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Beta cell imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349056/sinus-tract-formation-with-chronic-inflammatory-cystic-mass-after-beta-tricalcium-phosphate-insertion
#1
Hong Jin Kim, Woong Gyu Na, Sung Won Jung, Sung Hoon Koh, Hyoseob Lim
Beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is one of allogenic bone substitute which is known to have interconnected pores that draws cell and nutrients for bone generation. It has been resulted in good outcomes for bone defect coverage or augmentation. However, several studies have also reported negative outcomes and associated complications including unexpected formation of cystic mass, continuous pain and secretion. We present the case of a 36-year-old man with a right cheek cystic mass who had a history of right zygomaticomaxillary (ZM) complex fracture and surgical correction with β-TCP powder insertion to ZM bone defect...
December 2017: Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344302/evans-blue-attachment-enhances-somatostatin-receptor-subtype-2-imaging-and-radiotherapy
#2
Rui Tian, Orit Jacobson, Gang Niu, Dale O Kiesewetter, Zhantong Wang, Guizhi Zhu, Ying Ma, Gang Liu, Xiaoyuan Chen
Purpose: Radionuclide therapy directed against tumors that express somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) has proven effective for the treatment of advanced, low- to intermediate-grade neuroendocrine tumors in the clinic. In clinical usage, somatostatin peptide-based analogs, labeled with therapeutic radionuclides, provide an overall response rate of about 30%, despite the high cumulative activity injected per patient. We set out to improve the effectiveness of somatostatin radiotherapy by preparing a chemical analog that would clear more slowly through the urinary tract and, concomitantly, have increased blood circulation half-life and higher targeted accumulation in the tumors...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334988/epidermal-wnt-signalling-regulates-transcriptome-heterogeneity-and-proliferative-fate-in-neighbouring-cells
#3
Arsham Ghahramani, Giacomo Donati, Nicholas M Luscombe, Fiona M Watt
BACKGROUND: Canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signalling regulates self-renewal and lineage selection within the mammalian epidermis. Although the transcriptional response of keratinocytes that receive a Wnt signal is well characterized, little is known about the mechanism by which keratinocytes in proximity to the Wnt-receiving cell are co-opted to undergo a change in cell fate. RESULTS: To address this, we perform single-cell RNA-sequencing on mouse keratinocytes co-cultured with and without beta-catenin-activated neighbouring cells...
January 15, 2018: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333922/effect-of-resveratrol-treatment-on-graft-revascularization-after-islet-transplantation-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#4
Eun-Mi Lee, Inwon Park, Ye-Jee Lee, Young-Hye You, Ji-Won Kim, Myung-Jun Kim, Yu-Bae Ahn, Pilhan Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko
We evaluated the effect of resveratrol (RSV) on graft survival after islet transplantation (ITx) in diabetic mice. Isolated islets from Balb/c mice (200 IEQ) were transplanted under the kidney capsule of diabetic Balb/c mice. Vehicle or RSV (200 mg/kg/day, orally) was given for 14 days after ITx. Two more control groups [STZ-treated (No-ITx-Control) and STZ+RSV-treated (No-ITx-RSV) mice without ITx] were added. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) was performed at 14 days after ITx. In vitro, isolated islets pretreated with vehicle or RSV (1 μM) were incubated in a hypoxic chamber (O2 1%, 1hr)...
