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Beta cell imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431540/prevention-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-formation-in-diabetic-rats-through-beta-cell-modulation-by-aegle-marmelos
#1
Rahman M Hafizur, Shahrukh Momin, Noor Fatima
BACKGROUND: Although the anti-diabetic activity of Aegle marmelos (AM) is known, however, its anti-glycation activity is not reported yet. In this study, we have investigated its anti-glycation activity under in vitro and in vivo conditions and determined possible mechanism(s) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Effective dose of AM (400 mg/kg) was administrated orally to diabetic rats for 42 days. Thereafter, blood glucose, serum insulin, HbA1c, antioxidant status, and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) were measured...
April 21, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423568/sepia-ink-oligopeptide-induces-apoptosis-and-growth-inhibition-in-human-lung-cancer-cells
#2
Zhi Zhang, Lei Sun, Guoren Zhou, Peng Xie, Jinjun Ye
Sepia ink oligopeptide (SIO), as a tripeptide extracted from Sepia ink, could be used as an inducer of apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. We designed a cyclo-mimetic peptide of SIO by introducing a disulfide bond to stabilize the native peptide into beta turn structure, and produced a peptide with higher cell permeability and stability. Through labeling an FITC to the N-terminus of the peptide, the cell permeability was examined. Stabilized peptide showed enhanced cellular uptake than linear tripeptide as indicated by flow cytometry and cell fluorescent imaging...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409274/toward-molecular-imaging-of-the-free-fatty-acid-receptor-1
#3
Ewa Hellström-Lindahl, Ola Åberg, Cecilia Ericsson, Gavin O'Mahony, Peter Johnström, Stanko Skrtic, Olof Eriksson
AIMS: Molecular imaging of the free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1) would be a valuable tool for drug development by enabling in vivo target engagement studies in human. It has also been suggested as a putative target for beta cell imaging, but the inherent lipophilicity of most FFAR1 binders produces high off-target binding, which has hampered progress in this area. The aim of this study was to generate a suitable lead compound for further PET labeling. METHODS: In order to identify a lead compound for future PET labeling for quantitative imaging of FFAR1 in human, we evaluated tritiated small molecule FFAR1 binding probes ([(3)H]AZ1, [(3)H]AZ2 and [(3)H]TAK-875) for their off-target binding, receptor density and affinity in human pancreatic tissue (islets and exocrine) and rodent insulinoma...
April 13, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401888/advances-in-pancreatic-islet-monolayer-culture-on-glass-surfaces-enable-super-resolution-microscopy-and-insights-into-beta-cell-ciliogenesis-and-proliferation
#4
Edward A Phelps, Chiara Cianciaruso, Jaime Santo-Domingo, Miriella Pasquier, Gabriele Galliverti, Lorenzo Piemonti, Ekaterine Berishvili, Olivier Burri, Andreas Wiederkehr, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Steinunn Baekkeskov
A robust and reproducible method for culturing monolayers of adherent and well-spread primary islet cells on glass coverslips is required for detailed imaging studies by super-resolution and live-cell microscopy. Guided by an observation that dispersed islet cells spread and adhere well on glass surfaces in neuronal co-culture and form a monolayer of connected cells, we demonstrate that in the absence of neurons, well-defined surface coatings combined with components of neuronal culture media collectively support robust attachment and growth of primary human or rat islet cells as monolayers on glass surfaces...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397263/protective-effect-of-cirsimaritin-against-streptozotocin-induced-apoptosis-in-pancreatic-beta-cells
#5
Dahae Lee, Ki Hyun Kim, Jaemin Lee, Gwi Seo Hwang, Hye Lim Lee, Dae-Hyun Hahm, Chang Ki Huh, Sang Cheon Lee, Sanghyun Lee, Ki Sung Kang
OBJECTIVES: Maintaining glucose homoeostasis is essential for the survival of cells. Despite the various health benefits of Korean thistle (Cirsium japonicum var. maackii), their effects on pancreatic β-cell apoptosis in type 1 diabetes mellitus and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, and experimentally investigated in this study. METHODS: The effects of C. japonicum var. maackii and its active component cirsimaritin against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced cytotoxicity were assessed in INS-1 cells...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390866/activation-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-signaling-in-gastric-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-increases-their-motility-via-expression-of-rhomboid-5-homolog-2-and-ability-to-induce-invasiveness-of-gastric-cancer-cells
#6
Takatsugu Ishimoto, Keisuke Miyake, Tannistha Nandi, Masakazu Yashiro, Nobuyuki Onishi, Kie Kyon Huang, Suling Joyce Lin, Ramnarayanan Kalpana, Su Ting Tay, Yuka Suzuki, Byoung Chul Cho, Daisuke Kuroda, Kota Arima, Daisuke Izumi, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Yoshifumi Baba, Eiji Oki, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideyuki Saya, Kosei Hirakawa, Hideo Baba, Patrick Tan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fibroblasts that interact with cancer cells are called cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)-they promote progression of different tumor types. We investigated the characteristics and functions of CAFs in diffuse-type gastric cancers (DGCs) by analyzing features of their genome and gene expression patterns. METHODS: We isolated CAFs and adjacent non-cancer fibroblasts (NFs) from 110 GC tissues from patients who underwent gastrectomy in Japan from 2008 through 2016...
