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Beta cell imaging

Debanti Sengupta, Tae Jin Kim, Sepideh Almasi, Stuart Miller, Zsolt Marton, Vivek Nagarkar, Guillem Pratx
Radioluminescence microscopy is an emerging modality that can be used to image radionuclide probes with micron-scale resolution. This technique is particularly useful as a way to probe the metabolic behavior of single cells and to screen and characterize radiopharmaceuticals, but the quality of the images is critically dependent on the scintillator material used to image the cells. In this paper, we detail the development of a microscopy dish made of a thin-film scintillating material, Lu2O3:Eu, that could be used as the blueprint for a future consumable product...
March 15, 2018: Analyst
Wen-Ting K Tsai, Anna M Wu
The exquisite specificity of antibodies and antibody fragments renders them excellent agents for targeted delivery of radionuclides. Radiolabeled antibodies and fragments have been successfully used for molecular imaging and radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of cell-surface targets in oncology and immunology. Protein engineering has been employed for antibody humanization essential for clinical applications, as well as optimization of important characteristics including pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and clearance...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
Costansia Bureta, Hiroyuki Tominaga, Takuya Yamamoto, Takao Setoguchi, Hideki Kawamura, Satoshi Nagano, Ichiro Kawamura, Masahiko Abematsu, Hironori Kakoi, Yasuhiro Ishidou, Setsuro Komiya
BACKGROUND: Here we report a rare case of lumbar spine epidural abscess and facet joint septic arthritis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, which had spread to the iliopsoas muscles, leading to urine retention. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old woman with low back pain experienced a sudden onset of bilateral lower limb weakness, it was followed 14 days later by urine retention. At consultation, magnetic resonance imaging and identification of serum β-hemolytic streptococci provided a diagnosis of Streptococcus agalactiae infection...
March 13, 2018: BMC Surgery
Jill K Badin, Ayeeshik Kole, Benjamin Stivers, Victor Progar, Anisha Pareddy, Mouhamad Alloosh, Michael Sturek
BACKGROUND: There is a preponderance of evidence implicating diabetes with increased coronary artery disease (CAD) and calcification (CAC) in human patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the effect of diabetes on CAD severity in animal models remains controversial. We investigated whether diabetes exacerbates CAD/CAC and intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) dysregulation in the clinically relevant Ossabaw miniature swine model of MetS. METHODS: Sixteen swine, eight with alloxan-induced diabetes, were fed a hypercaloric, atherogenic diet for 6 months...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Jaroslav Vrba, Markéta Macholdová, Linda Nedbalová, Jiří Nedoma, Michal Šorf
Extracellular phosphatase activity (PA) has been used as an overall indicator of P depletion in lake phytoplankton. However, detailed insights into the mechanisms of PA regulation are still limited, especially in the case of acid phosphatases. The novel substrate ELF97 phosphate allows for tagging PA on single cells in an epifluorescence microscope. This fluorescence-labeled enzyme activity (FLEA) assay enables for autecological studies in natural phytoplankton and algal cultures. We combined the FLEA assay with image analysis to measure cell-specific acid PA in two closely related species of the genus Coccomyxa (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) isolated from two acidic lakes with distinct P availability...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Vivien Kauschke, Annett Gebert, Mariana Calin, Jürgen Eckert, Sebastian Scheich, Christian Heiss, Katrin Susanne Lips
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of osteoporotic fractures is still challenging and an urgent need exists for new materials, better adapted to osteoporotic bone by adjusted Young's modulus, appropriate surface modification and pharmaceuticals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Titanium-40-niobium alloys, mechanically ground or additionally etched and titanium-6-aluminium-4-vanadium were analyzed in combination with brain-derived neurotrophic factor, acetylcholine and nicotine to determine their effects on human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro over 21 days using lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase assays, live cell imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy...
