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Diagnostic test

Jo Hee Yoon, Kyung Hoon Kim, Nam Ho Bae, Gap Seop Sim, Yong-Jun Oh, Seok Jae Lee, Tae Jae Lee, Kyoung G Lee, Bong Gill Choi
Paper-based materials have attracted a great deal of attention in sensor applications because they are readily available, biodegradable, inexpensive, and mechanically flexible. Although paper-based sensors have been developed, but important obstacles remian, which include the retention of chemical and mechanical stabilities when paper is wetted. Herein, we develop a simple and scalable process for fabrication of newspaper-based platforms by coating of parylene C and patterning of metal layers. As-prepared parylene C-coated newspaper (PC-paper) provides low-cost, disposable, and mechanically and chemically stable electrochemical platforms for the development of potentiometric ion sensors for the detection of electrolyte cations, such as, H(+) and K(+)...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Min Kwang Byun, Joon Chang, Hyung Jung Kim, Seok Hoon Jeong
BACKGROUND: Molecular-based diagnostic techniques can compensate for the inherent limitations of culture-based microbiology and provide a more comprehensive description of an entire community of bacteria at a particular anatomical site. Using culture-independent DNA-based molecular techniques, the aim of the present study was to characterize, differentiate, and compare the composition of lower airway bacterial microbiome between clinically stable and acutely infected patients with bronchiectasis experiencing exacerbation...
2017: PloS One
Ziningi Jaya, Paul K Drain, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Rapid HIV tests have improved access to HIV diagnosis and treatment by providing quick and convenient testing in rural clinics and resource-limited settings. In this study, we evaluated the quality management system for voluntary and provider-initiated point-of-care HIV testing in primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a quality assessment audit in eleven PHC clinics that offer voluntary HIV testing and counselling in rural KZN, South Africa from August 2015 to October 2016...
2017: PloS One
Binit Kumar Singh, Surendra K Sharma, Rohini Sharma, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Vithal P Myneedu, Mikashmi Kohli, Dinkar Bhasin, Sanjay Sarin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of Genotype MTBDRplus VER 2.0 in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in sputum smear-negative pulmonary TB cases. METHODS: A total of 572 Ziehl-Neelsen sputum smear-negative samples were selected and subjected to line probe assay (Genotype MTBDRplus VER 2.0), and culture in mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT-960). Immunochromatographic test was used to confirm the MTB-complex (MTBC) in culture-positive samples and phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing was done using MGIT-960...
2017: PloS One
Dagmara Rusinek, Ewa Chmielik, Jolanta Krajewska, Michal Jarzab, Malgorzata Oczko-Wojciechowska, Agnieszka Czarniecka, Barbara Jarzab
A rising incidence of thyroid cancers (TCs) mainly small tumors, observed during recent years, lead to many controversies regarding treatment strategies. TCs represent a distinct molecular background and clinical outcome. Although in most cases TCs are characterized by a good prognosis, there are some aggressive forms, which do not respond to standard treatment. There are still some questions, which have to be resolved to avoid dangerous simplifications in the clinical management. In this article, we focused on the current advantages in preoperative molecular diagnostic tests and histopathological examination including noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP)...
August 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Samantha A Reina, Maria M Llabre, Denise C Vidot, Carmen R Isasi, Krista Perreira, Mercedes Carnethon, Christina M Parrinello, Linda C Gallo, Guadalupe X Ayala, Alan Delamater
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, is being diagnosed in youth. Specific diagnostic criteria used to define MetS influence prevalence estimates and populations considered at risk for cardiovascular disease. The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) provide three MetS definitions used in medical research. This study examined concordance among these definitions in 1137 children 10-16 years of age, who participated in the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth...
August 22, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Wilfried Posch, David Heimdörfer, Doris Wilflingseder, Cornelia Lass-Flörl
Delayed initial antifungal therapy is associated with high mortality rates caused by invasive Candida infections, since accurate detection of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast and its identification display a diagnostic challenge. Diagnosis of Candida infections relies on time-consuming methods such as blood cultures, serologic and histopathologic examination. To allow for fast detection and characterization of invasive candidiasis, there is a need to improve diagnostic tools. Trends in diagnostics switch to non-culture-based methods, which allow specified diagnosis within significantly shorter periods of time in order to provide early and appropriate antifungal treatment...
