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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150402/network-science-of-biological-systems-at-different-scales-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Marko Gosak, Rene Markovič, Jurij Dolenšek, Marjan Slak Rupnik, Marko Marhl, Andraž Stožer, Matjaž Perc
Network science is today established as a backbone for description of structure and function of various physical, chemical, biological, technological, and social systems. Here we review recent advances in the study of complex biological systems that were inspired and enabled by methods of network science. First, we present research highlights ranging from determination of the molecular interaction network within a cell to studies of architectural and functional properties of brain networks and biological transportation networks...
November 3, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145194/deficiency-of-functional-iron-sulfur-domains-in-abce1-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-lung-adenocarcinomas-by-regulating-the-biogenesis-of-beta-actin-in-vitro
#2
Qian Yu, Xu Han, Da-Li Tian
BACKGROUND/AIMS: ATP-binding cassette transporter E1 (ABCE1), a unique ABC superfamily member that bears two Fe-S clusters, is essential for metastatic progression in lung cancer. Fe-S clusters within ABCE1 are crucial for ribosome dissociation and translation reinitiation; however, whether these clusters promote tumor proliferation and migration is unclear. METHODS: The interaction between ABCE1 and β-actin was confirmed using GST pull-down. The lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) cell line A549 was transduced with lentiviral packaging vectors overexpressing either wild-type ABCE1 or ABCE1 with Fe-S cluster deletions (ΔABCE1)...
November 17, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137322/the-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-plays-a-key-role-in-ocular-degenerative-changes-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-disease-suggesting-a-correlation-between-ocular-and-brain-pathologies
#3
Lucia Buccarello, Alessandra Sclip, Matteo Sacchi, Anna Maria Castaldo, Ilaria Bertani, Andrea ReCecconi, Silvia Maestroni, Gianpaolo Zerbini, Paolo Nucci, Tiziana Borsello
Recently a range of ocular manifestations such as retinal and lens amyloid-beta accumulation and retinal nerve fiber layer loss have been proposed as potential biomarkers in Alzheimer disease (AD). The TgCRND8 mouse model of AD exhibits age-dependent amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers accumulation and cognitive defects, amyloid plaques and hyperphosphorylated Tau deposition and inflammation. We proved the correlation between ocular pathologies and AD, observing increased levels of p-APP and p-Tau, accumulation of Aβ oligomers in the retina, eye, and optic nerve...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134927/cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-associated-with-inflammation-a-systematic-review-of-clinical-and-imaging-features-and-outcome
#4
Andrej Corovic, Siobhan Kelly, Hugh S Markus
Background Cerebral amyloid angiopathy associated with inflammation is an increasingly recognized condition, characterized by an inflammatory response to the vascular deposits of β-amyloid within the brain that are the hallmark of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Two main patterns of this inflammatory response have been identified to date: one involving a perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrate (cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation); the other a transmural vasculitic process (A-beta related angiitis)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131611/synthesis-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-monodisperse-amino-functional-polyester-dendrimers-with-rapid-degradability-and-antibacterial-properties
#5
Patrik Stenström, Erik Hjort, Yuning Zhang, Oliver C J Andrén, Simon Guette-Marquet, Marianne Schultzberg, Michael Malkoch
Amine functional polymers, especially cationically charged, are interesting biomacromolecules for several reasons including easy cell membrane entrance, their ability to escape endosomes through the proton sponge effect, spontaneous complexation and delivery of drugs and siRNA and simple functionalization in aqueous solutions. Dendrimers, a subclass of precision polymers, are monodisperse and exhibit a large and exact number of peripheral end groups in relation to their size and have shown promise in drug delivery, biomedical imaging and as anti-viral agents...