2018: PloS One
Loredana Marcu, Eva Bezak, Barry J Allen
Targeted therapy for cancer is a rapidly expanding and successful approach to the management of many intractable cancers. However, many immunotherapies fail in the longer term and there continues to be a need for improved targeted cancer cell toxicity, which can be achieved by radiolabelling the targeting vector with a radioisotope. Such constructs are successful in using a gamma ray emitter for imaging. However, traditionally, a beta emitter is used for therapeutic applications. The new approach is to use the short range and highly cytotoxic alpha radiation from alpha emitters to achieve improved efficacy and therapeutic gain...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Andreas Stylianou, Vasiliki Gkretsi, Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos
BACKGROUND: Tumor microenvironment consists of the extracellular matrix (ECM), stromal cells, such as fibroblasts-FBs and cancer associated fibroblasts-CAFs, and a myriad of soluble factors. In many tumor types, including pancreatic tumors, the interplay between stromal cells and the other tumor microenvironment components leads to desmoplasia, a cancer-specific type of fibrosis that hinders treatment. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and CAFs are thought to play a crucial role in this tumor desmoplastic reaction, although the involved mechanisms are unknown...
February 22, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Matheus de Castro Fonseca, Andressa França, Rodrigo Machado Florentino, Roberta Cristelli Fonseca, Antônio Carlos Melo, Paula Teixeira Vieira Vidigal, André G Oliveira, Laurent Dubuquoy, Michael H Nathanson, M Fátima Leite
Hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration is a well-coordinated process regulated by the activation of several growth factor receptors, including the insulin receptor (IR). The IR can be localized in part to cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains, but the role of such domains in insulin-mediated events in hepatocytes is not known. We investigated whether partitioning of IRs into cholesterol-enriched membrane rafts is important for the mitogenic effects of insulin in the hepatic cells. IR and lipid rafts were labeled in HepG2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Raiyan T Zaman, Silvan Tuerkcan, Morteza Mahmoudi, Toshinobu Saito, Phillip C Yang, Frederick T Chin, Michael V McConnell, Lei Xing
OBJECTIVES: Myocardial infarction (MI) causes significant loss of cardiomyocytes, myocardial tissue damage, and impairment of myocardial function. The inability of cardiomyocytes to proliferate prevents the heart from self-regeneration. The treatment for advanced heart failure following an MI is heart transplantation despite the limited availability of the organs. Thus, stem-cell-based cardiac therapies could ultimately prevent heart failure by repairing injured myocardium that reverses cardiomyocyte loss...
2018: PloS One
F Martino, R Di Mauro, K Paciaroni, J Gaziev, C Alfieri, L Greco, R Floris, S Di Girolamo, M Di Girolamo
OBJECTIVES: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) and β -thalassemia major are well-recognized beta-globin gene disorders of red blood cells associated to mortality and morbidity included bone morbidities due to ineffective erythropoiesis and bone marrow expansion, which affect every part of the skeleton. While there are an abundance of described disease manifestations of the head and neck, the manner of paranasal sinuses involvement and its relations to β-thalassemia and SCA process was not studied yet...
March 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Wei Zhu, Haitao Cui, Benchaa Boualam, Fahed Masood, Erin Flynn, Raj Rao, Zhiyong Zhang, Lijie Grace Zhang
Cartilage tissue is prone to degradation and has little capacity for self-healing due to its avascularity. Tissue engineering, which provides artificial scaffolds to repair injured tissues, is a novel and promising strategy for cartilage repair. 3D bioprinting offers even greater potential for repairing degenerative tissue by simultaneously integrating living cells, biomaterials, and biological cues to provide a customized scaffold. With regard to cell selection, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great capacity for differentiating into a variety of cell types, including chondrocytes, and could therefore be utilized as a cartilage cell source in 3D bioprinting...