April 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385164/diffuse-idiopathic-pulmonary-neuroendocrine-cell-hyperplasia-diagnosed-by-transbronchial-lung-cryobiopsy-a-case-report
#7
R Sauer, S Griff, A Blau, A Franke, T Mairinger, C Grah
BACKGROUND: Micronodular lesions are common findings in lung imaging. As an important differential diagnosis, we describe a case of diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia; it is notable that the diagnosis of diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia is often delayed. This case provides supporting evidence to establish lung biopsy by cryotechnique as the option of first choice when considering a diagnostic strategy for micronodular lung lesions...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382841/hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-fanconi-bickel-syndrome
#8
Jennifer Pogoriler, Allison F O'Neill, Stephan D Voss, Robert C Shamberger, Antonio R Perez-Atayde
Fanconi-Bickel syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in the facilitative glucose transporter 2 ( GLUT2 or SLC2A2) gene resulting in excessive glycogen storage predominantly in the liver and kidney. Previous case reports of this condition have described liver biopsies with glycogen storage and variable steatosis and/or fibrosis. Unlike in other types of glycogen storage disease, hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas have not been described to date in this syndrome. A 6-year-old boy with consanguineous parents had short stature, poorly controlled rickets, hepatosplenomegaly, and renal tubular dysfunction clinically consistent with Fanconi-Bickel Syndrome...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379974/non-invasive-phenotyping-and-drug-testing-in-single-cardiomyocytes-or-beta-cells-by-calcium-imaging-and-optogenetics
#9
Yu-Fen Chang, Connor N Broyles, Frances A Brook, Mark J Davies, Cameron W Turtle, Takeharu Nagai, Matthew J Daniels
Identification of drug induced electrical instability of the heart curtails development, and introduction, of potentially proarrhythmic drugs. This problem usually requires complimentary contact based approaches such as patch-clamp electrophysiology combined with field stimulation electrodes to observe and control the cell. This produces data with high signal to noise but requires direct physical contact generally preventing high-throughput, or prolonged, phenotyping of single cells or tissues. Combining genetically encoded optogenetic control and spectrally compatible calcium indicator tools into a single adenoviral vector allows the analogous capability for cell control with simultaneous cellular phenotyping without the need for contact...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377323/brain-injury-results-in-lower-levels-of-melatonin-receptors-subtypes-mt1-and-mt2
#10
Nicole D Osier, Lan Pham, Bunny J Pugh, Ava Puccio, Dianxu Ren, Yvette P Conley, Sheila Alexander, C Edward Dixon
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating and costly acquired condition that affects individuals of all ages, races, and geographies via a number of mechanisms. The effects of TBI on melatonin receptors remain unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to explore whether endogenous changes in two melatonin receptor subtypes (MT1 and MT2) occur after experimental TBI. SAMPLE: A total of 25 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used with 6 or 7 rats per group...
