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Genotyping of candida

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270801/molecular-fingerprinting-studies-do-not-support-intrahospital-transmission-of-candida-albicans-among-candidemia-patients-in-kuwait
#1
Mohammad Asadzadeh, Suhail Ahmad, Noura Al-Sweih, Ziauddin Khan
Candida albicans, a constituent of normal microbial flora of human mucosal surfaces, is a major cause of candidemia in immunocompromised individuals and hospitalized patients with other debilitating diseases. Molecular fingerprinting studies have suggested nosocomial transmission of C. albicans based on the presence of clusters or endemic genotypes in some hospitals. However, intrahospital strain transmission or a common source of infection has not been firmly established. We performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on 102 C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257640/risk-factors-for-candida-parapsilosis-bloodstream-infection-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-case-control-study
#2
Carmine Garzillo, Maria Bagattini, Lidija Bogdanović, Anna Di Popolo, Vita Dora Iula, Maria Rosaria Catania, Francesco Raimondi, Maria Triassi, Raffaele Zarrilli
BACKGROUND: Candida parapsilosis is increasingly responsible for invasive candidiasis in neonates. This study investigates phenotypic and genotypic features of C. parapsilosis microbial isolates and underlying clinical conditions associated with acquisition of C. parapsilosis in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Italy. METHODS: Identification of C. parapsilosis was performed by VITEK® 2 and MALDI TOF and confirmed by analysis of internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequences...
January 19, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195309/ploidy-tug-of-war-evolutionary-and-genetic-environments-influence-the-rate-of-ploidy-drive-in-a-human-fungal-pathogen
#3
Aleeza C Gerstein, Heekyung Lim, Judith Berman, Meleah A Hickman
Variation in baseline ploidy is seen throughout the tree of life, yet the factors that determine why one ploidy level is maintained over another remain poorly understood. Experimental evolution studies using asexual fungal microbes with manipulated ploidy levels intriguingly reveals a propensity to return to the historical baseline ploidy, a phenomenon that we term 'ploidy drive'. We evolved haploid, diploid, and polyploid strains of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans under three different nutrient limitation environments to test whether these conditions, hypothesized to select for low ploidy levels, could counteract ploidy drive...
February 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101934/detection-of-neonatal-unit-clusters-of-candida-parapsilosis-fungaemia-by-microsatellite-genotyping-results-from-laboratory-based-sentinel-surveillance-south-africa-2009-2010
#4
Rindidzani E Magobo, Serisha D Naicker, Jeannette Wadula, Maphoshane Nchabeleng, Yacoob Coovadia, Anwar Hoosen, Shawn R Lockhart, Nelesh P Govender
Neonatal candidaemia is a common, deadly and costly hospital-associated disease. To determine the genetic diversity of Candida parapsilosis causing fungaemia in South African neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). From February 2009 through to August 2010, cases of candidaemia were reported through laboratory-based surveillance. C. parapsilosis isolates from neonatal cases were submitted for identification by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing, antifungal susceptibility testing and microsatellite genotyping...
January 19, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070215/multiple-hpv-infections-in-female-sex-workers-in-western-kenya-implications-for-prophylactic-vaccines-within-this-sub-population
#5
Sonia Menon, Davy van den Broeck, Rodolfo Rossi, Emilomo Ogbe, Hillary Mabeya
BACKGROUND: Whilst the imputed role of High Risk (HR) HPV infection in the development of cervical lesions and cancer has been established, the high number of HPV genotypes that Female Sex workers (FSW) harbour warrants that the synergistic effects of potential HR (pHR) and HR HPV genotypes be elucidated to assess the potential impact of prophylactic vaccines. This population in Kenya also harbours a number of other vaginal infections and STIs, including bacterial vaginosis (BV), trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and candida spp...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018323/genetic-drivers-of-multidrug-resistance-in-candida-glabrata
#6
Kelley R Healey, Cristina Jimenez Ortigosa, Erika Shor, David S Perlin
Both the incidence of invasive fungal infections and rates of multidrug resistance associated with fungal pathogen Candida glabrata have increased in recent years. In this perspective, we will discuss the mechanisms underlying the capacity of C. glabrata to rapidly develop resistance to multiple drug classes, including triazoles and echinocandins. We will focus on the extensive genetic diversity among clinical isolates of C. glabrata, which likely enables this yeast to survive multiple stressors, such as immune pressure and antifungal exposure...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000306/filaggrin-gene-mutations-and-the-distribution-of-filaggrin-in-oral-mucosa-of-patients-with-oral-lichen-planus-and-healthy-controls
#7
K R Larsen, J D Johansen, J Reibel, C Zachariae, K Rosing, A M L Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology affecting the skin and oral mucosa. Oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), like oral contact reactions, may resemble oral lichen planus (OLP) both clinically and histopathologically. As OLP and OLL are hyperkeratotic diseases and filaggrin is essential to keratinization the distribution of filaggrin may be altered in these lesions. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if patients with OLP/OLL have 1) altered distribution of filaggrin in the oral mucosa, 2) a higher incidence of mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) and 3) active dermatoses, apart from cutaneous LP, than healthy controls; and 4) patients with OLP/OLL and a defect in the FLG have more widespread oral lesions and report more symptoms than OLP/OLL patients without a concomitant defect in the FLG...
