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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727174/alkaline-phosphatase-discovery-and-naming-of-our-favorite-enzyme
#1
Alejandro F Siller, Michael P Whyte
Alkaline phosphatase can be considered "our favorite enzyme" for reasons apparent to those who diagnose and treat metabolic bone diseases or who study skeletal biology. Few might know, however, that alkaline phosphatase likely represents the most frequently assayed enzyme in all of Medicine. Elevated activity in the circulation is universally recognized as a marker for skeletal or hepatobiliary disease. Nevertheless, the assay conditions in many ways are non-physiological. The term alkaline phosphatase emerged when it became necessary to distinguish "bone phosphatase" from the phosphatase in the prostate that features an acidic pH optimum...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723741/characterization-of-small-%C3%A2-3%C3%A2-cm-hepatic-lesions-with-atypical-enhancement-feature-and-hypointensity-in-hepatobiliary-phase-of-gadoxetic-acid-enhanced-mri-in-cirrhosis-a-stard-compliant-article
#2
Seung Kak Shin, Yun Soo Kim, Seung Joon Choi, Young Sup Shim, Dong Hae Jung, Oh Sang Kwon, Duck Joo Choi, Ju Hyun Kim
It is difficult to characterize the nodular lesions in cirrhotic liver if typical enhancement pattern is not present on dynamic contrast-enhanced imagings. Although the signal intensity of the hepatobiliary phase in gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is helpful for characterization of the lesions, some dysplastic nodules may also exhibit low signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase. We aimed to assess the usefulness of gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for differentiation between atypical small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and dysplastic nodules showing low signal intensity (SI) in the hepatobiliary phase, and to evaluate the MRI findings in determining the histological grade of atypical HCCs in patients with cirrhosis...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717906/undiagnosed-liver-fibrosis-in-patients-undergoing-pancreatoduodenectomy-for-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#3
Andrew Gdowski, Houssam Osman, Umar Butt, Steve Foster, Dhiresh Rohan Jeyarajah
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstruction of the biliary system may cause hepatic fibrosis and liver failure. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence of unrecognized liver fibrosis in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). METHODS: Retrospective data were collected on patients undergoing PD during a 21-month period. Each patient had a core needle biopsy at the time of surgery by a hepatobiliary surgeon. RESULTS: This study identified 36 consecutive patients who were referred to a tertiary center and underwent pancreatoduodenectomy during a period of 21 months...
July 17, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717104/dexamethasone-induced-hepatomegaly-and-steatosis-in-larval-zebrafish
#4
Guojun Yin, Liping Cao, Jinliang Du, Rui Jia, Takio Kitazawa, Akira Kubota, Hiroki Teraoka
Fish hepatobiliary syndrome, characterized by hepatomegaly and fatty liver, has been frequently reported in many cultured fish species and has caused a dramatic economic loss in China. Glucocorticoids are thought to be important non-nutritional factors for hepatomegaly and fatty liver development. In the present study, a dexamethasone-induced zebrafish model of fatty liver and hepatomegaly was established, and the role of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the development of hepatomegaly and fatty liver was investigated using developing zebrafish...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717071/anti-mitochondrial-m2-antibodies-enhance-the-risk-of-supraventricular-arrhythmias-in-patients-with-elevated-hepatobiliary-enzyme-levels
#5
Hiroki Konishi, Koji Fukuzawa, Shumpei Mori, Seimi Satomi-Kobayashi, Kunihiko Kiuchi, Atsushi Suzuki, Yoshihiko Yano, Akihiro Yoshida, Ken-Ichi Hirata
Objective Supraventricular arrhythmias are commonly detected in patients with anti-mitochondrial antibody M2 (AMA-M2)-associated myopathy. However, the prevalence of supraventricular arrhythmias in unselected AMA-M2-positive patients and the impact of AMA-M2 on supraventricular arrhythmias have yet to be fully investigated. Methods We analyzed 384 patients (116 men; age, 60 [48-69] years), who underwent AMA-M2 testing following the detection of elevated hepatobiliary enzymes. Supraventricular arrhythmias involving atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, atrial tachycardia, sick sinus syndrome, and atrial standstill were confirmed by a 12-lead electrocardiogram, 24-hour ambulatory monitoring, and physician-assigned diagnoses within the three years before and two years after the AMA-M2 test...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712691/biliary-bile-acids-in-hepatobiliary-injury-what-is-the-link
#6
REVIEW
Peter Fickert, Martin Wagner
The main trigger for liver injury in acquired cholestatic liver disease remains unclear. However, the accumulation of bile acids (BAs) undoubtedly plays a role. Recent progress in deciphering the pathomechanisms of inborn cholestatic liver diseases, decoding mechanisms of BA-induced cell death, and generating modern BA-derived drugs has improved the understanding of the regulation of BA synthesis and transport. Now is the appropriate time to reassess current knowledge about the specific role of BAs in hepatobiliary injury...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709718/gadoxetic-acid-enhanced-high-temporal-resolution-hepatic-arterial-phase-imaging-with-view-sharing-technique-impact-on-the-li-rads-category
#7
Satoshi Goshima, Yoshifumi Noda, Kimihiro Kajita, Nobuyuki Kawai, Hiromi Koyasu, Hiroshi Kawada, Masayuki Matsuo, Kyongtae T Bae
PURPOSE: To evaluate the value of view-sharing multi-hepatic arterial-phase (mHAP) imaging for diagnosis of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-seven consecutive patients with HCC underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging before angiographic and lipiodol CT. Hepatic arterial-phase images were obtained at 5 consecutive phases with shared central k-space of 25%, followed by portal venous, late (2 and 3min), and hepatobiliary phase imaging...
