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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490578/investigating-clinical-issues-by-genotyping-of-medically-important-fungi-why-and-how
#1
REVIEW
Alexandre Alanio, Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Dea Garcia-Hermoso, Stéphane Bretagne
Genotyping studies of medically important fungi have addressed elucidation of outbreaks, nosocomial transmissions, infection routes, and genotype-phenotype correlations, of which secondary resistance has been most intensively investigated. Two methods have emerged because of their high discriminatory power and reproducibility: multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) using short tandem repeat (STR) markers. MLST relies on single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the coding regions of housekeeping genes...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482076/genotyping-of-clinical-isolates-of-candida-glabrata-from-iran-by-multilocus-sequence-typing-and-determination-of-population-structure-and-drug-resistance-profile
#2
Saeid Amanloo, Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Mohammad Ghahri, Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh
Candida glabrata is often the second most common causative agent for candidiasis following Candida albicans. Despite the importance of C. glabrata infections, few epidemiological studies have been conducted on this issue. The goal of this study was genotyping of clinical isolates of C. glabrata by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) technique for determination of the endemic prevalent genotypes and any association between isolation source and drug resistance. A total of 50 C. glabrata clinical isolates from Iran were analyzed by MLST and tested for in-vitro susceptibilities to amphotericin-B, caspofungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A4 document guidelines...
May 6, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380072/population-structure-and-molecular-genetic-characterization-of-5-flucytosine-susceptible-and-resistant-clinical-candida-dubliniensis-isolates-from-kuwait
#3
Mohammad Asadzadeh, Suhail Ahmad, Noura Al-Sweih, Ziauddin Khan
Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans are two closely related species. Although C. dubliniensis is less pathogenic, it has a higher propensity to develop resistance to fluconazole and some strains exhibit intrinsic resistance to 5-flucytosine (5-FC). All 5-FC-resistant isolates from Kuwait were previously shown to belong to one of seven internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA-based haplotypes. This study performed fingerprinting of C. dubliniensis isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine population structure of 5-FC-resistant and -susceptible strains and compared the results with data from a global collection of isolates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270801/molecular-fingerprinting-studies-do-not-support-intrahospital-transmission-of-candida-albicans-among-candidemia-patients-in-kuwait
#4
Mohammad Asadzadeh, Suhail Ahmad, Noura Al-Sweih, Ziauddin Khan
Candida albicans, a constituent of normal microbial flora of human mucosal surfaces, is a major cause of candidemia in immunocompromised individuals and hospitalized patients with other debilitating diseases. Molecular fingerprinting studies have suggested nosocomial transmission of C. albicans based on the presence of clusters or endemic genotypes in some hospitals. However, intrahospital strain transmission or a common source of infection has not been firmly established. We performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on 102 C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915298/multilocus-sequence-typing-mlst-analysis-of-candida-albicans-isolates-colonizing-acrylic-dentures-before-and-after-denture-replacement
#5
Khai How Choo, Hee Ji Lee, Nicholas J Knight, Ann R Holmes, Richard D Cannon
Yeast, in particular Candida albicans, are the principal fungal cause of denture stomatitis, and can also be present as a commensal in many individuals. Few studies, however, have examined oral retention of yeast strains over time. We analyzed the yeast present in saliva samples and from the dentures of 10 individuals colonized with yeast but with no signs of stomatitis, before new complete maxillary dentures were fitted and also at 1, 3, and 6 months after denture replacement. Yeast species were presumptively identified on selective agar plates and were present in nine individuals before denture replacement and in six at the 6-month time point...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905002/disseminated-candidiasis-in-a-young-previously-healthy-dog-and-review-of-literature
#6
Nicole Willems, Dirk J Houwers, Yvette M Schlotter, Bart Theelen, Teun Boekhout
BACKGROUND: The reports on disseminated candidiasis in dogs so far describe at least one predisposing factor. This case report, however, highlights candidiasis in a dog without any known predisposition. PATIENT: A 1.5-year-old intact female Hovawart dog was presented with subcutaneous nodules and polyuria/polydipsia. An excisional biopsy revealed a chronic pyogranulomatous and necrotizing inflammation with mycotic structures. The patient became febrile and lethargic, and developed lameness...
June 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855078/echinocandin-resistance-in-candida-species-isolates-from-liver-transplant-recipients
#7
Gwénolé Prigent, Nawel Aït-Ammar, Eric Levesque, Arnaud Fekkar, Jean-Marc Costa, Sarra El Anbassi, Françoise Foulet, Christophe Duvoux, Jean-Claude Merle, Eric Dannaoui, Françoise Botterel
Liver transplant recipients are at risk of invasive fungal infections, especially candidiasis. Echinocandin is recommended as prophylactic treatment but is increasingly associated with resistance. Our aim was to assess echinocandin drug resistance in Candida spp. isolated from liver transplant recipients treated with this antifungal class. For this, all liver-transplanted patients in a University Hospital (Créteil, France) between January and June of 2013 and 2015 were included. Susceptibilities of Candida isolates to echinocandins were tested by Etest and the EUCAST reference method...
