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Genotyping of candida

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784839/clonal-spread-in-candida-glabrata-bloodstream-isolates-and-fluconazole-resistance-affected-by-prolonged-exposure-a-12-year-single-center-study-in-belgium
#1
Berdieke Goemaere, Katrien Lagrou, Isabel Spriet, Marijke Hendrickx, Pierre Becker
Candida glabrata is a major cause of candidemia in immunocompromised patients and is characterized by a high-level of fluconazole resistance. In the present study, acquisition of antifungal resistance and potential clonal spread of C. glabrata were explored at a single center over a 12-year period by analyzing 187 independent clinical C. glabrata bloodstream isolates. One strain was found to be micafungin resistant due to a mutation in the FKS2 gene. Fluconazole resistance remained stable throughout the period and was observed in 20 (10...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743306/reduction-in-the-percentage-of-clusters-of-candida-albicans-and-candida-parapsilosis-causing-candidemia-in-a-general-hospital-in-madrid-spain
#2
Pilar Escribano, Carlos Sánchez-Carrillo, Patricia Muñoz, Emilio Bouza, Jesús Guinea
The presence of clusters in units with a high incidence of candidemia suggests the need for prevention of candidemia. We analyzed the percentage of patients involved in clusters and its evolution over a large period of time in a tertiary hospital.We studied 432 patients admitted to Gregorio Marañón Hospital with candidemia caused by Candida albicans (n=276) or Candida parapsilosis (n=156) between January 2007 and December 2014. Incident isolates were genotyped. A cluster was defined as a group of ≥2 patients infected by an identical genotype; we considered clusters to be "tracking clusters" when the patients involved in the cluster were admitted to the same ward within a period of 24 months...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725811/genetic-diversity-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-candida-parapsilosis-sensu-stricto-isolated-from-bloodstream-infections-in-turkish-patients
#3
Süleyha Hilmioğlu-Polat, Somayeh Sharifynia, Yasemin Öz, Müge Aslan, Nuray Gündoğdu, Ayşe Serin, Haleh Rafati, Faezeh Mohammadi, Dilek Yeşim-Metin, Aylin Döğen, Macit Ilkit, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto is an emerging cause of hospital-acquired Candida infections, predominantly in southern Europe, South America, and Asia. We investigated the genetic diversity and antifungal susceptibility profile of 170 independent C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains obtained from patients with candidemia who were treated at the Ege University Hospital in Izmir, Turkey, between 2006 and 2014. The identity of each strain was confirmed via PCR amplification and digestion of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene...
May 3, 2018: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724862/rapid-phenotypic-and-genotypic-diversification-after-exposure-to-the-oral-host-niche-in-candida-albicans
#4
Anja Forche, Gareth Cromie, Aleeza C Gerstein, Norma V Solis, Tippapha Pisithkul, Waracharee Srifa, Eric Jeffery, Darren Abbey, Scott G Filler, Aimée M Dudley, Judith Berman
In vitro studies suggest that stress may generate random standing variation, and that different cellular and ploidy states may evolve more rapidly under stress. Yet this idea has not been tested with pathogenic fungi growing within their host niche in vivo Here, we analyzed the generation of both genotypic and phenotypic diversity during exposure of Candida albicans to the mouse oral cavity. Ploidy, aneuploidy, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and recombination were determined using flow cytometry and ddRADseq...
May 3, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720131/intestinal-candida-parapsilosis-isolates-from-rett-syndrome-subjects-bear-potential-virulent-traits-and-capacity-to-persist-within-the-host
#5
Francesco Strati, Antonio Calabrò, Claudio Donati, Claudio De Felice, Joussef Hayek, Olivier Jousson, Silvia Leoncini, Daniela Renzi, Lisa Rizzetto, Carlotta De Filippo, Duccio Cavalieri
BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurological disorder mainly caused by mutations in MeCP2 gene. It has been shown that MeCP2 impairments can lead to cytokine dysregulation due to MeCP2 regulatory role in T-helper and T-reg mediated responses, thus contributing to the pro-inflammatory status associated with RTT. Furthermore, RTT subjects suffer from an intestinal dysbiosis characterized by an abnormal expansion of the Candida population, a known factor responsible for the hyper-activation of pro-inflammatory immune responses...
