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Daniel A Pollyea, Brenna R Hedin, Brian P O'Connor, Scott Alper
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a malignant hematopoietic stem cell disorder that frequently evolves into acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients with MDS are prone to infectious complications, in part due to the presence of severe neutropenia and/or neutrophil dysfunction. However, not all patients with neutropenia become infected, suggesting that other immune cells may compensate in these patients. Monocytes are also integral to immunologic defense; however, much less is known about monocyte function in patients with MDS...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Daniel Rivera-Salgado, Kathia Valverde-Muñoz, María L Ávila-Agüero
Febrile neutropenia is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate attention, especially in patients with chemotherapy-related neutropenia. Patients with febrile neutropenia have a much greater risk of developing bacterial disease, and fever may be the only indicator of severe bacterial infection. Adequate management of febrile neutropenia emphasizes early recognition of patients, risk stratification, and antibiotic therapy administration during the first 60 minutes of admission to an emergency room...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Amanda M Li, Santhosh Thyagu, Dawn Maze, Richard Schreiber, Sandra Sirrs, Sylvia Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Heather Sutherland, Suzanne Vercauteren, Kirk R Schultz
Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1 is a rare autosomal recessive inherited condition. The 1b subtype comprises the minority of cases, with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 500,000 children. Patients with glycogen storage disease type 1b are often treated with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) for prolonged periods to improve symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in the face of severe neutropenia to decrease risk of infection. Long-term G-CSF treatment may result in an increased risk of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) possibly due to increased marrow stress resulting in telomere shortening...
April 13, 2018: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Satoshi Arakawa, Akihiko Horiguchi, Hirokazu Tomishige, Norihiko Kawabe, Hidetoshi Nagata, Shin Ishihara, Masahiro Ito, Yukio Asano, Ryotaro Ito, Masashi Isetani, Kentaro Shimizu, Kenshiro Kamio, Toki Kawai, Hironobu Yasuoka, Yoshihiro Imaeda
Chemotherapywith TAS-102 with bevacizumab(Bmab)is a new treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. A 67-year-old male patient with synchronous multiple liver metastases was treated with TAS-102 with Bmab as a fifth-line chemotherapy. It was demonstrated that liver metastases decreased in size by1 3%bycomputed tomography(CT)after 3 months of TAS-102 with Bmab therapy. The Grade 3 or worst adverse event that was experienced was neutropenia. The patient was able to continue treatment with TAS-102 with Bmab for 6 months...
April 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Gwynn Ison, Lynn J Howie, Laleh Amiri-Kordestani, Lijun Zhang, Shenghui Tang, Rajeshwari Sridhara, Vadryn Pierre, Rosane Charlab, Anuradha Ramamoorthy, Pengfei Song, Fang Li, Jingyu Yu, Wimolnut Manheng, Todd R Palmby, Soma Ghosh, Hisani N Horne, Eunice Y Lee, Reena Philip, Kaushalkumar Dave, Xiao Hong Chen, Sharon L Kelly, Kumar G Janoria, Anamitro Banerjee, Okponanabofa Eradiri, Jeannette Dinin, Kirsten B Goldberg, William F Pierce, Amna Ibrahim, Paul G Kluetz, Gideon M Blumenthal, Julia A Beaver, Richard Pazdur
The Food and Drug Administration approved niraparib, a poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, on March 27, 2017, for maintenance treatment of patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer who are in response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Approval was based on data from the NOVA trial comparing niraparib with placebo in two independent cohorts, based on germline BRCA mutation status (gBRCAm vs. non-gBRCAm). Progression-free survival (PFS) in each cohort was the primary endpoint...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Wafa Mnejja, Nabil Toumi, Nejla Fourati, Racem Bouzguenda, Abdelmonem Ghorbel, Mounir Frikha, Wicem Siala, Jamel Daoud
PURPOSE: A retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the addition of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to concurrent chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 62 patients treated for non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma were analyzed by comparing two groups of patients: a first group of 32 patients treated with 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluoro-uracil every 21 days followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (weekly cisplatin 40mg/m2 with radiotherapy 70Gy, 2Gy per session, 5 sessions per week) and a second group of 30 patients treated with the same concurrent chemoradiotherapy...
April 9, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
N Toumi, W Ben Kridis, W Mnejja, R Bouzguenda, A Khanfir, A Ghorbel, J Daoud, M Frikha
PURPOSE: We represent in this study the long term results of docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy in Tunisian patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The objective of our study is to analyse the efficacy as well as the toxicity of this therapeutic protocol. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 2004 and December 2008, 32 patients with locoregional advanced non metastatic disease (T2b or above and/or N1 or above AJCC 2002) were treated in our institution by three cycles of docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil induction chemotherapy every 21 days followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy...