August 22, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
F Bozorg-Ghalati, M Hedayati
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the rarest but extremely aggressive thyroid cancer subtype. This neoplasia is composed of undifferentiated tumor cells with poor prognosis and resistant to common thyroid cancer therapy. Early stage identification of this cancer for prompt treatment is very vital. Presently, cytological evaluation of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) which is known as invasive recognition assay, is the standard diagnostic method for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid tumors. Frequent studies have suggested that using the molecular biomarkers of thyroid cancer tissue alongside cytological examination, increase the accuracy of diagnostic tests...
August 21, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
Pierpaolo Alongi, Laura Evangelista, Federico Caobelli, Marianna Spallino, Luigi Gianolli, Massimo Midiri, Maria Picchio
AIM: The aim of this bicentric retrospective study was to assess the diagnostic performance, the prognostic value, the incremental prognostic value and the impact on therapeutic management of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in patients with suspected recurrent germinal cell testicular carcinoma (GCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the databases of two centers including 31,500 (18)F-FDG PET/CT oncological studies, 114 patients affected by GCT were evaluated in a retrospective study...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Anna Seidel, Bastian Bergauer, Michael Lell, Thomas Buder, Cornelius von Wilmowsky, Eva Dach, Manfred Wichmann, Ragai-Edward Matta
PURPOSE: Advanced imaging modalities, such as multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), greatly facilitate diagnostic medicine. In radiological research, it is important to know how accurately a scanned object is visualized, and whether the methodology leads to image distortion. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether formalin fixation impacted the accuracy of virtual 3D bone models generated via CBCT and MSCT using a software-based evaluation method that excluded human measurement errors...
August 21, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Zhonghe Zhou, Jinghua Zhang, Xiaoqiu Li, Cheng Xia, Yaling Han, Huisheng Chen
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to explore potential cytokines involved in the malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMI) and elucidate their underlying regulatory mechanisms. METHODS: We first developed a cytokine profile by Quantibody(®) Human Cytokine Antibody Array7000 using serum samples from eight patients with MMI and eight patients with non-acute cerebral infarction (NACI). The differentially expressed cytokines were then identified in patients with MMI using two-tailed Student's t-test and Fisher's Exact Test compared with patients with NACI...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
Céline N Bürki, Stephanie A Bridenbaugh, Julia Reinhardt, Christoph Stippich, Reto W Kressig, Maria Blatow
INTRODUCTION: In geriatric clinical diagnostics, gait analysis with cognitive-motor dual tasking is used to predict fall risk and cognitive decline. To date, the neural correlates of cognitive-motor dual tasking processes are not fully understood. To investigate these underlying neural mechanisms, we designed an fMRI paradigm to reproduce the gait analysis. METHODS: We tested the fMRI paradigm's feasibility in a substudy with fifteen young adults and assessed 31 healthy older adults in the main study...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
Victoria Y Y Xu, Mary Bell, Alireza Zahirieh, Janey Hsiao, Kevin Higgins, Zeina Ghorab, Arthur Bookman, Pak Cheung Chan
A 76-year-old man was incidentally found on a CT scan to have lymphadenopathy and bilateral kidney enlargement suggestive of infiltrative renal disease. He was largely asymptomatic but had bilateral salivary and lacrimal gland enlargement. A grossly elevated serum IgG (>70 g/L) with concomitant suppression of other immunoglobulins, a small IgG restriction, and a parotid biopsy revealing lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with slight kappa light chain excess all suggested a lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD)...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
Lulëjeta Ferizi, Fatmir Dragidella, Gloria Staka, Venera Bimbashi, Shefqet Mrasori
AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the current oral health status among schoolchildren in Kosovo aged 6-11 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A study included 5679 schoolchildren aged 6 -11 years, from different towns of Kosovo. Dental health status was evaluated using the World Health Organization (WHO) caries diagnostic criteria for decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT index), for deciduous and permanent dentition. The observed children have answered a number of questions about their oral hygiene, eating habits, and dental visits...
