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Tumour markers

Himanshi Kapoor, Nalini Yadav, Madhu Chopra, Sushil Chandra Mahapatra, Veena Agrawal
Glioblastoma has been reckoned as the prime cause of death due to brain tumours, being most invasive and lethal. Available treatment options, i.e. surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapies are not effective in improving prognosis, so an alternate therapy is insistent. Plant based drugs are efficient due to their synergistic action, multi-targeted approach and least side effects. Present investigation reports the strong anti-tumorous potential of Nardostachys jatamansi rhizome extract (NJRE) on U87 MG glioblastoma cells...
October 19, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
M T Cardoso, A O Pinheiro, A S Vidane, J B Casals, V C de Oliveira, Njn Gonçalves, D S Martins, C E Ambrósio
The biosafety of innovative procedures that utilize stem cells in regenerative medicine has been addressed in several studies. Previous work has showed no tumour formation following the use of feline and human amniotic membrane-derived stem cells (AMSCs). In contrast, tumour formation was observed when canine AMSCs were utilized. These findings suggested that feline and human, but not canine, AMSCs are suitable for cell transplantation trials. This study aimed to further evaluate the feasibility of utilizing canine AMSCs for transplantation purposes as well as for felines...
October 23, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Wei Wang, Gen-Jin Yang, Ju Zhang, Chen Chen, Zhen-Yu Jia, Jia Li, Wei-Dong Xu
BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoimmune rheumatic disease mostly affecting the axial skeleton. Currently, anti-tumour necrosis factor α (anti-TNF-α) represents an effective treatment for AS that may delay the progression of the disease and alleviate the symptoms if the diagnosis can be made early. Unfortunately, effective diagnostic biomarkers for AS are still lacking; therefore, most patients with AS do not receive timely and effective treatment. The intent of this study was to determine several key metabolites as potential biomarkers of AS using metabolomic methods to facilitate the early diagnosis of AS...
October 22, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Duthika M Mallawaaratchy, Susannah Hallal, Ben Russell, Linda Ly, Saeideh Ebrahimkhani, Heng Wei, Richard I Christopherson, Michael E Buckland, Kimberley L Kaufman
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play key roles in glioblastoma (GBM) biology and represent novel sources of biomarkers that are detectable in the peripheral circulation. Despite this notionally non-invasive approach to assess GBM tumours in situ, a comprehensive GBM EV protein signature has not been described. Here, EVs secreted by six GBM cell lines were isolated and analysed by quantitative high-resolution mass spectrometry. Overall, 844 proteins were identified in the GBM EV proteome, of which 145 proteins were common to EVs secreted by all cell lines examined; included in the curated EV compendium (Vesiclepedia_559; http://microvesicles...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Sara S Franco, Karolina Szczesna, Maria S Iliou, Mohammed Al-Qahtani, Ali Mobasheri, Julianna Kobolák, András Dinnyés
Cancer cells, stem cells and cancer stem cells have for a long time played a significant role in the biomedical sciences. Though cancer therapy is more effective than it was a few years ago, the truth is that still none of the current non-surgical treatments can cure cancer effectively. The reason could be due to the subpopulation called "cancer stem cells" (CSCs), being defined as those cells within a tumour that have properties of stem cells: self-renewal and the ability for differentiation into multiple cell types that occur in tumours...
September 30, 2016: BMC Cancer
Gholamreza Mohajeri, Kavak Hejab, Saba Sheikhbahaei, Mohammadreza Mohajeri, Negar Niknam, Alireza Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Micrometastasis (MM) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is not considered in tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) staging currently and also the prognostic significance of these occult tumoural cells is not proven yet. This study was designed to find whether MM to bone marrow (BM) and/or liver cause upstaging of the tumour according to conventional staging system and if it may alter the survival rate. METHODS: Thirty-eight CRC patients who were candidates of surgical procedure were enrolled in our cross-sectional study...
