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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230788/the-adverse-effects-of-triptolide-on-the-reproductive-system-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-oogenesis-impairment-and-decreased-oocyte-quality
#1
Qinli Ruan, Yun Xu, Rui Xu, Jiaying Wang, Yongqing Hua, Meng Wang, Jinao Duan
Previous studies have revealed that Triptolide damages female reproductive capacity, but the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the effects of Triptolide on the germline and explore its possible mechanisms. Our data show that exposure for 4 h to 50 and 100 mg/L Triptolide reduced C. elegans fertility, led to depletion and inactivation of spermatids with the changes in the expression levels of related genes, and increased the number of unfertilized oocytes through damaging chromosomes and DNA damage repair mechanisms...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230214/antioxidant-response-is-a-protective-mechanism-against-nutrient-deprivation-in-c-elegans
#2
Jun Tao, Qin-Yi Wu, Yi-Cheng Ma, Yuan-Li Chen, Cheng-Gang Zou
Animals often experience periods of nutrient deprivation; however, the molecular mechanisms by which animals survive starvation remain largely unknown. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the nuclear receptor DAF-12 acts as a dietary and environmental sensor to orchestrate diverse aspects of development, metabolism, and reproduction. Recently, we have reported that DAF-12 together with co-repressor DIN-1S is required for starvation tolerance by promoting fat mobilization. In this report, we found that genetic inactivation of the DAF-12 signaling promoted the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during starvation...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229382/enhanced-degradation-of-spiro-insecticides-and-their-leacher-enol-derivatives-in-soil-by-solarization-and-biosolarization-techniques
#3
José Fenoll, Isabel Garrido, Nuria Vela, Caridad Ros, Simón Navarro
The leaching potential of three insecticides (spirodiclofen, spiromesifen, and spirotetramat) was assessed using disturbed soil columns. Small quantities of spirodiclofen and spiromesifen were detected in leachate fraction, while spirotetramat residues were not found in the leachates. In addition, the transformation products (enol derivatives) are relatively more mobile than the parent compounds and may leach into groundwater. Moreover, the use of disinfection soil techniques (solarization and biosolarization) to enhance their degradation rates in soil was investigated...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229043/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-mosquito-borne-filarial-nematode-setaria-tundra-in-danish-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus
#4
Heidi Larsen Enemark, Antti Oksanen, Mariann Chriél, Jakob le Fèvre Harslund, Ian David Woolsey, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman Al-Sabi
Setaria tundra is a mosquito-borne filarial nematode of cervids in Europe. It has recently been associated with an emerging epidemic disease causing severe morbidity and mortality in reindeer and moose in Finland. Here, we present the first report of S. tundra in six roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) collected between October 2010 and March 2014 in Denmark. The deer originated from various localities across the country: the eastern part of the Jutland peninsular and four locations on the island Zealand. With the exception of one deer, with parasites residing in a transparent cyst just under the liver capsule, worms (ranging from 2 to >20/deer) were found free in the peritoneal cavity...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228936/genetic-basis-of-benzimidazole-resistance-in-teladorsagia-circumcincta-in-ireland
#5
Jason D Keegan, Barbara Good, Theo de Waal, June Fanning, Orla M Keane
Resistance to benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics is common in ovine nematodes of economic importance. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at three positions in the isotype 1 β- tubulin gene have been associated with BZ resistance and molecular tests for the detection of BZ resistance have been developed. In order to determine if such tests are practicable in Ireland the polymorphisms associated with BZ resistance must be identified. To this end, BZ-resistant nematodes were recovered from four farms in Ireland...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228583/food-responsiveness-regulates-episodic-behavioral-states-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Richard J McCloskey, Anthony D Fouad, Matthew A Churgin, Christopher Fang-Yen
Animals optimize survival and reproduction in part through control of behavioral states, which depend on the organism's internal and external environments. In the nematode C. elegans, a variety of behavioral states have been described, including roaming, dwelling, quiescence, and episodic swimming. These states have been considered in isolation, under varied experimental conditions, making it difficult to establish a unified picture of how they are regulated. Using long-term imaging, we examined C. elegans episodic behavioral states under varied mechanical and nutritional environments...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228092/variation-in-rates-of-spontaneous-male-production-within-the-nematode-species-pristionchus-pacificus-supports-an-adaptive-role-for-males-and-outcrossing
#7
Katy Morgan, Angela McGaughran, Christian Rödelsperger, Ralf J Sommer
BACKGROUND: The nematode species Pristionchus pacificus has an androdioecious mating system in which populations consist of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and relatively few males. The prevalence of males in such a system is likely to depend on the relative pros and cons of outcrossing. While outcrossing generates novel allelic combinations and can therefore increase adaptive potential, it may also disrupt the potentially beneficial consequences of repeated generations of selfing. These include purging of deleterious alleles, inheritance of co-adapted allele complexes, improved hermaphrodite fitness and increased population growth...
