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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079120/in-situ-imaging-of-microstructure-formation-in-electronic-interconnections
#1
M A A Mohd Salleh, C M Gourlay, J W Xian, S A Belyakov, H Yasuda, S D McDonald, K Nogita
The development of microstructure during melting, reactive wetting and solidification of solder pastes on Cu-plated printed circuit boards has been studied by synchrotron radiography. Using Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu/Cu and Sn-0.7Cu/Cu as examples, we show that the interfacial Cu6Sn5 layer is present within 0.05 s of wetting, and explore the kinetics of flux void formation at the interface between the liquid and the Cu6Sn5 layer. Quantification of the nucleation locations and anisotropic growth kinetics of primary Cu6Sn5 crystals reveals a competition between the nucleation of Cu6Sn5 in the liquid versus growth of Cu6Sn5 from the existing Cu6Sn5 layer...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072573/design-and-application-of-a-structured-phantom-for-detection-performance-comparison-between-breast-tomosynthesis-and-digital-mammography
#2
L Cockmartin, N W Marshall, G Zhang, K Lemmens, E Shaheen, C Van Ongeval, E Fredenberg, D R Dance, E Salvagnini, K Michielsen, H Bosmans
This paper introduces and applies a structured phantom with inserted target objects for the comparison of detection performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) against 2D full field digital mammography (FFDM). The phantom consists of a 48 mm thick breast-shaped polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) container filled with water and PMMA spheres of different diameters. Three-dimensionally (3D) printed spiculated masses (diameter range: 3.8-9.7 mm) and non-spiculated masses (1.6-6.2 mm) along with microcalcifications (90-250 µm) were inserted as targets...
January 10, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059780/separation-control-over-a-grooved-surface-inspired-by-dolphin-skin
#3
Amy Lang, Emily Jones, Farhana Afroz
Over many decades the biological surfaces of aquatic swimmers have been studied for their potential as drag reducing surfaces. The hydrodynamic benefit of riblets, or grooves embedded parallel to the flow which appear on surfaces such as shark skin, have been well documented. However the skin of dolphins is embedded with sinusoidal grooves that run perpendicular or transverse to the flow over their bodies. It is theorized that the transverse grooves present on dolphin skin trap vortices between them, creating a partial slip condition over the surface and inducing turbulence augmentation in the boundary layer, thus acting as a potential mechanism to reduce flow separation and thus pressure drag...
January 6, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056140/benefits-and-limitations-of-entry-level-3-dimensional-printing-of-maxillofacial-skeletal-models
#4
Alex T Legocki, Andrew Duffy-Peter, Andrew R Scott
Importance: A protocol for creating exceptionally low-cost 3-dimensional (3-D) maxillofacial skeletal models does not require proficiency with computer software or intensive labor. Small and less affluent centers can produce models with little loss in accuracy and clinical utility. Objectives: To highlight the feasibility and methods of introducing in-house, entry-level additive manufacturing (3-D printing) technology to otolaryngologic craniofacial reconstruction and to describe its clinical applications and limitations, including a comparison with available vendor models...
January 5, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049583/purification-of-semiconducting-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-by-spiral-counter-current-chromatography
#5
Martha Knight, Rodrigo Lazo-Portugal, Saeyoung Nate Ahn, Steingrimur Stefansson
Over the last decade man-made carbon nanostructures have shown great promise in electronic applications, but they are produced as very heterogeneous mixtures with different properties so the achievement of a significant commercial application has been elusive. The dimensions of single-wall carbon nanotubes are generally a nanometer wide, up to hundreds of microns long and the carbon nanotubes have anisotropic structures. They are processed to have shorter lengths but they need to be sorted by diameter and chirality...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047923/tu-h-brc-08-use-and-validation-of-flexible-3d-printed-tissue-compensators-for-post-mastectomy-radiation-therapy
#6
D Craft, W Woodward, J Kanke, S Kry, M Salehpour, R Howell
PURPOSE: Patient-specific tissue equivalent compensators can be used for post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) to achieve homogenous dose distributions with single-field treatments. However, current fabrication methods are time consuming and expensive. 3D-printing technology could overcome these limitations. The purposes of this study were to [1] evaluate materials for 3D-printed compensators [2] design and print a compensator to achieve a uniform thickness to a clinical target volume (CTV), and [3] demonstrate that a single-field electron compensator plan is a clinically feasible treatment option for PMRT...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046821/su-g-201-07-dosimetric-verification-of-a-3d-printed-hdr-skin-brachytherapy-applicator
#7
K Rasmussen, A Baumgarten, D Stanley, C Pelletier, M Corbett, J Jung, Y Feng, Z Huang, A Ju, T Eng, N Kirby, A Gutierrez, S Stathakis, N Papanikolaou