January 15, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303444/reductions-in-brain-pericytes-are-associated-with-arteriovenous-malformation-vascular-instability
#5
Ethan A Winkler, Harjus Birk, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Xiaolin Chen, John K Yue, Diana Guo, W Caleb Rutledge, George F Lasker, Carlene Partow, Tarik Tihan, Edward F Chang, Hua Su, Helen Kim, Brian P Walcott, Michael T Lawton
OBJECTIVE Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are rupture-prone tangles of blood vessels with direct shunting of blood flow between arterial and venous circulations. The molecular and/or cellular mechanisms contributing to bAVM pathogenesis and/or destabilization in sporadic lesions have remained elusive. Initial insights into AVM formation have been gained through models of genetic AVM syndromes. And while many studies have focused on endothelial cells, the contributions of other vascular cell types have yet to be systematically studied...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288665/intact-calcium-signaling-in-adrenergic-deficient-embryonic-mouse-hearts
#6
Jessica N Peoples, David G Taylor, Alexander N Katchman, Steven N Ebert
Mouse embryos that lack the ability to produce the adrenergic hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI), due to disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh-/-) gene inevitably perish from heart failure during mid-gestation. Since adrenergic stimulation is well-known to enhance calcium signaling in developing as well as adult myocardium, and impairments in calcium signaling are typically associated with heart failure, we hypothesized that adrenergic-deficient embryonic hearts would display deficiencies in cardiac calcium signaling relative to adrenergic-competent controls at a developmental stage immediately preceding the onset of heart failure, which first appears beginning or shortly after mouse embryonic day 10...
December 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286439/isolation-and-characterization-of-primary-rat-valve-interstitial-cells-a-new-model-to-study-aortic-valve-calcification
#7
Cui Lin, Dongxing Zhu, Greg Markby, Brendan M Corcoran, Colin Farquharson, Vicky E Macrae
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is characterized by the progressive thickening of the aortic valve leaflets. It is a condition frequently found in the elderly and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, who commonly suffer from hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia. At present, there are no medication therapies that can stop its progression. The mechanisms that underlie this pathological process remain unclear. The aortic valve leaflet is composed of a thin layer of valve endothelial cells (VECs) on the outer surfaces of the aortic cusps, with valve interstitial cells (VICs) sandwiched between the VECs...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276781/recent-progress-in-the-use-and-tracking-of-transplanted-islets-as-a-personalized-treatment-for-type-1-diabetes
#8
Genaro A Paredes-Juarez, Paul de Vos, Jeff W M Bulte
Introduction: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease in which the pancreas produces insufficient amounts of insulin. T1DM patients require exogenous sources of insulin to maintain euglycemia. Transplantation of naked or microencapsulated pancreatic islets represents an alternative paradigm to obtain an autonomous regulation of blood glucose levels in a controlled and personalized fashion. However, once transplanted, the fate of these personalized cellular therapeutics is largely unknown, justifying the development of non-invasive tracking techniques...
2017: Expert Review of Precision Medicine and Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273469/circulating-triacylglycerols-but-not-pancreatic-fat-associate-with-insulin-secretion-in-healthy-humans
#9
Bettina Nowotny, Sabine Kahl, Birgit Klüppelholz, Barbara Hoffmann, Guido Giani, Roshan Livingstone, Peter J Nowotny, Valerie Stamm, Christian Herder, Andrea Tura, Giovanni Pacini, Jong-Hee Hwang, Michael Roden
BACKGROUND: Loss of adequate insulin secretion for the prevailing insulin resistance is critical for the development of type 2 diabetes and has been suggested to result from circulating lipids (triacylglycerols [TG] or free fatty acids) and/or adipocytokines or from ectopic lipid storage in the pancreas. This study aimed to address whether circulating lipids, adipocytokines or pancreatic fat primarily associate with lower insulin secretion. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Nondiabetic persons (n=73), recruited from the general population, underwent clinical examinations, fasting blood drawing to measure TG and adipocytokines and oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) to assess basal and dynamic insulin secretion and sensitivity indices...
December 19, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260371/analysis-of-the-vasculature-by-immunohistochemistry-in-paraffin-embedded-brains
#10
Yann Decker, Andreas Müller, Eszter Németh, Walter J Schulz-Schaeffer, Marc Fatar, Michael D Menger, Yang Liu, Klaus Fassbender
The brain vasculature can be investigated in different ways ranging from in vivo to biochemical analysis. Immunohistochemistry is a simple and powerful technique that can also be applied to archival tissues. However, staining of brain vessels on paraffin sections has been challenging. In this study, we developed an optimized method that can be used in paraffin-embedded mouse and human brain tissues derived from healthy controls and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. We subsequently showed that this method is fully compatible with the detection of glial cells and key markers of Alzheimer's disease including amyloid beta and phosphorylated Tau protein...
