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Tumour markers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450927/histological-and-immunohistochemical-evaluation-of-granulosa-cells-during-different-stages-of-folliculogenesis-in-bovine-ovaries
#1
App Teh, U Z Izzati, K Mori, N Fuke, T Hirai, G Kitahara, R Yamaguchi
Bovine granulosa cells (GC) vary in their morphological aspect during different stages of folliculogenesis. In this study, 10 morphologically normal bovine ovaries were collected to study the structural aspects of different stages of GC using intermediate filament protein antibodies including cytokeratin AE1/AE3 (AE1/AE3), vimentin, nectin-4 and desmin. Hormonal immunolocalization was assessed using the immunomarkers anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin alpha. In addition, tumour markers and proliferation markers using c-erbB-2 oncoprotein and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, respectively, were investigated...
February 15, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449935/pleomorphic-liposarcoma-of-bone-a-rare-primary-malignant-bone-tumour
#2
G L Tiemeier, J M Brown, S E Pratap, C McCarthy, A Kastrenopoulou, K Bradley, S Wilson, Z Orosz, C L M H Gibbons, U Oppermann, N A Athanasou
Background: Liposarcoma is an extremely rare primary bone sarcoma. Case presentation: We report a case of primary pleomorphic liposarcoma that arose in an 18 year old male in the metaphysis of the left tibia. Plain radiographs showed a partly sclerotic lesion and MR imaging a heterogeneous tumour predominantly isointense on T1- and high-signal on T2-weighted sequences with focal areas of increased T1 signal that suppressed with fat saturation. PET/CT showed marked FDG uptake (SUV = 17...
2018: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449673/the-predictive-and-prognostic-potential-of-plasma-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-tert-rna-in-rectal-cancer-patients
#3
Enrica Rampazzo, Paola Del Bianco, Roberta Bertorelle, Caterina Boso, Alessandro Perin, Giovanna Spiro, Francesca Bergamo, Claudio Belluco, Angela Buonadonna, Elisa Palazzari, Sara Leonardi, Antonino De Paoli, Salvatore Pucciarelli, Anita De Rossi
BACKGROUND: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery is the standard care for locally advanced rectal cancer, but tumour response to CRT and disease outcome are variable. The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of plasma telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) levels in predicting tumour response and clinical outcome. METHODS: 176 rectal cancer patients were included. Plasma samples were collected at baseline (before CRT=T0), 2 weeks after CRT was initiated (T1), post-CRT and before surgery (T2), and 4-8 months after surgery (T3) time points...
February 15, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449057/prognostic-significance-of-human-papilloma-virus-and-p16-expression-in-patients-with-vulvar-squamous-cell-carcinoma-who-received-radiotherapy
#4
M L Yap, G Allo, J Cuartero, M Pintilie, S Kamel-Reid, J Murphy, H Mackay, B Clarke, A Fyles, M Milosevic
AIMS: Human papilloma virus (HPV) has been identified as an aetiological agent in a subset of patients with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). The prognostic role of HPV status in VSCC patients treated with radiotherapy has not yet been determined. We investigated the associations between HPV, p16 and clinical outcome in these women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing potentially curative radiation treatment for VSCC at a single institution from 2000 to 2009 were retrospectively identified...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449053/genetic-and-epigenetic-alterations-in-the-tumour-tumour-margins-and-normal-buccal-mucosa-of-patients-with-oral-cancer
#5
N Eljabo, N Nikolic, J Carkic, D Jelovac, M Lazarevic, N Tanic, J Milasin
Despite adequate surgical resection, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) shows a high rate of recurrence and metastasis, which could be explained by the presence of molecular alterations in seemingly normal tumour margins and the entire oral mucosa. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the presence of gene amplification (c-Myc and HER2) and promoter methylation (p14 and p16) in the tumours, tumour margins, and unaffected oral mucosa of 40 OSCC patients, and (2) to evaluate the possibility of using these alterations as prognostic markers...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448999/quantitative-perineural-invasion-is-a-prognostic-marker-in-prostate-cancer
#6
Sabine Lubig, Thore Thiesler, Stefan Müller, Roland Vorreuther, Norbert Leipner, Glen Kristiansen
This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of a quantitative, detailed, yet practical analysis of perineural invasion in radical prostatectomy specimens in a high-risk prostate cancer cohort. A total of 114 patients with prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2000 and 2013 were analysed. Using S100 protein immunohistochemistry assisted in the detection of nerves. In the area of closest proximity of the tumour to the dorso-lateral margins, nerves were counted and the infiltration of nerves was categorised (0-3)...
