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Beta cell imaging

Martin T King, Cesare H Jenkins, Conroy Sun, Colin M Carpenter, Xiaowei Ma, Kai Cheng, Quynh-Thu Le, John B Sunwoo, Zhen Cheng, Guillem Pratx, Lei Xing
PURPOSE: Flexible radioluminescence imaging (Flex-RLI) is an optical method for imaging (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid tumors. The authors hypothesize that a gadolinium oxysulfide: terbium (GOS:Tb) flexible scintillator, which loosely conforms to the body contour, can enhance tumor signal-to-background ratio (SBR) compared with RLI, which utilizes a flat scintillator. The purpose of this paper is to characterize flex-RLI with respect to alternative modalities including RLI, beta-RLI (RLI with gamma rejection), and Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI)...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Somen Nandi, Prasenjit Mondal, Rajdeep Chowdhury, Abhijit Saha, Surajit Ghosh, Kankan Bhattacharyya
Aggregations of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides were studied inside a reconstituted cell like liposomal system using time-resolved confocal microscopy. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and confocal images indicate that Aβ forms a very large aggregate in bulk and more efficiently, in the bilayer region of the liposome, respectively. The aggregates formed inside the liposome gradually migrate out to bulk water. FRET, from HiLyte Fluor 488 (covalently attached to an Aβ peptide) to TRITC (tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate) covalently attached to a DHPE lipid present in the bilayer, reveals intermittent oscillations in the time scale of ∼0...
October 26, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Megumi Mathison, Vivek P Singh, Maria J Chiuchiolo, Deepthi Sanagasetti, Yun Mao, Vivekkumar B Patel, Jianchang Yang, Stephen M Kaminsky, Ronald G Crystal, Todd K Rosengart
OBJECTIVE: The reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocyte-like cells improves ventricular function in myocardial infarction models. Only integrating persistent expression vectors have thus far been used to induce reprogramming, potentially limiting its clinical applicability. We therefore tested the reprogramming potential of nonintegrating, acute expression adenoviral (Ad) vectors. METHODS: Ad or lentivirus vectors encoding Gata4 (G), Mef2c (M), and Tbx5 (T) were validated in vitro...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Chih-Hsiang Hsu, Sheue-Er Wang, Ching-Lung Lin, Chun-Jen Hsiao, Shuenn-Jyi Sheu, Chung-Hsin Wu
In this study, we have reported the herbal formula B401 that has neuroprotective effects via multifunction, multitarget characteristics. It is possible that the herbal formula B401 may also provide new insights for AD. Here, we studied protective effects in the Tet-On Aβ42-GFP SH-SY5Y cell model and the APP/PS1/Tau triple transgenic mouse model by the herbal formula B401. In in vitro experiments, we showed that the herbal formula B401 treatment effectively reduces glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and acetylcholinesterase activity in Tet-On Aβ42-GFP SH-SY5Y cells...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Po-Chun Chang, Yi-Chi Chao, Meng-Hsuan Hsiao, Hao-Syun Chou, Yi-Han Jheng, Xin-Hong Yu, Ning Lee, Connie Yang, Dean-Mo Liu
BACKGROUND: Developing a drug carrier with favorable handling characteristics that can respond to environmental changes following inflammation, such as pH changes, may be beneficial for treating periodontitis. This study aimed to investigate the preclinical feasibility of using naringin, a naturally derived polymethoxylated flavonoid compound with anti-inflammatory properties, to inhibit periodontitis induction via a thermo-gelling and pH-responsive injectable hydrogel. METHODS: The hydrogel was made of amphipathic carboxymethyl-hexanoyl chitosan (CHC), beta glycerol-phosphate (β-GP), and glycerol, and the thermo-gelling and pH-responsive characteristics of the hydrogel as well as the cell viability after treatment with the hydrogel containing naringin were evaluated in vitro...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Ranhua Xiong, Freya Joris, Sayuan Liang, Riet De Rycke, Saskia Lippens, Jo Demeester, Andre Skirtach, Koen Raemdonck, Uwe Himmelreich, Stefaan C De Smedt, Kevin Braeckmans
Long-term in vivo imaging of cells is crucial for the understanding of cellular fate in biological processes in cancer research, immunology, or in cell-based therapies such as beta cell transplantation in type I diabetes or stem cell therapy. Traditionally, cell labeling with the desired contrast agent occurs ex vivo via spontaneous endocytosis, which is a variable and slow process that requires optimization for each particular label-cell type combination. Following endocytic uptake, the contrast agents mostly remain entrapped in the endolysosomal compartment, which leads to signal instability, cytotoxicity, and asymmetric inheritance of the labels upon cell division...
