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Beta cell imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212878/evaluation-of-macular-vascular-abnormalities-identified-by-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-sickle-cell-disease
#1
Ian C Han, Mongkol Tadarati, Katia D Pacheco, Adrienne W Scott
PURPOSE: To evaluate macular vascular flow abnormalities identified by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in patients with various sickle cell genotypes. DESIGN: Prospective, observational case series. METHODS: This is a single institution case series of adult patients with various sickle cell genotypes. All patients underwent macular OCT-A (Avanti RTVue XR, Optovue Inc, Fremont, CA). Images were analyzed qualitatively for areas of flow loss and quantitatively for measures of foveal avascular area, parafoveal flow, and vascular density...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211900/amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-interact-with-neurexin-and-diminish-neurexin-mediated-excitatory-presynaptic-organization
#2
Yusuke Naito, Yuko Tanabe, Alfred Kihoon Lee, Edith Hamel, Hideto Takahashi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by excessive production and deposition of amyloid-beta (Aβ) proteins as well as synapse dysfunction and loss. While soluble Aβ oligomers (AβOs) have deleterious effects on synapse function and reduce synapse number, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here we screened synaptic organizer proteins for cell-surface interaction with AβOs and identified a novel interaction between neurexins (NRXs) and AβOs. AβOs bind to NRXs via the N-terminal histidine-rich domain (HRD) of β-NRX1/2/3 and alternatively-spliced inserts at splicing site 4 of NRX1/2...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197211/therapeutic-effects-of-fermented-flax-seed-oil-on-nc-nga-mice-with-atopic-dermatitis-like-skin-lesions
#3
Joonhyoung Yang, Sangyeon Min, Seungug Hong
Background. Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases. Objective. This experiment aimed to study the effects of Fermented Flax Seed Oil (FFSO) on symptoms such as redness, eczema, and pruritus induced by AD. Materials and Methods. AD-induced NC/Nga mice were used to observe the immunological and therapeutic effects of FFSO on skin in vivo. Raw 264.7 cells were used to investigate the effects of FFSO in cells. Fc receptor expression and concentration of beta-hexosaminidase were measured...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196319/common-skin-conditions-in-children-congenital-melanocytic-nevi-and-infantile-hemangiomas
#4
Brian Z Rayala, Dean S Morrell
Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are hamartomas present at birth that are composed of nevomelanocytes and thought to originate from faulty migration of precursor melanocytes in the neural crest. Classification is based on projected adult size of the lesion. CMN size correlates positively with risk of melanoma and neurocutaneous melanocytosis. Management requires a patient-centered approach that weighs the risks and benefits of and alternatives to complete removal. All children with large and giant CMN, regardless of surgical status, should be monitored closely and undergo periodic skin examination...
February 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193789/enriching-islet-phospholipids-with-eicosapentaenoic-acid-reduces-prostaglandin-e2-signaling-and-enhances-diabetic-%C3%AE-cell-function
#5
Joshua C Neuman, Michael D Schaid, Allison L Brill, Rachel J Fenske, Carly R Kibbe, Danielle A Fontaine, Sophia M Sdao, Harpreet K Brar, Kelsey M Connors, Haley N Wienkes, Kevin W Eliceiri, Matthew J Merrins, Dawn B Davis, Michelle E Kimple
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is derived from arachidonic acid, while PGE3 is derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) using the same downstream metabolic enzymes. Little is known about the impact of EPA and PGE3 on β-cell function, particularly in the diabetic state. In this work, we determined PGE3 elicits a 10-fold weaker reduction in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through the EP3 receptor as compared to PGE2 We tested the hypothesis that enriching pancreatic islet cell membranes with EPA, thereby reducing arachidonic acid abundance, would positively impact β-cell function in the diabetic state...