February 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456280/multilocus-sequence-typing-of-candida-tropicalis-shows-clonal-cluster-enrichment-in-azole-resistant-isolates-from-patients-in-shanghai-china
#8
Ying Wang, Ce Shi, Jin-Yan Liu, Wen-Jing Li, Yue Zhao, Ming-Jie Xiang
To explore the putative correlation between the multilocus sequence types (MLST) and antifungal susceptibility of clinical Candida tropicalis isolates in Mainland China. Eighty-two clinical C. tropicalis isolates were collected from sixty-nine patients at Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China, from July 2012 to February 2015, and antifungal susceptibility tests were performed. Genetic profiles of those 82 isolates (30 azole-resistant and 52 azole-susceptible) were characterised by multilocus sequence typing...
October 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26849050/clonal-strain-persistence-of-candida-albicans-isolates-from-chronic-mucocutaneous-candidiasis-patients
#9
Alexander J Moorhouse, Claire Rennison, Muhammad Raza, Desa Lilic, Neil A R Gow
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder characterised by susceptibility to chronic Candida and fungal dermatophyte infections of the skin, nails and mucous membranes. Molecular epidemiology studies of CMC infection are limited in number and scope and it is not clear whether single or multiple strains inducing CMC persist stably or are exchanged and replaced. We subjected 42 C. albicans individual single colony isolates from 6 unrelated CMC patients to multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26848577/comparison-of-e-e-farnesol-secretion-and-the-clinical-characteristics-of-candida-albicans-bloodstream-isolates-from-different-multilocus-sequence-typing-clades
#10
Sook-In Jung, Jong Hee Shin, Soo Hyun Kim, Jin Kim, Joo Hee Kim, Min Ji Choi, Eun-Kyung Chung, Kyungwon Lee, Sun Hoe Koo, Hyun Ha Chang, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Christophe d'Enfert
Using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), Candida albicans can be subdivided into 18 different clades. Farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule secreted by C. albicans, is thought to play an important role in the development of C. albicans biofilms and is also a virulence factor. This study evaluated whether C. albicans bloodstream infection (BSI) strains belonging to different MLST clades secrete different levels of E,E-farnesol (FOH) and whether they have different clinical characteristics. In total, 149 C. albicans BSI isolates from ten Korean hospitals belonging to clades 18 (n = 28), 4 (n = 23), 1 (n = 22), 12 (n = 17), and other clades (n = 59) were assessed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26711776/posttreatment-antifungal-resistance-among-colonizing-candida-isolates-in-candidemia-patients-results-from-a-systematic-multicenter-study
#11
R H Jensen, H K Johansen, L M Søes, L E Lemming, F S Rosenvinge, L Nielsen, B Olesen, L Kristensen, E Dzajic, K M T Astvad, M C Arendrup
The prevalence of intrinsic and acquired resistance among colonizing Candida isolates from patients after candidemia was investigated systematically in a 1-year nationwide study. Patients were treated at the discretion of the treating physician. Oral swabs were obtained after treatment. Species distributions and MIC data were investigated for blood and posttreatment oral isolates from patients exposed to either azoles or echinocandins for <7 or ≥ 7 days. Species identification was confirmed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, susceptibility was examined by EUCAST EDef 7...
December 28, 2015: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26587501/molecular-diversity-of-candida-albicans-isolated-from-immunocompromised-patients-based-on-mlst-method
#12
Seyed Mohammad Hosein Afsarian, Hamid Badali, Tahereh Shokohi, Sohrab Najafipour
BACKGROUND: As regards multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method directly analyze the polymorphism within DNA sequences; we performed the first nationwide study on the genotypic relationships of Candida albicans strains obtained from oropharynx and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from immunocompromised patients. METHODS: Fourteen epidemiologically unrelated clinical strains of C. albicans were obtained from three hospitals in Mazandaran Province, Iran (2006 to 2012) from seven patients with pulmonary infections and the rest with oropharyngeal samples of immunocompromised patients...
September 2015: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26548511/evidence-of-genotypic-diversity-among-candida-auris-isolates-by-multilocus-sequence-typing-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-and-amplified-fragment-length-polymorphism
#13
A Prakash, C Sharma, A Singh, P Kumar Singh, A Kumar, F Hagen, N P Govender, A L Colombo, J F Meis, A Chowdhary
Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant nosocomial bloodstream pathogen that has been reported from Asian countries and South Africa. Herein, we studied the population structure and genetic relatedness among 104 global C. auris isolates from India, South Africa and Brazil using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). RPB1, RPB2 and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and D1/D2 regions of the ribosomal DNA were sequenced for MLST...
March 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26333357/molecular-epidemiology-of-invasive-candida-albicans-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-northern-taiwan-from-2003-to-2011
#14
Shao-Hung Wang, Mandy Shen, Hsin-Chieh Lin, Pei-Lun Sun, Hsiu-Jung Lo, Jang-Jih Lu
Candida albicans is a common cause of bloodstream fungal infections in hospitalized patients. To investigate its epidemiology, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on 285 C. albicans bloodstream isolates from patients in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou (CGMHL), Taiwan from 2003 to 2011. Among these isolates, the three major diploid sequence types (DSTs) were 693, 659, and 443 with 19, 16, and 13 isolates, respectively. The 179 DSTs were classified into 16 clades by unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA)...