July 3, 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708894/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy-for-differential-assessment-of-liver-abnormalities-induced-by-opisthorchis-felineus-in-an-animal-model
#8
Alexandra G Pershina, Vladimir V Ivanov, Lina V Efimova, Oleg B Shevelev, Sergey V Vtorushin, Tatjana V Perevozchikova, Alexey E Sazonov, Ludmila M Ogorodova
BACKGROUND: European liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus, causing opisthorchiasis disease, is widespread in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and sporadically detected in the EU countries. O. felineus infection leads to hepatobiliary pathological changes, cholangitis, fibrosis and, in severe cases, malignant transformation of bile ducts. Due to absence of specific symptoms, the infection is frequently neglected for a long period. The association of opisthorchiasis with almost incurable bile duct cancer and rising international migration of people that increases the risk of the parasitic etiology of liver fibrosis in non-endemic regions determine high demand for development of approaches to opisthorchiasis detection...
July 14, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701858/early-experience-in-starting-a-laparoscopic-liver-resection-program-in-greece
#9
Georgios C Sotiropoulos, Nikolaos Machairas, Ioannis D Kostakis, Paraskevas Stamopoulos, Petros Charalampoudis, Stylianos Kykalos, Gregory Kouraklis, Dimitrios Mantas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Laparoscopic liver resections (LLRs) have gained wider acceptance during the decade as safe and efficient procedures in the management of several benign and malignant diseases when performed by experienced surgeons. We report our initial institutional experience with LLRs performed by 1 certified hepatobiliary surgeon. METHODS: Patients undergoing LLRs by 1 senior hepatobiliary surgeon in our Institution during the period from January 2012 through January 2017 were prospectively sampled and retrospectively analyzed for the purposes of this study...
January 2017: JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699910/quantitative-evaluation-of-gd-eob-dtpa-uptake-in-focal-liver-lesions-by-using-t1-mapping-differences-between-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hepatic-focal-nodular-hyperplasia-and-cavernous-hemangioma
#10
Zhenpeng Peng, Chang Li, Tao Chan, Huasong Cai, Yanji Luo, Zhi Dong, Zi-Ping Li, Shi-Ting Feng
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the difference of T1 relaxation time on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and cavernous hemangioma of liver (CHL), and to quantitatively evaluate the uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA in these three focal liver lesions (FLLs). RESULTS: The T1P of CHL was significantly higher than those of HCC and FNH (P < 0.05). Reduction of T1 relaxation time on hepatobiliary phase could be observed in all three types of lesions...
July 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696559/genetic-testing-for-hereditary-nonpolyposis-colorectal-cancer-hnpcc
#11
Babi Ramesh Reddy Nallamilli, Madhuri Hegde
Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also called Lynch syndrome, is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome that confers an elevated risk of early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) and increased lifetime risk for other cancers of the endometrium, stomach, small intestine, hepatobiliary system, kidney, ureter, and ovary. Lynch syndrome accounts for up to 3% of all CRC, making it the most common hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome. Germline mutations in methyl-directed mismatch repair (MMR) genes give rise to microsatellite instability (MSI) in tumor DNA...
