Read by QxMD icon Read

Healthcare associated infections

Mini Kamboj, Teresa Childers, Jessica Sugalski, Donna Antonelli, Juliane Bingener-Casey, Jamie Cannon, Karie Cluff, Kimberly A Davis, E Patchen Dellinger, Sean C Dowdy, Kim Duncan, Julie Fedderson, Robert Glasgow, Bruce Hall, Marilyn Hirsch, Matthew Hutter, Lisa Kimbro, Boris Kuvshinoff, Martin Makary, Melanie Morris, Sharon Nehring, Sonia Ramamoorthy, Rebekah Scott, Mindy Sovel, Vivian Strong, Ashley Webster, Elizabeth Wick, Julio Garcia Aguilar, Robert Carlson, Kent Sepkowitz
BACKGROUND Surgical site infections (SSIs) following colorectal surgery (CRS) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Reduction in colorectal SSI rates is an important goal for surgical quality improvement. OBJECTIVE To examine rates of SSI in patients with and without cancer and to identify potential predictors of SSI risk following CRS DESIGN American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) data files for 2011-2013 from a sample of 12 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions were combined...
March 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Sara L Revolinski, L Silvia Munoz-Price
New studies have been published regarding the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile in topics such as asymptomatic C. difficile colonization, community-associated C. difficile infection, environmental contamination outside healthcare settings, animal colonization, and the interactions between C. difficile and the gut microbiome. In addition to summarizing these findings, this review offers a perspective on the potential impact of high-throughput sequencing and other potential techniques on the prevention of C...
March 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Saajida Mahomed, A Willem Sturm, Stephen Knight, Prashini Moodley
Background: Appropriate infection control policies and practices are key to reducing the risk of healthcare-associated infections in patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Objective: To evaluate infection control in ICUs using the Infection Control Assessment Tool (ICAT). Methods: Six public and five private adult ICUs were included. Seven modules from the ICAT were administered including ICU, hand hygiene, and isolation and standard precautions...
March 2018: Journal of Infection Prevention
Carlos Rodríguez-Lucas, M Rosario Rodicio, Isabel Costales, José Antonio Boga, Fernando Vazquez, Javier Fernández
Blood stream infections are serious conditions associated with high morbi-mortality. In this study, the new Sepsis Flow Chip (SFC) assay for identification of Gram-negative bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance genes was evaluated in positive blood cultures (BCs). SFC is a microarray with a broad panel comprising the most frequent causative agents of sepsis and antimicrobial resistance genes associated with them. A total of 100 prospective BCs, positive for Gram-negative bacilli, were assessed in the routine of the clinical microbiology laboratory and also applying the SFC assay...
February 14, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Suzanne S Dunne, Merja Ahonen, Martina Modic, Francy Rl Crijns, Minna M Keinänen-Toivola, Ruth Meinke, C William Keevil, Jim Gray, Nuala H O'Connell, Colum P Dunne
Recognized issues with poor hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers, and reports of re-contamination of previously chemically disinfected surfaces through hand contact, emphasize need for novel hygiene methods in addition to those currently available. One such approach involves antimicrobial (nano)-coatings (AMC), whereby integrated active ingredients are responsible for elimination of microorganisms that come into contact with treated surfaces. While widely studied under laboratory conditions with promising results, studies under real life healthcare conditions are scarce...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Nathaly M Sweeney, Shareef A Nahas, Shimul Chowdhury, Miguel Del Campo, Marilyn C Jones, David P Dimmock, Stephen F Kingsmore, Rcigm Investigators
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) results from incomplete formation of the diaphragm leading to herniation of abdominal organs into the thoracic cavity. CDH is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia, congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension. Genetically, it is associated with aneuploidies, chromosomal copy number variants, and single gene mutations. CDH is the most expensive non-cardiac congenital defect: Management frequently requires implementation of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO), which increases management expenditures 2...
