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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048752/the-how-and-where-of-plant-micrornas
#1
REVIEW
Yu Yu, Tianran Jia, Xuemei Chen
Contents Summary I. II. III. IV. References SUMMARY: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, of typically 20-24 nt, that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally through sequence complementarity. Since the identification of the first miRNA, lin-4, in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in 1993, thousands of miRNAs have been discovered in animals and plants, and their regulatory roles in numerous biological processes have been uncovered. In plants, research efforts have established the major molecular framework of miRNA biogenesis and modes of action, and are beginning to elucidate the mechanisms of miRNA degradation...
October 19, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048526/comparative-transcriptomics-of-steinernema-and-caenorhabditis-single-embryos-reveals-orthologous-gene-expression-convergence-during-late-embryogenesis
#2
Marissa Macchietto, Dristi Angdembey, Negar Heidarpour, Lorrayne Serra, Bryan Rodriguez, Nicole El-Ali, Ali Mortazavi
Cells express distinct sets of genes in a precise spatio-temporal manner during embryonic development. There is a wealth of information on the deterministic embryonic development of Caenorhabditis elegans, but much less is known about embryonic development in nematodes from other taxa, especially at the molecular level. We are interested in insect pathogenic nematodes from the genus Steinernema as models of parasitism and symbiosis as well as a satellite model for evolution in comparison to C. elegans. To explore gene expression differences across taxa, we sequenced the transcriptomes of single embryos of two Steinernema species and two Caenorhabditis species at 11 stages during embryonic development and found several interesting features...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048250/inhibition-of-abeta-proteotoxicity-by-paeoniflorin-in-i-caenorhabditis-elegans-i-through-regulation-of-oxidative-and-heat-shock-stress-responses
#3
Liping Ai, Fan Yang, Jie Song, Yan Chen, Lingyun Xiao, Qiangqiang Wang, Liangyi Wang, Haifeng Li, Tao Lei, Zebo Huang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common form of dementia and amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregation is considered to be one of its main causes. Paeoniflorin has been previously shown to attenuate cognitive damage inflicted by exogenous Aβ protein. Using transgenic <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> models expressing human Aβ1-42, we demonstrate here that paeoniflorin can delay progressive paralysis caused by endogenous Aβ expression and reduce the amount of toxic Aβ oligomers in vivo although it has no effect on Aβ aggregation <i>in vitro</i>...
October 19, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047458/recordings-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-locomotor-behaviour-following-targeted-ablation-of-single-motorneurons
#4
Yee Lian Chew, Denise S Walker, Emma K Towlson, Petra E Vértes, Gang Yan, Albert-László Barabási, William R Schafer
Lesioning studies have provided important insight into the functions of brain regions in humans and other animals. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, with a small nervous system of 302 identified neurons, it is possible to generate lesions with single cell resolution and infer the roles of individual neurons in behaviour. Here we present a dataset of ~300 video recordings representing the locomotor behaviour of animals carrying single-cell ablations of 5 different motorneurons. Each file includes a raw video of approximately 27,000 frames; each frame has also been segmented to yield the position, contour, and body curvature of the tracked animal...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046680/smart-parasitic-nematodes-use-multifaceted-strategies-to-parasitize-plants
#5
REVIEW
Muhammad A Ali, Farrukh Azeem, Hongjie Li, Holger Bohlmann
Nematodes are omnipresent in nature including many species which are parasitic to plants and cause enormous economic losses in various crops. During the process of parasitism, sedentary phytonematodes use their stylet to secrete effector proteins into the plant cells to induce the development of specialized feeding structures. These effectors are used by the nematodes to develop compatible interactions with plants, partly by mimicking the expression of host genes. Intensive research is going on to investigate the molecular function of these effector proteins in the plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046417/life-history-adjustments-to-intestinal-inflammation-in-a-gut-nematode
#6
Cédric Lippens, Emmanuel Guivier, Anthony Ollivier, Bruno Faivre, Gabriele Sorci
Many parasitic nematodes establish chronic infections. This implies a finely tuned interaction with the host immune response in order to avoid infection clearance. Although a number of immune interference mechanisms have been described in nematodes, how parasites adapt to the immune environment provided by their hosts remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus to investigate the plasticity of life history traits and immunomodulatory mechanisms in response to intestinal inflammation...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045848/single-molecule-sequencing-reveals-the-chromosome-scale-genomic-architecture-of-the-nematode-model-organism-pristionchus-pacificus
#7
Christian Rödelsperger, Jan M Meyer, Neel Prabh, Christa Lanz, Felix Bemm, Ralf J Sommer