May 2, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707674/microsatellite-genotyping-of-clinical-candida-parapsilosis-isolates
#6
Hamid Badali, Sassan Rezaie, Jacques F Meis, Setareh Agha Kuchak Afshari, Mona Modiri, Ferry Hagen, Maryam Moazeni, Rasoul Mohammadi, Sadegh Khodavaisy
Background and Purpose: Candida parapsilosis is a predominant species found in nosocomial infection, particularly in hospitalized patients. The molecular epidemiology of the clinical strains of this species has not been well studied. The present study was performed with the aim of investigating the microsatellite genotyping of Candida parapsilosis among the Iranian clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 81 independent clinical C. parapsilosis isolates that were genotyped by using a panel of six microsatellite markers...
December 2017: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705201/fungal-communities-associated-with-evernia-prunastri-ramalina-fastigiata-and-pleurosticta-acetabulum-three-epiphytic-lichens-potentially-active-against-candida-biofilms
#7
Aurélie Lagarde, Patricia Jargeat, Mélanie Roy, Marion Girardot, Christine Imbert, Marion Millot, Lengo Mambu
Fungal communities associated to three epiphytic lichens active against Candida, were investigated using culture-based methods We hypothetized that associated fungi would contribute to lichens activities. The ability of specific fungi to grow inside or outside lichens was investigated. To detect biogenesis pathways involved in the production of secondary metabolites, genes coding for nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase I (PKS I) were screened by PCR from fungal DNA extracts. Both endo and epilichenic communities were isolated from two fructicose (Evernia prunastri and Ramalina fastigiata) and one foliose (Pleurosticta acetabulum) lichens...
June 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696003/multilocus-sequence-typing-reveals-a-new-cluster-of-closely-related-candida-tropicalis-genotypes-in-italian-patients-with-neurological-disorders
#8
Fabio Scordino, Letterio Giuffrè, Giuseppina Barberi, Francesca Marino Merlo, Maria Grazia Orlando, Domenico Giosa, Orazio Romeo
Candida tropicalis is a pathogenic yeast that has emerged as an important cause of candidemia especially in elderly patients with hematological malignancies. Infections caused by this species are mainly reported from Latin America and Asian-Pacific countries although recent epidemiological data revealed that C. tropicalis accounts for 6-16.4% of the Candida bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Italy by representing a relevant issue especially for patients receiving long-term hospital care. The aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624003/investigation-of-the-correlation-between-virulence-factors-and-genotypic-profiles-of-candida-albicans-isolated-from-turkeys
#9
I Sokół, A Gaweł, K Bobrek
Candida albicans exists as an element of the normal flora in the skin, mucosa, and gastrointestinal tract, which is the principal reservoir for this organism. When the delicate balance in the host-yeast relationship is tipped in favour of the microorganism by antimicrobial treatment, illness, or other debilities of the host, fungi may overgrow and cause disease, such as candidiasis. The aim of this study was to analyse three virulence factors, haemolysin, proteinase, and phospholipase, with the genotypic profiles of C...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618069/genetic-diversity-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-candida-albicans-isolated-from-iranian-patients
#10
Somayeh Sharifynia, Sasan Rezaie, Abdolreza Mohamadnia, Vida Mortezaee, Atefe Hadian, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
A total of 105 independent Candida albicans strains isolated from patients in Iran were investigated. According to CLSI documents M27-A3 and M27-S4, the 24 h geometric mean MICs of caspofungin, itraconazole, and fluconazole were 0.27, 3.19, and 11.91 μg/ml, respectively. Microsatellites analysis of CEF3, CAIII, LOC4 Loci identified 93 different allelic genotypes clustered apart into six different clades. Antifungal susceptibility was not linked with the source of isolation and the corresponding genotype of C...
