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Healthcare associated infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431844/health-care-associated-infections-studies-project-an-american-journal-of-infection-control-and-national-healthcare-safety-network-data-quality-collaboration
#1
Henrietta Smith, Janet E Brooks, Denise Leaptrot, Katherine Allen-Bridson, Angela Anttila, Cindy Gross, Joan N Hebden, Georganne Ryan, Eileen Scalise, Marc-Oliver Wright
This case study is part of a series centered on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network's (NHSN) health care-associated infection (HAI) surveillance definitions. The intent of the case study series is to foster standardized application of the NHSN's HAI surveillance definitions among infection preventionists and accurate determination of HAI events. This specific case study focuses on the definitions found within the surgical site infection (SSI) protocol. It aims to reflect the real life and complex patient scenario surrounding a bloodstream infection that is secondary to an SSI and the application of the Present at the Time of Surgery event detail...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429083/intravenous-treprostinil-infusion-via-a-fully-implantable-pump-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#2
Ralf Ewert, Manuel J Richter, Regina Steringer-Mascherbauer, Ekkehard Grünig, Tobias J Lange, Christian F Opitz, Christian Warnke, Hossein-Ardeschir Ghofrani
OBJECTIVES: Parenteral prostanoids infused via external pumps are well-established pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) treatments. However, local side-effects and systemic infections restrict their use. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety of a fully implantable treprostinil infusion pump (LENUS Pro(®)) in patients with PAH. METHODS: Thirty patients with PAH undergoing pump implantation (with stable PAH therapy for ≥3 weeks pre-implantation) were included in this prospective, multicenter, observational study (NCT01979822)...
April 20, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426439/high-mortality-among-patients-with-opioid-use-disorder-in-a-large-healthcare-system
#3
Yih-Ing Hser, Larissa J Mooney, Andrew J Saxon, Karen Miotto, Douglas S Bell, Yuhui Zhu, Di Liang, David Huang
OBJECTIVES: Elevated mortality has been observed among individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) treated in addiction specialty clinics or programs. Information about OUD patients in general healthcare settings is needed in light of the current effort to integrate addiction services into primary healthcare systems. This study examined mortality rates, causes of death, and associated risk factors among patients with OUD in a large general healthcare system. METHODS: Mortality data were linked with electronic health records of 2576 OUD patients cared for in a large university health system from 2006 to 2014...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425246/repeated-prevalence-studies-of-nosocomial-infections-in-one-university-hospital-in-serbia
#4
Milena Ilic, Ljiljana Markovic-Denic
BACKGROUND/AIM: Nosocomial infections occur worldwide and affect both developed and resource-poor countries. The aim of this paper was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for nosocomial infections in one Serbian hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-point prevalence surveys were conducted in the Clinical Center of Kragujevac (1240 beds). The standard definitions for nosocomial infections of the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention were used. The authors conducted surveys according to the same protocol...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424971/high-frequency-of-illegal-drug-use-influences-condom-use-among-female-transgender-sex-workers-in-argentina-impact-on-hiv-and-syphilis-infections
#5
María M Avila, María S Dos Ramos Farías, Lucía Fazzi, Marcela Romero, Elena Reynaga, Rubén Marone, María A Pando
The high prevalence of HIV and syphilis found among female transgender sex workers (FTSWs) in Argentina calls for the study of factors leading to negative health consequences. Given the particular characteristics observed in this population (high marginalization, school dropout, and low adherence to healthcare services), we explored the association of several socio-demographic characteristics with syphilis and HIV infections, and the determinants of condom use. This study revealed that FTSWs from Argentina were exposed to several risk factors decreasing thus their ability to negotiate condom use and leading to increased risk for transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs)...