October 21, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Ingunn Holen, Diane V Lefley, Sheila E Francis, Sarah Rennicks, Steven Bradbury, Robert E Coleman, Penelope Ottewell
BACKGROUND: We have recently identified interleukin 1B (IL-1B) as a potential biomarker for predicting breast cancer patients at increased risk for developing bone metastasis. In mouse models, IL-1B and its receptor (IL-1R1) are upregulated in breast cancer cells that metastasise to bone compared with cells that do not. We have now investigated the functional role of IL-1 by blocking IL-1R signalling with the clinically licensed antagonist, anakinra. METHODOLOGY: 6-week old female BALB/c mice received a subcutaneous or intra-venous injection of MDA-MB-231-IV or MCF7 cells...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Francesca Megiorni, Simona Camero, Simona Ceccarelli, Heather P McDowell, Olga Mannarino, Francesco Marampon, Barry Pizer, Rajeev Shukla, Antonio Pizzuti, Cinzia Marchese, Anna Clerico, Carlo Dominici
Aberrant DNA methylation has been frequently observed in many human cancers, including rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. To date, the expression and function of the de novo DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3B in RMS have not yet been investigated. Our study show for the first time a significant up-regulation of DNMT3B levels in 14 RMS tumour samples and 4 RMS cell lines in comparison to normal skeletal muscle. Transfection of RD and TE671 cells, two in vitro models of embryonal RMS (ERMS), with a synthetic DNMT3B siRNA decreased cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G1 phase, as demonstrated by the reduced expression of Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E2, and by the concomitant up-regulation of the checkpoint regulators p21 and p27...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Andrea Moretti, Jianfeng Li, Stefano Donini, Robert W Sobol, Menico Rizzi, Silvia Garavaglia
The aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3 (ALDH1A3) catalyzes the oxidation of retinal to the pleiotropic factor retinoic acid using NAD(+). The level of ALDHs enzymatic activity has been used as a cancer stem cell marker and seems to correlate with tumour aggressiveness. Elevated ALDH1A3 expression in mesenchymal glioma stem cells highlights the potential of this isozyme as a prognosis marker and drug target. Here we report the first crystal structure of human ALDH1A3 complexed with NAD(+) and the product all-trans retinoic acid (REA)...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
B J Laan, S M van den Heiligenberg, M Hemelaar
BACKGROUND: Classical Meigs' syndrome consists of the triad of an ovarian fibroma, ascites and pleural effusion. A characteristic of the syndrome is that the excess fluid is resorbed after surgical resection of the tumour. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 49-year-old woman was admitted to accident and emergency department in a neglected, cachectic and hypothermic condition. A CT scan revealed an ovarian tumour, ascites and a right-sided pleural effusion. The level of the tumour marker CA-125 was also greatly elevated...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
T Ni, X Sun, B Shan, J Wang, Y Liu, S-L Gu, Y-D Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in patients with endometrial cancer (EC). STUDY DESIGN: This study included 40 patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of high-risk EC between April 2015 and May 2016. Patients were further divided into high-risk (grade 3, non-endometrioid, myometrial invasion ≥1/2 and stage III-IV) and high-intermediate-risk (grade 2-3, endometrioid, myometrial invasion <1/2 and stage I-II) groups according to postoperative pathological results...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
A Drouillard, F Puleo, J B Bachet, S Ouazzani, A Calomme, P Demetter, G Verset, J L Van Laethem, R Maréchal
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest for Notch signalling pathway and particularly Delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4) as potential therapeutic target to improve outcome for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tissue microarray (TMA), we assessed the expression patterns of DLL4, Notch1 and Notch3 in 151 patients from two independent cohorts of resected PDAC. We investigated the prognostic and the predictive significance of these proteins...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Matthew J Murray, Robert A Huddart, Nicholas Coleman
Testicular germ cell tumours (GCTs) are the most common malignancy occurring in young adult men and the incidence of these tumours is increasing. Current research priorities in this field include improving overall survival for patients classified as being 'poor-risk' and reducing late effects of treatment for patients classified as 'good-risk'. Testicular GCTs are broadly classified into seminomas and nonseminomatous GCTs (NSGCTs). The conventional serum protein tumour markers α-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) show some utility in the management of testicular malignant GCT...