December 19, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259085/a-specialized-peptidoglycan-synthase-promotes-salmonella-cell-division-inside-host-cells
#11
Sónia Castanheira, Juan J Cestero, Gadea Rico-Pérez, Pablo García, Felipe Cava, Juan A Ayala, M Graciela Pucciarelli, Francisco García-Del Portillo
Bacterial cell division has been studied extensively under laboratory conditions. Despite being a key event in the bacterial cell cycle, cell division has not been explored in vivo in bacterial pathogens interacting with their hosts. We discovered in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium a gene absent in nonpathogenic bacteria and encoding a peptidoglycan synthase with 63% identity to penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3). PBP3 is an essential cell division-specific peptidoglycan synthase that builds the septum required to separate daughter cells...
December 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243340/testicular-sperm-extraction-after-laparoscopic-orchiectomy-for-bilateral-postpubertal-intra-abdominal-cryptorchidism-what-chance-of-sperm-retrieval
#12
G Cito, P A Della Camera, S Degli Innocenti, M E Coccia, G Nesi, A Cocci, S Morselli, A Minervini, M Carini, M Serni, M Gacci, A Natali
Infertility occurs in up to 54% of men with bilateral undescended testes. Orchiectomy is considered the best therapeutic approach, especially when cryptorchidism is diagnosed in adulthood, due to a high risk of malignancy. A 33-year-old man was referred with a clinical presentation of empty scrotum and an ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of intra-abdominal bilateral cryptorchidism. Follicle-stimulating hormone was 23.20 IU/L, luteinising hormone was 14.10 IU/L, total testosterone was 12...
December 15, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241949/a-severe-but-reversible-reduction-in-insulin-sensitivity-is-observed-in-patients-with-insulinoma
#13
Raluca Maria Furnica, Laure Istasse, Dominique Maiter
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemic manifestations are highly variable in patients with an insulinoma and largely independent of tumour size and severity of insulin hypersecretion. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the clinical, biological and tumoral characteristics of insulinomas in a large monocentric series of patients and we evaluated their insulin sensitivity before and after successful pancreatic surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of 40 patients treated for an insulinoma between 1982 and 2012 in our academic hospital...
December 11, 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226686/enhanced-specific-activity-by-multi-chelation-of-exendin-3-leads-to-improved-image-quality-and-in-vivo-beta-cell-imaging
#14
Lieke Joosten, Maarten Brom, Hanneke Peeters, Sandra Heskamp, Martin Behe, Otto C Boerman, Martin Gotthardt
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) targeting using radiolabeled exendin is a promising approach to non-invasively visualize and determine beta cell mass (BCM), which could help to unravel the pathophysiology of diabetes. However, saturation of the GLP-1R on beta cells occurs at low peptide doses, since the number of receptors expressed under physiological conditions is low. Therefore, tracers with high specific activities are required to sensitively image small variations in BCM...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208633/in-vivo-visualization-of-beta-cells-by-targeting-of-gpr44
#15
Olof Eriksson, Peter Johnström, Zsolt Cselenyi, Mahabuba Jahan, Ram K Selvaraju, Marianne Jensen-Waern, Akihiro Takano, Maria Sörhede Winzell, Christer Halldin, Stanko Skrtic, Olle Korsgren
GPR44 expression has recently been described as highly beta cell selective in the human pancreas and constitutes a tentative surrogate imaging biomarker in diabetes.A radiolabeled small molecule GPR44 antagonist, [11C]AZ12204657, was evaluated for visualization of beta cells in pigs and non-human primates by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) as well as in immunodeficient mice transplanted with human islets under the kidney capsule. In vitro autoradiography of human and animal pancreatic sections from non-diabetic and diabetic subjects, in combination with insulin staining, was performed to assess beta cell selectivity of the radiotracer...
