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Neuroendocrine tumour

S Honeybul
Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare primary cutaneous neuroendocrine tumour that is locally aggressive. In most cases the primary treatment is local surgical excision; however, there is a high incidence recurrence both local and distant. Cerebral metastases from Merkel cell carcinoma are extremely uncommon with only 12 cases published in the literature. This case is particularly unusual in that, not only was no established primary lesion identified, but also the patient has survived for 10 years following initial diagnosis and for 9 years following excision of a single brain metastasis...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Daniel Nava Rodrigues, Gunther Boysen, Semini Sumanasuriya, George Seed, Angelo M De Marzo, Johann de Bono
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a clinically heterogeneous disease and current treatment strategies are based largely on anatomical and pathological parameters. In the recent past, several DNA sequencing studies of primary and advanced PCa have revealed recurrent patterns of genomic aberrations that expose mechanisms of resistance to available therapies and potential new drug targets. Suppression of androgen receptor (AR) signalling is the cornerstone of advanced prostate cancer treatment. Genomic aberrations of the androgen receptor or alternative splicing of its mRNA are increasingly recognized as biomarkers of resistance to AR-targeted therapy such as abiraterone or enzalutamide...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Gonzalo Tapia Rico, Amanda R Townsend, Myron Klevansky, Timothy J Price
Surgical resection of liver metastases from colorectal and neuroendocrine tumours has become a standard of care for resectable patients with isolated hepatic disease and good performance status, leading to extended survival in a carefully selected subgroup of these patients. However, the role of hepatic surgery in gastric and oesophageal liver metastases is controversial and not clearly defined. Areas covered: A systematic electronic literature search was performed to select the most representative evidence regarding hepatectomies in liver metastases from these two tumours...
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
E Bertani, N Fazio, D Radice, C Zardini, G Spinoglio, A Chiappa, D Ribero, R Biffi, S Partelli, M Falconi
BACKGROUND: The role of primary tumour surgery in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNETs) with unresectable liver metastases is controversial and international guidelines do not recommend surgery in such cases. Resectability of the primary tumour has never been considered in outcome comparisons between operated and non-operated patients. METHODS: From two institutional prospective databases of patients affected by PNET and unresectable liver metastases, 63 patients who underwent a left-pancreatectomy at diagnosis were identified and compared with a group of 30 patients with a potentially resectable but not-resected primary tumour located in the body or tail...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Fanny Söderquist, Eva Tiensuu Janson, Annica J Rasmusson, Abir Ali, Mats Stridsberg, Janet L Cunningham
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NETs) are derived from enterochromaffin cells. After demonstrating melatonin in enterochromaffin cells, we hypothesized that SI-NETs may express and secrete melatonin, which may have an impact on clinical factors and treatment response. METHODS: Tumour tissue from 26 patients with SI-NETs, representing paired sections of primary tumour and metastasis, were immunohistochemically stained for melatonin and its receptors, MT1 and MT2...
2016: PloS One
Norihiro Ishii, Kenichiro Araki, Takehiko Yokobori, Mariko Tsukagoshi, Takamichi Igarashi, Akira Watanabe, Norio Kubo, Keitaro Hirai, Ken Shirabe, Hiroyuki Kuwano
INTRODUCTION: Tumours with adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components have often been reported, although the reason underlying the dual components remains unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old woman with multiple liver metastatic lesions of rectal neuroendocrine tumour underwent primary tumour resection and subsequent liver transplantation. Pathological examination indicated a cholangiocarcinoma-like tumour with gland formation, adjacent to a liver metastatic lesion of the neuroendocrine tumour...
May 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Malcolm Boyce, Katie A Lloyd, D Mark Pritchard
Gastrin controls gastric acid secretion and mucosal cell growth, especially of enterochromaffin-like cells, via gastrin/cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R) binding and downstream signalling. Studies in animal models, healthy subjects and patients with gastric neuroendocrine tumours provide compelling evidence to justify developing a CCK2R antagonist (CCK2RA) for preventing or treating the trophic effects of hypergastrinaemia or conditions expressing CCK2R, and with or without a proton pump inhibitor, for treating gastric acid-related conditions...
October 3, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
S Partelli, R Cirocchi, S Crippa, L Cardinali, V Fendrich, D K Bartsch, M Falconi
BACKGROUND: The incidence of asymptomatic, sporadic, small non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NF-PNENs) has increased in recent decades. Conservative treatment has been advocated for these tumours. The aim of this study was systematically to evaluate the literature on active surveillance and to compare this with surgical management for asymptomatic sporadic small NF-PNENs. METHODS: PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched systematically for studies that compared the active surveillance of asymptomatic, sporadic, small NF-PNENs with surgical management...
October 5, 2016: British Journal of Surgery
Malcolm Boyce, Andrew R Moore, Liv Sagatun, Bryony N Parsons, Andrea Varro, Fiona Campbell, Reidar Fossmark, Helge L Waldum, David M Pritchard
AIMS: Netazepide, a gastrin/CCK2 receptor antagonist, once daily for 12 weeks reduced the number of tumours and size of the largest one in 16 patients with autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), achlorhydria, hypergastrinaemia and multiple gastric neuroendocrine tumours (type 1 gastric NETs), and normalised circulating chromogranin A (CgA) produced by enterochromaffin-like cells, the source of the tumours. The aim was to assess whether longer-term netazepide treatment can eradicate type 1 gastric NETs...