April 19, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419343/utilizing-a-modified-care-coordination-measurement-tool-to-capture-value-for-a-pediatric-outpatient-parenteral-and-prolonged-oral-antibiotic-therapy-program
#6
Louise E Vaz, Cindi L Farnstrom, Kimberly K Felder, Judith Guzman-Cottrill, Hannah Rosenberg, Richard C Antonelli
Background.: Outpatient parenteral or prolonged oral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) programs reduce inpatient healthcare costs by shifting care to outpatient settings. Care coordination (CC) is a necessary component to successfully transition patients. Our objective was to assess outcomes of provider time spent on nonreimbursable CC activities in a pediatric OPAT program. Methods.: We used a qualitative feasibility pilot design and modified the Care Coordination Measurement Tool...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418265/global-health-resource-utilization-associated-with-pacemaker-complications
#7
Catherine Waweru, Anna Steenrod, Claudia Wolff, Simon Eggington, David Jay Wright, Kathleen W Wyrwich
AIM: To estimate health resource utilization (HRU) associated with the management of pacemaker complications in various healthcare systems. METHODS: Electrophysiologists (EPs) from four geographical regions (Western Europe, Australia, Japan, and North America) were invited to participate. Survey questions focused on HRU in the management of three chronic pacemaker complications (i.e., pacemaker infections requiring extraction, lead fractures/insulation breaches requiring replacement, and upper extremity deep venous thrombosis [DVT])...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418102/efficacy-and-safety-of-combinations-of-mirabegron-and-solifenacin-compared-with-monotherapy-and-placebo-in-patients-with-overactive-bladder-synergy-study
#8
Sender Herschorn, Christopher R Chapple, Paul Abrams, Salvador Arlandis, David Mitcheson, Kyu-Sung Lee, Arwin Ridder, Matthias Stoelzel, Asha Paireddy, Rob van Maanen, Dudley Robinson
Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is characterized by urinary urgency, with or without urgency urinary incontinence, usually accompanied by increased daytime frequency and nocturia, in the absence of urinary tract infection (UTI) or other obvious pathology [1]. Urgency urinary incontinence is present in approximately one-third of cases [2], but is not a prerequisite. However, of all the OAB symptoms, it has the greatest impact on quality of life (QoL) [3, 4], and is associated with significantly lower productivity and higher healthcare resource utilization [5]...
April 18, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416968/safety-and-efficacy-of-resistive-polymer-versus-forced-air-warming-in-total-joint-surgery
#9
Melanie F Sandoval, Paul D Mongan, Michael R Dayton, Craig A Hogan
BACKGROUND: Forced-air warming is used as a mechanism to prevent hypothermia and adverse outcomes associated with hypothermia among patients undergoing surgery. Patient safety in healthcare includes the use of devices and technology that minimize potential adverse events to patients. The present study sought to compare the capabilities of patient warming between two different devices that use different mechanisms of warming: forced-air warming and non-air warming. METHODS: One hundred twenty patients undergoing total hip or total knee arthroplasty received patient warming via a forced warming device or non-air warming fabric conductive material...
2017: Patient Safety in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416961/predictive-factors-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-in-elderly-patients-with-community-onset-pneumonia
#10
Hyeyoung Jwa, Jong Wook Beom, Jong Hoo Lee
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a severe and life-threatening disease in patients with community-onset (CO) pneumonia. However, the current guidelines lack specificity for a screening test for MRSA infection. METHODS: This study was retrospectively conducted in elderly patients aged ≥65 years, who had contracted CO-pneumonia during hospitalization at the Jeju National University Hospital, between January 2012 and December 2014...
April 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414173/affinity-interactions-drive-post-implantation-drug-filling-even-in-the-presence-of-bacterial-biofilm
#11
Erika L Cyphert, Sean T Zuckerman, Horst A von Recum, Julius N Korley
Current post-operative standard of care for surgical procedures, including device implantations, dictates prophylactic antimicrobial therapy, but a percentage of patients still develop infections. Systemic antimicrobial therapy needed to treat such infections can lead to downstream tissue toxicities and generate drug-resistant bacteria. To overcome issues associated with systemic drug administration, a polymer incorporating specific drug affinity has been developed with the potential to be filled or refilled with antimicrobials, post-implantation, even in the presence of bacterial biofilm...
April 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412954/does-a-quality-improvement-campaign-accelerate-take-up-of-new-evidence-a-ten-state-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-institute-for-health-improvement-s-project-joints
#12
Eric C Schneider, Melony E Sorbero, Ann Haas, M Susan Ridgely, Dmitry Khodyakov, Claude M Setodji, Gareth Parry, Susan S Huang, Deborah S Yokoe, Don Goldmann
BACKGROUND: A decade ago, the Institute for Healthcare Improvement pioneered a quality improvement (QI) campaign, leveraging organizational and personal social networks to disseminate new practices. There have been few rigorous studies of the QI campaign approach. METHODS: Project JOINTS (Joining Organizations IN Tackling SSIs) engaged a network of state-based organizations and professionals in a 6-month QI campaign promoting adherence to three new evidence-based practices known to reduce the risk of infection after joint replacement...
April 17, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411947/central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-the-nicu-successes-and-controversies-in-the-quest-for-zero
#13
Renée E Mobley, Matthew J Bizzarro
Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are among the most common healthcare-acquired infections in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) population and are associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, as well as increased healthcare costs, and duration of hospitalization. Over the past decade, numerous local, statewide, and national quality improvement initiatives have resulted in a significant reduction in CLABSI rates. The majority of successful initiatives have utilized similar strategies to implement and sustain their efforts, including education of NICU staff in the principles of quality improvement, creation and implementation of central line insertion and maintenance bundles and methods for assessing compliance, formation of dedicated central line insertion and maintenance teams, and utilization of reliable and effective methods for collecting, analyzing, and displaying data...