March 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
H Morioka, M Nagao, S Yoshihara, H Ohge, K Kasahara, N Shigemoto, T Kajihara, M Mori, M Iguchi, Y Tomita, S Ichiyama, T Yagi
BACKGROUND: The Japanese government adopted a national action plan on antimicrobial resistance, which aims to reduce drug-resistant pathogens and antimicrobial use. A point-prevalence survey (PPS) is a useful surveillance method to gain information about hospital epidemiology; however, no multi-centre PPS has previously been performed in Japan. AIM: To investigate general information about hospital epidemiology, healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs), and antimicrobial use in multiple Japanese university hospitals...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Shaina F Bruce, Danielle N Carr, Elizabeth R Burton, Joel I Sorosky, Mark S Shahin, Mary C Naglak, Mitchell I Edelson
OBJECTIVE: Surgical site infections (SSI) are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. This study investigated whether implementation of an abdominal closure bundle reduces surgical site infection rates. We aimed to identify sub-populations that would benefit the most from this intervention. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients that underwent exploratory laparotomy by a Gynecologic Oncologist from January 1, 2011 to April 1, 2017...
March 14, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Taisa Trevizani Rocchetti, Katheryne Benine Martins, Patricia Yoshida Faccioli Martins, Rogério Antonio de Oliveira, Alessandro Lia Mondelli, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco Fortaleza, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus spp. - both S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) - are relevant agents of healthcare-associated infections. Therefore, the rapid recognition of MRSA and methicillin-resistant CoNS from blood stream infections is critically important for patient management. It is worth noting that inappropriate empiric therapy has been associated with higher in-hospital mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study we evaluated a multiplex PCR standardized to detect Staphylococcus spp...
March 13, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Siti Azdiah Abdul Aziz, Megan Mcstea, Nor Syuhada Ahmad Bashah, Meng Li Chong, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar, Sharifah Faridah Syed Omar, Helmi Sulaiman, Iskandar Azwa, Maw Pin Tan, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Reena Rajasuriar, Shahrul Bahyah Kamaruzzaman
OBJECTIVES: In a clinic-based, treated HIV-infected cohort, we identified individuals with sarcopenia and compared with age, sex and ethnically matched controls; and investigated associated risk factors and health outcomes. DESIGN: Sarcopenia (age-related muscle loss) causes significant morbidity to the elderly, leading to frequent hospitalizations, disability and death. Few have characterized sarcopenia in the HIV-infected who experience accelerated aging. METHODS: Sarcopenia was defined as low muscle mass with weak grip strength and/or slow gait speed using lower 20th percentiles of controls...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Kathleen Rea, Uyen Le-Jenkins, Carolyn Rutledge
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for 40% of healthcare-acquired infections. This study explored the addition of cloud-based software technology to an established nursing quality improvement program to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Unit-based nurse champions evaluated peers' evidence-based catheter-associated urinary tract infection prevention practices using manual, paper-based feedback. That process achieved reduced rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infection over 18 months...
March 15, 2018: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
Xiqi Li, Cesar A Arias, Samuel L Aitken, Jessica Galloway Peña, Diana Panesso, Michael Chang, Lorena Diaz, Rafael Rios, Yazan Numan, Sammi Ghaoui, Sruti DebRoy, Micah M Bhatti, Dawn E Simmons, Isaam Raad, Ray Hachem, Stephanie A Folan, Pranoti Sahasarabhojane, Awdhesh Kalia, Samuel A Shelburne
Background: Pathobionts, bacteria that are typically human commensals but can cause disease, contribute significantly to antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prototypical pathobiont as it is a ubiquitous human commensal but also a leading cause of healthcare-associated bacteremia. We sought to determine the etiology of a recent increase in invasive S. epidermidis isolates resistant to linezolid. Methods: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 176 S...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Ludovica Barbi, Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Luiz Cláudio Arraes de Alencar, Sergio Crovella
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emergent flavivirus transmitted mainly through Aedes spp. mosquitoes that is posing challenge to healthcare services in countries experiencing an outbreak. Usually ZIKV infection is mild, but in some cases it has been reported to progress into neurological diseases such as microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults. GBS is a debilitating autoimmune disorder that affects peripheral nerves. Since ZIKV caused massive outbreaks in South America in the past few years, we aimed to systematically review the literature and perform a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of GBS among ZIKV-infected individuals...