April 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370671/multiscale-mapping-of-species-diversity-under-changed-land-use-using-imaging-spectroscopy
#11
Tarin Paz-Kagan, Tamir Caras, Ittai Herrmann, Moshe Shachak, Arnon Karnieli
Land-use changes are one of the most important factors causing environmental transformations and species diversity alterations. The aim of the current study was to develop a geoinformatics-based framework to quantify alpha and beta diversity indices in two sites in Israel with different land-uses, i.e., an agricultural system of fruit orchards, an afforestation system of planted groves, and an unmanaged system of groves. The framework comprises four scaling steps: (1) classification of a tree species distribution (SD) map using imaging spectroscopy (IS) at a pixel size of 1 m; (2) estimation of local species richness by calculating the alpha diversity index for 30-m grid cells; (3) calculation of beta diversity for different land-use categories and sub-categories at different sizes; and (4) calculation of the beta diversity difference between the two sites...
March 28, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365524/pancreas-and-liver-uptake-of-new-radiolabeled-incretins-glp-1-and-exendin-4-in-models-of-diet-induced-and-diet-restricted-obesity
#12
Daniele Seo, Bluma Linkowski Faintuch, Erica Aparecida de Oliveira, Joel Faintuch
INTRODUCTION: Radiolabeled GLP-1 and its analog Exendin-4, have been employed in diabetes and insulinoma. No protocol in conventional Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO), and Diet-Restricted Obesity (DRO), has been identified. Aiming to assess pancreatic beta cell uptake in DIO and DRO, a protocol was designed. METHODS: GLP-1-βAla-HYNIC and HYNIC-βAla-Exendin-4 were labeled with technetium-99m. Four Swiss mouse models were adopted: Controls (C), Alloxan Diabetes Controls (ADC), DIO and DRO...
March 18, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345862/quantification-of-lipid-metabolism-in-living-cells-through-the-dynamics-of-lipid-droplets-measured-by-stimulated-raman-scattering-imaging
#13
Chi Zhang, Junjie Li, Lu Lan, Ji-Xin Cheng
Dysregulation of lipid metabolism is associated with many diseases including cancer. Lipid droplet (LD), a ubiquitous organelle in mammalian cells, serves as a hub for lipid metabolism. Conventional assays on the measurement of lipid metabolism rely on the quantification of the lipid composition or amount. Such methods cannot distinguish LDs having different biofunctionalities in living cells, and thus could be inaccurate in measuring the instantaneous lipogenesis of the living cells. We applied label-free stimulated Raman scattering microscopy to quantify the LDs' spatial-temporal dynamics, which showed direct links to cellular lipid metabolisms and can separate LDs involved in different metabolic events...
April 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342877/quantitative-visualization-of-synchronized-insulin-secretion-from-3d-cultured-cells
#14
Takahiro Suzuki, Takao Kanamori, Satoshi Inouye
Quantitative visualization of synchronized insulin secretion was performed in an isolated rat pancreatic islet and a spheroid of rat pancreatic beta cell line using a method of video-rate bioluminescence imaging. Video-rate images of insulin secretion from 3D-cultured cells were obtained by expressing the fusion protein of insulin and Gaussia luciferase (Insulin-GLase). A subclonal rat INS-1E cell line stably expressing Insulin-GLase, named iGL, was established and a cluster of iGL cells showed oscillatory insulin secretion that was completely synchronized in response to high glucose...
March 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324008/vessel-network-architecture-of-adult-human-islets-promotes-distinct-cell-cell-interactions-in-situ-and-is-altered-after-transplantation
#15
Christian M Cohrs, Chunguang Chen, Stephan R Jahn, Julia Stertmann, Helena Chmelova, Jürgen Weitz, Andrea Bähr, Nikolai Klymiuk, Anja Steffen, Barbara Ludwig, Virginia Kamvissi, Eckhard Wolf, Stefan R Bornstein, Michele Solimena, Stephan Speier
Islet cell hormone release is modulated by signals from endothelial and endocrine cells within the islet. However, models of intra-islet vascularization and paracrine cell signaling are mostly based on rodent pancreas. We here assessed for the first time the architecture and endocrine cell interaction of the vascular network in unperturbed human islets in situ and their potential to re-establish their endogenous vascular network after transplantation in vivo. We prepared pancreas tissue slices of fresh tissue obtained from non-diabetic patients undergoing partial pancreatectomy...
