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Genotyping of candida

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325167/a-multicentre-study-of-antifungal-susceptibility-patterns-among-350-candida-auris-isolates-2009-17-in-india-role-of-the-erg11-and-fks1-genes-in-azole-and-echinocandin-resistance
#1
Anuradha Chowdhary, Anupam Prakash, Cheshta Sharma, Milena Kordalewska, Anil Kumar, Smita Sarma, Bansidhar Tarai, Ashutosh Singh, Gargi Upadhyaya, Shalini Upadhyay, Priyanka Yadav, Pradeep K Singh, Vikas Khillan, Neelam Sachdeva, David S Perlin, Jacques F Meis
Background: Candida auris has emerged globally as an MDR nosocomial pathogen in ICU patients. Objectives: We studied the antifungal susceptibility of C. auris isolates (n = 350) from 10 hospitals in India collected over a period of 8 years. To investigate azole resistance, ERG11 gene sequencing and expression profiling was conducted. In addition, echinocandin resistance linked to mutations in the C. auris FKS1 gene was analysed. Methods: CLSI antifungal susceptibility testing of six azoles, amphotericin B, three echinocandins, terbinafine, 5-flucytosine and nystatin was conducted...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325080/dst659-genotype-of-candida-albicans-showing-positive-association-between-biofilm-formation-and-dominance-in-taiwan
#2
Jang-Jih Lu, Hsiu-Jung Lo, Yen-Mu Wu, Jia-Yuan Chang, Yin-Zhi Chen, Shao-Hung Wang
Based on multiple locus sequence typing, we previously found that DST659 and DST693 were dominant genotypes of Candida albicans among the bloodstream isolates at Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou. Biofilm-forming activity, which is critical for C. albicans virulence, probably contributed to the dominance of antifungal sensitive isolates in hospital. Both in vitro membrane weighting and in vivo zebrafish egg infection assays were used to evaluate the biofilm-forming activity of DST659 and DST693 genotypes...
January 8, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228306/25s-rdna-genotype-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-clinical-candida-albicans-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso
#3
Adama Zida, Soulama Issiaka, Bamba Sanata, Serme S Samuel, Sangare Ibrahim, Sawadogo Marcel, Guiguemde Thierry, Traore Lady Kady, Guiguemde T Robert
The present investigation aimed to assess the prevalence of genotypes of C. albicans in Ouagadougou and to analyze the relationship between the genetic diversity and antifungal susceptibility. Ninety-six clinical strains are included. They were diagnosed as C. albicans using germ tube test, chlamydospore formation, and Api-Candida test. Genotyping was performed using PCR targeting 25S rDNA. Antifungal susceptibilities were tested based on the disk diffusion method. The genotypes A (85.4%) was predominant followed by genotypes B (10...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206226/merging-ft-ir-and-ngs-for-simultaneous-phenotypic-and-genotypic-identification-of-pathogenic-candida-species
#4
Claudia Colabella, Laura Corte, Luca Roscini, Volha Shapaval, Achim Kohler, Valeria Tafintseva, Carlo Tascini, Gianluigi Cardinali
The rapid and accurate identification of pathogen yeast species is crucial for clinical diagnosis due to the high level of mortality and morbidity induced, even after antifungal therapy. For this purpose, new rapid, high-throughput and reliable identification methods are required. In this work we described a combined approach based on two high-throughput techniques in order to improve the identification of pathogenic yeast strains. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of ITS and D1/D2 LSU marker regions together with FTIR spectroscopy were applied to identify 256 strains belonging to Candida genus isolated in nosocomial environments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204285/molecular-characterization-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-iraqi-hospital-environment
#5
I M S Al-Kadmy, A N M Ali, I M A Salman, S S Khazaal
Healthcare-associated items are a common source of acquired infections, and hospital-acquired infections cause significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Acinetobacter baumannii is the most prevalent infection-causing organism in the hospital environment. Hospital articles and objects are the main sources of infection with the ability to transmit some of the pathogenic microorganisms such as A. baumannii, which is considered a serious problem in therapeutic treatments. In the current study, we isolated A...
