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Beta cell imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067253/whole-organ-and-islet-of-langerhans-dosimetry-for-calculation-of-absorbed-doses-resulting-from-imaging-with-radiolabeled-exendin
#1
Inge van der Kroon, Wietske Woliner-van der Weg, Maarten Brom, Lieke Joosten, Cathelijne Frielink, Mark W Konijnenberg, Eric P Visser, Martin Gotthardt
Radiolabeled exendin is used for non-invasive quantification of beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in vivo. High accumulation of radiolabeled exendin in the islets raised concerns about possible radiation-induced damage to these islets in man. In this work, islet absorbed doses resulting from exendin-imaging were calculated by combining whole organ dosimetry with small scale dosimetry for the islets. Our model contains the tissues with high accumulation of radiolabeled exendin: kidneys, pancreas and islets...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034704/antioxidants-taken-orally-prior-to-diagnostic-radiation-exposure-can-prevent-dna-injury
#2
Nivethan Velauthapillai, Joe Barfett, Hussein Jaffer, David Mikulis, Kieran Murphy
PURPOSE: To evaluate efficacy of oral antioxidant treatment given to patients before radiologic procedures in reducing x-ray-induced DNA damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a single-center prospective controlled trial, antioxidant treatment with 2 g ascorbate, 1.2 g N-acetylcysteine, 600 mg lipoic acid, and 30 mg beta carotene was given to 5 consecutive participants before undergoing clinically indicated technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc MDP) bone scans for cancer staging...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034291/radiopharmaceuticals-for-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-neuroendocrine-differentiated-prostate-cancer
#3
Giampiero Giovacchini, Elisabetta Giovannini, Mattia Riondato, Andrea Ciarmiello
Neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer (PCa) is a relatively frequent event, generally understudied, that carries important prognostic information. It is most frequently observed during the advanced stages of disease, when PCa has lost its sensitivity to androgen deprivation therapy or to chemotherapy, moderate to diffuse bone metastatic spread dominates the imaging scenario and it is responsible for painful clinical symptomatology. However, evidences indicate that neuroendocrine differentiation is a progressive phenomenon that starts at the very early part of the pathogenesis of cancer transformation contributing to it...
December 29, 2016: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032446/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-intra-pancreatic-ductal-nanoparticle-delivery-to-islet-cells
#4
Ping Wang, Alana Ross, Byunghee Yoo, Jingsheng Yang, Christian Farrar, Chongzhao Ran, Pamela Pantazopoulos, Zdravka Medarova, Anna Moore
The absence of reliable drug delivery systems to pancreatic beta-cells hampers efficient treatment of type 1 diabetes. Nanoparticle delivery systems equipped with imaging capabilities could enable selective delivery to pancreatic islet cells. Biodistribution of nanoparticles is defined by several factors including the mode of administration, which determines accumulation in various organs. In this study we tested whether intra-pancreatic ductal injection of magnetic nanoparticles (MN) would result in efficient cellular uptake by pancreatic islet cells...
December 29, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011945/orexin-a-modulates-ins-1e-cell-proliferation-and-insulin-secretion-via-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-and-transient-receptor-potential-channels
#5
M Skrzypski, N Khajavi, S Mergler, M Billert, D Szczepankiewicz, T Wojciechowicz, K W Nowak, M Z Strowski
Orexins A (OXA) and B (OXB) control energy homeostasis by regulating food intake, energy expenditure and sleep-wake cycle. Several studies showed that OXA stimulates insulin secretion and proliferation of beta cells. However, mechanisms of action are still not well understood. Here, we investigated whether ERK and transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) play a role in mediating the effect of OXA on cell growth, insulin production, and secretion using the established INS-1E cell line. Cell proliferation was measured using BrdU assay...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011193/monitoring-ca-2-elevations-in-individual-astrocytes-upon-local-release-of-amyloid-beta-in-acute-brain-slices
#6
Olga Tyurikova, Kaiyu Zheng, Annika Rings, Anna Drews, David Klenerman, Dmitri A Rusakov
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is thought to involve acute neurotoxic effects exerted by oligomeric forms of amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ). Application of Aβ oligomers in physiological concentrations have been shown to transiently elevate internal Ca(2+) in cultured astroglia. While the cellular machinery involved has been extensively explored, to what degree this important signalling cascade occurs in organised brain tissue has remained unclear. Here we adapted two-photon excitation microscopy and calibrated time-resolved imaging (FLIM), coupled with patch-clamp electrophysiology, to monitor Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]) inside individual astrocytes and principal neurons in acute brain slices...