March 29, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610199/absence-of-azole-or-echinocandin-resistance-in-candida-glabrata-isolates-in-india-despite-background-prevalence-of-strains-with-defects-in-dna-mismatch-repair-pathway
#11
Ashutosh Singh, Kelley R Healey, Priyanka Yadav, Gargi Upadhyaya, Neelam Sachdeva, Smita Sarma, Anil Kumar, Bansidhar Tarai, David S Perlin, Anuradha Chowdhary
Candida glabrata infections are increasing world-wide and exhibit greater rates of antifungal resistance than other species. DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene deletions, such as msh2Δ , in C. glabrata resulting in a mutator phenotype has recently been reported to facilitate rapid acquisition of antifungal resistance. This study determined the antifungal susceptibility profile of 210 C. glabrata isolates, in 10 hospitals in India and investigated the impact of novel MSH 2 polymorphisms on mutation potential. No echinocandin or azole resistant strains were detected among C...
April 2, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602635/yeasts-and-filamentous-fungi-associated-with-some-dairy-products-in-egypt
#12
A-A H Moubasher, M A Abdel-Sater, Z S M Soliman
This work aimed to identify and evaluate the diversity of yeasts and filamentous fungi that contaminate some dairy products (fresh buffalo milk, plain yoghurt, butter and Kareisk cheese) in Assiut city, Egypt. The identification was based on phenotypic characteristics, and genotypically in case of yeasts. The pHs of all dairy products lie within the acidic range, but yoghurt registered the highest value. A total of 41 genera and 89 species+3 varieties were recovered from all dairy products investigated on DRBC (26 genera representing 59 species+1 variety), DG18 (32 genera, 56 species+2 varieties) and MY50G (31 genera, 64 species+2 varieties)...
March 27, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593275/genomic-epidemiology-of-the-uk-outbreak-of-the-emerging-human-fungal-pathogen-candida-auris
#13
Johanna Rhodes, Alireza Abdolrasouli, Rhys A Farrer, Christina A Cuomo, David M Aanensen, Darius Armstrong-James, Matthew C Fisher, Silke Schelenz
Candida auris was first described in 2009, and it has since caused nosocomial outbreaks, invasive infections, and fungaemia across at least 19 countries on five continents. An outbreak of C. auris occurred in a specialized cardiothoracic London hospital between April 2015 and November 2016, which to date has been the largest outbreak in the UK, involving a total of 72 patients. To understand the genetic epidemiology of C. auris infection both within this hospital and within a global context, we sequenced the outbreak isolate genomes using Oxford Nanopore Technologies and Illumina platforms to detect antifungal resistance alleles and reannotate the C...
March 29, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581110/profiling-of-pdr1-and-msh2-in-candida-glabrata-bloodstream-isolates-from-a-multi-center-study-in-china
#14
Xin Hou, Meng Xiao, He Wang, Shu-Ying Yu, Ge Zhang, Yanan Zhao, Ying-Chun Xu
Among 158 Candida glabrata bloodstream isolates collected from multicenter in China, resistance to fluconazole were seen in 8.9% of isolates. Three isolates (1.9%) were resistant to all echinocandins. MLST ST7 (65.8%) was the most common type and followed by ST3 (7.6%). PDR1 polymorphisms were associated with acquisition of fluconazole resistance in C. glabrata isolates, while MSH2 polymorphisms were associated with the STs and microsatellite genotypes, irrespective of fluconazole resistance.
March 26, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423993/cytokine-gene-polymorphism-in-denture-stomatitis-patients-a-clinical-study
#15
Aysun Coşkun Keşoğlu, Canan Bural, Gonca Erköse Genç, Zayre Erturan, Çiğdem Çınar, Fatma Oğuz, Tayfun Bilgin, Hakan Bilhan
OBJECTIVE: This clinical study investigated the association between cytokine gene polymorphism and Candida growth in DS patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Saliva and blood samples of 160 complete denture wearers (80 healthy controls and 80 with DS) were collected for mycological and gene polymorphism testing, respectively. Salivary Candida growth and TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-6 and IL-10 genotypes were investigated. Data were analyzed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney U, Chi-square analysis and Continuity (yates) correction tests (p<...