The nematode Pristionchus pacificus is an established model for integrative evolutionary biology and comparative studies with Caenorhabditis elegans. While an existing genome draft facilitated the identification of several genes controlling various developmental processes, its high degree of fragmentation complicated virtually all genomic analyses. Here, we present a de novo genome assembly from single-molecule, long-read sequencing data consisting of 135 P. pacificus contigs. When combined with a genetic linkage map, 99% of the assembly could be ordered and oriented into six chromosomes...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045470/structural-and-functional-analysis-of-smo-1-the-sumo-homolog-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Parag Surana, Chandrakala M Gowda, Vasvi Tripathi, Limor Broday, Ranabir Das
SUMO proteins are important post-translational modifiers involved in multiple cellular pathways in eukaryotes, especially during the different developmental stages in multicellular organisms. The nematode C. elegans is a well known model system for studying metazoan development and has a single SUMO homolog, SMO-1. Interestingly, SMO-1 modification is linked to embryogenesis and development in the nematode. However, high-resolution information about SMO-1 and the mechanism of its conjugation is lacking. In this work, we report the high-resolution three dimensional structure of SMO-1 solved by NMR spectroscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045391/network-control-principles-predict-neuron-function-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-connectome
#9
Gang Yan, Petra E Vértes, Emma K Towlson, Yee Lian Chew, Denise S Walker, William R Schafer, Albert-László Barabási
Recent studies on the controllability of complex systems offer a powerful mathematical framework to systematically explore the structure-function relationship in biological, social, and technological networks. Despite theoretical advances, we lack direct experimental proof of the validity of these widely used control principles. Here we fill this gap by applying a control framework to the connectome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, allowing us to predict the involvement of each C. elegans neuron in locomotor behaviours...
October 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045128/radiation-dose-limits-for-bioanalytical-x-ray-fluorescence-microscopy
#10
Michael W M Jones, Dominic J Hare, Simon A James, Martin D de Jonge, Gawain McColl
Analytical approaches that preserve the endogenous state of the examined system are essential for the in vivo study of bioinorganics. X-ray fluorescence microscopy of biological samples can map elements in vivo at subcellular resolutions in tissue samples and multi-cellular organisms. However, X-ray irradiation induces modifications that accumulate with dose. Consequently, the utility of X-ray fluorescence microscopy is intrinsically limited by the radiation damage it causes and the degree to which it alters the target features of interest...
October 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043108/mysterious-inhibitory-cell-regulator-investigated-and-found-likely-to-be-secretogranin-ii-related
#11
John E Hart, Iain J Clarke, Gail P Risbridger, Ben Ferneyhough, Mónica Vega-Hernández
In the context of a hunt for a postulated hormone that is tissue-mass inhibiting and reproductively associated, there is described probable relatedness to a granin protein. A 7-8 kDa polypeptide candidate (gels/MS) appeared in a bioassay-guided fractionation campaign involving sheep plasma. An N-terminal sequence of 14 amino acids was obtained for the polypeptide by Edman degradation. Bioinformatics and molecular biology failed to illuminate any ovine or non-ovine protein which might relate to this sequence...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042606/population-genomics-of-wolbachia-and-mtdna-in-drosophila-simulans-from-california
#12
Sarah Signor
Wolbachia pipientis is an intracellular endosymbiont infecting many arthropods and filarial nematodes. Little is known about the short-term evolution of Wolbachia or its interaction with its host. Wolbachia is maternally inherited, resulting in co-inheritance of mitochondrial organelles such as mtDNA. Here I explore the evolution of Wolbachia, and the relationship between Wolbachia and mtDNA, using a large inbred panel of Drosophila simulans. I compare this to the only other large population genomic Wolbachia dataset from D...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041010/a-comparative-study-of-four-methods-for-the-detection-of-nematode-eggs-and-large-protozoan-cysts-in-mandrill-faecal-material
#13
Hanae Pouillevet, Serge-Ely Dibakou, Barthélémy Ngoubangoye, Clémence Poirotte, Marie J E Charpentier
Coproscopical methods like sedimentation and flotation techniques are widely used in the field for studying simian gastrointestinal parasites. Four parasites of known zoonotic potential were studied in a free-ranging, non-provisioned population of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx): 2 nematodes (Necatoramericanus/Oesophagostomum sp. complex and Strongyloides sp.) and 2 protozoan species (Balantidium coli and Entamoeba coli). Different coproscopical techniques are available but they are rarely compared to evaluate their efficiency to retrieve parasites...
October 18, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038898/molecular-and-immunological-characterisation-of-tropomyosin-from-anisakis-pegreffii
#14
Abdouslam Asnoussi, Ibukun E Aibinu, Robin B Gasser, Andreas L Lopata, Peter M Smooker
Tropomyosin (TM) is a major allergen in shellfish, known to cross-react with mite, cockroach and/or some roundworm (nematode) TM. In this study, we aimed to express and purify TM from the parasitic nematode Anisakis pegreffii and also to characterise its cross-reactivity with TM from shellfish. A. pegreffii was isolated from the flathead tiger fish (Neoplatycephalus richardsoni) and characterised using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)-based sequencing of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA...