July 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693186/cholangiocarcinoma-following-external-beam-radiotherapy-a-report-of-two-cases
#12
Anisha Kulkarni, Justin S Gundara, Anthony J Gill, Thomas J Hugh, Jaswinder S Samra
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a relatively rare primary malignancy, with established risk factors that include primary sclerosing cholangitis, choledochal cysts and hepatolithiasis. In the present study, two cases of CCA, which occurred following abdominal external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, are reported. Case 1 and 2 were diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma 30 and 4 years following treatment with combined chemotherapy and abdominal radiotherapy treatment, respectively. The patients received chemotherapy as treatment of cholangiocarcinoma; however, whilst their symptoms improved, they succumbed within 12 and 2 months respectively following the diagnosis with cholangiocarcinoma...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687948/role-of-hepatobiliary-scintigraphy-and-preoperative-liver-biopsy-for-exclusion-of-biliary-atresia-in-neonatal-cholestasis-syndrome
#13
Ankur Mandelia, Richa Lal, Nijagal Mutt
All diagnostic algorithms for Neonatal Cholestasis Syndrome (NCS) focus on differentiating numerous medical causes from Biliary Atresia (BA). No preoperative diagnostic algorithm has 100% diagnostic accuracy for BA and yet, timely diagnosis is crucial to optimize surgical outcome. Markers for high index of clinical suspicion for BA are: a "usually" well thriving infant with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, raised gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, persistently "acholic" stools, firm hepatomegaly with dysmorphic, hypoplastic gall bladder...
July 8, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687627/phase-ii-trial-of-sorafenib-in-combination-with-capecitabine-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-inst-08-20
#14
Yehuda Patt, Cristhiam Rojas-Hernandez, Houman Mohammad Fekrazad, Pranshu Bansal, Fa Chyi Lee
LESSONS LEARNED: There continues to be a lack of systemic options for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); sorafenib and, very recently, regorafenib are the only approved options. There exists a potential to combine sorafenib with chemotherapeutic agents shown to be active in HCC, such as capecitabine, safely.Good tumor response was observed, with objective improvement in a few patients seldom seen by single agent sorafenib; however, because of the limited number of patients, meaningful conclusions on survival cannot be drawn...
July 7, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687148/-99m-tc-mebrofenin-hepatobiliary-scintigraphy-predicts-liver-failure-following-major-liver-resection-for-perihilar-cholangiocarcinoma
#15
Pim B Olthof, Robert J S Coelen, Roelof J Bennink, Michal Heger, Meng F Lam, Marc G Besselink, Olivier R Busch, Krijn P van Lienden, Thomas M van Gulik
BACKGROUND: Posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) is a threatening complication after liver surgery, especially in perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC). This study aimed to assess the value of preoperative assessment of liver function using (99m)Tc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) to predict PHLF in comparison with liver volume in PHC patients. METHODS: All patients who underwent resection of suspected PHC in a single center between 2000 and 2015 were included in the analysis...
July 4, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680700/ultrasonographic-and-clinicopathologic-features-of-segmental-dilatations-of-the-common-bile-duct-in-four-cats
#16
Heather N Spain, Dominique G Penninck, Cynthia Rl Webster, Evence Daure, Samuel H Jennings
CASE SERIES SUMMARY: This case series documents ultrasonographic and clinicopathologic features of four cats with marked segmental dilatations of the common bile duct (CBD). All cats had additional ultrasonographic changes to the hepatobiliary system, including hepatomegaly, tubular to saccular intra/extrahepatic biliary duct dilatation and biliary debris accumulation. Based on all available data the presence of extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction (EHBDO) was ruled out in 3/4 cases and was equivocal in one case...
January 2017: JFMS open reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671761/uptake-of-retinoic-acid-modified-pmma-nanoparticles-in-lx-2-and-liver-tissue-by-raman-imaging-and-intravital-microscopy
#17
Turgay Yildirim, Christian Matthäus, Adrian T Press, Stephanie Schubert, Michael Bauer, Jürgen Popp, Ulrich S Schubert
A primary amino-functionalized methyl methacrylate-based statistical copolymer is covalently coupled with retinoic acid (RA) and a fluorescent dye (DY590) in order to investigate the feasibility of the RA containing polymeric nanoparticles for Raman imaging studies and to study the possible selectivity of RA for hepatic stellate cells via intravital microscopy. Cationic nanoparticles are prepared by utilizing the nanoprecipitation method using modified polymers. Raman studies show that RA functional nanoparticles can be detectable in all tested cells without any need of additional label...