February 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174113/involvement-of-glun2b-subunit-containing-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-receptors-in-mediating-the-acute-and-chronic-synaptotoxic-effects-of-oligomeric-amyloid-beta-a%C3%AE-in-murine-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#6
Gerhard Rammes, Corinna Mattusch, Matthias Wulff, Franziska Seeser, Matthias Kreuzer, Kaichuan Zhu, Jan M Deussing, Jochen Herms, Chris G Parsons
To elucidate whether a permanent reduction of the GluN2B subunit affects the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we cross-bred mice heterozygous for GluN2B receptors in the forebrain (hetGluN2B) with a mouse model for AD carrying a mutated amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish and Arctic mutation (mAPP) resulting in a hetGluN2B/mAPP transgenic. By means of voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) in the di-synaptic hippocampal pathway and the recording of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs), hippocampal slices of all genotypes (WT, hetGluN2B, mAPP and hetGluN2B/mAPP, age 9-18 months) were tested for spatiotemporal activity propagation and LTP induction...
February 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161954/-two-photon-dye-cocktail-for-dual-color-3d-imaging-of-pancreatic-beta-and-alpha-cells-in-live-islets
#7
Bikram Keshari Agrawalla, Hyo Won Lee, Wut-Hmone Phue, Anandhkumar Raju, Jong-Jin Kim, Hwan Myung Kim, Nam-Young Kang, Young-Tae Chang
Insulin secreting beta cell together with glucagon producing alpha cell play an essential role in maintaining the optimal blood glucose level in the body, development of selective probes for imaging of these cell types in live islet are highly desired. Herein, we report the development of 2-Glucosamine based two-photon fluorescent probe: TP-β, suitable for beta cell imaging in live pancreatic islet from mice. The flow cytometry studies confirmed that TP-β is suitable for isolation of primary beta cells. Moreover, the two-photon imaging of TP-β stained pancreatic islet showed brightly stained beta cells in live islets...
February 6, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134307/fingolimod-limits-acute-a%C3%AE-neurotoxicity-and-promotes-synaptic-versus-extrasynaptic-nmda-receptor-functionality-in-hippocampal-neurons
#8
Pooja Joshi, Martina Gabrielli, Luisa Ponzoni, Silvia Pelucchi, Matteo Stravalaci, Marten Beeg, Sonia Mazzitelli, Daniela Braida, Mariaelvina Sala, Enrica Boda, Annalisa Buffo, Marco Gobbi, Fabrizio Gardoni, Michela Matteoli, Elena Marcello, Claudia Verderio
Fingolimod, also known as FTY720, is an analogue of the sphingolipid sphingosine, which has been proved to be neuroprotective in rodent models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several cellular and molecular targets underlying the neuroprotective effects of FTY720 have been recently identified. However, whether the drug directly protects neurons from toxicity of amyloid-beta (Aβ) still remains poorly defined. Using a combination of biochemical assays, live imaging and electrophysiology we demonstrate that FTY720 induces a rapid increase in GLUN2A-containing neuroprotective NMDARs on the surface of dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133749/depth-dependent-concentrations-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-the-adult-skeleton-implications-for-active-marrow-dosimetry
#9
Amy M Geyer, Bryan C Schwarz, Shannon E O'Reilly, Robert F Hobbs, George Sgouros, Wesley E Bolch
PURPOSE: The hematopoietically active (or red) bone marrow is the target tissue assigned in skeletal dosimetry models for assessment of stochastic effects (leukemia induction) as well as tissue reactions (marrow toxicity). Active marrow, however, is in reality a surrogate tissue region for specific cell populations, namely the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Present models of active marrow dosimetry implicitly assume that these cells are uniformly localized throughout the marrow spaces of trabecular spongiosa...
December 10, 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111350/antiarrhythmic-effects-of-interleukin-1-inhibition-after-myocardial-infarction
#10
Nicole M De Jesus, Lianguo Wang, Johnny Lai, Robert R Rigor, Samantha D Francis Stuart, Donald M Bers, Merry L Lindsey, Crystal M Ripplinger
BACKGROUND: Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is a key regulator of the inflammatory response after myocardial infarction (MI) by modulating immune cell recruitment, cytokine production, and extracellular matrix turnover. Elevated levels of IL-1β are associated with adverse remodeling and inhibition of IL-1 signaling after MI results in improved contractile function. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine whether IL-1 signaling also contributes to post-MI arrhythmogenesis...