PURPOSE: The use of radiation as a treatment modality for skin cancer has increased significantly over the last decade with standardized applicators. Utilizing 3D printing, the ability to make applicators specifically designed for each patient's anatomy has become economically feasible. With this in mind it was the aim of this study to determine the dosimetric accuracy of a 3-D printed HDR brachytherapy applicator for the skin. METHODS: A CT reference image was used to generate a custom applicator based on an anthropomorphic head and neck phantom...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046350/we-de-bra-04-a-cost-effective-pixelated-epid-scintillator-for-enhanced-contrast-and-dqe
#8
J Rottmann, M Myronakis, Y Hu, D Shedlock, A Wang, D Humber, D Morf, R Fueglistaller, J Star-Lack, R Berbeco
PURPOSE: Beams-eye-view imaging applications such as real-time soft-tissue motion estimation and MV-CBCT are hindered by the inherently low image contrast of electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) currently in clinical use. We investigate a cost effective scintillating glass that provides substantially increased detective quantum efficiency (DQE) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR). METHODS: A pixelated scintillator prototype was built from LKH-5 glass. The array is 12mm thick; 42...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034541/comparison-of-two-inexpensive-rapid-prototyping-methods-for-manufacturing-filament-target-ultrasound-phantoms
#9
Krisztián Füzesi, Miklós Gyöngy
Current use of 3-D printers to manufacture ultrasound phantoms is limited to relatively expensive photopolymer jetting printers. The present work investigates the feasibility of using two common and inexpensive 3-D printer technologies, fused deposition modeling (FDM) and digital light processing (DLP), to print custom filament target phantoms. Acoustic characteristics obtained from printed solid blocks indicated that the printing materials-acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polylactic acid for FDM and a photopolymer for DLP printing-were appropriate for use as scatterers...
December 26, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024360/large-scale-automated-production-of-highly-ordered-ultralong-hydroxyapatite-nanowires-and-construction-of-various-fire-resistant-flexible-ordered-architectures
#10
Feng Chen, Ying-Jie Zhu
Practical applications of nanostructured materials have been largely limited by the difficulties in controllable and scaled-up synthesis, large-sized highly ordered self-assembly, and macroscopic processing of nanostructures. Hydroxyapatite (HAP), the major inorganic component of human bone and tooth, is an important biomaterial with high biocompatibility, bioactivity, and high thermal stability. Large-sized highly ordered HAP nanostructures are of great significance for applications in various fields and for understanding the formation mechanisms of bone and tooth...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997242/incarceration-rates-and-traits-of-sexual-minorities-in-the-united-states-national-inmate-survey-2011-2012
#11
Ilan H Meyer, Andrew R Flores, Lara Stemple, Adam P Romero, Bianca D M Wilson, Jody L Herman
OBJECTIVES: To report characteristics of sexual minority US inmates. METHODS: We drew our data from the National Inmate Survey, 2011-2012, a probability sample of inmates in US prisons and jails. We determined weighted proportions and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals to estimate differences between sexual minority and heterosexual inmates. RESULTS: Sexual minorities (those who self-identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual or report a same-sex sexual experience before arrival at the facility) were disproportionately incarcerated: 9...
February 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958561/3d-printed-dielectric-rectangular-waveguides-splitters-and-couplers-for-120-ghz
#12
M Weidenbach, D Jahn, A Rehn, S F Busch, F Beltrán-Mejía, J C Balzer, M Koch
We use a 3D printer to fabricate rectangular dielectric single mode waveguides for 120 GHz. The rectangular waveguides consisting of polystyrene showed an attenuation of 6.3 dB/m, which is low enough for short devices. We also characterize 3D printed Y-splitters and a 1x3-splitter based on multimode interference. Further, we construct and measure a variable planar waveguide coupler which can be used as a 3-dB coupler, a cross-coupler and no coupler at all.
December 12, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931202/use-of-aids-for-smoking-cessation-and-alcohol-reduction-a-population-survey-of-adults-in-england
#13
Emma Beard, Jamie Brown, Susan Michie, Eileen Kaner, Petra Meier, Robert West
BACKGROUND: It is important for policy planning to chart the methods smokers and high-risk drinkers use to help them change their behaviour. This study assessed prevalence of use, and characteristics of users, of support for smoking cessation and alcohol reduction in England. METHODS: Data were used from the Smoking and Alcohol Toolkit Studies, which involve monthly face-to-face computer-assisted interviews of adults aged 16+ in England. We included data collected between June 2014 and July 2015 on 1600 smokers who had made at least one quit attempt and 911 high-risk drinkers (defined as scores >8+ on the full AUDIT or 5+ on questions 1-3 of the AUDIT-C) who had made an attempt to cut down in the past 12 months...