July 3, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668428/liver-mri-from-basic-protocol-to-advanced-techniques
#18
Henrique Donato, Manuela França, Isabel Candelária, Filipe Caseiro-Alves
Liver MR is a well-established modality with multiparametric capabilities. However, to take advantage of its full capacity, it is mandatory to master the technique and optimize imaging protocols, apply advanced imaging concepts and understand the use of different contrast media. Physiologic artefacts although inherent to upper abdominal studies can be minimized using triggering techniques and new strategies for motion control. For standardization, the liver MR protocol should include motion-resistant T2-w sequences, in-op phase GRE T1 and T2-w fast spin echo sequences with fat suppression...
August 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667351/efficacy-and-safety-of-eltrombopag-in-persistent-and-newly-diagnosed-itp-in-clinical-practice
#19
Tomás José González-López, Fernando Fernández-Fuertes, José Angel Hernández-Rivas, Blanca Sánchez-González, Violeta Martínez-Robles, María Teresa Alvarez-Román, Gloria Pérez-Rus, Cristina Pascual, Silvia Bernat, Esther Arrieta-Cerdán, Carlos Aguilar, Abelardo Bárez, María Jesús Peñarrubia, Pavel Olivera, Angeles Fernández-Rodríguez, Erik de Cabo, Luis Javier García-Frade, José Ramón González-Porras
Eltrombopag is safe and effective in primary chronic ITP. However, lack of clinical trials avoids a clear demonstration of its utility in newly diagnosed and persistent ITP. Our aim here is to report Spanish results for this type of patients. We retrospectively evaluated 220 adult primary ITP patients. According to standard definition, patients were allocated to newly diagnosed (n = 30), persistent (n = 30), and chronic (n = 160) ITP. Groups were homogenous regarding most relevant parameters. 180 (90%) of 220 patients achieved a platelet response (R) with 167 (75...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667006/whole-genome-and-epigenomic-landscapes-of-etiologically-distinct-subtypes-of-cholangiocarcinoma
#20
Apinya Jusakul, Ioana Cutcutache, Chern Han Yong, Jing Quan Lim, Mi Ni Huang, Nisha Padmanabhan, Vishwa Nellore, Sarinya Kongpetch, Alvin Wei Tian Ng, Ley Moy Ng, Su Pin Choo, Swe Swe Myint, Raynoo Thanan, Sanjanaa Nagarajan, Weng Khong Lim, Cedric Chuan Young Ng, Arnoud Boot, Mo Liu, Choon Kiat Ong, Vikneswari Rajasegaran, Stefanus Lie, Alvin Soon Tiong Lim, Tse Hui Lim, Jing Tan, Jia Liang Loh, John R McPherson, Narong Khuntikeo, Vajaraphongsa Bhudhisawasdi, Puangrat Yongvanit, Sopit Wongkham, Yasushi Totoki, Hiromi Nakamura, Yasuhito Arai, Satoshi Yamasaki, Pierce K H Chow, Alexander Yaw Fui Chung, London Lucien Peng Jin Ooi, Kiat Hon Lim, Simona Dima, Dan G Duda, Irinel Popescu, Philippe Broet, Sen-Yung Hsieh, Ming-Chin Yu, Aldo Scarpa, Jiaming Lai, Di-Xian Luo, Andre Lopes Carvalho, André Luiz Vettore, Hyungjin Rhee, Young Nyun Park, Ludmil Alexandrov, Raluca Gordan, Steven G Rozen, Tatsuhiro Shibata, Chawalit Pairojkul, Bin Tean Teh, Patrick Tan
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a hepatobiliary malignancy exhibiting high incidence in countries with endemic liver-fluke infection. We analysed 489 CCAs from 10 countries, combining whole-genome (71 cases), targeted/exome, copy-number, gene expression, and DNA methylation information. Integrative clustering defined four CCA clusters - Fluke-Positive CCAs (Clusters 1/2) are enriched in ERBB2 amplifications and TP53 mutations, conversely Fluke-Negative CCAs (Clusters 3/4) exhibit high copy-number alterations and PD-1/PD-L2 expression, or epigenetic mutations (IDH1/2, BAP1) and FGFR/PRKA-related gene rearrangements...
June 30, 2017: Cancer Discovery
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