February 12, 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445035/comparative-dynamics-of-microglial-and-glioma-cell-motility-at-the-infiltrative-margin-of-brain-tumours
#7
Joseph Juliano, Orlando Gil, Andrea Hawkins-Daarud, Sonal Noticewala, Russell C Rockne, Jill Gallaher, Susan Christine Massey, Peter A Sims, Alexander R A Anderson, Kristin R Swanson, Peter Canoll
Microglia are a major cellular component of gliomas, and abundant in the centre of the tumour and at the infiltrative margins. While glioma is a notoriously infiltrative disease, the dynamics of microglia and glioma migratory patterns have not been well characterized. To investigate the migratory behaviour of microglia and glioma cells at the infiltrative edge, we performed two-colour time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of brain slices generated from a platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGFB)-driven rat model of glioma, in which glioma cells and microglia were each labelled with one of two different fluorescent markers...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440231/-ex-vivo-activity-of-cytotoxic-drugs-and-targeted-agents-in-small-intestinal-nets
#8
Kosmas Daskalakis, Olov Norlen, Andreas Karakatsanis, Per Hellman, Rolf Larsson, Peter Nygren, Peter Stalberg
Small intestinal endocrine tumours (SI-NETs) are generally considered resistant to systemic treatment. To date, predictive markers for drug activity are lacking. Tumour samples from 27 patients with SI-NETs were analyzed ex vivo for sensitivity to a panel of cytotoxic drugs and targeted agents using a short-term total cell kill assay. Samples of renal cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC), ovarian cancer, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were included for comparison. For the SI-NET subset, drug sensitivity was analyzed in relation to clinico-pathological variables and pre-treatment biomarkers...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439245/downregulation-of-spink13-promotes-metastasis-by-regulating-upa-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#9
Shengyun Cai, Pei Zhang, Suhe Dong, Li Li, Jianming Cai, Mingjuan Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in women, and it is difficult to diagnose at an early stage. The purpose of this study was to explore the prognostic biological markers of OC. METHODS: Univariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify genes related to OC prognosis from the Cancer Genome Atlas(TCGA) database. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyse the level of SPINK13 in OC and normal tissues. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion were performed using MTT assay, flow cytometric analysis and Transwell assay, respectively...
February 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438631/plasma-endocannabinoid-levels-in-lean-overweight-and-obese-humans-relationships-with-intestinal-permeability-markers-inflammation-and-incretin-secretion
#10
Tanya J Little, Nada Cvijanovic, Nicholas V DiPatrizio, Donovan A Argueta, Christopher K Rayner, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Richard L Young
INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Intestinal production of endocannabinoid and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is impaired in high-fat diet/obese rodents, leading to reduced satiety. Such diets also alter the intestinal microbiome in association with enhanced intestinal permeability and inflammation, however little is known of these effects in humans. This study aimed to: (i) evaluate effects of lipid on plasma anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and OEA in humans, and (ii) examine relationships with intestinal permeability, inflammation markers and incretin hormone secretion...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438361/a-first-in-human-phase-i-study-to-determine-the-maximum-tolerated-dose-of-the-oral-src-abl-inhibitor-azd0424
#11
Victoria K Woodcock, Sally Clive, Richard H Wilson, Vicky M Coyle, Michael R L Stratford, Lisa K Folkes, Richard Eastell, Claire Barton, Paul Jones, Shamim Kazmi-Stokes, Helen Turner, Sarah Halford, Adrian L Harris, Mark R Middleton
BACKGROUND: Src is involved in cancer invasion and metastasis. AZD0424, an oral inhibitor of Src and ABL1, has shown evidence of anti-tumour activity in pre-clinical studies. METHODS: A phase Ia, dose escalation study was performed to assess the safety of continuous oral dosing with AZD0424 in advanced solid tumours. Secondary objectives included investigation of AZD0424 pharmacokinetics, effect on Src activity using markers of bone turnover, and anti-tumour activity...