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147867/population-structure-of-candida-parapsilosis-no-genetic-difference-between-french-and-urugayan-isolates-using-microsatellite-length-polymorphism
#6
Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Victoria Bórmida, Philippe Poirier, Céline Nourrisson, Dinorah Pan, Stéphane Bretagne, Andrès Puime, Françoise Dromer
Candida parapsilosis is a human commensal yeast, frequently involved in infection worldwide and especially in neonates. It is the second species responsible for bloodstream infections in Uruguay and the third species in France. We were interested in knowing whether the population structure of isolates responsible for candidemia in France and in Uruguay was different. Genotyping methods based on microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) have been described and are especially used for investigation of local outbreaks...
November 16, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136186/clonal-spread-and-azole-resistant-mechanisms-of-non-susceptible-candida-albicans-isolates-from-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-patients-in-three-shanghai-maternity-hospitals
#7
YongQin Wu, Cui Li, ZhiHeng Wang, Jing Gao, ZhenHua Tang, HuiFen Chen, ChunMei Ying
In our multicenter study, 43 fluconazole non-susceptible and 45 fluconazole-susceptible isolates were collected from vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) patients from three Shanghai maternity hospitals to analyze their molecular epidemiological features and fluconazole resistant mechanisms. Cross-resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole was observed in 53.5% of the nonsusceptible isolates. Though we acquired 12 clonal complexes (CCs) of diploid sequence types (DSTs) in clinical isolates by a multilocus sequence typing method, fluconazole nonsusceptible isolates all belonged to CC69 with a predominant genotype of DST 79...
November 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080227/yeasts-and-moulds-contaminants-of-food-ice-cubes-and-their-survival-in-different-drinks
#8
N Francesca, R Gaglio, C Stucchi, S De Martino, G Moschetti, L Settanni
AIMS: To evaluate the levels of unicellular and filamentous fungi in ice cubes produced at different levels and to determine their survival in alcoholic beverages and soft drinks. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty samples of ice cubes collected from home level (HL) productions, bars and pubs (BP) and industrial manufacturing plants (MP) were investigated for the presence and cell density of yeasts and moulds. Moulds were detected in almost all samples, while yeasts developed from the majority of HL and MP samples...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048471/a-new-staging-system-for-cardiac-transthyretin-amyloidosis
#9
Julian D Gillmore, Thibaud Damy, Marianna Fontana, Matthew Hutchinson, Helen J Lachmann, Ana Martinez-Naharro, Candida C Quarta, Tamer Rezk, Carol J Whelan, Esther Gonzalez-Lopez, Thirusha Lane, Janet A Gilbertson, Dorota Rowczenio, Aviva Petrie, Philip N Hawkins
Aims: Cardiac transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis is an increasingly recognized, progressive, and fatal cardiomyopathy, the natural history of which remains unclear. We sought to establish and validate a new prognostic staging system applicable to patients with both wild-type ATTR (ATTRwt) and hereditary variant ATTR (ATTRv) amyloid cardiomyopathy. Methods and results: Eight hundred and sixty-nine patients with cardiac ATTR amyloidosis (553 with ATTRwt and 316 with ATTRv) attending the UK National Amyloidosis Centre were stratified into three disease stages at baseline on the basis of cut points in two universally measured biomarkers, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
October 18, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038279/a-ctg-clade-candida-yeast-genetically-engineered-for-the-genotype-phenotype-characterization-of-azole-antifungal-resistance-in-human-pathogenic-yeasts
#10
Isabelle Accoceberry, Amandine Rougeron, Nicolas Biteau, Pauline Chevrel, Valérie Fitton-Ouhabi, Thierry Noël
A strain of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida lusitaniae was genetically modified for its use as a cellular model for assessing by allele replacement the impact of lanosterol C14α-demethylase ERG11 mutations on azole resistance. Candida lusitaniae was chosen because it is susceptible to azole antifungals, it belongs to the CTG clade of yeast which includes most of the Candida species pathogenic for humans, and it is haploid and easily amenable to genetic transformation and molecular modeling. In this work, allelic replacement is targeted at the ERG11 locus by the reconstitution of a functional auxotrophic marker in the 3' intergenic region of ERG11 Homologous and heterologous ERG11 alleles are expressed from the resident ERG11 promoter of C...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984569/nonomuraea-cavernae-sp-nov-a-novel-actinobacterium-isolated-from-a-karst-cave-sample
