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Genotyping of candida

Silke Schelenz, Ferry Hagen, Johanna L Rhodes, Alireza Abdolrasouli, Anuradha Chowdhary, Anne Hall, Lisa Ryan, Joanne Shackleton, Richard Trimlett, Jacques F Meis, Darius Armstrong-James, Matthew C Fisher
BACKGROUND: Candida auris is a globally emerging multidrug resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial transmission. We report an ongoing outbreak of C. auris in a London cardio-thoracic center between April 2015 and July 2016. This is the first report of C. auris in Europe and the largest outbreak so far. We describe the identification, investigation and implementation of control measures. METHODS: Data on C. auris case demographics, environmental screening, implementation of infection prevention/control measures, and antifungal susceptibility of patient isolates were prospectively recorded then analysed retrospectively...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Matthew S Payne, Demelza J Ireland, Rory Watts, Elizabeth A Nathan, Lucy L Furfaro, Matthew W Kemp, Jeffrey A Keelan, John P Newnham
BACKGROUND: Detection of Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma and Candida spp. in the vagina during pregnancy has previously been associated with preterm birth (PTB). However, the prevalence of these microorganisms and the associated obstetric risks (likely to be population-specific) have not been determined in Australian women; furthermore, in the case of Ureaplasma spp., very few studies have attempted characterisation at the species level and none have examined genotype/serovar status to further refine risk assessment...
October 18, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Thierry Kammalac Ngouana, Pascal Drakulovski, Donika Krasteva, Rufin Kuipou Toghueo, Charles Kouanfack, Jacques Reynes, Eric Delaporte, Fabrice Fekam Boyom, Michèle Mallié, Sébastien Bertout
The molecular epidemiology and the antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida albicans are scarce in Cameroon. Authors studied the genetic diversity and the antifungal susceptibility of C. albicans isolates from Yaoundé HIV-infected patients. Clinical isolates were obtained by mycological diagnosis of oropharyngeal swabs, stools, urine, and vaginal swabs from patients. C. albicans isolates were confirmed by the Light cycler real-time PCR of the ITS1 region of the 5.8s ribosomal DNA. The ABC genotypes and the Hwp1 gene amplification were carried out with specific primers...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Nan Xu, Chao Ye, Xiulai Chen, Jia Liu, Liming Liu, Jian Chen
Candida glabrata CCTCC M202019 as an industrial yeast strain that is widely used to produce α-oxocarboxylic acid. Strain M202019 has been proven to have a higher pyruvate-producing capacity than the reference strain CBS138. To characterize the genotype of the M202019 strain, we generated a draft sequence of its genome, which has a size of 12.1 Mbp and a GC content of 38.47%. Evidence accumulated during genome annotation suggests that strain M202019 has strong capacities for glucose transport and pyruvate biosynthesis, defects in pyruvate catabolism, as well as variations in genes involved in nutrient and dicarboxylic acid transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and other relevant aspects of carbon metabolism, which might promote pyruvate accumulation...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rocio Garcia-Rubio, Horacio Gil, Maria Candida Monteiro, Teresa Pelaez, Emilia Mellado
Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic mold fungus ubiquitously found in the environment and is the most common species causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. For A. fumigatus genotyping, the short tandem repeat method (STRAf) is widely accepted as the first choice. However, difficulties associated with PCR product size and required technology have encouraged the development of novel typing techniques. In this study, a new genotyping method based on hypervariable tandem repeats within exons of surface protein coding genes (TRESP) was designed...
2016: PloS One
Rasmus Hare Jensen
Antifungal drug resistance is a multifaceted clinical challenge, and when present, a primary cause of treatment failure in patients with severe fungal infections. Changing epidemiology, increasing resistance rates and a narrow antifungal armamentarium may further underline the required attention on resistance particularly within the most prevalent invasive fungal infections caused by Candida yeasts and Aspergillus moulds. In Denmark, the resistance epidemiology remains to be fully elucidated. This thesis sought to address this demand as well as provide insight into the landscape of underlying molecular resistance mechanisms...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
D Przybyłowska, K Piskorska, M Gołaś, M Sikora, E Swoboda-Kopeć, J Kostrzewa-Janicka, E Mierzwińska-Nastalska
Yeast-like fungi and gram-negative bacilli are the most frequent potential pathogens of the respiratory tract isolated from the denture plaque of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Dominant species among yeast-like fungi are Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. Significant frequency is also exhibited by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca. The purpose of this study was to analyze genetic diversity of the strains of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and Klebsiella spp. present in patients in stable phases of COPD...