January 19, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103285/radioiodinated-exendin-4-is-superior-to-the-radiometal-labelled-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-probes-overcoming-their-high-kidney-uptake
#11
Tilman Läppchen, Roswitha Tönnesmann, Jos Eersels, Philipp T Meyer, Helmut R Maecke, Svetlana N Rylova
GLP-1 receptors are ideal targets for preoperative imaging of benign insulinoma and for quantifying the beta cell mass. The existing clinical tracers targeting GLP-1R are all agonists with low specific activity and very high kidney uptake. In order to solve those issues we evaluated GLP-1R agonist Ex-4 and antagonist Ex(9-39) radioiodinated at Tyr40 side by side with [Nle14,Lys40(Ahx-DOTA-68Ga)NH2]Ex-4 (68Ga-Ex-4) used in the clinic. The Kd, Bmax, internalization and binding kinetics of [Nle14,125I-Tyr40-NH2]Ex-4 and [Nle14,125I-Tyr40-NH2]Ex(9-39) were studied in vitro using Ins-1E cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094469/immunohistochemical-assessment-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-glp-1r-expression-in-the-pancreas-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Rikke Kaae Kirk, Charles Pyke, Matthias G von Herrath, Jane Preuss Hasselby, Lars Pedersen, Pia Gottrup Mortensen, Lotte Bjerre Knudsen, Ken Coppieters
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone which stimulates insulin release and inhibits glucagon secretion from the pancreas in a glucose-dependent manner. Incretin-based therapies, consisting of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, are used for the treatment of T2D. Immunohistochemical studies for GLP-1R expression have previously been hampered by the use of unspecific polyclonal antibodies. This study used a new monoclonal antibody to assess GLP-1R expression in pancreatic tissue from 23 patients with T2D, including 7 with a DPP-4 inhibitor and 1 with a GLP-1R agonist treatment history...
January 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067253/whole-organ-and-islet-of-langerhans-dosimetry-for-calculation-of-absorbed-doses-resulting-from-imaging-with-radiolabeled-exendin
#13
Inge van der Kroon, Wietske Woliner-van der Weg, Maarten Brom, Lieke Joosten, Cathelijne Frielink, Mark W Konijnenberg, Eric P Visser, Martin Gotthardt
Radiolabeled exendin is used for non-invasive quantification of beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in vivo. High accumulation of radiolabeled exendin in the islets raised concerns about possible radiation-induced damage to these islets in man. In this work, islet absorbed doses resulting from exendin-imaging were calculated by combining whole organ dosimetry with small scale dosimetry for the islets. Our model contains the tissues with high accumulation of radiolabeled exendin: kidneys, pancreas and islets...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034704/antioxidants-taken-orally-prior-to-diagnostic-radiation-exposure-can-prevent-dna-injury
#14
Nivethan Velauthapillai, Joe Barfett, Hussein Jaffer, David Mikulis, Kieran Murphy
PURPOSE: To evaluate efficacy of oral antioxidant treatment given to patients before radiologic procedures in reducing x-ray-induced DNA damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a single-center prospective controlled trial, antioxidant treatment with 2 g ascorbate, 1.2 g N-acetylcysteine, 600 mg lipoic acid, and 30 mg beta carotene was given to 5 consecutive participants before undergoing clinically indicated technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc MDP) bone scans for cancer staging...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034291/radiopharmaceuticals-for-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-neuroendocrine-differentiated-prostate-cancer
#15
Giampiero Giovacchini, Elisabetta Giovannini, Mattia Riondato, Andrea Ciarmiello
Neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer (PCa) is a relatively frequent event, generally understudied, that carries important prognostic information. It is most frequently observed during the advanced stages of disease, when PCa has lost its sensitivity to androgen deprivation therapy or to chemotherapy, moderate to diffuse bone metastatic spread dominates the imaging scenario and it is responsible for painful clinical symptomatology. However, evidences indicate that neuroendocrine differentiation is a progressive phenomenon that starts at the very early part of the pathogenesis of cancer transformation contributing to it...