#11
Bao-Zhu Fang, Zheng-Shuang Hua, Ming-Xian Han, Zi-Tong Zhang, Yi-Huan Wang, Zi-Wen Yang, Wan-Qin Zhang, Min Xiao, Wen-Jun Li
A novel actinobacterial strain, designated SYSU K10005(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from a karst cave in Xingyi county, Guizhou province, south-west China. The taxonomic position of the strain was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Cells of the strain were aerobic and Gram-stain-positive. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain SYSU K10005(T) was most closely related to the type strains of the genus Nonomuraea, and shared highest sequence similarity of 98.4 % with Nonomuraea candida HMC10(T)...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941907/genotyping-identification-and-multifunctional-features-of-yeasts-associated-to-bosana-naturally-black-table-olive-fermentations
#12
Cinzia Porru, Francisco Rodríguez-Gómez, Antonio Benítez-Cabello, Rufino Jiménez-Díaz, Giacomo Zara, Marilena Budroni, Ilaria Mannazzu, Francisco Noé Arroyo-López
Directly brined black table olives of Bosana variety are a traditional food product of Sardinia island (Italy), spontaneously fermented by yeasts among other microorganisms. However, as far as we know, the identification, biotechnological and probiotic potential of this yeast community has not been investigated yet. In this work, a total of 72 yeast isolates previously obtained from Bosana olive brines were first genotyped by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) analysis with primer M13, and then identified by sequencing of D1/D2 domains of rDNA 26S gene...
February 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912344/parasex-generates-phenotypic-diversity-de-novo-and-impacts-drug-resistance-and-virulence-in-candida-albicans
#13
Matthew P Hirakawa, Darius E Chyou, Denis Huang, Aaron R Slan, Richard J Bennett
Candida albicans is a diploid fungus that is a frequent cause of mucosal and systemic infections in humans. This species exhibits an unusual parasexual cycle in which mating produces tetraploid cells that undergo a nonmeiotic program of concerted chromosome loss to return to a diploid or aneuploid state. In this work, we used a multipronged approach to examine the capacity of parasex to generate diversity in C. albicans First, we compared the phenotypic properties of 32 genotyped progeny and observed wide-ranging differences in fitness, filamentation, biofilm formation, and virulence...
November 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891112/candida-albicans-isolates-from-a-single-hospital-show-low-phenotypical-specialization
#14
Enikő Boros, Walter P Pfliegler, Renátó Kovács, Ágnes Jakab, László Majoros, Zoltán Barta, István Pócsi
Candida albicans is the best-studied opportunistic human pathogenic yeast species, and its virulence factors, susceptibility to antimycotics, the diversity of its physiological properties and the determinative factors of these traits are interesting from a clinical as well as from an evolutionary perspective. By applying statistical modeling for the phenotypical differences observed among a collection of 63 C. albicans isolates originating from different clinical care units, from a diverse group of patients with or without mycosis, collected in a Hungarian clinic, we found that (i) host-related aspects like anatomical source, care unit of isolation, patients' age, sex, and disease severity, or ABC genotypes of the isolates had less effect on the phenotypic features of this opportunistic pathogen than host-independent aspects, for example, year or month of isolation; (ii) different phenotypic traits did not show any significant correlations with each other; and (iii) different genotypes displayed no anatomical specialization and rarely showed any significant correlation with parameters of isolation either...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867945/genetic-biochemical-nutritional-and-antimicrobial-characteristics-of-pomegranate-punica-granatum-l-%C3%A2-grown-in-istria
#15
Ana Miklavčič Višnjevec, Ajda Ota, Mihaela Skrt, Bojan Butinar, Sonja Smole Možina, Nina Gunde Cimerman, Marijan Nečemer, Alenka Baruca Arbeiter, Matjaž Hladnik, Marin Krapac, Dean Ban, Milena Bučar-Miklavčič, Nataša Poklar Ulrih, Dunja Bandelj
This study characterises the genetic variability of local pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) germplasm from the Slovenian and Croatian areas of Istria. The bioactive components and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of ethanol and water extracts of different parts of pomegranate fruit were also determined, along with their preliminary nutritional characterisation. Twenty-six different genotypes identified with microsatellite analysis indicate the great diversity of pomegranate in Istria. The pomegranate fruit ethanol extracts represent rich sources of phenolic compounds (mean value of the mass fraction in exocarp and mesocarp expressed as gallic acid is 23 and 16 mg/g, respectively)...