April 12, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411069/clostridium-difficile-and-cystic-fibrosis-management-strategies-and-the-role-of-faecal-transplantation
#14
REVIEW
Roisin Dunwoody, Alan Steel, J Landy, Nicholas Simmonds
Clostridium difficile is a bacterial infection that colonises the gut in susceptible hosts. It is associated with exposure to healthcare settings and antibiotic use. It could be assumed that cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are a high-risk group for C.difficile. However, despite high carriage rates, CF patients have low rates of active disease. There are guidelines for the treatment of C.difficile, however little is published specific to treating C.difficile in CF. This article provides an overview of the current management strategies for C...
March 14, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410917/the-relative-contribution-of-provider-and-ed-level-factors-to-variation-among-the-top-15-reasons-for-ed-admission
#15
Imad Khojah, Suhui Li, Qian Luo, Griffin Davis, Jessica E Galarraga, Michael Granovsky, Ori Litvak, Samuel Davis, Robert Shesser, Jesse M Pines
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We examine adult emergency department (ED) admission rates for the top 15 most frequently admitted conditions, and assess the relative contribution in admission rate variation attributable to the provider and hospital. METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of ED encounters (≥18years) from 19 EDs and 603 providers (January 2012-December 2013), linked to the Area Health Resources File for county-level information on healthcare resources...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410761/impact-of-surgical-site-infection-on-healthcare-costs-and-patient-outcomes-a-systematic-review-in-six-european-countries
#16
REVIEW
J M Badia, A L Casey, N Petrosillo, P M Hudson, S A Mitchell, C Crosby
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, SSIs constitute a financial burden and negatively impact on patient quality of life (QoL). AIM: To assess, and evaluate the evidence for, the cost and health-related QoL (HRQoL) burden of SSIs across various surgical specialties in six European countries. METHODS: Electronic databases and conference proceedings were systematically searched to identify studies reporting the cost and HRQoL burden of SSIs...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409276/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-post-operative-adverse-effects-associated-with-mosquito-net-mesh-in-comparison-to-commercial-hernia-mesh-for-inguinal-hernia-repair-in-low-income-countries
#17
REVIEW
T Patterson, P Currie, S Patterson, P Patterson, C Meek, R McMaster
PURPOSE: Abdominal wall hernia is a common surgical condition, with more than 20 million estimated to be repaired each year. Mesh repair is the standard for most repairs; however, the mesh material itself may be a barrier to care, the cost prohibitively high for some populations and healthcare systems. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to produce a pooled comparison between the adverse event rate associated with mosquito net mesh and commercial hernia mesh. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out in accordance with PRISMA guidelines...
April 13, 2017: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407997/the-diagnosis-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-young-children-duty-study-clinical-rule-economic-evaluation
#18
William Hollingworth, John Busby, Christopher C Butler, Kathryn O'Brien, Jonathan A C Sterne, Kerenza Hood, Paul Little, Michael Lawton, Kate Birnie, Emma Thomas-Jones, Kim Harman, Alastair D Hay
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a two-step clinical rule using symptoms, signs and dipstick testing to guide the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in acutely unwell young children presenting to primary care. METHODS: Decision analytic model synthesising data from a multicentre, prospective cohort study (DUTY) and the wider literature to estimate the short-term and lifetime costs and healthcare outcomes (symptomatic days, recurrent UTI, quality adjusted life years) of eight diagnostic strategies...
April 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406952/individual-and-contextual-factors-associated-with-appropriate-healthcare-seeking-behavior-among-febrile-children-in-tanzania
#19
Juma Adinan, Damian J Damian, Neema R Mosha, Innocent B Mboya, Redempta Mamseri, Sia E Msuya
INTRODUCTION: Fever in malaria endemic areas, has been shown to strongly predict malaria infection and is a key symptom influencing malaria treatment. WHO recommended confirmation testing for Plasmodium spp. before initiation of antimalarials due to increased evidence of the decrease of morbidity and mortality from malaria, decreased malaria associated fever, and increased evidence of high prevalence of non-malaria fever. To immediately diagnose and promptly offer appropriate management, caretakers of children with fever should seek care where these services can be offered; in health facilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406271/the-relationship-between-higher-social-trust-and-lower-late-hiv-diagnosis-and-mortality-differs-by-race-ethnicity-results-from-a-state-level-analysis
#20
Yusuf Ransome, Ashley Batson, Sandro Galea, Ichiro Kawachi, Denis Nash, Kenneth H Mayer
INTRODUCTION: Black men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to suffer a disproportionate burden of new HIV diagnoses and mortality. To better understand some of the reasons for these profound disparities, we examined whether the association between social trust and late HIV diagnosis and mortality differed by race/ethnicity, and investigated potential indirect effects of any observed differences. METHODS: We performed generalized structural equation modelling to assess main and interaction associations between trust among one's neighbours in 2009 (i...
April 6, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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