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Beta cell imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821664/differential-desensitization-observed-at-multiple-effectors-of-somatic-mu-opioid-receptors-underlies-sustained-agonist-mediated-inhibition-of-proopiomelanocortin-neuron-activity
#1
Philip D Fox, Shane T Hentges
Activation of somatic mu opioid receptors (MORs) in hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons leads to the activation of G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (GIRK) channels and hyperpolarization, but in response to continued signaling, MORs undergo acute desensitization resulting in robust reduction in the peak GIRK current after minutes of agonist exposure. We hypothesized that the attenuation of the GIRK current would lead to a recovery of neuronal excitability whereby desensitization of the receptor would lead to a new steady-state of POMC neuron activity reflecting the sustained GIRK current observed after the initial decline from peak with continued agonist exposure...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820316/cell-cycle-related-metabolism-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-a-replication-competent-pancreatic-beta-cell-line
#2
Chiara Montemurro, Suryakiran Vadrevu, Tatyana Gurlo, Alexandra E Butler, Kenny E Vongbunyong, Anton Petcherski, Orian S Shirihai, Leslie S Satin, Daniel Braas, Peter C Butler, Slavica Tudzarova
Cell replication is a fundamental attribute of growth and repair in multicellular organisms. Pancreatic beta-cells in adults rarely enter cell cycle, hindering the capacity for regeneration in diabetes. Efforts to drive beta-cells into cell cycle have so far largely focused on regulatory molecules such as cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Investigations in cancer biology have uncovered that adaptive changes in metabolism, the mitochondrial network, and cellular Ca(2+) are critical for permitting cells to progress through the cell cycle...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819951/metformin-a-new-old-drug
#3
Marta Patrycja Wróbel, Bogdan Marek, Dariusz Kajdaniuk, Dominika Rokicka, Aleksandra Szymborska-Kajanek, Krzysztof Strojek
For many years metformin has been the gold standard in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. According to recommendations of the most important diabetes associations, this is the first-choice drug for use as monotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Metformin is also recommended in combined treatment when monotherapy is no longer effective. It is then combined with a sulfony-lurea, an incretin, flozin, or insulin, irrespective of the number of insulin injections per day. Besides its properties used in the treatment of diabetes, metformin has been treated for some time as a drug of a so-called pleiotropic activity, as each year brings new reports about its favourable effect in different conditions...
2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819889/visualization-of-57-fe-labeled-heme-isotopic-fine-structure-and-localization-of-regions-of-erythroblast-maturation-in-mouse-spleen-by-maldi-fticr-ms-imaging
#4
Makoto Kihara, Yukari Matsuo-Tezuka, Mariko Noguchi-Sasaki, Keigo Yorozu, Mitsue Kurasawa, Yasushi Shimonaka, Michinori Hirata
Epoetin beta pegol (continuous erythropoiesis receptor activator; C.E.R.A.), or methoxy-polyethylene glycol-modified epoetin beta, is a long-acting erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) that effectively maintains hemoglobin levels. It promotes proliferation of erythroid progenitor cells in hematopoietic organs and leads to increased reticulocyte and hemoglobin levels. However, the detailed erythropoietic effects of various ESAs on their target organs have yet to be clarified, and new approaches are needed to analyze tissue iron localization with structural information...
