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Tumour markers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054406/a-novel-puromycin-decorporation-method-to-quantify-skeletal-muscle-protein-breakdown-a-proof-of-concept-study
#1
Hannah Crossland, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton, Daniel J Wilkinson
The precise roles that the major proteolytic pathways play in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass remain incompletely understood, in part due to technical limitations associated with current techniques used to quantify muscle protein breakdown (MPB). We aimed to develop a method to assess MPB in cells, based on loss of puromycin labelling of translated polypeptide chains. Following an initial 24 h incubation period with puromycin (1 μM), loss of puromycin labelling from murine C2C12 myotubes was assessed over 48 h, both in the presence or absence of protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX)...
October 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050331/a-glo10-score-for-the-prediction-of-prognosis-in-high-grade-gliomas
#2
Feng Chen, Peng Peng, Yi Zhou, Zhen-Yu Yang, Hai-Quan Zhang, Xiang-Sheng Ao, Da-Quan Zhou, Chun-Xiang Xiang
Gliomas are the most common lethal brain tumours and remain great heterogeneity in terms of histopathology and clinical outcomes. Among them, glioblastomas are the most aggressive tumours that lead to a median of less than one-year survival in patients. Despite the little improvement of in diagnosis and treatments for last decades, there is an urgent need for prognostic markers to distinguish high- and low-risk patients before treatment.Here, we generated a list of genes associated with glioblastoma progressions and then performed a comprehensive statistical modelling strategy to derive a 10-gene (GLO10) score from genome wide expression profiles of a large glioblastoma cohort (n=844)...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050295/a-comprehensive-study-of-circulating-tumour-cells-at-the-moment-of-prostate-cancer-diagnosis-biological-and-clinical-implications-of-egfr-ar-and-snps
#3
Ignacio Puche-Sanz, María J Alvarez-Cubero, Manrique Pascual-Geler, Alba Rodríguez-Martínez, Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez, José L García-Puche, José Expósito, Inmaculada Robles-Fernández, Carmen Entrala-Bernal, José A Lorente, José M Cózar-Olmo, María J Serrano
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been recently accepted as prognostic markers in metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). However, very few studies have analyzed their role in early-stage PCa. The aim of this research is to study the value of CTCs at the moment of PCa diagnosis and to identify different subpopulations of CTCs. Patients with PSA value > 4 ng/ml and clinical suspicion of PCa were included. Samples were collected immediately before prostatic biopsy. CTCs were isolated by immunomagnetic technique using a multi-CK specific antibody...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048400/cd10-aldh-cells-are-the-sole-cisplatin-resistant-component-of-a-novel-ovarian-cancer-stem-cell-hierarchy
#4
Brendan Ffrench, Claudia Gasch, Karsten Hokamp, Cathy Spillane, Gordon Blackshields, Thamir Mahmoud Mahgoub, Mark Bates, Louise Kehoe, Aoibhinn Mooney, Ronan Doyle, Brendan Doyle, Dearbhaile O'Donnell, Noreen Gleeson, Bryan T Hennessy, Britta Stordal, Ciaran O'Riain, Helen Lambkin, Sharon O'Toole, John J O'Leary, Michael F Gallagher
It is long established that tumour-initiating cancer stem cells (CSCs) possess chemoresistant properties. However, little is known of the mechanisms involved, particularly with respect to the organisation of CSCs as stem-progenitor-differentiated cell hierarchies. Here we aimed to elucidate the relationship between CSC hierarchies and chemoresistance in an ovarian cancer model. Using a single cell-based approach to CSC discovery and validation, we report a novel, four-component CSC hierarchy based around the markers cluster of differentiation 10 (CD10) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)...
