACKGROUND: Toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis that afflicts millions of the pediatric and adolescent populations worldwide, especially in impoverished communities. This disease is caused by infection with the larvae of Toxocara canis and T. cati, the most ubiquitous intestinal nematode parasite in dogs and cats, respectively. In this article, recent advances in the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and pharmacotherapies that have been used in the treatment of toxocariasis are reviewed...
June 13, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Jing Gu, Bin Gao, Shunyi Zhu
Drosomycin-type antifungal peptides (DTAFPs) are natural effectors of the innate immune system, which are restrictedly distributed in plants and ecdysozoans. Mehamycin is a bi-domain DTAFP (abbreviated as bDTAFP) firstly found in the Northern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla. Here, we report its structural and functional features and the evolution of bDTAFPs in nematodes. Different from classical DTAFPs, mehamycin contains an insertion, called single Disulfide Bridge-linked Domain (abbreviated as sDBD), located in a loop region of the drosomycin scaffold...
June 9, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Farhan Kamili, Hang Lu
Microfluidics has proven to be a key tool in quantitative biological research. The C. elegans research community in particular has developed a variety of microfluidic platforms to investigate sensory systems, development, aging, and physiology of the nematode. Critical for the growth of this field, however, has been the implementation of concurrent advanced microscopy, hardware, and software technologies that enable the discovery of novel biology. In this review, we highlight recent innovations in microfluidic platforms used for assaying C...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Mizanur Rahman, Jennifer E Hewitt, Frank Van-Bussel, Hunter Edwards, Jerzy Blawzdziewicz, Nathaniel J Szewczyk, Monica Driscoll, Siva A Vanapalli
Muscle strength is a functional measure of quality of life in humans. Declines in muscle strength are manifested in diseases as well as during inactivity, aging, and space travel. With conserved muscle biology, the simple genetic model C. elegans is a high throughput platform in which to identify molecular mechanisms causing muscle strength loss and to develop interventions based on diet, exercise, and drugs. In the clinic, standardized strength measures are essential to quantitate changes in patients; however, analogous standards have not been recapitulated in the C...
June 12, 2018: Lab on a Chip
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