April 9, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Annemieke Cats, Edwin P M Jansen, Nicole C T van Grieken, Karolina Sikorska, Pehr Lind, Marianne Nordsmark, Elma Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, Henk Boot, Anouk K Trip, H A Maurits Swellengrebel, Hanneke W M van Laarhoven, Hein Putter, Johanna W van Sandick, Mark I van Berge Henegouwen, Henk H Hartgrink, Harm van Tinteren, Cornelis J H van de Velde, Marcel Verheij
BACKGROUND: Both perioperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemoradiotherapy improve survival in patients with resectable gastric cancer from Europe and North America. To our knowledge, these treatment strategies have not been investigated in a head to head comparison. We aimed to compare perioperative chemotherapy with preoperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with resectable gastric adenocarcinoma. METHODS: In this investigator-initiated, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older who had stage IB- IVA resectable gastric or gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma (as defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, sixth edition), with a WHO performance status of 0 or 1, and adequate cardiac, bone marrow, liver, and kidney function...
April 9, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Toshirou Fukushima, Yuuki Wakatsuki, Takashi Kobayashi, Kei Sonehara, Kazunari Tateishi, Manabu Yamamoto, Takeshi Masubuchi, Fumiaki Yoshiike, Kazuya Hirai, Tsutomu Hachiya, Tomonobu Koizumi
PURPOSE: This phase II study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cisplatin/pemetrexed combined with 15 mg/kg of bevacizumab followed by pemetrexed/bevacizumab maintenance therapy as first-line chemotherapy in advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) limited to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-wild type. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients with advanced or metastatic EGFR-wild type NSCLC aged < 75 years old were enrolled in the study...
April 11, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Chu Matsuda, Michitaka Honda, Chihiro Tanaka, Ken Kondo, Takao Takahashi, Chihiro Kosugi, Yukihiko Tokunaga, Hiroyoshi Takemoto, Ho Min Kim, Junichi Sakamoto, Koji Oba, Hideyuki Mishima
BACKGROUND: The aim of this single-arm phase II clinical trial was to evaluate whether the alternate-day administration of S-1 plus irinotecan would reduce the incidence of severe diarrhea in comparison to consecutive-day S-1 administration (standard IRIS regimen) in second-line treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer after failure with first-line treatment of oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine were enrolled...
April 11, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
David S Hong, Kathleen N Moore, Manish R Patel, Stefan C Grant, Howard A Burris, William N William, Suzanne Jones, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Jeffrey Infante, Lisa Golden, Wei Zhang, Ricardo Martinez, Sameera R Wijayawardana, Richard P Beckmann, Aimee Bence Lin, Cathy Eng, Johanna C Bendell
PURPOSE: Prexasertib, a checkpoint kinase 1 inhibitor, demonstrated single-agent activity in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the dose-escalation portion of a Phase I study (NCT01115790). Monotherapy prexasertib was further evaluated in patients with advanced SCC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients were given prexasertib 105 mg/m2 as a 1-hour infusion on day 1 of a 14-day cycle. Expansion cohorts were defined by tumor and treatment line. Safety, tolerability, efficacy, and exploratory biomarkers were analyzed...
April 11, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Aditya Bardia, Ingrid A Mayer, Jennifer R Diamond, Rebecca L Moroose, Steven J Isakoff, Alexander N Starodub, Nikita C Shah, Joyce O'Shaughnessy, Kevin Kalinsky, Michael Guarino, Vandana Abramson, Dejan Juric, Sara M Tolaney, Jordan Berlin, Wells A Messersmith, Allyson J Ocean, William A Wegener, Pius Maliakal, Robert M Sharkey, Serengulam V Govindan, David M Goldenberg, Linda T Vahdat
Purpose Trop-2, expressed in most triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), may be a potential target for antibody-drug conjugates. Sacituzumab govitecan, an antibody-drug conjugate, targets Trop-2 for the selective delivery of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan. Patients and Methods We evaluated sacituzumab govitecan in a single-arm, multicenter trial in patients with relapsed/refractory metastatic TNBC who received a 10 mg/kg starting dose on days 1 and 8 of 21-day repeated cycles. The primary end points were safety and objective response rate; secondary end points were progression-free survival and overall survival...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Jogender Kumar, Amitabh Singh, Rachna Seth, Immaculata Xess, Sushil Kumar Kabra
Invasive aspergillosis is a major concern in neutropenic patients. We studied the utility of Galactomannan antigen detection test in serum using ELISA technique for early detection of invasive aspergillosis. Diagnostic accuracy of Galactomannan index (GMI) test was maximum at a cut-off of > 1.5 with a negative predictive value of more than 95%.
March 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Mahnaz Fatahzadeh
Advances in transplant medicine and availability of effective immunosuppressive regimens have dramatically improved survival for patients afflicted with end-stage organ failure. However, chronic immunosuppression predisposes transplant patients to infection caused by a wide spectrum of endogenous or exogenous pathogens as well as necrotizing periodontal conditions. This article reviews clinical features, diagnosis, and management of necrotizing stomatitis in the context of therapeutic immunosuppression and discusses the integral function of dentists in eliminating oral foci of infection in preparation for transplantation as well as life-long maintenance of oral health post-transplant...