February 15, 2018: Nanotechnology
Youkyeong Gloria Byun, Won-Suk Chung
Astrocytes are the major cell type in the brain and directly contact synapses and blood vessels. Although microglial cells have been considered the major immune cells and only phagocytes in the brain, recent studies have shown that astrocytes also participate in various phagocytic processes, such as developmental synapse elimination and clearance of amyloid beta plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite these findings, the efficiency of astrocyte engulfment and degradation of their targets is unclear compared with that of microglia...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jiayin Shen, Yingwen Hu, Karson S Putt, Sunil Singhal, Haiyong Han, Daniel W Visscher, Linda M Murphy, Philip S Low
A number of folate receptor (FR) targeted small molecular drugs and monoclonal antibodies have been introduced into clinical trials to treat FR positive cancers. Because the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs depends prominently on the level of FR-α expression on the cancer cells, patients have been commonly selected for FR-targeted therapies based on the intensity of a folate-targeted radioimaging agent. Unfortunately, uptake of such imaging agents can be mediated by both major isoforms of the folate receptor, FR-α and FR-β...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
Aylia Mohammadi, Orlaith B Kelly, Melissa Filice, Boyko Kabakchiev, Michelle I Smith, Mark S Silverberg
Background and Aims: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important regulators in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study investigated differential expression of miRNAs across clinical phenotypes in a well-characterized cohort of IBD patients and healthy controls (HCs). Methods: A cohort with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and HC was prospectively accrued. Total RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells for all subjects. MiRNA expression was measured using NanoString Technologies...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Scott Poh, Venkatesh Chelvam, Wilfredo Ayala-López, Karson S Putt, Philip S Low
Activated macrophages play a key role in the development and maintenance of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, lupus, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and many others. These activated macrophages, but not resting or quiescent macrophages highly upregulate folate receptor beta (FR-β). This differential expression of FR-β provides a mechanism to selectively deliver imaging and therapeutic agents utilizing folate as a targeting molecule. In an effort to determine whether inflammatory diseases can be targeted utilizing a folate-linked nanosize carrier, a PEG-coated liposome was prepared that incorporated a folate conjugated PEG that also could transport imaging or therapeutic cargo...
January 30, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Violette Coppens, Gunter Leuckx, Yves Heremans, Willem Staels, Yannick Verdonck, Luc Baeyens, Nico De Leu, Harry Heimberg
Pancreas injury by partial duct ligation (PDL) activates beta cell differentiation and proliferation in adult mouse pancreas but remains controversial regarding the anticipated increase in beta cell volume. Several reports unable to show beta cell volume augmentation in PDL pancreas used automated digital image analysis software. We hypothesized that fully automatic beta cell morphometry without manual micrograph artifact remediation introduces bias and therefore might be responsible for reported discrepancies and controversy...
2018: PloS One
Elaheh Jamasbi, Mohammed Akhter Hossain, Masha Tan, Frances Separovic, Giuseppe D Ciccotosto
Amyloid beta peptides (Aβ) found in plaques in the brain have been widely recognised as a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease although the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Aβ40 and Aβ40(A2T) peptides were synthesized and their effects on neuronal cells are reported together with the effect of tetramer forms of the peptides. ThT assay revealed that mutation affected the lag time and aggregation and the presence of lipid vesicles changed the fibril formation profile for both peptides. The A2T mutation appeared to reduce cytotoxicity and lessen binding of Aβ40 peptides to neuronal cells...
February 2, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jonas L Fowler, Steve Seung-Young Lee, Zachary C Wesner, Scott K Olehnik, Stephen J Kron, Manami Hara
Pancreatic islets are endocrine micro-organs scattered throughout the exocrine pancreas. Islets are surrounded by a network of vasculature, ducts, neurons and extracellular matrix. Three-dimensional imaging is critical for such structural analyses. We have adapted Tissue Transparent Tomography (T3) to develop a method to image thick pancreatic tissue slices (1 mm) with multi-fluorescent channels. This method takes only 2-3 days from specimen preparation and immunohistochemical staining to clearing tissues and imaging...
January 30, 2018: Endocrinology
Julia Freudenblum, José A Iglesias, Martin Hermann, Tanja Walsen, Armin Wilfinger, Dirk Meyer, Robin A Kimmel
The three-dimensional architecture of the pancreatic islet is critical for beta cell function, but the process of islet formation remains poorly understood due to the difficulties of imaging internal organs with cellular resolution. Within transparent zebrafish larvae, the developing pancreas is relatively superficial and thus amenable to live imaging approaches. We performed in vivo time lapse and longitudinal imaging studies to follow islet develoment, visualizing both naturally occuring islet cells and cells arising with an accelerated time course following an induction approach...
January 31, 2018: Development
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