February 13, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437871/gut-microbiota-modulate-t-cell-trafficking-into-human-colorectal-cancer
#12
Eleonora Cremonesi, Valeria Governa, Jesus Francisco Glaus Garzon, Valentina Mele, Francesca Amicarella, Manuele Giuseppe Muraro, Emanuele Trella, Virginie Galati-Fournier, Daniel Oertli, Silvio Raffael Däster, Raoul A Droeser, Benjamin Weixler, Martin Bolli, Raffaele Rosso, Ulrich Nitsche, Nina Khanna, Adrian Egli, Simone Keck, Julia Slotta-Huspenina, Luigi M Terracciano, Paul Zajac, Giulio Cesare Spagnoli, Serenella Eppenberger-Castori, Klaus-Peter Janssen, Lubor Borsig, Giandomenica Iezzi
OBJECTIVE: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) favour survival in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemotactic factors underlying their recruitment remain undefined. We investigated chemokines attracting T cells into human CRCs, their cellular sources and microenvironmental triggers. DESIGN: Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers, chemokines and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in fresh CRC samples and corresponding tumour-free tissues...
February 6, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437870/cpt2-downregulation-adapts-hcc-to-lipid-rich-environment-and-promotes-carcinogenesis-via-acylcarnitine-accumulation-in-obesity
#13
Naoto Fujiwara, Hayato Nakagawa, Kenichiro Enooku, Yotaro Kudo, Yuki Hayata, Takuma Nakatsuka, Yasuo Tanaka, Ryosuke Tateishi, Yohko Hikiba, Kento Misumi, Mariko Tanaka, Akimasa Hayashi, Junji Shibahara, Masashi Fukayama, Junichi Arita, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Hadassa Hirschfield, Yujin Hoshida, Yoshihiro Hirata, Motoyuki Otsuka, Keisuke Tateishi, Kazuhiko Koike
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic reprogramming of tumour cells that allows for adaptation to their local environment is a hallmark of cancer. Interestingly, obesity-driven and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-driven hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mouse models commonly exhibit strong steatosis in tumour cells as seen in human steatohepatitic HCC (SH-HCC), which may reflect a characteristic metabolic alteration. DESIGN: Non-tumour and HCC tissues obtained from diethylnitrosamine-injected mice fed either a normal or a high-fat diet (HFD) were subjected to comprehensive metabolome analysis, and the significance of obesity-mediated metabolic alteration in hepatocarcinogenesis was evaluated...
February 6, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436004/homeobox-transcriptional-factor-engrailed-homeobox-1-is-specifically-expressed-in-normal-and-neoplastic-sweat-gland-cells
#14
Keiko Miura, Takumi Akashi, Noboru Ando, Shinya Ayabe, Kou Kayamori, Takeshi Namiki, Yoshinobu Eishi
AIM: A number of homeobox transcriptional factors are utilized as organ-specific markers in the histopathological diagnosis of neoplasms. We have screened a homeobox gene that is specifically expressed in normal sweat gland cells and is useful for the histopathological diagnosis of sweat gland neoplasms. METHODS AND RESULTS: By screening an open database resource of The Human Protein Atlas, 37 genes among the 235 homeobox transcriptional factors were found to be specifically expressed in the skin...
