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Beta cell imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911032/a-dermal-equivalent-engineered-with-tgf-%C3%AE-3-expressing-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-and-amniotic-membrane-cosmetic-healing-of-full-thickness-skin-wounds-in-rats
#1
Ali Samadikuchaksaraei, Ahmad Mehdipour, Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar, Javad Verdi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Kamran As'adi, Fatemeh Amiri, Mozhgan Dehghan Harati, Mazaher Gholipourmalekabadi, Nushin Karkuki Osguei
Transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-β3) has been shown to decrease scar formation after scheduled topical applications to the cutaneous wounds. This study aimed to continuously deliver TGF-β3, during the early phase of wound healing, by engineering a dermal equivalent (DE) using TGF-β3 expressing bone marrow stromal cells (BM-SCs) and human dehydrated amniotic membrane (hDAM). To engineer a DE, rat BM-SCs were seeded on the hDAM and TGF-β3 was transiently transfected into the BM-SCs using a plasmid vector...
December 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909574/characterization-of-5-2-18-f-fluoroethoxy-l-tryptophan-for-pet-imaging-of-the-pancreas
#2
Ahmed Abbas, Christine Beamish, Rebecca McGirr, John Demarco, Neil Cockburn, Dawid Krokowski, Ting-Yim Lee, Michael Kovacs, Maria Hatzoglou, Savita Dhanvantari
Purpose: In diabetes, pancreatic beta cell mass declines significantly prior to onset of fasting hyperglycemia. This decline may be due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and the system L amino acid transporter LAT1 may be a biomarker of this process. In this study, we used 5-(2- (18)F-fluoroethoxy)-L-tryptophan ( (18)F-L-FEHTP) to target LAT1 as a potential biomarker of beta cell function in diabetes. Procedures: Uptake of (18)F-L-FEHTP was determined in wild-type C57BL/6 mice by ex vivo biodistribution...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908343/a%C3%AE-amyloid-pathology-affects-the-hearts-of-patients%C3%A2-with%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease-mind%C3%A2-the-heart
#3
Luca Troncone, Marco Luciani, Matthew Coggins, Elissa H Wilker, Cheng-Ying Ho, Kari Elise Codispoti, Matthew P Frosch, Rakez Kayed, Federica Del Monte
BACKGROUND: Individually, heart failure (HF) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are severe threats to population health, and their potential coexistence is an alarming prospect. In addition to sharing analogous epidemiological and genetic profiles, biochemical characteristics, and common triggers, the authors recently recognized common molecular and pathological features between the 2 conditions. Whereas cognitive impairment has been linked to HF through perfusion defects, angiopathy, and inflammation, whether patients with AD present with myocardial dysfunction, and if the 2 conditions bear a common pathogenesis as neglected siblings are unknown...
December 6, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897412/systemic-inflammation-body-composition-and-physical-performance-in-old-community-dwellers
#4
Riccardo Calvani, Federico Marini, Matteo Cesari, Thomas W Buford, Todd M Manini, Marco Pahor, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Roberto Bernabei, Francesco Landi, Emanuele Marzetti
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation, changes in body composition, and declining physical function are hallmarks of the ageing process. The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary characterisation of the relationship among these age-related phenomena via multivariate modelling. METHODS: Thirty-five old adults (OAs) and 17 young adults (YAs) were enrolled. The volume of skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) of the thigh was quantified by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870141/periodontal-tissue-engineering-by-nano-beta-tricalcium-phosphate-scaffold-and-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-in-one-wall-infrabony-defects-of-dogs
#5
K Ogawa, H Miyaji, A Kato, Y Kosen, T Momose, T Yoshida, E Nishida, S Miyata, S Murakami, H Takita, B Fugetsu, T Sugaya, M Kawanami
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nanoparticle bioceramics are being investigated for biomedical applications. We fabricated a regenerative scaffold comprising type I collagen and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) nanoparticles. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a bioeffective signaling molecule that stimulates cell proliferation and wound healing. This study examined the effects, on bioactivity, of a nano-β-TCP/collagen scaffold loaded with FGF-2, particularly on periodontal tissue wound healing...