October 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047105/%C3%AE-secretase-inhibitor-reduces-immunosuppressive-cells-and-enhances-tumour-immunity-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
Liang Mao, Zhi-Li Zhao, Guang-Tao Yu, Lei Wu, Wei-Wei Deng, Yi-Cun Li, Jian-Feng Liu, Lin-Lin Bu, Bing Liu, Ashok B Kulkarni, Wen-Feng Zhang, Lu Zhang, Zhi-Jun Sun
Immune evasion is a hallmark feature of cancer, and it plays an important role in tumour initiation and progression. In addition, tumour immune evasion severely hampers the desired antitumour effect in multiple cancers. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of the Notch pathway in immune evasion in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) microenvironment. We first demonstrated that Notch1 signalling was activated in a Tgfbr1/Pten-knockout HNSCC mouse model. Notch signalling inhibition using a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI-IX, DAPT) decreased tumour burden in the mouse model after prophylactic treatment...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046323/european-society-of-endocrinology-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-management-of-aggressive-pituitary-tumours-and-carcinomas
#6
Gerald Raverot, Pia Burman, Ann I McCormack, A P Heaney, Stephan Petersenn, Vera Popovic, Jacqueline Trouillas, Olaf Dekkers
BACKGROUND: Pituitary tumours are common and easily treated by surgery or medical treatment in most cases. However, a small subset of pituitary tumours does not respond to standard medical treatment and presents with multiple local recurrences (aggressive pituitary tumours) and in rare occasion with metastases (pituitary carcinoma). The present ESE guideline aims to provide clinical guidance on diagnosis, treatment and follow-up in aggressive pituitary tumours and carcinomas. METHODS: We decided upfront, while acknowledging literature on aggressive pituitary tumours and carcinomas is scarce, to systematically review the literature according to the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system...
October 18, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038934/characterisation-of-fibrosis-in-chemically-induced-rat-mammary-carcinomas-using-multi-modal-endogenous-contrast-mri-on-a-1-5t-clinical-platform
#7
Neil P Jerome, Jessica K R Boult, Matthew R Orton, James A d'Arcy, Ashutosh Nerurkar, Martin O Leach, Dow-Mu Koh, David J Collins, Simon P Robinson
OBJECTIVES: To determine the ability of multi-parametric, endogenous contrast MRI to detect and quantify fibrosis in a chemically-induced rat model of mammary carcinoma. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=18) were administered with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea; resulting mammary carcinomas underwent nine-b-value diffusion-weighted (DWI), ultrashort-echo (UTE) and magnetisation transfer (MT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a clinical 1.5T platform, and associated quantitative MR parameters were calculated...
October 16, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038332/gata-transcription-factors-in-testicular-adrenal-rest-tumours
#8
Manon Engels, Paul N Span, Rod T Mitchell, Joop J T M Heuvel, Monica A Marijnissen-van Zanten, Antonius Eduard van Herwaarden, Christina A Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Egbert Oosterwijk, Nike M Stikkelbroeck, Lee B Smith, Fred C G J Sweep, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten
Testicular adrenal rest tumours (TARTs) are benign adrenal-like testicular tumours that frequently occur in male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Recently, GATA transcription factors have been linked to the development of TARTs in mice. The aim of our study was to determine GATA expression in human TARTs and other steroidogenic tissues. We determined GATA expression in TARTs (n=16), Leydig cell tumours (LCTs; n=7), adrenal (foetal (n=6) + adult (n=10)), and testis (foetal (n=13) + adult (n=8))...
October 16, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038175/predictability-of-recurrence-using-immunohistochemistry-to-delineate-surgical-margins-in-mucosal-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-prism-hnscc-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-and-bilateral-study-in-australia-and-india
#9
Sheela Joseph, Rajinikanth Janakiraman, Geeta Chacko, Rama Jayaraj, Mahiban Thomas, Meera Thomas, Sramana Mukhopadhyay
OBJECTIVES: Treatment failure and poor 5-year survival in mucosal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has remained unchanged for decades mainly due to advanced stage of presentation and high rates of recurrence. Incomplete surgical removal of the tumour, attributed to lack of reliable methods to delineate the surgical margins, is a major cause of disease recurrence. The predictability of recurrence using immunohistochemistry (IHC) to delineate surgical margins (PRISM) in mucosal HNSCC study aims to redefine margin status by identifying the true extent of the tumour at the molecular level by performing IHC with molecular markers, eukaryotic initiation factor, eIF4Eand tumour suppressor gene, p53, on the surgical margins and test the use of Lugol's iodine and fluorescence visualisation prior to the wide local excision...