November 2015: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26324013/candida-albicans-bloodstream-isolates-in-a-german-university-hospital-are-genetically-heterogenous-and-susceptible-to-commonly-used-antifungals
#15
Johanna Huyke, Ronny Martin, Grit Walther, Michael Weber, Kerstin Kaerger, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Johannes Elias, Oliver Kurzai
From an eight-year-span, 99 Candida bloodstream isolates were collected at the University Hospital Wuerzburg, Germany. In this study, all strains were analyzed using molecular and phenotypic typing methods. Confirmatory species identification revealed three isolates that were initially diagnosed as C. albicans to be actually C. dubliniensis. Two isolates contained a mixed culture of C. albicans and C. glabrata, in one of the specimens both species could be separated while it was not possible to recover C. albicans in the other sample...
October 2015: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26148466/clinical-and-molecular-characteristics-of-bloodstream-infections-caused-by-candida-albicans-in-children-from-2003-to-2011
#16
M-H Tsai, S-H Wang, J-F Hsu, L-C Lin, S-M Chu, H-R Huang, M-C Chiang, R-H Fu, J-J Lu, Y-C Huang
We investigated the clinical and molecular characteristics of Candida albicans bloodstream infection (BSI) in children from a tertiary-level medical centre in Taiwan over a 9-year period from January 2003 to December 2011. We performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate the genetic relatedness of these C. albicans BSI isolates. A total of 79 episodes of C. albicans BSI in 76 paediatric patients were identified, including 41 (51.9%) from the paediatric intensive care unit, 24 (30.4%) from the neonatal intensive care unit and 14 (17...
November 2015: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26017038/stepwise-emergence-of-azole-echinocandin-and-amphotericin-b-multidrug-resistance-in-vivo-in-candida-albicans-orchestrated-by-multiple-genetic-alterations
#17
Rasmus Hare Jensen, Karen Marie Thyssen Astvad, Luis Vale Silva, Dominique Sanglard, Rene Jørgensen, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Estella Glintborg Mathiasen, Ghazalel Doroudian, David Scott Perlin, Maiken Cavling Arendrup
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms in consecutive clinical Candida albicans isolates from a single patient displaying stepwise-acquired multidrug resistance. METHODS: Nine clinical isolates (P-1 to P-9) were susceptibility tested by EUCAST EDef 7.2 and Etest. P-4, P-5, P-7, P-8 and P-9 were available for further studies. Relatedness was evaluated by MLST. Additional genes were analysed by sequencing (including FKS1, ERG11, ERG2 and TAC1) and gene expression by quantitative PCR (CDR1, CDR2 and ERG11)...
September 2015: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25919124/multilocus-sequence-typing-of-pathogenic-candida-albicans-isolates-collected-from-a-teaching-hospital-in-shanghai-china-a-molecular-epidemiology-study
#18
Kefei Wu, Tao Luo, Li Li, Qiangqiang Zhang, Junhao Zhu, Qian Gao, Min Chen, Min Zhu
Molecular typing of Candida albicans is important for studying the population structure and epidemiology of this opportunistic yeast, such as population dynamics, nosocomial infections, multiple infections and microevolution. The genetic diversity of C. albicans has been rarely studied in China. In the present study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic diversity and population structure of 62 C. albicans isolates collected from 40 patients from Huashan Hospital in Shanghai, China...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25720562/clinical-and-microbiological-investigation-of-fungemia-from-four-hospitals-in-china
#19
Danfeng Dong, Zhen Li, Lihua Zhang, Cen Jiang, Enqiang Mao, Xuefeng Wang, Yibing Peng
In this study, fungemia cases from four tertiary hospitals located in Shanghai and Anhui province in China from March 2012 to December 2013 were enrolled to investigate clinical features, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and strain relatedness. During the study period, 137 non-duplicate cases and their corresponding isolates were collected. Six different genera of fungi were identified, of which Candida spp. were the most common (126/137, 91.97 %), with C. albicans predominating (48/137, 35.03 %)...
June 2015: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25596113/multilocus-sequence-typing-of-candida-albicans-isolates-from-a-burn-intensive-care-unit-in-iran
#20
Mohammad H Afsarian, Hamid Badali, Teun Boekhout, Tahereh Shokohi, Farzad Katiraee
Burn intensive care unit (BICU) patients are specifically exposed to deep-seated nosocomial infections due to Candida albicans. Superficial carriage of C. albicans is a potential source of infection and dissemination, and typing methods could be useful to trace the different isolates. Multilocus sequence typing is a powerful genotyping method for pathogenic micro-organisms, including Candida albicans. Thirty clinical isolates of C. albicans obtained from 22 patients that were admitted to the BICU from a burn hospital at Sari, Mazandaran state, Iran, were studied epidemiologically by multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
March 2015: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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