December 2016: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861351/small-amounts-of-tissue-preserve-pancreatic-function-long-term-follow-up-study-of-middle-segment-preserving-pancreatectomy
#6
Zipeng Lu, Jie Yin, Jishu Wei, Cuncai Dai, Junli Wu, Wentao Gao, Qing Xu, Hao Dai, Qiang Li, Feng Guo, Jianmin Chen, Chunhua Xi, Pengfei Wu, Kai Zhang, Kuirong Jiang, Yi Miao
Middle-segment preserving pancreatectomy (MPP) is a novel procedure for treating multifocal lesions of the pancreas while preserving pancreatic function. However, long-term pancreatic function after this procedure remains unclear.The aims of this current study are to investigate short- and long-term outcomes, especially long-term pancreatic endocrine function, after MPP.From September 2011 to December 2015, 7 patients underwent MPP in our institution, and 5 cases with long-term outcomes were further analyzed in a retrospective manner...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859838/aggregation-induced-changes-in-the-chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer-cest-signals-of-proteins
#7
Steffen Goerke, Katharina S Milde, Raul Bukowiecki, Patrick Kunz, Karel D Klika, Thomas Wiglenda, Axel Mogk, Erich E Wanker, Bernd Bukau, Mark E Ladd, Peter Bachert, Moritz Zaiss
Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is an MRI technique that allows mapping of biomolecules (small metabolites, proteins) with nearly the sensitivity of conventional water proton MRI. In living organisms, several tissue-specific CEST effects have been observed and successfully applied to diagnostic imaging. In these studies, particularly the signals of proteins showed a distinct correlation with pathological changes. However, as CEST effects depend on various properties that determine and affect the chemical exchange processes, the origins of the observed signal changes remain to be understood...
November 11, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844089/-biomarkers-for-dementia-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases-current-developments
#8
J Wiltfang, P Lewczuk, M Otto
Cerebrospinal fluid-based neurochemical dementia diagnostics (CSF-NDD) support the early and differential diagnosis of dementia, most importantly the diagnosis of early or preclinical Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Meanwhile CSF-NDD are now recommended for improved exclusion and positive diagnostics of AD by the German national neuropsychiatry S3 dementia guidelines ( www.DGPPN.de ). Meta-analyses of independent international multicenter studies have shown that a combined CSF analysis of amyloid-beta 1-42 (Aβ 1-42, decreased), total tau proteins (increased) and phospho-tau proteins (increased) offers a sensitivity and specificity of 80-90 % for the early and differential diagnosis of AD (AD versus all other)...
November 14, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830174/nonvascular-retinal-imaging-markers-of-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Peter J Snyder, Lenworth N Johnson, Yen Ying Lim, Cláudia Y Santos, Jessica Alber, Paul Maruff, Brian Fernández
INTRODUCTION: In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment, structural changes in the retina (i.e., reduced thicknesses of the ganglion cell and retinal nerve fiber layers and inclusion bodies that appear to contain beta-amyloid protein [Ab]) have been previously reported. We sought to explore whether anatomic retinal changes are detectable in the preclinical stage of AD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study (as part of an ongoing longitudinal cohort study) involving 63 cognitively normal adults, all of whom have a parent with AD and subjective memory complaints...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814751/recurrent-merkel-cell-carcinoma-of-the-testis-with-unknown-primary-site-a-case-report
#10
Angela Mweempwa, Alvin Tan, Michael Dray
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine tumor that commonly arises in the skin. It is rare for it to occur in the testes. There are only seven cases of testicular Merkel cell carcinoma reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old Maori man presented to our hospital with left testicular swelling. His alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin levels were within normal limits. His lactate dehydrogenase concentration was elevated to 267 U/L...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782732/flexible-radioluminescence-imaging-for-fdg-guided-surgery
#11
Martin T King, Cesare H Jenkins, Conroy Sun, Colin M Carpenter, Xiaowei Ma, Kai Cheng, Quynh-Thu Le, John B Sunwoo, Zhen Cheng, Guillem Pratx, Lei Xing
PURPOSE: Flexible radioluminescence imaging (Flex-RLI) is an optical method for imaging (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid tumors. The authors hypothesize that a gadolinium oxysulfide: terbium (GOS:Tb) flexible scintillator, which loosely conforms to the body contour, can enhance tumor signal-to-background ratio (SBR) compared with RLI, which utilizes a flat scintillator. The purpose of this paper is to characterize flex-RLI with respect to alternative modalities including RLI, beta-RLI (RLI with gamma rejection), and Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI)...