December 21, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987046/matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-maldi-tof-ms-for-rapid-identification-of-micro-organisms-in-the-routine-clinical-microbiology-laboratory
#8
C Wattal, J K Oberoi, N Goel, R Raveendran, S Khanna
The study evaluates the utility of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) Vitek MS for identification of microorganisms in the routine clinical microbiology laboratory. From May 2013 to April 2014, microbial isolates recovered from various clinical samples were identified by Vitek MS. In case of failure to identify by Vitek MS, the isolate was identified using the Vitek 2 system (bioMerieux, France) and serotyping wherever applicable or otherwise by nucleic acid-mediated methods...
December 16, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965724/enterogenous-infection-of-candida-albicans-in-immunocompromised-rats-under-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#9
Xiang-Wang Zhao, Lei Yan, Dan Xu, Yu-Hui Cui, Chun-Hui Yang, Yan-Jun Zhou, Jian-Guo Tang
BACKGROUND: Opportunistic infection of Candida albicans (C. albicans) has become a serious problem in immunocompromised patients. The study aimed to explore the mechanism of enterogenous infection of C. albicans in immunocompromised rats under severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (n=100) were randomly assigned into 5 groups as the following: blank group, cyclophosphamide+ceftriaxone+SAP group, cyclophosphamide+ceftriaxone group, cyclophosphamide+SAP group, and cyclophosphamide group...
2016: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935838/the-paralogous-histone-deacetylases-rpd3-and-rpd31-play-opposing-roles-in-regulating-the-white-opaque-switch-in-the-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#10
Jing Xie, Sabrina Jenull, Michael Tscherner, Karl Kuchler
Chromatin modifications affect gene regulation in response to environmental stimuli in numerous biological processes. For example, N-acetyl-glucosamine and CO2 induce a morphogenetic conversion between white (W) and opaque (O) cells in MTL (mating-type locus) homozygous and heterozygous ( A: /α) strains of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans Here, we identify 8 histone-modifying enzymes playing distinct roles in the regulation of W/O switching in MTL homozygous and heterozygous strains. Most strikingly, genetic removal of the paralogous genes RPD3 and RPD31, both of which encode almost identical orthologues of the yeast histone deacetylase (HDAC) Rpd3, reveals opposing roles in W/O switching of MTL A: /α strains...
November 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934806/molecular-appraisal-of-intestinal-parasitic-infection-in-transplant-recipients
#11
Pooja Yadav, Shehla Khalil, Bijay Ranjan Mirdha
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Diarrhoea is the main clinical manifestation caused by intestinal parasitic infections in patients, with special reference to transplant recipients who require careful consideration to reduce morbidity and mortality. Further, molecular characterization of some important parasites is necessary to delineate the different modes of transmission to consider appropriate management strategies. We undertook this study to investigate the intestinal parasitic infections in transplant recipients with or without diarrhoea, and the genotypes of the isolated parasites were also determined...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882525/genotyping-and-persistence-of-candida-albicans-from-pregnant-women-with-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#12
Cecilia V Tapia, Germán Hermosilla, Paula Fortes, Claudio Alburquenque, Sergio Bucarey, Hugo Salinas, Paula I Rodas, María Cristina Díaz, Fabien Magne
OBJECTIVE: To study Candida albicans genotypes using RAPD and their susceptibility to fluconazole in healthy pregnant women and in vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) patients after topical treatment with clotrimazole. METHODS: Vaginal swabs were collected at t = 0 and t = 1 (1 month later) in pregnant women (control group, n = 33), and before (t = 0), at 1 month (t = 1) and at 2 months (t = 2) after clotrimazole treatment in pregnant women with VVC. RESULTS: Candida albicans was isolated in 30% of healthy pregnant women and 80% of patients with VVC...
November 23, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864011/molecular-characterization-of-candida-isolates-from-intensive-care-unit-patients-krakow-poland
#13
Marianna Małek, Paulina Paluchowska, Bożena Bogusz, Alicja Budak
BACKGROUND: Over the last decades, Candida species have emerged as important pathogens in immunocompromised patients. Nosocomial infections are mainly of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, some cases of exogenous candidiasis have also been reported. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic relatedness between Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida kefyr isolates recovered from intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
November 15, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855078/echinocandin-resistance-in-candida-species-isolates-from-liver-transplant-recipients
#14
Gwénolé Prigent, Nawel Aït-Ammar, Eric Levesque, Arnaud Fekkar, Jean-Marc Costa, Sarra El Anbassi, Françoise Foulet, Christophe Duvoux, Jean-Claude Merle, Eric Dannaoui, Françoise Botterel
Liver transplant recipients are at risk of invasive fungal infections, especially candidiasis. Echinocandin is recommended as prophylactic treatment but is increasingly associated with resistance. Our aim was to assess echinocandin drug resistance in Candida spp. isolated from liver transplant recipients treated with this antifungal class. For this, all liver-transplanted patients in a University Hospital (Créteil, France) between January and June of 2013 and 2015 were included. Susceptibilities of Candida isolates to echinocandins were tested by Etest and the EUCAST reference method...