August 17, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801349/c-myc-expression-in-adrenocortical-tumours
#5
Mirkka Pennanen, Jaana Hagström, Ilkka Heiskanen, Timo Sane, Harri Mustonen, Johanna Arola, Caj Haglund
AIMS: Widespread use of high-resolution imaging techniques and thus increased prevalence of adrenal lesions has made diagnostics of adrenocortical tumours an increasingly important clinical issue. In non-metastatic tumours, diagnosis is based on histology. New or enhanced information for clinicopathological diagnosis, revealing the malignant potential of the tumour, could emerge by means of biomarkers. The connection of proto-oncogene c-myc to adrenocortical neoplasias is poorly known, although the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, one of the signalling pathways leading to induction of c-myc expression, has been connected to development of adrenocortical neoplasias...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793277/o-2-18-f-fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine-18-f-fet-uptake-in-insulinoma-first-results-from-a-xenograft-mouse-model-and-from-human
#6
Alessio Imperiale, Frédéric Boisson, Guillaume Kreutter, Bernard Goichot, Izzie Jacques Namer, Philippe Bachellier, Patrice Laquerriere, Laurence Kessler, Patrice Marchand, David Brasse
INTRODUCTION: Herein we have evaluated the uptake of O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) in insulinoma in comparison with those of 6-(18)F-fluoro-3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine ((18)F-FDOPA) providing first data from both murine xenograft model and one patient with proved endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. METHODS: Dynamic (18)F-FET and carbidopa-assisted (18)F-FDOPA PET were performed on tumor-bearing nude mice after subcutaneous injection of RIN-m5F murine beta cells and on a 30-year-old man with type-1 multiple endocrine neoplasia and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia defined by a positive fasting test...
July 12, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775287/non-invasive-in-vivo-determination-of-viable-islet-graft-volume-by-111-in-exendin-3
#7
Wael A Eter, Inge Van der Kroon, Karolina Andralojc, Mijke Buitinga, Stefanie M A Willekens, Cathelijne Frielink, Desiree Bos, Lieke Joosten, Otto C Boerman, Maarten Brom, Martin Gotthardt
Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes. However, the duration of long-term graft survival is limited due to inflammatory as well as non-inflammatory processes and routine clinical tests are not suitable to monitor islet survival. (111)In-exendin-SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) is a promising method to non-invasively image islets after transplantation and has the potential to help improve the clinical outcome. Whether (111)In-exendin-SPECT allows detecting small differences in beta-cell mass (BCM) and measuring the actual volume of islets that were successfully engrafted has yet to be demonstrated...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766528/-the-importance-of-marker-proteins-of-the-nervous-tissue-for-morphological-diagnostics-of-the-craniocerebral-injury
#8
A N Shai, M V Fedulova, Yu E Kvacheva, S V Shigeev, A V Kovalev
The present review of the literature involves 50 publications concerning various substrates of importance as the biological markers of axonal damages with special reference to the secondary molecular and cellular mechanisms on which to base in vitro and in vivo modeling of the craniocerebral injury. The results of the investigations with the application of mass-spectrometry for the identification of the proteins specifically synthesized in response to the injury are presented; their biological functions are described...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756309/activation-of-brain-glucose-metabolism-ameliorating-cognitive-impairment-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice-by-electroacupuncture
#9
Weilin Liu, Peiyuan Zhuo, Long Li, Hao Jin, Bingbing Lin, Yingzheng Zhang, Shengxiang Liang, Jie Wu, Jia Huang, Zhifu Wang, Ruhui Lin, Lidian Chen, Jing Tao
An essential feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is implicated in brain energy metabolic impairment that is considered underlying pathogenesis of cognitive impairment. Therefore, therapeutic interventions to allay cognitive deficits that target energy metabolism may be an efficacy strategy in AD. In this study, we found that electroacupuncture (EA) at the DU20 acupoint obviously increased glucose metabolism in specific brain regions such as cortex, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, basal forebrain septum, brain stem, and cerebellum in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by animal (18)F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-Glucose ((18)F-FDG)/positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, accompanied by cognitive improvements in the spatial reference learning and memory and memory flexibility and novel object recognition performances...