February 12, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434890/meg3-inhibits-proliferation-and-invasion-and-promotes-apoptosis-of-human-osteosarcoma-cells
#15
Yao Shi, Chen Lv, Li Shi, Guanjun Tu
Osteosarcoma is known as a malignant tumour with a high mortality rate in orthopaedic settings; however, the factors associated with its degree of malignancy and the biological response remains to be elucidated. Although the essential role of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) maternally expressed 3 (MEG3) has been recently reported, its biological functions and regulatory mechanism in osteosarcoma cells have not yet been reported. In the present study, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the expression of MEG3 in MG63 cells was lower compared with in hFOB1...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433373/expression-of-angiogenic-factors-in-sclerosing-stromal-tumours-of-the-ovary
#16
Tomoko Hirakawa, Yasushi Kawano, Chiharu Mizoguchi, Kaei Nasu, Hisashi Narahara
Sclerosing stromal tumours (SSTs) are rare benign tumours and are generally observed in individuals in their teens to 20 s. Many cases are suspected as malignant tumours pre-operatively, owing to their high vascularity on diagnostic imaging. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the expressions of various angiogenic factors in SSTs. The expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were examined by immunohistochemical staining. Upon immunohistochemistry, overexpressions of VEGF, bFGF, and HGF in the ovarian stroma were observed in SSTs...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429740/an-automated-staining-protocol-for-seven-colour-immunofluorescence-of-human-tissue-sections-for-diagnostic-and-prognostic-use
#17
Jeffrey Chun Tatt Lim, Joe Poh Sheng Yeong, Chun Jye Lim, Clara Chong Hui Ong, Siew Cheng Wong, Valerie Suk Peng Chew, Syed Salahuddin Ahmed, Puay Hoon Tan, Jabed Iqbal
Multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) allows simultaneous antibody-based detection and quantification of the expression of up to six markers, plus a nuclear counterstain, on a single tissue section. Recent studies have shown the potential for mIF to advance our understanding of complex disease processes, including cancer. It is important that the technique be standardised and validated to facilitate its transition into clinical use. Traditional approaches to mIF rely on manual processing of sections, which is time-consuming and a source of significant variation between samples/individuals...
February 8, 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429069/rare-and-changeable-as-a-chameleon-paraneoplastic-syndromes-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#18
REVIEW
M Hegemann, N Kroeger, A Stenzl, J Bedke
INTRODUCTION: Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are important to be recognized by the treating physician, because they may lead to diagnosis of underlying malignant disease. On the other hand, PNS may dominate the clinical picture and can hide the true disorder like a chameleon. When realized, a PNS can be used as a 'neoplastic tumour marker', especially in case of recurrence. Their occurrence can even be linked to prognosis of disease. METHODS: A PubMed search combining the MeSH terms renal cell carcinoma and paraneoplastic syndrome was executed in April 2015...
February 10, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428550/a-new-model-to-predict-benign-histology-in-residual-retroperitoneal-masses-after-chemotherapy-in-nonseminoma
#19
Ricardo Leão, Madhur Nayan, Nahid Punjani, Michael A S Jewett, Kamel Fadaak, Juan Garisto, Jeremy Lewin, Eshetu G Atenafu, Joan Sweet, Lynn Anson-Cartwright, Peter Boström, Peter Chung, Padraig Warde, Philippe L Bedard, Aditya Bagrodia, Yuval Freifeld, Nicholas Power, Eric Winquist, Robert J Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (pcRPLND) is indicated in testicular cancer patients with normalised or plateaued serum tumour markers and residual retroperitoneal lesions >1cm. Challenges remain in predicting postchemotherapy residual mass (pcRM) histology, which may lead to unnecessary surgery. OBJECTIVE: To develop an accurate model to predict pcRM histology in patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCTs). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective review of 335 patients undergoing pcRPLND for metastatic NSGCTs to develop a model to predict benign histology in retroperitoneal pcRM...
February 7, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428075/automatic-liver-detection-and-standardised-uptake-value-evaluation-in-whole-body-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-scans
#20
Stephane Chauvie, Elisa Bertone, Fabrizio Bergesio, Alessandra Terulla, Davide Botto, Piergiorgio Cerello
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Standardised Uptake Value (SUV), in clinical research and practice, is a marker of tumour avidity in Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT). Since many technical, physical and physiological factors affect the SUV absolute measurement, the liver uptake is often used as reference value both in quantitative and semi-quantitative evaluation. The purpose of this investigation was to automatically detect the liver position in whole-body PET/CT scans and extract its average SUV value...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
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