December 20, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002522/primary-retroperitoneal-seminoma-embryology-histopathology-and-treatment-particularities
#7
Constantin Virgil Gîngu, Mihaela Mihai, Cătălin Baston, Mugurel Alexandru Crăsneanu, Alexandru Vladimir Dick, Vlad Olaru, Ioanel Sinescu
INTRODUCTION: Retroperitoneal seminoma is a very rare form of cancer, with embryological origin represented by primordial germ cells from the urogenital ridges left behind during the fetal development. Extragenital germ cell tumors can also occur in the mediastinum or the pineal gland. The aim of this paper is to outline the particularities and draw embryological, histopatological and treatment conclusions regarding extragonadal germ cell tumors. PATIENT AND METHODS: A 43-year-old patient without any additional pathology was admitted for anemia of unknown etiology...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999715/secretory-paraspinal-paraganglioma-of-thoracolumar-spine-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#8
Saad Akhtar, Sidra Sattar, Ehsan Bari, Naila Kayani, Sarosh Moeen
BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine secreting tumors of the adrenal medulla chromaffin cells, however, when present extra-adrenally they are called paragangliomas. Paragangliomas rarely produce catecholamine in excess, which is evident by clinical symptoms, urine, and blood biochemistry. Total resection of these tumors can lead to complete clinical and biochemical resolution. This case report presents the clinical features, radiological findings, and neurological outcome in a middle-aged female with a secretory paraganglioma...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995762/encapsulation-of-insulin-secreting-cells-expressing-a-genetically-encoded-fluorescent-calcium-indicator-for-cell-based-sensing-in-vivo
#9
Christophe Boss, Umberto De Marchi, Aurélie Hermant, Mouna Conrad, Federico Sizzano, Alessio Palini, Andreas Wiederkehr, Nicolas Bouche
The development of cell-based biosensors that give insight into cell and tissue function in vivo is an attractive technology for biomedical research. Here, the development of a cell line expressing a fluorescent calcium sensor for the study of beta-cell function in vivo is reported. The bioresponsive cell model is based on INS-1E pancreatic beta-cells, stably expressing the genetically encoded cameleon-based fluorescent sensor YC3.6cyto . Following single-cell selection and expansion, functional testing and in vitro encapsulation experiments are used to identify a suitable clone of INS-1E cells expressing the calcium sensor...
December 20, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982116/a-method-for-high-throughput-functional-imaging-of-single-cells-within-heterogeneous-cell-preparations
#10
Adam S Neal, Austin M Rountree, Jared R Radtke, Jianzhu Yin, Michael W Schwartz, Christiane S Hampe, Jonathan D Posner, Vincenzo Cirulli, Ian R Sweet
Functional characterization of individual cells within heterogeneous tissue preparations is challenging. Here, we report the development of a versatile imaging method that assesses single cell responses of various endpoints in real time, while identifying the individual cell types. Endpoints that can be measured include (but are not limited to) ionic flux (calcium, sodium, potassium and hydrogen), metabolic responsiveness (NAD(P)H, mitochondrial membrane potential), and signal transduction (H2O2 and cAMP). Subsequent to fluorescent imaging, identification of cell types using immunohistochemistry allows for mapping of cell type to their respective functional real time responses...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960611/elucidation-of-the-anticancer-potential-and-tubulin-isotype-specific-interactions-of-%C3%AE-sitosterol