December 8, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894527/accuracy-and-mechanical-properties-of%C3%A2-orthodontic-models-printed-3-dimensionally-from-calcium-sulfate-before-and-after-various-postprinting-treatments
#14
Austin D Ledingham, Jeryl D English, Sercan Akyalcin, Benjamin E Cozad, Joe C Ontiveros, F Kurtis Kasper
INTRODUCTION: Dental models fabricated with 3-dimensional printing technologies are revolutionizing the practice of orthodontics, but they generally comprise polymeric materials that may not be suitable for certain applications, such as soldering appliances. The objective of this study was to investigate the dimensional accuracy and mechanical properties of 3-dimensional printed ceramic-based models before and after various treatments intended to improve their mechanical properties. METHODS: Thirty identical models were printed 3-dimensionally from a calcium sulfate-based substrate and divided into 3 groups for treatment: high heat (250°C for 30 minutes), low heat (150°C for 30 minutes), and Epsom salt treatment...
December 2016: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890227/emerging-biomaterials-in-trauma
#15
REVIEW
Kirollos E Zakhary, Jayini S Thakker
Emerging technologies and research into the science of biomaterials have developed exponentially and provide facial reconstructive surgeons with a plethora of options for a multitude of varying presentations. This article presents a comprehensive discussion in the ever-evolving field of material science and emerging biomaterials. A complete understanding of the current status of such materials is necessary for the appropriate incorporation and applicability to adequate clinical situations. The rapid progress seen in biomaterials is evidenced through the forward direction of bioengineered tissues, the incorporation of growth factors in varying scenarios, and the unique characteristics of 3-D printing of patient specific scaffolds...
February 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875647/what-pacemakers-can-teach-us-about-the-ethics-of-maintaining-artificial-organs
#16
Katrina Hutchison, Robert Sparrow
One day soon it may be possible to replace a failing heart, liver, or kidney with a long-lasting mechanical replacement or perhaps even with a 3-D printed version based on the patient's own tissue. Such artificial organs could make transplant waiting lists and immunosuppression a thing of the past. Supposing that this happens, what will the ongoing care of people with these implants involve? In particular, how will the need to maintain the functioning of artificial organs over an extended period affect patients and their doctors and the responsibilities of those who manufacture such devices? Drawing on lessons from the history of the cardiac pacemaker, this article offers an initial survey of the ethical issues posed by the need to maintain and service artificial organs...
November 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844174/designing-3-dimensional-in-vitro-oviduct-culture-systems-to-study-mammalian-fertilization-and-embryo-production
#17
Marcia A M M Ferraz, Heiko H W Henning, Tom A E Stout, Peter L A M Vos, Bart M Gadella
The oviduct was long considered a largely passive conduit for gametes and embryos. However, an increasing number of studies into oviduct physiology have demonstrated that it specifically and significantly influences gamete interaction, fertilization and early embryo development. While oviduct epithelial cell (OEC) function has been examined during maintenance in conventional tissue culture dishes, cells seeded into these two-dimensional (2-D) conditions suffer a rapid loss of differentiated OEC characteristics, such as ciliation and secretory activity...
November 14, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835754/automatic-phonological-activation-during-visual-word-recognition-in-bilingual-children-a-cross-language-masked-priming-study-in-grades-3-and-5
#18
Karinne Sauval, Laetitia Perre, Lynne G Duncan, Eva Marinus, Séverine Casalis
Previous masked priming research has shown automatic phonological activation during visual word recognition in monolingual skilled adult readers. Activation also occurs across languages in bilingual adult readers, suggesting that the activation of phonological representations is not language specific. Less is known about developing readers. First, it is unclear whether there is automatic phonological activation during visual word recognition among children in general. Second, no empirical data exist on whether the activation of phonological representations is language specific or not in bilingual children...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819188/feasibility-of-bioprinting-with-a-modified-desktop-3d-printer
#19
Todd A Goldstein, Casey J Epstein, John Schwartz, Alex Krush, Dan J Lagalante, Kevin P Mercadante, David Zeltsman, Lee P Smith, Daniel A Grande
Numerous studies have shown the capabilities of three-dimensional (3D) printing for use in the medical industry. At the time of this publication, basic home desktop 3D printer kits can cost as little as $300, whereas medical-specific 3D bioprinters can cost more than $300,000. The purpose of this study is to show how a commercially available desktop 3D printer could be modified to bioprint an engineered poly-l-lactic acid scaffold containing viable chondrocytes in a bioink. Our bioprinter was used to create a living 3D functional tissue-engineered cartilage scaffold...
December 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811236/a-multidisciplinary-quality-improvement-program-increases-the-inferior-vena-cava-filter-retrieval-rate
#20
John P Winters, Christopher S Morris, Chris E Holmes, Patricia Lewis, Anant D Bhave, Kenneth E Najarian, Joseph T Shields, William Charash, Mary Cushman
Published reports indicate low retrieval rates for retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters. We performed a historic-controlled study of a 5-year intervention (March 2007 to February 2012) to improve IVC filter retrieval at a university medical center serving a rural area. All adults with a retrievable filter placed were included, except those with a life expectancy <6 months. The intervention included initial verbal counseling and printed educational materials, correspondence after discharge, and a hematology consultation...
November 2, 2016: Vascular Medicine
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