October 18, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
Hongdo Do, Daniel Cameron, Ramyar Molania, Bibhusal Thapa, Gareth Rivalland, Paul L Mitchell, Carmel Murone, Thomas John, Anthony Papenfuss, Alexander Dobrovic
Identifying circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) for monitoring of cancer therapy is dependent on the development of readily designed, sensitive cancer-specific DNA markers. Genomic rearrangements that are present in the vast majority of cancers provide such markers.Tumour DNA isolated from two fresh-frozen lung tumours underwent whole genome sequencing. Genomic rearrangements were detected using a new computational algorithm, GRIDSS. Four genomic rearrangements from each tumour were chosen for further study using rearrangement-specific primers...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Zoraida Andreu, Renan Otta Oshiro, Alberto Redruello, Soraya López-Martín, Cristina Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Esperanza Morato, Ana Isabel Marina, Carlos Olivier Gómez, María Yáñez-Mó
Bladder cancer is the second most frequent malignancy of the urinary tract after prostate cancer. Current diagnostic techniques, such as cystoscopy and biopsies are highly invasive and accompanied of undesirable side effects. Moreover, there are no suitable biomarkers for relapse or progression prognosis. We analysed whether the specific composition of microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that urothelial tumor cells of bladder mucosa release into the urine, could reflect their pathologic condition...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Samuel B Pattle, Natasa Utjesanovic, Athena Togo, Lucy Wells, Brendan Conn, Hannah Monaghan, Elizabeth Junor, Ingolfur Johannessen, Kate Cuschieri, Simon Talbot
Squamous cell carcinomas of the hypopharynx (HPSCC) and oropharynx (OPSCC) have markedly different patient outcomes. Differences in HPV prevalence between these two patient groups may account for some of this difference, but other molecular markers of prognosis or pathological phenotype have not been established. Copy number gain of oncogenes is a well-established molecular change contributing to HNSCC development. Quantitative PCR was used to explore copy number gains of specific genes (3q - PIK3CA, TP63; 11q13...
October 17, 2016: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
Yaser Atlasi, Rubina Noori, Ivana Marolin, Patrick Franken, Joana Brandao, Katharina Biermann, Paola Collini, Mariam Grigorian, Eugene Lukanidin, Noona Ambartsumian, Riccardo Fodde
INTRODUCTION: S100a4 is a calcium-binding protein belonging to the family of S100-proteins, highly expressed in different stromal cell types. S100A4 has been reported as a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer in association with tumour progression and metastasis. METHODS: In this study, we analysed the in vivo role of S100a4 in intestinal tumour initiation and progression using different transgenic and knockout mouse models. RESULTS: We found that genetic ablation or overexpression of S100a4 in both Apc- and Smad4-mutant mice do not affect tumour initiation in the intestinal tract...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Vibe Ballegaard, Ulrik Ralfkiaer, Karin K Pedersen, Malene Hove, Simon Koplev, Peter Brændstrup, Lars P Ryder, Hans O Madsen, Jan Gerstoft, Kirsten Grønbæk, Susanne D Nielsen
OBJECTIVE: Inflammation may contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-1 infection. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of inflammation. In treated HIV-1-infected individuals, we aimed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs with known roles in inflammation and CVD risk, and to investigate associations between these and systemic inflammation. METHODS: In a screening cohort including 14 HIV-1-infected individuals and nine uninfected controls microarray profiling was performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Christian H Roux, Violaine Foltz, Emmanuel Maheu, Gabriel Baron, Frederique Gandjbakhch, Cédric Lukas, Daniel Wendling, Damien Loeuille, Pierre Lafforgue, Liana Euler-Ziegler, Pascal Richette, Xavier Chevalier
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between clinical findings, biologic biomarkers, conventional radiography and MRI in patients with painful hand OA. METHODS: The following patient baseline data from the DORA study (evaluating anti-TNF-α agents against painful hand OA) were used: clinical assessment (pain, swelling, stiffness and function: Dreiser functional hand index [FIHOA] and Cochin hand functional scale [CHFS]); measurement of biomarkers (cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), type IIA collagen N-propeptid (PIINP), hyaluronic acid (HA), ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (usCRP), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and urinary CTXII); radiological staging (Verbruggen, Kallman, Kellgren-Lawrence); anatomical evaluation by contrast-enhanced MRI of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints of dominant hand...
September 18, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Mona Dixon Gundersen, Rasmus Goll, Johanna Hol, Trine Olsen, Renathe Rismo, Sveinung W Sørbye, Olav Sundnes, Guttorm Haraldsen, Jon Florholmen
Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a cytokine preferentially elevated in acute ulcerative colitis (UC), inferring a role in its pathogenesis. The role of IL-33 in intestinal inflammation is incompletely understood, with both pro-inflammatory and regulatory properties described. There are also conflicting reports on cellular sources and subcellular location of IL-33 in the colonic mucosa, justifying a closer look at IL-33 expression in well-defined clinical stages of UC. A total of 50 study participants (29 UC patients and 21 healthy controls) were included from a prospective cohort of inflammatory bowel disease patients treated to disease remission with infliximab, a tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF) inhibitor...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
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