October 3, 2016: Nano Letters
Maryam Niknejadi, Firoozeh Ahmadi, Farnaz Akhbari
Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a very rare variant of gestational trophoblastic tumor. It can occur after normal termination of pregnancy or spontaneous abortion and ectopic or molar pregnancy. There is a wide range of clinical manifestations from a benign condition to an aggressive disease with fatal outcome. One of the most important characteristics of PSTT, unlike other forms of gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD) is the presence of low beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) levels because it is a neoplastic proliferation of intermediate trophoblastic cells...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
Changsheng Dong, RuiXin Wu, Jing Wu, Jing Guo, Fangyuan Wang, Yanli Fu, Qing Wang, Ling Xu, Juyong Wang
BACKGROUND: Cancer pain is a complex medical syndrome. Understanding its underlying mechanisms relies on the use of animal models which can mimic the human condition. A crucial component of this model is the quantity of tumor cells; however, the exact relationship between the doses of tumor cells on bone cancer pain is yet unknown. OBJECTIVE: We explored the relationship of different doses of Walker 256 carcinoma cells using a bone cancer pain model in rats, and evaluated its success and stability...
September 2016: Pain Physician
Sean L Kitson, Vincenzo Cuccurullo, Andrea Ciarmiello, Luigi Mansi
Radionuclide antibody conjugates (RACs) and antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) can function as biotherapeutic missiles in order to target cancer cells and destroy them. The advent of new technology platforms consisting of imaging modalities, drug design and radiochemistry will facilitate the personalised approach for cancer patient treatment programmes. The utilisation of radionuclides and cytotoxic drugs conjugated to biovectors can deliver a cytotoxic drug payload with the ability to emit alpha and/or beta particles in the vicinity of the tumour by binding onto the cancer cells surface antigens initiating cell death...
September 26, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Darryl McClymont, Irvin Teh, Eric Carruth, Jeffrey Omens, Andrew McCulloch, Hannah J Whittington, Peter Kohl, Vicente Grau, Jürgen E Schneider
PURPOSE: The diffusion tensor model assumes Gaussian diffusion and is widely applied in cardiac diffusion MRI. However, diffusion in biological tissue deviates from a Gaussian profile as a result of hindrance and restriction from cell and tissue microstructure, and may be quantified better by non-Gaussian modeling. The aim of this study was to investigate non-Gaussian diffusion in healthy and hypertrophic hearts. METHODS: Thirteen rat hearts (five healthy, four sham, four hypertrophic) were imaged ex vivo...
September 26, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Alvaro A Ordonez, Edward A Weinstein, Lauren E Bambarger, Vikram Saini, Yong S Chang, Vincent P DeMarco, Mariah H Klunk, Michael E Urbanowski, Kimberly L Moulton, Allison M Murawski, Supriya Pokkali, Alvin S Kalinda, Sanjay K Jain
: The modern patient is increasingly susceptible to bacterial infections including those due to multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs). Noninvasive whole-body analysis with pathogen-specific imaging technologies can significantly improve patient outcomes by rapidly identifying a source of infection and monitoring the response to treatment, but no such technology exists clinically. METHODS: We systematic screened 961 random, radiolabeled molecules in silico as substrates for essential metabolic pathways in bacteria, followed by in vitro uptake in representative bacteria - Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and mycobacteria...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Jisoo Park, Quangdon Tran, Kisun Mun, Kouhei Masuda, So Hee Kwon, Seon-Hwan Kim, Dong-Hoon Kim, George Thomas, Jongsun Park
The major biological function of mitochondria is to generate cellular energy through oxidative phosphorylation. Apart from cellular respiration, mitochondria also play a key role in signaling processes, including aging and cancer metabolism. It has been shown that S6K1-knockout mice are resistant to obesity due to enhanced beta-oxidation, with an increased number of large mitochondria. Therefore, in this report, the possible involvement of S6K1 in regulating mitochondria dynamics and function has been investigated in stable lenti-shS6K1-HeLa cells...
December 2016: Cellular Signalling
Jing-Ying Pan, Shijin Yuan, Tao Yu, Cong-Lin Su, Xiao-Long Liu, Jun He, He Li
Huntingtin associated protein 1 (Hap1) was originally identified as a protein that binds to the Huntington disease protein, huntingtin. Growing evidence has shown that Hap1 participates in intracellular trafficking via its association with various microtubule- dependent transporters and organelles. Recent studies also revealed that Hap1 is involved in exocytosis such as insulin release from pancreatic beta cells.However, the mechanism underlying the action of Hap1 on insulin release remains to be investigated...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sayuan Liang, Karim Louchami, Hauke Kolster, Anna Jacobsen, Ying Zhang, Julian Thimm, Abdullah Sener, Joachim Thiem, Willy Malaisse, Tom Dresselaers, Uwe Himmelreich
The assessment of the β-cell mass in experimental models of diabetes and ultimately in patients is a hallmark to understand the relationship between reduced β-cell mass/function and the onset of diabetes. It has been shown before that the GLUT-2 transporter is highly expressed in both β-cells and hepatocytes and that D-mannoheptulose (DMH) has high uptake specificity for the GLUT-2 transporter. As 19-fluorine MRI has emerged as a new alternative method for MRI cell tracking because it provides potential non-invasive localization and quantification of labeled cells, the purpose of this project is to validate β-cell and pancreatic islet imaging by using fluorinated, GLUT-2 targeting mannoheptulose derivatives ((19) FMH) both in vivo and ex vivo...