March 12, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hendramoorthy Maheswaran, Stavros Petrou, Danielle Cohen, Peter MacPherson, Felistas Kumwenda, David G Lalloo, Elizabeth L Corbett, Aileen Clarke
INTRODUCTION: Although HIV infection and its associated co-morbidities remain the commonest reason for hospitalisation in Africa, their impact on economic costs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are not well understood. This information is essential for decision-makers to make informed choices about how to best scale-up anti-retroviral treatment (ART) programmes. This study aimed to quantify the impact of HIV infection and ART on economic outcomes in a prospective cohort of hospitalised patients with high HIV prevalence...
2018: PloS One
Amy C Justice, Kirsha S Gordon, Melissa Skanderson, Eva Jennifer Edelman, Kathleen M Akgün, Cynthia L Gibert, Vincent Lo Re, David Rimland, Julie A Womack, Christina M Wyatt, Janet P Tate
BACKGROUND: HIV-positive individuals (HIV+) on antiretrovirals commonly take enough other medications to cross a threshold for polypharmacy but little is known about associated outcomes. We asked whether non-antiretroviral polypharmacy is associated with hospitalization and mortality and whether associations differ by HIV status. METHODS: Data on HIV+ and uninfected individuals in the US Veterans Affairs Healthcare System were analyzed. Eligible HIV+ were on antiretrovirals with suppressed HIV-1 RNA and uninfected individuals received at least one medication...
March 27, 2018: AIDS
Hannah Y P Phoon, Hazilawati Hussin, Baizurah Mohd Hussain, Shu Yong Lim, Jia Jie Woon, Yi Xian Er, Kwai Lin Thong
OBJECTIVES: Hospital environments are potential reservoirs of bacteria associated with nosocomial infections. Here, we determined the distribution of cultivable environmental bacteria of clinical importance from a Malaysian tertiary hospital and to investigate their resistotypes and genotypes. METHODS: Swab and fluid samples (n=358) from healthcare workers' hands, frequently touched surfaces, medical equipment, patients' immediate surroundings, ward sinks and toilets and solutions or fluids of 12 selected wards were collected...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
C Talero-Gutiérrez, A Rivera-Molina, C Pérez-Pavajeau, I Ossa-Ospina, C Santos-García, M C Rojas-Anaya, A de-la-Torre
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emergent worldwide public health problem. Historically, 84 countries have reported vector-borne ZIKV transmission, 61 of which report on-going transmission. It is a Flavivirus transmitted through arthropods belonging to the Aedes genus. Since 2015, ZIKV infections have increased dramatically; with 1.3 million people infected during 2015 in Brazil alone. This paper's objective is to highlight the conjectural epidemiological points of the virus' dissemination. The digital archives Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched for papers that assessed aspects of ZIKV transmission and epidemiology...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
D M Jacobs, W-Y Leung, D Essi, W Park, A Shaver, J Claus, C Ruh, G G Rao
Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) programmes facilitate hospital discharge, but patients remain at risk of complications and consequent healthcare utilisation (HCU). Here we elucidated the incidence of and risk factors associated with HCU in OPAT patients. This was a retrospective, single-centre, case-control study of adult patients discharged on OPAT. Cases (n = 63) and controls (n = 126) were patients that did or did not utilise the healthcare system within 60 days. Characteristics associated with HCU in bivariate analysis (P ≤ 0...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Brunella Posteraro, Federico Pea, Luca Masucci, Patrizia Posteraro, Maurizio Sanguinetti
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common healthcare-associated infection worldwide. As standard CDI antibiotic therapies can result in unacceptably high recurrence rates, novel therapeutic strategies for CDI are necessary. A recently emerged immunological therapy is a monoclonal antibody against C. difficile toxin B. Areas covered: In this review, the authors summarize the available pharmacological, preclinical, and clinical data for the CDI treatment based on anti-toxin A (actoxumab) and anti-toxin B (bezlotoxumab) human monoclonal antibodies (HuMabs), and discuss about the potentiality of a therapy that includes HuMab combined administration for CDI...
March 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Ray O'Connor, Jane O'Doherty, Andrew O'Regan, Colum Dunne
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging global threat to health and is associated with increased consumption of antibiotics. Seventy-four per cent of antibiotic prescribing takes place in primary care. Much of this is for inappropriate treatment of acute respiratory tract infections. AIMS: To review the published literature pertaining to antibiotic prescribing in order to identify and understand the factors that affect primary care providers' prescribing decisions...
March 12, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"