2018: Quintessence International
Wasef Na'amnih, Amos Adler, Tamar Miller-Roll, Dani Cohen, Yehuda Carmeli
To estimate the rate and identified risk factors for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) in Israel. We conducted a retro-prospective case-control study of all adult (age ≥ 18 years) patients with an initial episode of CDI (iCDI) at Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. We collected demographic, clinical, and epidemiological information for patients who were classified as recurrent (cases) and non-recurrent (control) groups. In total, 648 patients with iCDI were identified in the study...
April 7, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Saira Ajmal, Maryam Mahmood, Omar Abu Saleh, Jenifer Larson, M Rizwan Sohail
BACKGROUND: Increased risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after influenza infection has been reported; however data are limited. PURPOSE: To describe Invasive fungal infections (IFI) associated with preceding respiratory viral infection at a large referral center. METHODS: We reviewed all IFI cases among patients with positive influenza and/or RSV nasopharyngeal/lower respiratory tract PCR from October 2015 to December 2016. Cases of pulmonary IFI were classified as possible, probable, and definite based on EORTC-MSG definitions...
April 7, 2018: Infection
Shimon Ohtake, Hiromichi Takahashi, Masaru Nakagawa, Yoshihito Uchino, Katsuhiro Miura, Noriyoshi Iriyama, Tomohiro Nakayama, Yoshihiro Hatta, Masami Takei
A central venous catheter (CVC) is a catheter placed into a large vein, and is used for chemotherapy administration. However, there is little confirmatory data on which antiseptic-such as chlorhexidine or povidone-iodine (PI) -is more protective against CVC-related infectious complications in patients receiving intensive chemotherapy. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of 1% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% alcohol (CH) vs. PI for skin disinfection before CVC insertion in patients receiving intensive chemotherapy...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Lorenza Rimassa, Eric Assenat, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Marc Pracht, Vittorina Zagonel, Philippe Mathurin, Elena Rota Caremoli, Camillo Porta, Bruno Daniele, Luigi Bolondi, Vincenzo Mazzaferro, William Harris, Nevena Damjanov, Davide Pastorelli, María Reig, Jennifer Knox, Francesca Negri, Jörg Trojan, Carlos López López, Nicola Personeni, Thomas Decaens, Marie Dupuy, Wolfgang Sieghart, Giovanni Abbadessa, Brian Schwartz, Maria Lamar, Terri Goldberg, Dale Shuster, Armando Santoro, Jordi Bruix
BACKGROUND: Tivantinib (ARQ 197), a selective, oral MET inhibitor, improved overall survival and progression-free survival compared with placebo in a randomised phase 2 study in patients with high MET expression (MET-high) hepatocellular carcinoma previously treated with sorafenib. The aim of this phase 3 study was to confirm the results of the phase 2 trial. METHODS: We did a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 90 centres in Australia, the Americas, Europe, and New Zealand...
April 3, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Michele Reni, Gianpaolo Balzano, Silvia Zanon, Alessandro Zerbi, Lorenza Rimassa, Renato Castoldi, Domenico Pinelli, Stefania Mosconi, Claudio Doglioni, Marta Chiaravalli, Chiara Pircher, Paolo Giorgio Arcidiacono, Valter Torri, Paola Maggiora, Domenica Ceraulo, Massimo Falconi, Luca Gianni
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma are known to metastasise early and a rationale exists for the investigation of preoperative chemotherapy in patients with resectable disease. We aimed to assess the role of combination chemotherapy in this setting in the PACT-15 trial. METHODS: We did this randomised, open-label, phase 2-3 trial in ten hospitals in Italy. We report the phase 2 part here. Patients aged 18-75 years who were previously untreated for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, with Karnofsky performance status of more than 60, and pathologically confirmed stage I-II resectable disease were enrolled...
April 3, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Olavo Vicente Neto, Suziane Raymundo, Maria Alice Franzoi, Andiara do Carmo Artmann, Mariane Tegner, Victoria Vendramini Müller, Roberta Zilles Hahn, Gustavo Vasconcelos Alves, Gilberto Schwartsmann, Rafael Linden, Marina Venzon Antunes
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate plasma and salivary uracil (U) to dihydrouracil (UH2) ratios as tools for predicting 5-fluorouracil systemic exposure and drug-related severe toxicity, and clinically validate the use of dried saliva spots (DSS) as an alternative sampling strategy for dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency assessment. METHODS: Pre-chemotherapy plasma, fresh saliva and DSS samples were obtained from gastrointestinal patients (N = 40) for measurement of endogenous U and UH2 concentrations by LC-MS/MS...
April 3, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
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