July 26, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752085/review-of-pediatric-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma
#10
REVIEW
Reshma Bholah, Timothy Edward Bunchman
Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) are rare chromaffin cell tumors which secrete catecholamines and form part of the family of neuroendocrine tumors. Although a rare cause of secondary hypertension in pediatrics, the presentation of hypertension in these patients is characteristic, and treatment is definitive. The gold standard for diagnosis is via measurement of plasma free metanephrines, with imaging studies performed for localization, identification of metastatic lesions and for surgical resection...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744323/in-depth-characterization-of-a-tcr-specific-tracer-for-sensitive-detection-of-tumor-directed-transgenic-t-cells-by-immuno-pet
#11
Nahid Yusufi, Sabine Mall, Henrique de Oliveira Bianchi, Katja Steiger, Sybille Reder, Richard Klar, Stefan Audehm, Mona Mustafa, Stephan Nekolla, Christian Peschel, Markus Schwaiger, Angela M Krackhardt, Calogero D'Alessandria
A number of different technologies have been developed to monitor in vivo the distribution of gene-modified T cells used in immunotherapy. Nevertheless, in-depth characterization of novel approaches with respect to sensitivity and clinical applicability are so far missing. We have previously described a novel method to track engineered human T cells in tumors using (89)Zr-Df-aTCRmu-F(ab')2 targeting the murinized part of the TCR beta domain (TCRmu) of a transgenic TCR. Here, we performed an in-depth in vitro characterization of the tracer in terms of antigen affinity, immunoreactivity, influence on T-cell functionality and stability in vitro and in vivo...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744314/changes-of-bone-turnover-markers-in-long-bone-nonunions-treated-with-a-regenerative-approach
#12
Donatella Granchi, Enrique Gómez-Barrena, Markus Rojewski, Philippe Rosset, Pierre Layrolle, Benedetta Spazzoli, Davide Maria Donati, Gabriela Ciapetti
In this clinical trial, we investigated if biochemical bone turnover markers (BTM) changed according to the progression of bone healing induced by autologous expanded MSC combined with a biphasic calcium phosphate in patients with delayed union or nonunion of long bone fractures. Bone formation markers, bone resorption markers, and osteoclast regulatory proteins were measured by enzymatic immunoassay before surgery and after 6, 12, and 24 weeks. A satisfactory bone healing was obtained in 23 out of 24 patients...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739256/palmitoylation-of-ca-2-channel-subunit-cav%C3%AE-2a-induces-pancreatic-beta-cell-toxicity-via-ca-2-overload
#13
Abdulla S Kazim, Petter Storm, Enming Zhang, Erik Renström
High blood glucose triggers the release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells, but if chronic, causes cellular stress, partly due to impaired Ca(2+) homeostasis. Ca(2+) influx is controlled by voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV) and high density of CaV in the plasma membrane could lead to Ca(2+) overload. Trafficking of the pore-forming CaVα1 subunit to the plasma membrane is regulated by auxiliary subunits, such as the CaVβ2a subunit. This study investigates, using Ca(2+) imaging and immunohistochemistry, the role of palmitoylation of CaVβ2a in maintaining Ca(2+) homeostasis and beta cell function...
July 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727618/clinical-study-of-bone-regeneration-by-conditioned-medium-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells-after-maxillary-sinus-floor-elevation
#14
Wataru Katagiri, Junna Watanabe, Naoto Toyama, Masashi Osugi, Kohei Sakaguchi, Hideharu Hibi
OBJECTIVE: This clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the safety of use of the secretome of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) for maxillary sinus floor elevation (SFE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MSC-CM was prepared from conditioned medium from human bone marrow-derived MSCs. Six partially edentulous patients were enrolled in the study. MSC-CM was mixed with porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and implanted in 4 patients (experimental group), whereas only β-TCP was implanted in the other 2 patients (control group)...
August 2017: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699200/ultrasonographic-features-of-insulinoma-in-six-ferrets
#15
Ruey-Shyuan Wu, Yi-Jing Liu, Che-Chu Chu, Hock Gan Heng, Min-Yuan Chia, Hsien-Chi Wang, Kuan-Sheng Chen
Insulinoma is a functional, insulin-secreting tumor, arising from the beta islet cells of the pancreas. It is one of the most common neoplasms in ferrets and has been associated with clinical signs of hypoglycemia, such as ptyalism, pawing at the mouth, seizures, lethargy, and coma. The ultrasonographic features of insulinoma in ferrets have not been previously reported. The purpose of this retrospective case series study was to describe the ultrasonographic features of confirmed insulinoma in a group of ferrets...