September 14, 2016: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Zhen Tan, Zhichao Xiao, Jinhong Wei, Jingqun Zhang, Qiang Zhou, Chris D Smith, Alma Nani, Guogen Wu, Long-Sheng Song, Thomas G Back, Michael Fill, S R Wayne Wayne Chen
Beta-blockers are a standard treatment for heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. There are about 30 commonly used beta-blockers representing a diverse class of drugs with different receptor affinities and pleiotropic properties. We reported that among 14 beta-blockers tested previously, only carvedilol effectively suppressed cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) mediated spontaneous Ca(2+) waves during store Ca(2+) overload, also known as store-overload induced Ca(2+) release (SOICR). Given the critical role of SOICR in arrhythmogenesis, it is of importance to determine whether there are other beta-blockers that suppress SOICR...
September 13, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Julien Detour, Alice Pierre, Frederic Boisson, Guillaume Kreutter, Thomas Lavaux, Izzie Jacques Namer, Laurence Kessler, David Brasse, Patrice Marchand, Alessio Imperiale
: Patient premedication by carbidopa seems to improve the accuracy of 6-(18)F-fluoro-3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine ((18)F-FDOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) for insulinoma diagnosis. However, the risk of PET false negative result has been evoked using carbidopa. Consequently, we aim to evaluate the effect of carbidopa on (18)F-FDOPA uptake in insulinoma beta cells and insulinoma xenograft model in mice. METHODS: (18)F-FDOPA in vitro accumulation was assessed in the murine beta cell line RIN-m5F...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Gustaf Christoffersson, Matthias G von Herrath
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes execute the killing of insulin-producing beta cells during onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). The research community has come far in dissecting the major events in the development of this disease, but still the trigger and high-resolved information of the immunological events leading up to beta cell loss are missing. During the past decades, intravital imaging of immune responses has led to significant scientific breakthroughs in diverse models of disease, including T1D. Dynamic imaging of immune cells at the pancreatic islets during T1D onset has been made possible through the development of both advanced microscopes, and animal models that allow long-term immobilization of the pancreas...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Dustin L Higashi, Nicolas Biais, Deborah L Donahue, Jeffrey A Mayfield, Charles R Tessier, Kevin Rodriguez, Brandon L Ashfeld, Jeffrey Luchetti, Victoria A Ploplis, Francis J Castellino, Shaun W Lee
Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A Streptococcus (GAS), is a human bacterial pathogen that can manifest as a range of diseases from pharyngitis and impetigo to severe outcomes such as necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome. GAS disease remains a global health burden with cases estimated at over 700 million annually and over half a million deaths due to severe infections(1). For over 100 years, a clinical hallmark of diagnosis has been the appearance of complete (beta) haemolysis when grown in the presence of blood...
2016: Nature Microbiology
João P Barbosa, Ana R Neves, Andreia M Silva, Mário A Barbosa, M Salette Reis, Susana G Santos
Dendritic cells (DCs) are promising targets for drug delivery, as they can induce immunity or tolerance. The current study aims to examine the potential of using nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) as delivery systems for human DC by evaluating nanoparticle internalization, cell labeling, and drug activity. NLC were formulated incorporating the fluorochrome fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-NLC) or the natural anti-inflammatory molecule resveratrol (rsv-NLC). Primary human DCs were differentiated from peripheral blood monocytes, and the innovative imaging flow cytometry technique was used to examine FITC-NLC internalization...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Zerihun Assefa, Sarah Akbib, Astrid Lavens, Geert Stangé, Zhidong Ling, Karine H Hellemans, Daniel Pipeleers
Compounds that increase β-cell number can serve as β-cell replacement therapies in diabetes. In vitro studies have identified several agents that can activate DNA synthesis in primary β-cells but only in small percentages of cells and without demonstration of increases in cell number. We used whole well multiparameter imaging to first screen a library of 1,280 compounds for their ability to recruit adult rat β-cells into DNA synthesis and then assessed influences of stimulatory agents on the number of living cells...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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