January 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284560/computational-discovery-of-niclosamide-ethanolamine-a-repurposed-drug-candidate-that-reduces-growth-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-in-vitro-and-in-mice-by-inhibiting-cdc37-signaling
#16
Bin Chen, Wei Wei, Li Ma, Bin Yang, Ryan M Gill, Mei-Sze Chua, Atul J Butte, Samuel So
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Drug repositioning offers a shorter approval process than new drug development. We therefore searched large public datasets of drug-induced gene expression signatures to identify agents that might be effective against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We searched public databases of mRNA expression patterns reported from HCC specimens from patients, HCC cell lines, and cells exposed to various drugs. We identified drugs that might specifically increase expression of genes that are downregulated in HCCs and reduce expression of genes upregulated in HCCs using a non-parametric, rank-based pattern-matching strategy based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic...
March 8, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273762/natural-killer-cell-subpopulations-are-associated-with-mri-activity-in-a-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patient-cohort-from-australia
#17
P Caruana, K Lemmert, K Ribbons, R Lea, J Lechner-Scott
BACKGROUND: The importance of the innate immune system in multiple sclerosis (MS) is increasingly recognized and the role of natural killer (NK) cells in controlling autoimmunity may be an important modulator of disease activity. OBJECTIVE: To examine NK subsets in MS patients on different treatments and to evaluate the role of NK subsets as indicators for disease activity. METHODS: We measured NK subset levels in blood obtained from 110 relapsing-remitting MS patients...
November 1, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273348/performance-evaluation-of-18-f-radioluminescence-microscopy-using-computational-simulation
#18
Qian Wang, Debanti Sengupta, Tae Jin Kim, Guillem Pratx
PURPOSE: Radioluminescence microscopy can visualize the distribution of beta-emitting radiotracers in live single cells with high resolution. Here, we perform a computational simulation of (18) F positron imaging using this modality to better understand how radioluminescence signals are formed and to assist in optimizing the experimental setup and image processing. METHODS: First, the transport of charged particles through the cell and scintillator and the resulting scintillation is modeled using the GEANT4 Monte-Carlo simulation...
March 8, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253977/high-throughput-quantification-of-gfp-lc3-dots-by-automated-fluorescence-microscopy
#19
J M Bravo-San Pedro, F Pietrocola, V Sica, V Izzo, A Sauvat, O Kepp, M C Maiuri, G Kroemer, L Galluzzi
Macroautophagy is a specific variant of autophagy that involves a dedicated double-membraned organelle commonly known as autophagosome. Various methods have been developed to quantify the size of the autophagosomal compartment, which is an indirect indicator of macroautophagic responses, based on the peculiar ability of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (MAP1LC3B; best known as LC3) to accumulate in forming autophagosomes upon maturation. One particularly convenient method to monitor the accumulation of mature LC3 within autophagosomes relies on a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged variant of this protein and fluorescence microscopy...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246291/-11-c-5-hydroxy-tryptophan-pet-for-assessment-of-islet-mass-during-progression-of-type-2-diabetes
#20
Lina Carlbom, Daniel Espes, Mark Lubberink, Mats Martinell, Lars Johansson, Håkan Ahlström, Per-Ola Carlsson, Olle Korsgren, Olof Eriksson
[(11)C]5-hydroxy-tryptophan ([(11)C]5-HTP) PET of the pancreas has been shown to be a surrogate imaging biomarker of pancreatic islet mass. The change in islet mass in different stages of type 2 diabetes (T2D) as measured by non-invasive imaging is currently unknown. Here, we describe a cross-sectional study where subjects at different stages of T2D development with expected stratification of pancreatic islet mass were examined in relation to non-diabetic individuals. The primary outcome was the [(11)C]5-HTP uptake and retention in pancreas, as a surrogate marker for the endogenous islet mass...
February 28, 2017: Diabetes
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