July 11, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692327/fluorescence-of-picrosirius-red-multiplexed-with-immunohistochemistry-for-the-quantitative-assessment-of-collagen-in-tissue-sections
#16
Kyle A Wegner, Adib Keikhosravi, Kevin W Eliceiri, Chad M Vezina
The low cost and simplicity of picrosirius red (PSR) staining have driven its popularity for collagen detection in tissue sections. We extended the versatility of this method by using fluorescent imaging to detect the PSR signal and applying automated quantification tools. We also developed the first PSR protocol that is fully compatible with multiplex immunostaining, making it possible to test whether collagen structure differs across immunohistochemically labeled regions of the tissue landscape. We compared our imaging method with two gold standards in collagen imaging, linear polarized light microscopy and second harmonic generation imaging, and found that it is at least as sensitive and robust to changes in sample orientation...
August 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687070/massively-parallel-nanowell-based-single-cell-gene-expression-profiling
#17
Leonard D Goldstein, Ying-Jiun Jasmine Chen, Jude Dunne, Alain Mir, Hermann Hubschle, Joseph Guillory, Wenlin Yuan, Jingli Zhang, Jeremy Stinson, Bijay Jaiswal, Kanika Bajaj Pahuja, Ishminder Mann, Thomas Schaal, Leo Chan, Sangeetha Anandakrishnan, Chun-Wah Lin, Patricio Espinoza, Syed Husain, Harris Shapiro, Karthikeyan Swaminathan, Sherry Wei, Maithreyan Srinivasan, Somasekar Seshagiri, Zora Modrusan
BACKGROUND: Technological advances have enabled transcriptome characterization of cell types at the single-cell level providing new biological insights. New methods that enable simple yet high-throughput single-cell expression profiling are highly desirable. RESULTS: Here we report a novel nanowell-based single-cell RNA sequencing system, ICELL8, which enables processing of thousands of cells per sample. The system employs a 5,184-nanowell-containing microchip to capture ~1,300 single cells and process them...
July 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660548/chemotherapy-induced-cardiomyopathy-caused-by-pemetrexed
#18
Takuya Oyakawa, Kei Iida, Masatoshi Kusuhara, Hirotsugu Kenmotsu, Takashi Sugino
Chemotherapy-related cardiac toxicity is a rare but serious adverse event in patients with cancer. Thus far, no case of serious cardiac toxicity of pemetrexed has been reported. We describe the case of a patient with advanced lung cancer and cardiomyopathy due to pemetrexed. A 59-year-old woman visited our hospital, and we found abnormal findings on a chest radiograph. She was diagnosed as having stage IV lung adenocarcinoma. Chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed every 3 weeks was initiated. After four cycles of chemotherapy, maintenance chemotherapy with pemetrexed was administered every 3 weeks...
June 28, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660485/crmp2-phosphorylation-drives-glioblastoma-cell-proliferation
#19
Aubin Moutal, Lex Salas Villa, Seul Ki Yeon, Kyle T Householder, Ki Duk Park, Rachael W Sirianni, Rajesh Khanna
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive primary brain tumor. The rapid growth and the privileged provenance of the tumor within the brain contribute to its aggressivity and poor therapeutic targeting. A poor prognostic factor in glioblastoma is the deletion or mutation of the Nf1 gene. This gene codes for the protein neurofibromin, a tumor suppressor gene that is known to interact with the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2). CRMP2 expression and elevated expression of nuclear phosphorylated CRMP2 have recently been implicated in cancer progression...
June 28, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651647/iron-oxide-nanoparticles-may-damage-to-the-neural-tissue-through-iron-accumulation-oxidative-stress-and-protein-aggregation
#20
REVIEW
Zahra Yarjanli, Kamran Ghaedi, Abolghasem Esmaeili, Soheila Rahgozar, Ali Zarrabi
BACKGROUND: In the recent decade, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been proposed for several applications in the central nervous system (CNS), including targeting amyloid beta (Aβ) in the arteries, inhibiting the microglial cells, delivering drugs, and increasing contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. Conversely, a notable number of studies have reported the role of iron in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this study has reviewed the recent studies to determine whether IONPs iron can threaten the cellular viability same as iron...
June 26, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
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