October 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781218/amyloid-beta-peptides-inside-a-reconstituted-cell-like-liposomal-system-aggregation-fret-fluorescence-oscillations-and-solvation-dynamics
#12
Somen Nandi, Prasenjit Mondal, Rajdeep Chowdhury, Abhijit Saha, Surajit Ghosh, Kankan Bhattacharyya
Aggregations of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides were studied inside a reconstituted cell like liposomal system using time-resolved confocal microscopy. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and confocal images indicate that Aβ forms a very large aggregate in bulk and more efficiently, in the bilayer region of the liposome, respectively. The aggregates formed inside the liposome gradually migrate out to bulk water. FRET, from HiLyte Fluor 488 (covalently attached to an Aβ peptide) to TRITC (tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate) covalently attached to a DHPE lipid present in the bilayer, reveals intermittent oscillations in the time scale of ∼0...
October 26, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773576/in-situ-reprogramming-to-transdifferentiate-fibroblasts-into-cardiomyocytes-using-adenoviral-vectors-implications-for-clinical-myocardial-regeneration
#13
Megumi Mathison, Vivek P Singh, Maria J Chiuchiolo, Deepthi Sanagasetti, Yun Mao, Vivekkumar B Patel, Jianchang Yang, Stephen M Kaminsky, Ronald G Crystal, Todd K Rosengart
OBJECTIVE: The reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocyte-like cells improves ventricular function in myocardial infarction models. Only integrating persistent expression vectors have thus far been used to induce reprogramming, potentially limiting its clinical applicability. We therefore tested the reprogramming potential of nonintegrating, acute expression adenoviral (Ad) vectors. METHODS: Ad or lentivirus vectors encoding Gata4 (G), Mef2c (M), and Tbx5 (T) were validated in vitro...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761145/neuroprotective-effects-of-the-herbal-formula-b401-in-both-cell-and-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Chih-Hsiang Hsu, Sheue-Er Wang, Ching-Lung Lin, Chun-Jen Hsiao, Shuenn-Jyi Sheu, Chung-Hsin Wu
In this study, we have reported the herbal formula B401 that has neuroprotective effects via multifunction, multitarget characteristics. It is possible that the herbal formula B401 may also provide new insights for AD. Here, we studied protective effects in the Tet-On Aβ42-GFP SH-SY5Y cell model and the APP/PS1/Tau triple transgenic mouse model by the herbal formula B401. In in vitro experiments, we showed that the herbal formula B401 treatment effectively reduces glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and acetylcholinesterase activity in Tet-On Aβ42-GFP SH-SY5Y cells...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739344/inhibition-of-periodontitis-induction-using-a-stimuli-responsive-hydrogel-carrying-naringin
#15
Po-Chun Chang, Yi-Chi Chao, Meng-Hsuan Hsiao, Hao-Syun Chou, Yi-Han Jheng, Xin-Hong Yu, Ning Lee, Connie Yang, Dean-Mo Liu
BACKGROUND: Developing a drug carrier with favorable handling characteristics that can respond to environmental changes following inflammation, such as pH changes, may be beneficial for treating periodontitis. This study aimed to investigate the preclinical feasibility of using naringin, a naturally derived polymethoxylated flavonoid compound with anti-inflammatory properties, to inhibit periodontitis induction via a thermo-gelling and pH-responsive injectable hydrogel. METHODS: The hydrogel was made of amphipathic carboxymethyl-hexanoyl chitosan (CHC), beta glycerol-phosphate (β-GP), and glycerol, and the thermo-gelling and pH-responsive characteristics of the hydrogel as well as the cell viability after treatment with the hydrogel containing naringin were evaluated in vitro...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684962/cytosolic-delivery-of-nanolabels-prevents-their-asymmetric-inheritance-and-enables-extended-quantitative-in-vivo-cell-imaging
#16
Ranhua Xiong, Freya Joris, Sayuan Liang, Riet De Rycke, Saskia Lippens, Jo Demeester, Andre Skirtach, Koen Raemdonck, Uwe Himmelreich, Stefaan C De Smedt, Kevin Braeckmans
Long-term in vivo imaging of cells is crucial for the understanding of cellular fate in biological processes in cancer research, immunology, or in cell-based therapies such as beta cell transplantation in type I diabetes or stem cell therapy. Traditionally, cell labeling with the desired contrast agent occurs ex vivo via spontaneous endocytosis, which is a variable and slow process that requires optimization for each particular label-cell type combination. Following endocytic uptake, the contrast agents mostly remain entrapped in the endolysosomal compartment, which leads to signal instability, cytotoxicity, and asymmetric inheritance of the labels upon cell division...