October 16, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038748/virulence-test-using-nematodes-to-prescreen-nocardia-species-capable-of-inducing-neurodegeneration-and-behavioral-disorders
#15
Claire Bernardin Souibgui, Anthony Zoropogui, Jeremy Voisin, Sebastien Ribun, Valentin Vasselon, Petar Pujic, Veronica Rodriguez-Nava, Patrick Belly, Benoit Cournoyer, Didier Blaha
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron programmed cell death. The etiology of PD remains uncertain-some cases are due to selected genes associated with familial heredity, others are due to environmental exposure to toxic components, but over 90% of cases have a sporadic origin. Nocardia are Actinobacteria that can cause human diseases like nocardiosis. This illness can lead to lung infection or central nervous system (CNS) invasion in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038443/phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-metazoan-carotenoid-oxygenase-superfamily-a-new-ancestral-gene-assemblage-of-bco-like-bcol-proteins
#16
Eugenia Poliakov, Joseph Soucy, Susan Gentleman, Igor B Rogozin, T Michael Redmond
Here we describe a new family of carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) in metazoans, the BCO2-like (BCOL) clade, which contains lancelet, nematode, and molluscan carotenoid oxygenase sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of CCOs in all kingdoms of life confirmed that the BCOL enzymes are an independent clade of ancient origin. One of the predicted lancelet BCOL proteins, cloned and analyzed for carotenoid cleavage activity in a bacterial carotenoid expression system, had activity similar to lancelet BCO2 proteins, although with a preference for cis isomers...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036592/gain-and-loss-of-small-rna-classes-characterization-of-small-rnas-in-the-parasitic-nematode-family-strongyloididae
#17
Anja Holz, Adrian Streit
The nematode family Strongyloididae is of particular interest because it contains important parasites of medical and veterinary relevance. In addition, species of this family can form parasitic and free-living generations and it also occupies an interesting phylogenetic position within the nematodes. Nematodes differ in several ways from other taxa with respect to their small non-coding RNAs. Recent comparative studies revealed that there is also considerable variability within the nematodes. However, no Strongyloididae species or close relative was included in these studies...
September 25, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036290/comparative-genomics-of-apomictic-root-knot-nematodes-hybridization-ploidy-and-dynamic-genome-change
#18
Amir Szitenberg, Laura Salazar-Jaramillo, Vivian C Blok, Dominik R Laetsch, Soumi Joseph, Valerie M Williamson, Mark L Blaxter, David H Lunt
The Root-Knot Nematodes (RKN; genus Meloidogyne) are important plant parasites causing substantial agricultural losses. The Meloidogyne incognita group (MIG) of species, most of which are obligatory apomicts (mitotic parthenogens), are extremely polyphagous and important problems for global agriculture. While understanding the genomic basis for their variable success on different crops could benefit future agriculture, analyses of their genomes are challenging due to complex evolutionary histories that may incorporate hybridization, ploidy changes, and chromosomal fragmentation...
September 25, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035864/redescription-of-the-nematode-parasites-of-lizards-strongyluris-oscari-travassos-1923-heterakidae-from-brazil-and-pharyngodon-mamillatus-linstow-1897-pharyngodonidae-from-egypt
#19
Felipe B Pereira, José L Luque, Luiz E R Tavares
Strongyluris oscari Travassos, 1923, parasite of Topidurus torquatus (Wied-Neuwied, 1820) (Tropiduridae) from Brazil and Pharyngodon mamillatus (Linstow, 1897) of Chalcides ocellatus (Forskal, 1775) (Scincidae) from Egypt, were redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopy, and re-evaluation of specimens from parasitological collections. The following features were accurately observed in S. oscari for the first time: structure of lips and pharyngeal valve, presence and distribution of somatic papillae, number and arrangement of caudal papillae, presence of inner sclerotised structures supporting the ventral sucker and the ventral region in tail of males, and structure of the posterior anal lip in females...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035862/first-report-of-pneumonia-caused-by-angiostrongylus-vasorum-in-a-golden-jackal
#20
Pavle Gavrilović, Darko Marinković, Igor Todorović, Aleksandra Gavrilović
Angiostrongylosis caused by metastrongyloid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum is an emerging parasitic disease in Europe and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered as a main reservoir species for this parasite. Little is known about the role of other wild canids in the epidemiology of angiostrongylosis. The present paper provides the first description of pathomorphological lesions caused by A. vasorum in a golden jackal (Canis aureus). The paper describes a case of co-infection with A. vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis in a one-year-old female golden jackal, legally hunted near the City of Kovin, South Banat, Serbia...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
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