#11
Madhura Pradhan, Charu Suri, Sinjan Choudhary, Pradeep Kumar Naik, Manu Lopus
Beta-sitosterol (β-SITO), a phytosterol present in many edible vegetables, has been reported to possess antineoplastic properties and cancer treatment potential. We have shown previously that it binds at a unique site (the 'SITO-site') compared to the colchicine binding site at the interface of α- and β-tubulin. In this study, we investigated the anticancer efficacy of β-SITO against invasive breast carcinoma using MCF-7 cells. Since 'isotypes' of β-tubulin show tissue-specific expression and many are associated with cancer drug resistance, using computer-assisted docking and atomistic molecular dynamic simulations, we also examined its binding interactions to all known isotypes of β-tubulin in αβ-tubulin dimer...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957723/low-kidney-uptake-of-glp-1r-targeting-beta-cell-specific-pet-tracer-18-f-labeled-nle-14-lys-40-exendin-4-analog-shows-promise-for-clinical-imaging
#12
Kirsi Mikkola, Cheng-Bin Yim, Paula Lehtiniemi, Saila Kauhanen, Miikka Tarkia, Tuula Tolvanen, Pirjo Nuutila, Olof Solin
BACKGROUND: Several radiometal-labeled, exendin-based tracers that target glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1R) have been intensively explored for β cell imaging. The main obstacle has been the high uptake of tracer in the kidneys. This study aimed to develop a novel GLP1-R-specific tracer, with fluorine-18 attached to exendin-4, to label β cells for clinical imaging with PET (positron emission tomography). We hypothesized that this tracer would undergo reduced kidney uptake. (18)F-labeled [Nle(14),Lys(40)]exendin-4 analog ([(18)F]exendin-4) was produced via Cu-catalyzed click chemistry...
December 2016: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956625/clarifying-intact-3d-tissues-on-a-microfluidic-chip-for-high-throughput-structural-analysis
#13
Yih Yang Chen, Pamuditha N Silva, Abdullah Muhammed Syed, Shrey Sindhwani, Jonathan V Rocheleau, Warren C W Chan
On-chip imaging of intact three-dimensional tissues within microfluidic devices is fundamentally hindered by intratissue optical scattering, which impedes their use as tissue models for high-throughput screening assays. Here, we engineered a microfluidic system that preserves and converts tissues into optically transparent structures in less than 1 d, which is 20× faster than current passive clearing approaches. Accelerated clearing was achieved because the microfluidic system enhanced the exchange of interstitial fluids by 567-fold, which increased the rate of removal of optically scattering lipid molecules from the cross-linked tissue...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941426/pancreatic-fat-is-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-and-visceral-fat-but-not-beta-cell-function-or-body-mass-index-in-pediatric-obesity
#14
Johan Staaf, Viktor Labmayr, Katharina Paulmichl, Hannes Manell, Jing Cen, Iris Ciba, Marie Dahlbom, Kirsten Roomp, Christian-Heinz Anderwald, Matthias Meissnitzer, Reinhard Schneider, Anders Forslund, Kurt Widhalm, Jonas Bergquist, Håkan Ahlström, Peter Bergsten, Daniel Weghuber, Joel Kullberg
OBJECTIVE: Adolescents with obesity have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Pancreatic fat has been related to these conditions; however, little is known about associations in pediatric obesity. The present study was designed to explore these associations further. METHODS: We examined 116 subjects, 90 with obesity. Anthropometry, MetS, blood samples, and oral glucose tolerance tests were assessed using standard techniques. Pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) and other fat depots were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging...