October 4, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Kjell E Oberg, Steven Wj Lamberts
Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder that arises when the pituitary gland secretes excess growth hormone (GH), which in turn stimulates a concomitant increase in serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NET) constitute a heterogeneous group of tumours that can secrete serotonin and a variety of peptide hormones that may cause characteristic symptoms known as carcinoid syndrome, or other symptoms and hormonal hypersecretion syndromes depending on the tumour's site of origin...
October 3, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
B G Challis, R T Casey, H L Simpson, M Gurnell
Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are catecholamine secreting neuroendocrine tumours that predispose to haemodynamic instability. Currently, surgery is the only available curative treatment, but carries potential risks including hypertensive and hypotensive crises, cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction and stroke, due to tumoral release of catecholamines during anaesthetic induction and tumour manipulation. The mortality associated with surgical resection of PPGL has significantly improved from 20-45% in the early 20(th) century(1) to 0-2...
October 3, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
M D'Arienzo, M L Cozzella, A Fazio, P De Felice, G Iaccarino, M D'Andrea, S Ungania, M Cazzato, K Schmidt, S Kimiaei, L Strigari
Peptide receptor therapy with (177)Lu-labelled somatostatin analogues is a promising tool in the management of patients with inoperable or metastasized neuroendocrine tumours. The aim of this work was to perform accurate activity quantification of (177)Lu in complex anthropomorphic geometry using advanced correction algorithms. Acquisitions were performed on the higher (177)Lu photopeak (208keV) using a Philips IRIX gamma camera provided with medium-energy collimators. System calibration was performed using a 16mL Jaszczak sphere surrounded by non-radioactive water...
September 28, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Yujie Deng, Xiaohui Chen, Yuhong Ye, Xi Shi, Kunshou Zhu, Liming Huang, Sheng Zhang, Mingang Ying, Xuede Lin
AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the significance of expression of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and Ki-67 and their association with clinicopathological parameters, and to find out the possible prognostic factors in gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (G-NEC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated the immunohistochemical features and prognosis of 62 G-NECs, and evaluated the association among expressions of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and Ki-67, clinicopathological variables, and outcome...
2016: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
Liv Sagatun, Patricia Mjønes, Constantin S Jianu, Malcolm Boyce, Hege L Waldum, Reidar Fossmark
OBJECTIVE: Netazepide (YF476) is a recently developed, orally active gastrin receptor antagonist that, in short trials in patients with type 1 gastric enterochromaffin-like cell neuroendocrine tumours, has been shown to induce a significant reduction in the number and size of tumours as well as serum chromogranin A (CgA). The aim of this review is to evaluate the long-term effect and safety of netazepide. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five patients previously treated with netazepide in an open-label trial were offered continuous treatment with netazepide 25 mg once daily...
November 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Grace Kong, Jason Callahan, Michael S Hofman, David A Pattison, Tim Akhurst, Michael Michael, Peter Eu, Rodney J Hicks
PURPOSE: Bulky disease is an adverse prognostic factor for (177)Lu-DOTA-octreotate ((177)Lu-DOTATATE) peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). (90)Y-DOTA-octreotate ((90)Y-DOTATATE) has theoretical advantages in this setting but may less effectively treat co-existent smaller deposits and have higher toxicity than (177)Lu-DOTATATE. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of using these agents sequentially. METHODS: We reviewed patients (pts) with at least one lesion of a transaxial diameter >4 cm who completed 1-2 cycles of (90)Y-DOTATATE followed by 2-3 cycles of (177)Lu-DOTATATE, with treatment empirically adapted to disease size and burden in individual patients...
September 27, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Mose July, Prasanna Santhanam, Luca Giovanella, Giorgio Treglia
The aim of this review was to summarize the recent developments on the role of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using different radiopharmaceuticals in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. Although most guidelines do not mention the use of PET imaging in patients with MEN syndromes, recent data seem to suggest a relevant diagnostic role of PET imaging in this setting. In particular, latest evidence has shown that somatostatin receptor PET provides a diagnostic accuracy in detecting MEN syndromes-related neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) higher than that of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, thus influencing patient management in a significant percentage of cases...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Heron Andrade, Philippe Joubert, Arthur Vieira, Paula Ugalde Figueroa
Pulmonary carcinoid tumours are well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours with indolent behaviour; complete resection offers long-term survival. When centrally located, these tumours can be treated with lung-sparing procedures. We present a case of a centrally located typical carcinoid tumour treated with a minimally invasive, right upper lobe sleeve lobectomy using a single port.
September 27, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
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September 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Frederik Giesel, Florian Schneider, Clemens Kratochwil, Daniel Rath, Tim Holland-Letz, Jan Moltz, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Lawrence Schwartz, Uwe Haberkorn, Paul Flechsig
: In patients with lung cancer (LC), malignant melanoma (MM), gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs) and prostate cancer (PCA), N-staging is often performed by integrated (18)F-FDG-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) (LC, MM), (68)Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT (GEP-NET) and (68)Ga-PSMA-PET/CT (PCA): N-staging is not always accurate due to indeterminate PET-findings. To better evaluate malignant lymph node (LN) infiltration, additional surrogate parameters, especially in cases with indeterminate PET-findings, would be helpful...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Pallavi Rao, Sadiq S Sikora, Srikanth Narayanaswamy, Nandita Ghosal, Dinesh Kini
Caracinosarcomas are tumours with diverse epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation. They most commonly occur in the female reproductive organs and upper aero digestive tract. They are relatively rare in the gastrointestinal tract and affect the oesophagus most commonly. Ampullary carcinosarcomas are exceptionally rare. We report a case of ampullary carcinosarcoma in a 67-year-old male, with osteosarcomatous, small cell carcinoma and conventional adenocarcinoma components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of its kind...
September 1, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
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