October 3, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679689/imaging-and-clinical-data-of-placental-site-trophoblastic-tumor-a-case-report
#17
Maryam Niknejadi, Firoozeh Ahmadi, Farnaz Akhbari
Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a very rare variant of gestational trophoblastic tumor. It can occur after normal termination of pregnancy or spontaneous abortion and ectopic or molar pregnancy. There is a wide range of clinical manifestations from a benign condition to an aggressive disease with fatal outcome. One of the most important characteristics of PSTT, unlike other forms of gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD) is the presence of low beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) levels because it is a neoplastic proliferation of intermediate trophoblastic cells...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676678/evaluation-of-bone-cancer-pain-induced-by-different-doses-of-walker-256-mammary-gland-carcinoma-cells
#18
Changsheng Dong, RuiXin Wu, Jing Wu, Jing Guo, Fangyuan Wang, Yanli Fu, Qing Wang, Ling Xu, Juyong Wang
BACKGROUND: Cancer pain is a complex medical syndrome. Understanding its underlying mechanisms relies on the use of animal models which can mimic the human condition. A crucial component of this model is the quantity of tumor cells; however, the exact relationship between the doses of tumor cells on bone cancer pain is yet unknown. OBJECTIVE: We explored the relationship of different doses of Walker 256 carcinoma cells using a bone cancer pain model in rats, and evaluated its success and stability...
September 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671296/targeted-therapy-towards-cancer-a-perspective
#19
Sean L Kitson, Vincenzo Cuccurullo, Andrea Ciarmiello, Luigi Mansi
Radionuclide antibody conjugates (RACs) and antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) can function as biotherapeutic missiles in order to target cancer cells and destroy them. The advent of new technology platforms consisting of imaging modalities, drug design and radiochemistry will facilitate the personalised approach for cancer patient treatment programmes. The utilisation of radionuclides and cytotoxic drugs conjugated to biovectors can deliver a cytotoxic drug payload with the ability to emit alpha and/or beta particles in the vicinity of the tumour by binding onto the cancer cells surface antigens initiating cell death...
September 26, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670633/evaluation-of-non-gaussian-diffusion-in-cardiac-mri
#20
Darryl McClymont, Irvin Teh, Eric Carruth, Jeffrey Omens, Andrew McCulloch, Hannah J Whittington, Peter Kohl, Vicente Grau, Jürgen E Schneider
PURPOSE: The diffusion tensor model assumes Gaussian diffusion and is widely applied in cardiac diffusion MRI. However, diffusion in biological tissue deviates from a Gaussian profile as a result of hindrance and restriction from cell and tissue microstructure, and may be quantified better by non-Gaussian modeling. The aim of this study was to investigate non-Gaussian diffusion in healthy and hypertrophic hearts. METHODS: Thirteen rat hearts (five healthy, four sham, four hypertrophic) were imaged ex vivo...
September 26, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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