October 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036902/dna-adducts-formed-by-aristolochic-acid-are-unique-biomarkers-of-exposure-and-explain-the-initiation-phase-of-upper-urothelial-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Marie Stiborová, Volker M Arlt, Heinz H Schmeiser
Aristolochic acid (AA) is a plant alkaloid that causes aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) and Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), unique renal diseases frequently associated with upper urothelial cancer (UUC). This review summarizes the significance of AA-derived DNA adducts in the aetiology of UUC leading to specific A:T to T:A transversion mutations (mutational signature) in AAN/BEN-associated tumours, which are otherwise rare in individuals with UCC not exposed to AA. Therefore, such DNA damage produced by AA-DNA adducts is one rare example of the direct association of exposure and cancer development (UUC) in humans, confirming that the covalent binding of carcinogens to DNA is causally related to tumourigenesis...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035356/circulating-tumour-dna-methylation-markers-for-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Rui-Hua Xu, Wei Wei, Michal Krawczyk, Wenqiu Wang, Huiyan Luo, Ken Flagg, Shaohua Yi, William Shi, Qingli Quan, Kang Li, Lianghong Zheng, Heng Zhang, Bennett A Caughey, Qi Zhao, Jiayi Hou, Runze Zhang, Yanxin Xu, Huimin Cai, Gen Li, Rui Hou, Zheng Zhong, Danni Lin, Xin Fu, Jie Zhu, Yaou Duan, Meixing Yu, Binwu Ying, Wengeng Zhang, Juan Wang, Edward Zhang, Charlotte Zhang, Oulan Li, Rongping Guo, Hannah Carter, Jian-Kang Zhu, Xiaoke Hao, Kang Zhang
An effective blood-based method for the diagnosis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been developed. Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) carrying cancer-specific genetic and epigenetic aberrations may enable a noninvasive 'liquid biopsy' for diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. Here, we identified an HCC-specific methylation marker panel by comparing HCC tissue and normal blood leukocytes and showed that methylation profiles of HCC tumour DNA and matched plasma ctDNA are highly correlated...
October 9, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034347/using-a-weaning-immunosuppression-protocol-in-liver-transplantation-recipients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-compromise-between-the-risk-of-recurrence-and-the-risk-of-rejection
#12
REVIEW
Roberta Angelico, Alessandro Parente, Tommaso Maria Manzia
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence rate after liver transplantation (LT) is still up to 15-20%, despite a careful selection of candidates and optimization of the management within the waiting list. To reduce tumour recurrence, the currently adopted post-transplant strategies are based on the administration of a tailored immunosuppression (IS) regimen. Drug-induced depression of the immune system is essential in preventing graft rejection, however has a well-established association with oncogenesis. The immune system has a key role as a defending mechanism against cancer development, preventing vascular invasion and metastasis...
2017: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034202/wound-healing-potentials-of-thevetia-peruviana-antioxidants-and-inflammatory-markers-criteria
#13
Nazneen Rahman, Haseebur Rahman, Mir Haris, Riaz Mahmood
Thevetia peruviana is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of external wounds, infected area, ring worms, tumours etc. in traditional system of medicine. The aim of the study was to evaluate the wound healing potentials of T. peruviana leaves hexane (LH) and fruit rind (FW) water extracts and to prove the folkloric claims. The antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials could be important strategies in defining potent wound healing drug. Based on these approaches the current study was designed using incision, excision and dead space wound models with the biochemical, antioxidant enzymes and inflammatory marker analysis...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032942/aspartate-aminotransferase-to-platelet-ratio-predicts-response-to-transarterial-chemoembolisation-and-prognosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients
#14
T Tang, J-L Qiu, G-W Li, M-P Huang, Y Li, Y-J Li, S-Z Gu
AIM: To evaluate the value of the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 315 patients were enrolled, who were randomly divided into the training cohort (n=158) and the validation cohort (n=157). The optimal cut-off value of the APRI was determined using the X-tile software in the training cohort, and was validated in the validation cohort...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032579/incidentally-detected-testicular-lesions-10-mm-in-diameter-can-orchidectomy-be-avoided
#15
Glenda Scandura, Clare Verrill, Andrew Protheroe, Johnson Joseph, Wendy Ansell, Anju Sahdev, Jonathan Shamash, Daniel M Berney
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pathology of excised testicular lesions <10 mm. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The pathological reports of 2,681 patients from Barts Health NHS Trust and Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (OUHFT) were reviewed as part of a service evaluation audit from January 2003 to May 2016. Cases with a maximum diameter of <10 mm were selected. Clinical features were also accessed, where available, to look for patient demographics, pre-diagnostic levels of serum markers, ultrasonograophic (US) findings and clinical details...