November 13, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127288/novel-genetically-encoded-fluorescent-probes-enable-real-time-detection-of-potassium-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Helmut Bischof, Markus Rehberg, Sarah Stryeck, Katharina Artinger, Emrah Eroglu, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Benjamin Gottschalk, Rene Rost, Andras T Deak, Tobias Niedrist, Nemanja Vujic, Hanna Lindermuth, Ruth Prassl, Brigitte Pelzmann, Klaus Groschner, Dagmar Kratky, Kathrin Eller, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Tobias Madl, Nikolaus Plesnila, Wolfgang F Graier, Roland Malli
Changes in intra- and extracellular potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations control many important cellular processes and related biological functions. However, our current understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns of physiological and pathological K(+) changes is severely limited by the lack of practicable detection methods. We developed K(+)-sensitive genetically encoded, Förster resonance energy transfer-(FRET) based probes, called GEPIIs, which enable quantitative real-time imaging of K(+) dynamics. GEPIIs as purified biosensors are suitable to directly and precisely quantify K(+) levels in different body fluids and cell growth media...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123178/a-nanobody-based-tracer-targeting-dpp6-for-non-invasive-imaging-of-human-pancreatic-endocrine-cells
#7
Alexander Balhuizen, Sam Massa, Iris Mathijs, Jean-Valery Turatsinze, Jens De Vos, Stéphane Demine, Catarina Xavier, Olatz Villate, Isabelle Millard, Dominique Egrise, Carmen Capito, Raphaël Scharfmann, Pieter In't Veld, Piero Marchetti, Serge Muyldermans, Serge Goldman, Tony Lahoutte, Luc Bouwens, Decio L Eizirik, Nick Devoogdt
There are presently no reliable ways to quantify endocrine cell mass (ECM) in vivo, which prevents an accurate understanding of the progressive beta cell loss in diabetes or following islet transplantation. To address this unmet need, we coupled RNA sequencing of human pancreatic islets to a systems biology approach to identify new biomarkers of the endocrine pancreas. Dipeptidyl-Peptidase 6 (DPP6) was identified as a target whose mRNA expression is at least 25-fold higher in human pancreatic islets as compared to surrounding tissues and is not changed by proinflammatory cytokines...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119245/development-and-characterisation-of-a-novel-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-antibody
#8
Emma K Biggs, Lihuan Liang, Jacqueline Naylor, Shimona Madalli, Rachel Collier, Matthew P Coghlan, David J Baker, David C Hornigold, Peter Ravn, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion by binding to GLP-1 receptors (GLP1Rs) on pancreatic beta cells. GLP-1 mimetics are used in the clinic for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but despite their therapeutic success, several clinical effects of GLP-1 remain unexplained at a mechanistic level, particularly in extrapancreatic tissues. The aim of this study was to generate and characterise a monoclonal antagonistic antibody for the GLP1R for use in vivo...
November 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102711/pleomorphic-lobular-carcinoma-in-situ-diagnosed-by-breast-core-biopsy-clinicopathologic-features-and-correlation-with-subsequent-excision
#9
Tianhua Guo, Yihong Wang, Nella Shapiro, Susan Fineberg
INTRODUCTION: Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ (PLCIS) is a variant of LCIS with high-grade morphologic features. The number of case series studying PLCIS is limited, and clinical management of patients with PLCIS is controversial. We report a breast core biopsy (BCBx) series of PLCIS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 37 cases of PLCIS with or without microinvasion diagnosed by BCBx. PLCIS was defined as dyscohesive cells showing acinar expansion and loss of immunohistochemical membranous expression of e-cadherin or beta-catenin with nuclear pleomorphism with at least 2- to 3-fold variation in nuclear size, membrane irregularities, and variably prominent nucleoli...