June 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854190/population-structure-and-molecular-genetic-characterization-of-clinical-candida-tropicalis-isolates-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-kuwait-reveal-infections-with-unique-strains
#16
Khaled Al-Obaid, Mohammad Asadzadeh, Suhail Ahmad, Ziauddin Khan
Candida tropicalis is a frequently isolated yeast species causing bloodstream, urinary tract and other infections particularly in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) and those requiring prolonged urinary catheterization (UC) or receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics (BSA). This study investigated clinical characteristics and genetic relatedness among C. tropicalis strains isolated from patients at Al-Amiri Hospital in Kuwait. C. tropicalis strains (n = 63) isolated from blood, genito-urinary, respiratory (RT) and digestive (GIT) tracts and wound sites from 54 patients were used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837732/candida-species-from-eye-infections-drug-susceptibility-virulence-factors-and-molecular-characterization
#17
Konduri Ranjith, Bhavani Sontam, Savitri Sharma, Joveeta Joseph, Kanchana N Chathoth, Kalyana C Sama, Somasheila I Murthy, Sisinthy Shivaji
Purpose: To determine the type of Candida species in ocular infections and to investigate the relationship of antifungal susceptibility profile to virulence factors. Methods: Fifty isolates of yeast-like fungi from patients with keratitis, endophthalmitis, and orbital cellulitis were identified by Vitek-2 compact system and DNA sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions of the rRNA gene, followed by phylogenetic analysis for phenotypic and genotypic identification, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831086/potential-use-of-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-for-rapid-detection-of-antifungal-resistance-in-the-human-pathogen-candida-glabrata
#18
Antonietta Vella, Elena De Carolis, Enrica Mello, David S Perlin, Dominique Sanglard, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Brunella Posteraro
The echinocandins are relatively new antifungal drugs that represent, together with the older azoles, the recommended and/or preferred agents to treat candidaemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis in human patients. If "time is of the essence" to reduce the mortality for these infections, the administration of appropriate antifungal therapy could be accelerated by the timely reporting of laboratory test results. In this study, we attempted to validate a MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry-based assay for the antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) of the potentially multidrug-resistant pathogen Candida glabrata against anidulafungin and fluconazole...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827419/antifungal-activity-of-scy-078-and-standard-antifungal-agents-against-178-clinical-isolates-of-resistant-and-susceptible-candida-species
#19
Wiley A Schell, A M Jones, Katyna Borroto-Esoda, Barbara D Alexander
SCY-078 in vitro activity was determined for 178 isolates of resistant or susceptible Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida parapsilosis, including 44 Candida isolates with known genotypic (FKS1 or FKS2 mutations), phenotypic, or clinical resistance to echinocandins. Results were compared to those for anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole. SCY-078 was shown to have excellent activity against both wild-type isolates and echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates of Candida species...
November 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792540/antibiotics-resistance-in-el-tor-vibrio-cholerae-01-isolated-during-cholera-outbreaks-in-mozambique-from-2012-to-2015
#20
Liliana Candida Dengo-Baloi, Cynthia Amino Semá-Baltazar, Lena Vania Manhique, Jucunu Elias Chitio, Dorteia Luísa Inguane, José Paulo Langa
RATIONALE: Mozambique has recorded cyclically epidemic outbreaks of cholera. Antibiotic therapy is recommended in specific situations for management and control of cholera outbreaks. However, an increase in resistance rates to antibiotics by Vibrio cholerae has been reported in several epidemic outbreaks worldwide. On the other hand, there are few recent records of continuous surveillance of antibiotics susceptibility pattern of V. cholerae in Mozambique. GOALS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate antibiotics resistance pattern of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa isolated during Cholera outbreaks in Mozambique to commonly used antibiotics...
2017: PloS One
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