October 15, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030990/novel-nanohydrogel-of-hyaluronic-acid-loaded-with-quercetin-alone-and-in-combination-with-temozolomide-as-new-therapeutic-tool-cd44-targeted-based-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#16
M Barbarisi, R V Iaffaioli, E Armenia, L Schiavo, G De Sena, S Tafuto, A Barbarisi, V Quagliariello
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and aggressive primary brain cancer with only ∼3% of patients surviving more than 3 years from diagnosis. Several mechanisms are involved in drug and radiation resistance to anticancer treatments and among them one of the most important factors is the tumour microenvironment status, characterised by cancer cell hypersecretion of interleukins and cytokines. The aim of our research was the synthesis of a nanocarrier of quercetin combined with temozolomide, to enhance the specificity and efficacy of this anticancer drug commonly used in glioblastoma treatment...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026624/first-case-of-human-peritoneal-cysticercosis-mimicking-peritoneal-carcinosis-necessity-of-laparoscopy-and-histologic-assessment-for-the-correct-diagnosis
#17
Martina Rudelius, Klaus Brehm, Martin Poelcher, Christoph Spinner, Andreas Rosenwald, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa
Introduction. Correct diagnosis of peritoneal infectious disease can be extremely difficult due to non-specific clinical features. Thus, careful assessment with thorough histopathological work-up is essential. Here, we report the first case of human peritoneal cysticercosis mimicking peritoneal carcinosis. Case presentation. The patient presented with recurring ascites and a tumour in the Douglas cavity accompanied by elevated tumour markers. There were no signs of systemic infection. On laparoscopy, the tumour was resected completely...
June 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024941/in-depth-proteomic-analysis-of-tissue-interstitial-fluid-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-serum-biomarker-discovery
#18
Jian Zhang, Ning Hao, Wei Liu, Min Lu, Longqin Sun, Ning Chen, Miantao Wu, Xiaohang Zhao, Baocai Xing, Wei Sun, Fuchu He
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver. New serum biomarkers for HCC screening are needed, especially for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) negative patients. As a proximal fluid between body fluids and intracellular fluid, tissue interstitial fluid (TIF) is a suitable source for serum biomarker discovery. METHODS: Sixteen paired TIF samples from HCC tumour and adjacent non-tumour tissues were analysed by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) method...
October 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024035/the-role-of-human-papillomavirus-in-p16-positive-oral-cancers
#19
Simone Belobrov, Alyssa M Cornall, Richard J Young, Kendrick Koo, Christopher Angel, David Wiesenfeld, Danny Rischin, Suzanne M Garland, Michael McCullough
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to identify the presence and frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) nucleic acid in p16 positive oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), to assess if the virus were transcriptionally active, and to assess the utility of p16 overexpression as a surrogate marker for HPV in OSCC. METHODS: Forty-six OSCC patients treated between 2007 and 2011 with available formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens were included. Twenty-three patients were positive for p16 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and these were matched with 23 patients with p16 negative tumours...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023897/atf1-and-ras-in-exosomes-are-potential-clinical-diagnostic-markers-for-cervical-cancer
#20
Yanhua Shi, Wei Wang, Baozhi Yang, Hongge Tian
Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. It is highly lethal yet can be treated when found in early stage. Thus, early detection is of significant important for early diagnosis of cervical cancer. Exosomes have been used as biomarkers in clinical diagnosis. It is unknown that whether blood exosomes associated with cervical cancer can be detected and if these exosomes can accurately represent the developmental stage of cervical cancer. Mouse models were made out of a relapsed cervical cancer patient's tumour sample for original and recurrent cervical cancer, and gene analysis in both tumours and exosomes in these mouse models were performed...
October 10, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
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