October 7, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078993/distinguishing-signal-from-autofluorescence-in-cryogenic-correlated-light-and-electron-microscopy-of-mammalian-cells
#10
Stephen D Carter, Shrawan K Mageswaran, Zachary J Farino, João I Mamede, Catherine M Oikonomou, Thomas J Hope, Zachary Freyberg, Grant J Jensen
In cryogenic correlated light and electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM), frozen targets of interest are identified and located on EM grids by fluorescence microscopy and then imaged at higher resolution by cryo-EM. Whilst working with these methods, we discovered that a variety of mammalian cells exhibit strong punctate autofluorescence when imaged under cryogenic conditions (80 K). Autofluorescence originated from multilamellar bodies (MLBs) and secretory granules. Here we describe a method to distinguish fluorescent protein tags from these autofluorescent sources based on the narrower emission spectrum of the former...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075301/insulinoma-masquerading-as-a-loss-of-consciousness-in-a-teenage-girl-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Meghana Gudala, Mahmuda Ahmed, Rushika Conroy, Ksenia Tonyushkina
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia due to a pancreatic beta cell neoplasm - insulinoma, is uncommon with only a few cases described. We report on a previously healthy 15-year-old Hispanic female with insulinoma who presented with a loss of consciousness due to hypoglycemia unawareness. CASE PRESENTATION: EM was first brought to the emergency department (ED) after she was found unresponsive at home with point of care (POC) glucose of 29 mg/dL(1.6 mmol/L) documented by emergency medical services (EMS) upon arrival...
2017: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074617/organelle-specific-single-molecule-imaging-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-receptors-reveals-the-effect-of-nicotine-on-receptor-assembly-and-cell-surface-trafficking
#12
Ashley M Fox-Loe, Faruk H Moonschi, Christopher I Richards
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) assemble in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and traffic to the cell surface as pentamers composed of alpha and beta subunits. Many nAChR subtypes can assemble with varying subunit ratios, giving rise to multiple stoichiometries exhibiting different subcellular localization and functional properties. In addition to the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine, nicotine also binds and activates nAChRs and influences their trafficking and expression on the cell surface...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064047/pancreatic-imaging-using-an-antibody-fragment-targeting-the-zinc-transporter-type-8-a-direct-comparison-with-radio-iodinated-exendin-4
#13
Olof Eriksson, Olle Korsgren, Ram Kumar Selvaraju, Marjorie Mollaret, Yann de Boysson, Fabrice Chimienti, Mohamed Altai
AIM: The zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) has been suggested as a suitable target for non-invasive visualization of the functional pancreatic beta cell mass, due to both its pancreatic beta cell restricted expression and tight involvement in insulin secretion. METHODS: In order to examine the potential of ZnT8 as a surrogate target for beta cell mass, we performed mRNA transcription analysis in pancreatic compartments. A novel ZnT8 targeting antibody fragment Ab31 was radiolabeled with iodine-125, and evaluated by in vitro autoradiography in insulinoma and pancreas as well as by in vivo biodistribution...
October 24, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051830/prevalence-of-neutralising-antibodies-to-interferon-beta-and-clinical-response-in-chinese-patients-with-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Alexander Y Lau, W K Ip, Cheryl Au, K K Lau, Winnie Wong, K K Yip, Jonas Yeung, S H Li, Patrick Li, Ryan Lee, Deyond Siu, Jill Abrigo, Adrian Wong, Vincent Mok, Eric Chan
BACKGROUND: There are no data on neutralising antibodies to interferon-beta and its clinical implications in Chinese patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of neutralising antibodies among Chinese patients with relapsing MS receiving interferon-beta (1a or 1b) and to study the association between neutralising antibodies and the clinical-radiological response. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on MS patients who received interferon-beta for 9 months or more, and evaluated the clinical response by relapses and magnetic resonance imaging lesions...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036827/validation-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-diagnostic-potential-of-a-heptapeptide-functionalized-imaging-probe-targeted-to-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-able-to-cross-the-blood-brain-barrier
#15
Séverine André, Emilie Ansciaux, Elamine Saidi, Lionel Larbanoix, Dimitri Stanicki, Denis Nonclercq, Luce Vander Elst, Sophie Laurent, Robert N Muller, Carmen Burtea
The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a critical step in the management of patients. We have developed a non-invasive diagnosis tool based on magnetic resonance molecular imaging (MRMI) of amyloid-β peptide using ultra-small particles of iron oxide (USPIO) functionalized with a disulfide constrained cyclic heptapeptide (PHO) identified by phage display (USPIO-PHO). After previously demonstrating the optimal pharmacologic properties of USPIO-PHO and its capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the ability of USPIO-PHO to target amyloid plaques (AP) by MRMI has been validated in the present work on AD transgenic mice...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024711/fluoride-potentiates-tubulointerstitial-nephropathy-caused-by-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction
#16
Takamasa Kido, Masashi Tsunoda, Chiemi Sugaya, Hiroshi Hano, Hiroyuki Yanagisawa
The contamination of ground water by fluoride has been reported worldwide. Most fluoride (approximately 70%) is filtered by the kidneys; humans or experimental animals with renal damage therefore may be more affected by fluoride exposure than those with normal kidney function. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis, which involves macrophage-promoted extracellular matrix production and myofibroblast migration, can be induced in rats by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). We examined the effects of fluoride exposure on tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the obstructed kidney of UUO rats...