December 29, 2016: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032446/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-intra-pancreatic-ductal-nanoparticle-delivery-to-islet-cells
#16
Ping Wang, Alana Ross, Byunghee Yoo, Jingsheng Yang, Christian Farrar, Chongzhao Ran, Pamela Pantazopoulos, Zdravka Medarova, Anna Moore
The absence of reliable drug delivery systems to pancreatic beta-cells hampers efficient treatment of type 1 diabetes. Nanoparticle delivery systems equipped with imaging capabilities could enable selective delivery to pancreatic islet cells. Biodistribution of nanoparticles is defined by several factors including the mode of administration, which determines accumulation in various organs. In this study we tested whether intra-pancreatic ductal injection of magnetic nanoparticles (MN) would result in efficient cellular uptake by pancreatic islet cells...
December 29, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011945/orexin-a-modulates-ins-1e-cell-proliferation-and-insulin-secretion-via-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-and-transient-receptor-potential-channels
#17
M Skrzypski, N Khajavi, S Mergler, M Billert, D Szczepankiewicz, T Wojciechowicz, K W Nowak, M Z Strowski
Orexins A (OXA) and B (OXB) control energy homeostasis by regulating food intake, energy expenditure and sleep-wake cycle. Several studies showed that OXA stimulates insulin secretion and proliferation of beta cells. However, mechanisms of action are still not well understood. Here, we investigated whether ERK and transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) play a role in mediating the effect of OXA on cell growth, insulin production, and secretion using the established INS-1E cell line. Cell proliferation was measured using BrdU assay...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011193/monitoring-ca-2-elevations-in-individual-astrocytes-upon-local-release-of-amyloid-beta-in-acute-brain-slices
#18
Olga Tyurikova, Kaiyu Zheng, Annika Rings, Anna Drews, David Klenerman, Dmitri A Rusakov
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is thought to involve acute neurotoxic effects exerted by oligomeric forms of amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ). Application of Aβ oligomers in physiological concentrations have been shown to transiently elevate internal Ca(2+) in cultured astroglia. While the cellular machinery involved has been extensively explored, to what degree this important signalling cascade occurs in organised brain tissue has remained unclear. Here we adapted two-photon excitation microscopy and calibrated time-resolved imaging (FLIM), coupled with patch-clamp electrophysiology, to monitor Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]) inside individual astrocytes and principal neurons in acute brain slices...
December 20, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002522/primary-retroperitoneal-seminoma-embryology-histopathology-and-treatment-particularities
#19
Constantin Virgil Gîngu, Mihaela Mihai, Cătălin Baston, Mugurel Alexandru Crăsneanu, Alexandru Vladimir Dick, Vlad Olaru, Ioanel Sinescu
INTRODUCTION: Retroperitoneal seminoma is a very rare form of cancer, with embryological origin represented by primordial germ cells from the urogenital ridges left behind during the fetal development. Extragenital germ cell tumors can also occur in the mediastinum or the pineal gland. The aim of this paper is to outline the particularities and draw embryological, histopatological and treatment conclusions regarding extragonadal germ cell tumors. PATIENT AND METHODS: A 43-year-old patient without any additional pathology was admitted for anemia of unknown etiology...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999715/secretory-paraspinal-paraganglioma-of-thoracolumar-spine-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#20
Saad Akhtar, Sidra Sattar, Ehsan Bari, Naila Kayani, Sarosh Moeen
BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine secreting tumors of the adrenal medulla chromaffin cells, however, when present extra-adrenally they are called paragangliomas. Paragangliomas rarely produce catecholamine in excess, which is evident by clinical symptoms, urine, and blood biochemistry. Total resection of these tumors can lead to complete clinical and biochemical resolution. This case report presents the clinical features, radiological findings, and neurological outcome in a middle-aged female with a secretory paraganglioma...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
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