June 2017: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
Ahmad R Abuzinadah, Patricia Kluding, Douglas Wright, Linda DʼSilva, Janelle Ryals, Bill Hendry, Omar Jawdat, Laura Herbelin, April L McVey, Richard J Barohn, Mazen M Dimachkie, Mamatha Pasnoor
OBJECTIVES: To compare the frequency of abnormalities in epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD) and quantitative sudomotor axon reflex (QSART) in patients with diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN). METHODS: Nerve conduction studies, ENFD, and QSART data were obtained pre- and postexercise, in patients enrolled in a prospective diabetic neuropathy study. McNemar's test was applied to compare the yield of ENFD and QSART. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (58 ± 4 years) were enrolled, with 36 data collection points...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
Laurie L Hornberger
The American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement "Options Counseling for the Pregnant Adolescent Patient" recommends the basic content of the pediatrician's counseling for an adolescent facing a new diagnosis of pregnancy. However, options counseling is just one aspect of what may be one of the more challenging scenarios in the pediatric office. Pediatricians must remain alert to the possibility of pregnancy among their adolescent female patients. When discovering symptoms suggestive of pregnancy, pediatricians must obtain a relevant history, perform diagnostic testing and properly interpret the results, and understand the significance of the results from the patient perspective and reveal them to the patient in a sensitive manner...
August 21, 2017: Pediatrics
Luis Fernando Giraldo-Cadavid, Alirio Rodrigo Bastidas, Diana Marcela Padilla-Ortiz, Diana Carolina Concha-Galan, María Angelica Bazurto, Leslie Vargas
INTRODUCTION: Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome (OSA) might have varying degrees of laryngopharyngeal mechanical hyposensitivity that might impair the brain's capacity to prevent airway collapse during sleep. However, this knowledge about sensory compromises in OSA comes from studies performed using methods with little evidence of their validity. Hence, the purpose of this study is to assess the reliability and accuracy of the measurement of laryngopharyngeal mechanosensitivity in patients with OSA using a recently developed laryngopharyngeal endoscopic esthesiometer and rangefinder (LPEER)...
August 21, 2017: BMJ Open
Matthew J Saunders, Tom Wingfield, Marco A Tovar, Matthew R Baldwin, Sumona Datta, Karine Zevallos, Rosario Montoya, Teresa R Valencia, Jon S Friedland, Larry H Moulton, Robert H Gilman, Carlton A Evans
BACKGROUND: Contacts of tuberculosis index cases are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis. Screening, preventive therapy, and surveillance for tuberculosis are underused interventions in contacts, particularly adults. We developed a score to predict risk of tuberculosis in adult contacts of tuberculosis index cases. METHODS: In 2002-06, we recruited contacts aged 15 years or older of index cases with pulmonary tuberculosis who lived in desert shanty towns in Ventanilla, Peru...
August 18, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Oliver Lung, Stephanie A Reimer, Cameron P Goater
Portable user-friendly diagnostic tests can benefit detection and surveillance of wildlife diseases. Here, the performance of a compact POCKIT™ Nucleic Acid Analyzer for detection of Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV), an emerging Iridovirus that is associated with high host mortality in the western tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium) in North America was assessed. Tissue samples from 188 larval tiger salamanders collected from sites in Alberta, Canada were tested by both iiPCR and by conventional PCR. Results of the two assays showed 96...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Paz Pérez-Vázquez, Virginia Franco-Gutiérrez, Andrés Soto-Varela, Juan Carlos Amor-Dorado, Eduardo Martín-Sanz, Manuel Oliva-Domínguez, Jose A Lopez-Escamez
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo is the most frequent episodic vestibular disorder. The purpose of this guide, requested by the committee on otoneurology of the Spanish Society of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, is to supply a consensus document providing practical guidance for the management of BPPV. It is based on the Barany Society criteria for the diagnosis of BPPV. This guideline provides recommendations on each variant of BPPV, with a description of the different diagnostic tests and the therapeutic manoeuvres...
August 18, 2017: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
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