December 8, 2016: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935943/confined-mobility-of-tonb-and-fepa-in-escherichia-coli-membranes
#15
Yoriko Lill, Lorne D Jordan, Chuck R Smallwood, Salete M Newton, Markus A Lill, Phillip E Klebba, Ken Ritchie
The important process of nutrient uptake in Escherichia coli, in many cases, involves transit of the nutrient through a class of beta-barrel proteins in the outer membrane known as TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) and requires interaction with the inner membrane protein TonB. Here we have imaged the mobility of the ferric enterobactin transporter FepA and TonB by tracking them in the membranes of live E. coli with single-molecule resolution at time-scales ranging from milliseconds to seconds. We employed simple simulations to model/analyze the lateral diffusion in the membranes of E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932950/amyloid-precursor-proteins-are-dynamically-trafficked-and-processed-during-neuronal-development
#16
Jenna M Ramaker, Robert S Cargill, Tracy L Swanson, Hanil Quirindongo, Marlène Cassar, Doris Kretzschmar, Philip F Copenhaver
Proteolytic processing of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) produces beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide fragments that accumulate in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but APP may also regulate multiple aspects of neuronal development, albeit via mechanisms that are not well understood. APP is a member of a family of transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by all higher organisms, including two mammalian orthologs (APLP1 and APLP2) that have complicated investigations into the specific activities of APP. By comparison, insects express only a single APP-related protein (APP-Like, or APPL) that contains the same protein interaction domains identified in APP...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930666/development-of-pet-imaging-to-visualize-activated-macrophages-accumulated-in-the-transplanted-ipsc-derived-cardiac-myocytes-of-allogeneic-origin-for-detecting-the-immune-rejection-of-allogeneic-cell-transplants-in-mice
#17
Noriyuki Kashiyama, Shigeru Miyagawa, Satsuki Fukushima, Takuji Kawamura, Ai Kawamura, Shohei Yoshida, Akima Harada, Tadashi Watabe, Yasukazu Kanai, Koichi Toda, Jun Hatazawa, Yoshiki Sawa
Allogeneic transplantation (Tx) of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is a promising tissue regeneration therapy. However, this inevitably induces macrophage-mediated immune response against the graft, limiting its therapeutic efficacy. Monitoring the magnitude of the immune response using imaging tools would be useful for prolonging graft survival and increasing the therapy longevity. Minimally invasive quantitative detection of activated macrophages by medical imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET) imaging targets translocator protein (TSPO), which is highly expressed on mitochondrial membrane, especially in activated macrophage...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928774/a-3d-printed-anatomical-pancreas-and-kidney-phantom-for-optimizing-spect-ct-reconstruction-settings-in-beta-cell-imaging-using-111-in-exendin
#18
Wietske Woliner-van der Weg, Laura N Deden, Antoi P W Meeuwis, Maaike Koenrades, Laura H C Peeters, Henny Kuipers, Geert Jan Laanstra, Martin Gotthardt, Cornelis H Slump, Eric P Visser
BACKGROUND: Quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is challenging, especially for pancreatic beta cell imaging with (111)In-exendin due to high uptake in the kidneys versus much lower uptake in the nearby pancreas. Therefore, we designed a three-dimensionally (3D) printed phantom representing the pancreas and kidneys to mimic the human situation in beta cell imaging. The phantom was used to assess the effect of different reconstruction settings on the quantification of the pancreas uptake for two different, commercially available software packages...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911032/a-dermal-equivalent-engineered-with-tgf-%C3%AE-3-expressing-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-and-amniotic-membrane-cosmetic-healing-of-full-thickness-skin-wounds-in-rats
#19
Ali Samadikuchaksaraei, Ahmad Mehdipour, Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar, Javad Verdi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Kamran As'adi, Fatemeh Amiri, Mozhgan Dehghan Harati, Mazaher Gholipourmalekabadi, Nushin Karkuki Osguei
Transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-β3) has been shown to decrease scar formation after scheduled topical applications to the cutaneous wounds. This study aimed to continuously deliver TGF-β3, during the early phase of wound healing, by engineering a dermal equivalent (DE) using TGF-β3 expressing bone marrow stromal cells (BM-SCs) and human dehydrated amniotic membrane (hDAM). To engineer a DE, rat BM-SCs were seeded on the hDAM and TGF-β3 was transiently transfected into the BM-SCs using a plasmid vector...
December 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909574/characterization-of-5-2-18-f-fluoroethoxy-l-tryptophan-for-pet-imaging-of-the-pancreas
#20
Ahmed Abbas, Christine Beamish, Rebecca McGirr, John Demarco, Neil Cockburn, Dawid Krokowski, Ting-Yim Lee, Michael Kovacs, Maria Hatzoglou, Savita Dhanvantari
Purpose: In diabetes, pancreatic beta cell mass declines significantly prior to onset of fasting hyperglycemia. This decline may be due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and the system L amino acid transporter LAT1 may be a biomarker of this process. In this study, we used 5-(2- (18)F-fluoroethoxy)-L-tryptophan ( (18)F-L-FEHTP) to target LAT1 as a potential biomarker of beta cell function in diabetes. Procedures: Uptake of (18)F-L-FEHTP was determined in wild-type C57BL/6 mice by ex vivo biodistribution...
2016: F1000Research
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