February 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226658/on-an-analogue-signal-processing-circuit-in-the-nematode-c-elegans
#8
Roghieh Skandari, Yuichi Iino, Jonathan H Manton, Roghieh Skandari, Yuichi Iino, Jonathan H Manton, Roghieh Skandari, Yuichi Iino, Jonathan H Manton
In this work we will work on analogue signal processing in the neural circuit of C. elegans which is able to detect the analogue signals from the environment and produce locomotive behaviours which are in accordance with experiments. The signals in C. elegans are processed in a purely analogue procedure, since no action potential has been recorded in its neural activity. We aim to show how signal processing can be executed in analogue domain in a living creature. In order to do that we will model two different behaviours of C...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224627/nitrogen-deposition-cancels-out-exotic-earthworm-effects-on-plant-feeding-nematode-communities
#9
Yuanhu Shao, Weixin Zhang, Nico Eisenhauer, Tao Liu, Yanmei Xiong, Chenfei Liang, Shenglei Fu
1.The activity and spread of exotic earthworms often are spatially correlated with N deposition because both arise from human activities. Exotic earthworms, in turn, can also greatly affect soil abiotic and biotic properties, as well as related ecological processes. Previous studies showed, for example, that earthworms can counteract the detrimental effects of plant-feeding nematodes on plant growth. However, potential interactive effects of N deposition and exotic earthworms on ecosystems are poorly understood...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224177/joint-toxicity-of-arsenic-copper-and-glyphosate-on-behavior-reproduction-and-heat-shock-protein-response-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
Yunbiao Wang, Anastasia N Ezemaduka, Zhuheng Li, Zhanyan Chen, Chuantao Song
The soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was used in 24-h acute exposures to arsenic (As), copper (Cu) and glyphosate (GPS) and to mixtures of As/Cu and As/GPS to investigate the effects of mixture exposures in the worms. A synergistic type of interaction was observed for acute toxicity with the As/Cu and As/GPS mixtures. Sublethal 24-h exposures of 1/1000, 1/100 and 1/10 of the LC50 concentrations for As, Cu and GPS individually and for As/Cu and As/GPS mixtures were conducted to observe responses in locomotory behavior (head thrashing), reproduction, and heat shock protein expression...
February 21, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223689/development-of-a-new-air-stable-structure-simplified-nafuredin-%C3%AE-analog-as-a-potent-and-selective-nematode-complex-i-inhibitor
#11
Masaki Ohtawa, Shiho Arima, Risa Shimizu, Naomi Hanatani, Eri Shimizu, Kazuro Shiomi, Kiyoshi Kita, Satoshi Ōmura, Tohru Nagamitsu
Nafuredin-γ, obtained from natural nafuredin, has demonstrated a potent and selective inhibitory activity against nematode complex I. However, nafuredin-γ is unstable in air since its conjugated dienes are oxygen-labile. The instability in air was naturally solved by the synthesis of structure-simplified nafuredin-γ analogs without conjugated dienes. However, these modified analogs showed lower complex I inhibitory activities. Therefore, new air-stable structure-simplified nafuredin-γ analogs were designed and synthesized herein...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223377/exopolysaccharide-repressing-small-molecules-with-antibiofilm-and-antivirulence-activity-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#12
Erik van Tilburg Bernardes, Laetitia Charron-Mazenod, David J Reading, Shauna L Reckseidler-Zenteno, Shawn Lewenza
Biofilm formation is a universal virulence strategy in which bacteria grow in dense microbial communities enmeshed within a polymeric extracellular matrix that protects them from antibiotic exposure and the immune system. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an archetypal biofilm-forming organism that utilizes a biofilm growth strategy to cause chronic lung infections in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The extracellular matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms is comprised mainly of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and DNA. Both mucoid and non-mucoid isolates of P...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223178/direct-experimental-manipulation-of-intestinal-cells-in-ascaris-suum-with-minor-influences-on-the-global-transcriptome
#13
Bruce A Rosa, Samantha N McNulty, Makedonka Mitreva, Douglas P Jasmer
Ascaris suum provides a powerful model for studying parasitic nematodes, including individual tissues such as the intestine, an established target for anthelmintic treatments. Here, we add a valuable experimental component to our existing functional, proteomic, transcriptomic and phylogenomic studies of the Ascaris suum intestine, by developing a method to manipulate intestinal cell functions via direct delivery of experimental treatments (in this case, double-stranded (ds)RNA) to the apical intestinal membrane...