August 30, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sourour Neji, Houaida Trabelsi, Ines Hadrich, Fatma Cheikhrouhou, Hayet Sellami, Fattouma Makni, Ali Ayadi
Candida parapsilosis, which was previously considered to be a complex of three genetically distinct groups, has emerged as a significant agent of nosocomial infections. Recently, this complex was separated into three species: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis In Tunisia, data pertaining to these fungi are limited. Thus, the purpose of our study was to determine by BanI PCR-RFLP and ITS sequencing, the occurrence of Candida parapsilosis complex among 182 isolates identified as C...
August 23, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Yanan Zhao, Yoji Nagasaki, Milena Kordalewska, Ellen G Press, Ryan K Shields, M Hong Nguyen, Cornelius J Clancy, David S Perlin
A novel and highly accurate diagnostic assay platform was established for rapid identification of FKS mutations associated with echinocandin resistance in Candida glabrata. The assay platform uses allele-specific molecular beacon and DNA melt analysis following asymmetric PCR. A dual assay for FKS1 and FKS2 was developed to identify within 3 h the most common and clinically relevant resistance associated mutations including 8 FKS1 HS1 (WT, S629P, F625S, D632Y, D632E <T1896G>, D632E <T1896A>, I634V, and F625F) and 7 FKS2 HS1 (WT, F659del, F659S, F659V, F659L, S663P, S663F) genotypes...
August 22, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
D Kumar, T Banerjee, J Chakravarty, S K Singh, A Dwivedi, R Tilak
PURPOSE: Diabetic foot ulcers are a serious cause of diagnostic and therapeutic concern. The following study was undertaken to determine the fungal causes of diabetic foot ulcers, with their phenotypic and genotypic characterisation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 155 diabetic foot ulcers were studied for 1 year. Deep tissue specimen was collected from the wounds, and crushed samples were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol (0.05 g). Identification was done by growth on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and urease test...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Soley Arslan, Ayşe Nedret Koç, Ahmet Ercan Şekerci, Fatih Tanriverdi, Hafize Sav, Gonca Aydemir, Halit Diri
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study compared the genotypes and virulence factors of Candida species isolated from oral cavities of healthy individuals and patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 142 healthy individuals and 73 diabetic patients participated in this study. Study populations were classified into 4 groups as follows: Group I - Healthy, without caries; Group II - Healthy, with caries; Group III - DM, with caries; Group IV - DM, without caries...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Cândida Dias, Cátia F Lourenço, Elisabete Ferreiro, Rui M Barbosa, João Laranjinha, Ana Ledo
Age-dependent changes in nitric oxide ((•)NO) concentration dynamics may play a significant role in both decaying synaptic and metabolic functions in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This neuromodulator acts presynaptically to increase vesicle release and glutamatergic transmission and also regulates mitochondrial function. Under conditions of altered intracellular redox environment, (•)NO may react and produce reactive species such as peroxynitrite. Using the triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTgAD), we investigated age-dependent changes in the glutamate-(•)NO axis in the hippocampus...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Ying Wang, Ce Shi, Jin-Yan Liu, Wen-Jing Li, Yue Zhao, Ming-Jie Xiang
To explore the putative correlation between the multilocus sequence types (MLST) and antifungal susceptibility of clinical Candida tropicalis isolates in Mainland China. Eighty-two clinical C. tropicalis isolates were collected from sixty-nine patients at Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China, from July 2012 to February 2015, and antifungal susceptibility tests were performed. Genetic profiles of those 82 isolates (30 azole-resistant and 52 azole-susceptible) were characterised by multilocus sequence typing...