February 9, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420820/breakthrough-candidemia-after-the-introduction-of-broad-spectrum-antifungal-agents-a-5-year-retrospective-study
#16
Giovanni L Breda, Felipe F Tuon, Jacques F Meis, Patricia F Herkert, Ferry Hagen, Letícia Z de Oliveira, Viviane de Carvalho Dias, Clóvis Arns da Cunha, Flávio Queiroz-Telles
Candidemia is the main invasive fungal disease among hospitalized patients. Several breakthrough candidemia (BrC) cases have been reported, but few studies evaluate the epidemiology, risk factors, molecular characterization, antifungal susceptibility profile and outcome of those patients, especially in developing countries and including patients using broad spectrum antifungals. We conducted a retrospective study from 2011 to 2016, including patients aged 12 years or older with candidemia. Epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for candidemia were evaluated and compared with patients with BrC using univariate and multivariate analysis...
June 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420774/high-variability-within-candida-albicans-transcription-factor-rlm1-isolates-from-vulvovaginal-infections-show-a-clear-bias-toward-high-molecular-weight-alleles
#17
Joana Carvalho-Pereira, Manoel Marques Evangelista Oliveira, Augusto Costa-Barbosa, Catarina Vaz, Aristea Velegraki, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira, Célia Pais, Paula Sampaio
Previous studies have correlated the severity of recurrent vulvovaginal Candida infections (VVC) and balanitis in patients from China with the presence of some dominant genotypes at the ORF RLM1. Here we tested VVC vs non-VVC isolates from Portugal, Brazil and Greece and, although the same genotypes were identified in VVC isolates, they were present in only five out of 150 strains. However, this analysis showed that VVC isolates presented a higher percentage of genotypes with similar high molecular weight alleles, in comparison with strains isolated from other biological sources...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408030/molecular-typing-and-genetic-relatedness-of-72-clinical-candida-albicans-isolates-from-poultry
#18
Jianchai Liu, Huanzhang Liu, Jinkun Yan, Na Liu, Heping Zhang, Chengrui Zhao, Yanwei Liu
Candida albicans is the most prevalent opportunistic fungus of humans and animals. While most studies focus on human isolates, they rarely focus on poultry isolates. In this study, C. albicans strains were recovered from poultry in the southern Hebei Province (China) and identified. Molecular typing and analyses were performed to understand the molecular epidemiology and genetic relatedness of the strains. The fungi were isolated from live birds with presumed candidiasis or their corpses. The isolates were identified based on morphology, differential medium culture, and rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequencing...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405146/identification-of-medically-important-candida-species-by-polymerase-chain-reaction-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism-analysis-of-the-rdna-its1-and-its2-regions
#19
Suphi Bayraktar, Nizami Duran, Gülay Gülbol Duran, Naciye Eryilmaz, Hayat Aslan, Cansu Önlen, Burçin Özer
AIM: We aimed to identify the distribution of species in candidal strains isolated from clinical samples and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method based on Msp I and Bln I restrictive enzyme cuts of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products after the amplification of ITS1 and ITS2 regions of rDNA genotypically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty candidal strains isolated from various clinical samples were studies/ included. Phenotypic species assessment was performed using automated VITEK-2 system and kit used with the biochemical tests...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380297/epidemiology-of-fungal-infections-in-china
#20
REVIEW
Min Chen, Yuan Xu, Nan Hong, Yali Yang, Wenzhi Lei, Lin Du, Jingjun Zhao, Xia Lei, Lin Xiong, Langqi Cai, Hui Xu, Weihua Pan, Wanqing Liao
With the increasing number of immunocompromised hosts, the epidemiological characteristics of fungal infections have undergone enormous changes worldwide, including in China. In this paper, we reviewed the existing data on mycosis across China to summarize available epidemiological profiles. We found that the general incidence of superficial fungal infections in China has been stable, but the incidence of tinea capitis has decreased and the transmission route has changed. By contrast, the overall incidence of invasive fungal infections has continued to rise...
February 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
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