February 18, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221832/what-explains-patterns-of-diversification-and-richness-among-animal-phyla
#14
Tereza Jezkova, John J Wiens
Animal phyla vary dramatically in species richness (from one species to >1.2 million), but the causes of this variation remain largely unknown. Animals have also evolved striking variation in morphology and ecology, including sessile marine taxa lacking heads, eyes, limbs, and complex organs (e.g., sponges), parasitic worms (e.g., nematodes, platyhelminths), and taxa with eyes, skeletons, limbs, and complex organs that dominate terrestrial ecosystems (arthropods, chordates). Relating this remarkable variation in traits to the diversification and richness of animal phyla is a fundamental yet unresolved problem in biology...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220606/lamarck-rises-from-his-grave-parental-environment-induced-epigenetic-inheritance-in-model-organisms-and-humans
#15
Yan Wang, Huijie Liu, Zhongsheng Sun
Organisms can change their physiological/behavioural traits to adapt and survive in changed environments. However, whether these acquired traits can be inherited across generations through non-genetic alterations has been a topic of debate for over a century. Emerging evidence indicates that both ancestral and parental experiences, including nutrition, environmental toxins, nurturing behaviour, and social stress, can have powerful effects on the physiological, metabolic and cellular functions in an organism...
February 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220591/transcriptome-analysis-of-root-knot-nematode-meloidogyne-incognita-infected-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-roots-reveals-complex-gene-expression-profiles-and-metabolic-networks-of-both-host-and-nematode-during-susceptible-and-resistance-responses
#16
Neha Shukla, Rachita Yadav, Pritam Kaur, Simon Rasmussen, Shailendra Goel, Manu Agarwal, Arun Jagannath, Ramneek Gupta, Amar Kumar
Root knot nematodes (RKNs, Meloidogyne incognita) are economically important endoparasites having a wide-host range. We have taken a comprehensive transcriptomic approach to investigate the expression of both tomato and RKN genes in tomato roots at five infection time intervals from susceptible plants and two infection time intervals from resistant plants, grown under soil conditions. Differentially expressed genes during susceptible (1827-tomato, 462-RKN) and resistance (25-tomato, 160-RKN) interactions were identified...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220250/differing-roles-for-sur-2-med23-in-c-elegans-and-c-briggsae-vulval-development
#17
Karley K Mahalak, Abdulrahman M Jama, Steven J Billups, Adriana T Dawes, Helen M Chamberlin
Normal vulval development in the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is identical to that in the related Caenorhabditis elegans. However, several experiments suggest that there are differences between the two species with respect to the contribution of EGF/Ras signaling. To investigate these differences genetically, we have characterized a C. briggsae mutant strain that phenocopies the effect observed when C. briggsae animals are treated with U0126, an inhibitor of the EGF pathway component MEK. We identify that the gene affected in the mutant strain is Cbr-sur-2, which encodes a MED23 mediator complex protein that acts downstream of EGF signaling in C...
February 20, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219407/development-of-dirofilaria-immitis-and-dirofilaria-repens-in-aedes-japonicus-and-aedes-geniculatus
#18
Cornelia Silaghi, Relja Beck, Gioia Capelli, Fabrizio Montarsi, Alexander Mathis
BACKGROUND: The mosquito-borne filarial nematodes Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens primarily affect dogs but also cats, causing heartworm disease or subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively, and both may also cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Several mosquito species have been reported as competent vectors for these nematodes, but no data are available for the invasive mosquito species Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The objective of this study was to describe the development of both D...
February 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218438/structural-and-biochemical-characterization-of-the-nucleoside-hydrolase-from-c-elegans-reveals-the-role-of-two-active-site-cysteine-residues-in-catalysis
#19
Ranjan Kumar Singh, Jan Steyaert, Wim Versées
Nucleoside hydrolases (NHs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the N-glycoside bond in ribonucleosides and are found in all three domains of life. Although in parasitic protozoa a role in purine salvage has been well established, their precise function in bacteria and higher eukaryotes is still largely unknown. NHs have been classified into three homology groups based on the conservation of active site residues. While many structures are available of representatives of group I and II, structural information for group III NHs is lacking...
February 20, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218274/trapping-of-ivermectin-by-a-pentameric-ligand-gated-ion-channel-upon-open-to-closed-isomerization
#20
Nurit Degani-Katzav, Moshe Klein, Moran Har-Even, Revital Gortler, Ruthi Tobi, Yoav Paas
Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug used to treat human parasitic diseases like river blindness and lymphatic filariasis. By activating invertebrate pentameric glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl receptors; GluClRs), IVM induces sustained chloride influx and long-lasting membrane hyperpolarization that inhibit neural excitation in nematodes. Although IVM activates the C. elegans heteromeric GluClα/β receptor, it cannot activate a homomeric receptor composed of the C. elegans GluClβ subunits...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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