October 9, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974598/molecular-radiotheragnostics-in-thyroid-disease
#17
Nitasha Singh, Val Lewington
Molecular radiotheragnostics directly links nuclear medicine diagnostic imaging to therapy. The imaging study is used to detect a specific molecular target associated with a disease process. A radiotherapeutic molecule with a similar biodistribution to the diagnostic agent can then be used to deliver targeted therapy.Molecular radiotheragnostics have been applied to manage both benign and malignant thyroid disease since the 1940s. The specific molecular pathway targeted is the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) located on the basolateral membrane of the thyroid follicular cell...
October 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965860/hepatic-stellate-cell-targeted-imatinib-nanomedicine-versus-conventional-imatinib-a-novel-strategy-with-potent-efficacy-in-experimental-liver-fibrosis
#18
Nesrine S El-Mezayen, Wessam F El-Hadidy, Wessam M El-Refaie, Th I Shalaby, Mahmoud M Khattab, Aiman S El-Khatib
Liver fibrosis is a global health problem without approved treatment. Imatinib inhibits two key profibrotic pathways; platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and thus can be used to treat liver fibrosis. However, conventional imatinib therapy is hampered by low concentration at target tissue and increased toxicity to other tissues especially heart, lung and liver. Since hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main contributors to liver fibrosis pathogenesis and sole hepatic vitamin A (VA) storage cells, they can be actively targeted by coupling liposomes to VA...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963457/kinetics-of-functional-beta-cell-mass-decay-in-a-diphtheria-toxin-receptor-mouse-model-of-diabetes
#19
Pim P van Krieken, Andrea Dicker, Maria Eriksson, Pedro L Herrera, Ulf Ahlgren, Per-Olof Berggren, Erwin Ilegems
Functional beta cell mass is an essential biomarker for the diagnosis and staging of diabetes. It has however proven technically challenging to study this parameter during diabetes progression. Here we have detailed the kinetics of the rapid decline in functional beta cell mass in the RIP-DTR mouse, a model of hyperglycemia resulting from diphtheria toxin induced beta cell ablation. A novel combination of imaging modalities was employed to study the pattern of beta cell destruction. Optical projection tomography of the pancreas and longitudinal in vivo confocal microscopy of islets transplanted into the anterior chamber of the eye allowed to investigate kinetics and tomographic location of beta cell mass decay in individual islets as well as at the entire islet population level...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951824/intraocular-in%C3%A2-vivo-imaging-of-pancreatic-islet-cell-physiology-pathology
#20
REVIEW
Ingo B Leibiger, Per-Olof Berggren
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions and requires new strategies for treatment. Unfortunately, the efficacy of treatment regimens on maintaining/re-gaining functional beta cell mass can, at the present, only be determined indirectly. Direct monitoring of beta cell mass is complicated by the anatomy of the endocrine pancreas, which consists of thousands to a million of discrete micro-organs, i.e. islets of Langerhans, which are scattered throughout the pancreas...
September 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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