February 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836494/associations-between-vaginal-infections-and-potential-high-risk-and-high-risk-human-papillomavirus-genotypes-in-female-sex-workers-in-western-kenya
#15
Sonia Menon, Davy Vanden Broeck, Rodolfo Rossi, Emilomo Ogbe, Stacy Harmon, Hillary Mabeya
PURPOSE: Infection with and persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) are the strongest risk factors for cervical cancer. Little is known about the prevalence and role of concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) found in HPV-infected female sex workers (FSW) in Africa. This study purports to test our a priori hypotheses that STIs are associated with genotypes pertaining to the α-group species 9. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida spp in FSW, the association between these STIs and the prevalence of any potential HR and HR HPV genotypes in FSWs...
December 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824006/white-opaque-switching-in-different-mating-type-like-locus-gene-types-of-clinical-candida-albicans-isolates
#16
Hou-Min Li, Yumi Shimizu-Imanishi, Reiko Tanaka, Ruo-Yu Li, Takashi Yaguchi
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans (C. albicans) can become a pathogen causing superficial as well as life-threatening systemic infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Many phenotypic attributes contribute to its capacity to colonize human organs. In our study, 93 C. albicans isolates from patients of various candidiasis in a hospital of China were surveyed. We aimed to investigate the white-opaque (WO) switching competence, drug sensitivity, and virulence of mating type-like (MTL) a/α isolates...
November 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820850/novel-polymorphic-multilocus-microsatellite-markers-to-distinguish-candida-tropicalis-isolates
#17
Xin Fan, Meng Xiao, Ping Liu, Sharon Chen, Fanrong Kong, He Wang, Li Zhang, Xin Hou, Ying-Chun Xu
Candida tropicalis is an important pathogen. Here we developed and evaluated a polymorphic multilocus microsatellite scheme employing novel genetic markers for genotyping of C. tropicalis. Using 10 isolates from 10 unique (separate) patients to screen over 4000 tandem repeats from the C. tropicalis genome (strain MYA-3404), six new candidate microsatellite loci (ctm1, ctm3, ctm8, ctm18, ctm24 and ctm26) were selected according to amplification success, observed polymorphisms and stability of flanking regions by preliminary testing...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816903/molecular-and-antifungal-susceptibility-study-on-trichosporonemia-and-emergence-of-trichosporon-mycotoxinivorans-as-a-bloodstream-pathogen
#18
Yubhisha Dabas, Immaculata Xess, Pratibha Kale
A total of 21 Trichosporon spp. isolates from blood over a period of 5 years (January 2009 to December 2013) were included in the study. The most common underlying diseases found were pancreatitis (33.3%) and cancer (33.3%). Trichosporon asahii (80.9%) was the commonest species followed by Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans (14.2%) and Trichosporon faecale (4.7%). On IGS1 region sequencing the most predominant T. asahii type in our region was genotype 1 (16/17 isolates; 94.1%) and one isolate belonged to genotype 4...
November 5, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806045/multiple-origins-of-the-pathogenic-yeast-candida-orthopsilosis-by-separate-hybridizations-between-two-parental-species
#19
Markus S Schröder, Kontxi Martinez de San Vicente, Tâmara H R Prandini, Stephen Hammel, Desmond G Higgins, Eduardo Bagagli, Kenneth H Wolfe, Geraldine Butler
Mating between different species produces hybrids that are usually asexual and stuck as diploids, but can also lead to the formation of new species. Here, we report the genome sequences of 27 isolates of the pathogenic yeast Candida orthopsilosis. We find that most isolates are diploid hybrids, products of mating between two unknown parental species (A and B) that are 5% divergent in sequence. Isolates vary greatly in the extent of homogenization between A and B, making their genomes a mosaic of highly heterozygous regions interspersed with homozygous regions...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782182/opportunistic-fungal-pathogen-candida-glabrata-circulates-between-humans-and-yellow-legged-gulls
#20
Mohammed Hashim Al-Yasiri, Anne-Cécile Normand, Coralie L'Ollivier, Laurence Lachaud, Nathalie Bourgeois, Stanislas Rebaudet, Renaud Piarroux, Jean-François Mauffrey, Stéphane Ranque
The opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata is a component of the mycobiota of both humans and yellow-legged gulls that is prone to develop fluconazole resistance. Whether gulls are a reservoir of the yeast and facilitate the dissemination of human C. glabrata strains remains an open question. In this study, MLVA genotyping highlighted the lack of genetic structure of 190 C. glabrata strains isolated from either patients in three hospitals or fecal samples collected from gull breeding colonies located in five distinct areas along the French Mediterranean littoral...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
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