October 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Sater, Abdel-Aal Hassan Moubasher, Zeinab Soliman
During the mycological analysis of skin and nail samples taken from patients with onychomycosis and tineas in Assiut city, it is interesting to report that yeast fungi were the main causal agents being cultured from 45.79% of total cases. In general, 21 species of yeast were isolated. Some of these are reported for the first time from clinical specimens. From the literature available up-to-date around the world, this study reports for the first time Saccharomycopsis fibuligera as the causal agent of four clinical cases: two onychomycoses, one tinea capitis and one tinea amiantacea...
October 2016: Mycoses
Charles Y Tra Bi, Florent K N'guessan, Clémentine A Kouakou, Noemie Jacques, Serge Casaregola, Marcellin K Djè
Raffia wine is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in several African countries where it plays a significant role in traditional customs and population diet. Alcoholic fermentation of this beverage is ensured by a complex natural yeast flora which plays a decisive role in the quality of the final product. This present study aims to evaluate the distribution and the diversity of the yeast strains isolated in raffia wine from four sampling areas (Abengourou, Alépé, Grand-Lahou and Adzopé) in Côte d'Ivoire...
August 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Chen Niu, Yahong Yuan, Zhongqiu Hu, Zhouli Wang, Bin Liu, Huxuan Wang, Tianli Yue
Osmotolerant yeasts originating from kiwifruit industrial chain can result in spoilage incidences, while little information is available about their species and spoilage features. This work identified possible spoilage osmotolerant yeasts from orchards and a manufacturer (quick-freeze kiwifruit manufacturer) in main producing areas in Shaanxi, China and further characterized their spoilage features. A total of 86 osmotolerant isolates dispersing over 29 species were identified through 26S rDNA sequencing at the D1/D2 domain, among which Hanseniaspora uvarum occurred most frequently and have intimate relationships with kiwifruit...
September 2, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
You-Hua Wang, Zhi-Fa Lv, Yao Zhong, Dong-Sheng Liu, Shu-Ping Chen, Yong Xie
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) internalization involves invasion of cells by the bacterium. Several studies have shown that H. pylori can invade human gastric epithelial cells, immune cells, and Candida yeast in vivo and in vitro. Whether bacterial invasion plays a role in eradication failure is unclear. AIM: To investigate the relationship between H. pylori invasion of GES-1 cells and H. pylori eradication failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two clinical strains isolated from H...
June 10, 2016: Helicobacter
He Wang, Li Zhang, Timothy Kudinha, Fanrong Kong, Xiao-Jun Ma, Yun-Zhuo Chu, Mei Kang, Zi-Yong Sun, Ruo-Yu Li, Kang Liao, Juan Lu, Gui-Ling Zou, Meng Xiao, Xin Fan, Ying-Chun Xu
A data analysis of yeast collections from the National China Hospital Invasive Fungal Surveillance Net (CHIF-NET) programme in 2013 revealed a sudden increase in the proportion of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates (n = 98) in one participating hospital (Hospital H). Out of 443 yeast isolates submitted to the CHIF-NET reference laboratory by Hospital H (2010-2014), 212 (47.9%) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto by sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene...
2016: Scientific Reports
Supram Hosuru Subramanya, Deependra Hamal, Niranjan Nayak, Shishir Gokhale
Candida parapsilosis is emerging as a potential pathogen for onychomycosis. A 4-year-old male child with perimembranous ventricular septal defect (VSD) was admitted with features of cystitis and was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics. Two weeks later, he developed yellowish discoloration of nails of both hands. The sloughed out nail, on microscopy, showed numerous yeast forms that were identified as Candida parapsilosis by both phenotypic and genotypic methods. Antifungal sensitivity testing of the isolate was performed by microbroth dilution method in accordance with CLSI guidelines...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Laura Judith Marcos-Zambrano, Pilar Escribano, Carlos Sánchez-Carrillo, Emilio Bouza, Jesús Guinea
Trailing is a well-known phenomenon that is defined as reduced but persistent visible growth of Candida spp. at fluconazole concentrations above the MIC. Trailing is commonly detected using the CLSI M27-A3 method, although little is known about its frequency when investigated with EUCAST. We assessed the frequency and scope of fluconazole trailing after using EUCAST EDef 7.2. against a large number of Candida spp. isolates from patients with candidemia. We studied 639 fluconazole-susceptible non-krusei Candida spp...
October 1, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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