December 5, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204904/the-functionality-of-african-specific-variants-in-the-tgfb1-regulatory-region-and-their-potential-role-in-hivan
#16
M Nel, J-M Buys, F C J Botha, N Wearne, S Prince, J M Heckmann
BACKGROUND: Transcription of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) is regulated by a polymorphic promoter region containing African-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Some of these SNPs have higher frequencies among Southern Africans compared to other African populations and their functionality has only been partially studied. Due to the high prevalence of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) in Africans we hypothesized that functional African TGFB1-promoter SNPs may contribute to HIVAN pathogenesis...
December 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195356/a-new-instrument-of-vuv-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry-imaging-with-micrometer-spatial-resolution-and-low-level-of-molecular-fragmentation
#17
Jia Wang, Feng Liu, Yuxiang Mo, Zhaoying Wang, Sichun Zhang, Xinrong Zhang
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has important applications in material research, biology, and medicine. The MSI method based on UV laser desorption/ionization (UVLDI) can obtain images of intact samples, but has a high level of molecular fragmentation. In this work, we report a new MSI instrument that uses a VUV laser (125.3 nm) as a desorption/ionization source to exploit its advantages of high single photon energy and small focus size. The new instrument was tested by the mass spectra of Nile red and FGB (Fibrinogen beta chain) samples and mass spectrometric images of a fly brain section...
November 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188768/radiolabeling-of-benzylpenicillin-with-lutetium-177-quality-control-and-biodistribution-study-to-develop-theranostic-infection-imaging-agent
#18
Muhammad Adeel Shahzad, Syed Ali Raza Naqvi, Rashid Rasheed, Muhammad Yameen, Fozia Anjum, Muhammad Tauqeer Ahmed, Zaib Hussain, Syed Jawad Hussain Gillani
Benzylpenicillin acts through binding with beta-lactamase enzyme and inhibiting the bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Therefore, the radiolabeling of benzylpenicillin with lutetium-177 is expected to serve as a theranostic agent for deep-seated bacterial infections. The radiolabeling of benzylpenicillin resulted ~93% radiochemical yield at optimized reaction conditions. Radiochemical purity analysis was tested with the help of Whatman No. 2 paper and instant thin layer chromatography. Biodistribution study with healthy New Zeeland white rabbit revealed moderate accumulation in different organs...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158835/theranostic-role-of-32-p-atp-as-radiopharmaceutical-for-the-induction-of-massive-cell-death-within-avascular-tumor-core
#19
Mirco Galiè, Federico Boschi, Ilaria Scambi, Flavia Merigo, Pasquina Marzola, Luisa Altabella, Umberto Lavagnolo, Andrea Sbarbati, Antonello E Spinelli
Drug inaccessibility to vast areas of the tumor parenchyma is amongst the major hurdles for conventional therapies. Treatment efficacy rapidly decreases with distance from vessels and most of the tumor cells survive therapy. Also, between subsequent cycles of treatment, spared cancer cells replace those killed near the vessels, improving their access to nutrients, boosting their proliferation rate, and thus enabling tumor repopulation. Because of their property of "acting at a distance," radioisotopes are believed to overcome the physical barrier of vascular inaccessibility...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150402/network-science-of-biological-systems-at-different-scales-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Marko Gosak, Rene Markovič, Jurij Dolenšek, Marjan Slak Rupnik, Marko Marhl, Andraž Stožer, Matjaž Perc
Network science is today established as a backbone for description of structure and function of various physical, chemical, biological, technological, and social systems. Here we review recent advances in the study of complex biological systems that were inspired and enabled by methods of network science. First, we present research highlights ranging from determination of the molecular interaction network within a cell to studies of architectural and functional properties of brain networks and biological transportation networks...
November 3, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
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