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Genotyping of candida

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882525/genotyping-and-persistence-of-candida-albicans-from-pregnant-women-with-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#1
Cecilia V Tapia, Germán Hermosilla, Paula Fortes, Claudio Alburquenque, Sergio Bucarey, Hugo Salinas, Paula I Rodas, María Cristina Díaz, Fabien Magne
OBJECTIVE: To study Candida albicans genotypes using RAPD and their susceptibility to fluconazole in healthy pregnant women and in vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) patients after topical treatment with clotrimazole. METHODS: Vaginal swabs were collected at t = 0 and t = 1 (1 month later) in pregnant women (control group, n = 33), and before (t = 0), at 1 month (t = 1) and at 2 months (t = 2) after clotrimazole treatment in pregnant women with VVC. RESULTS: Candida albicans was isolated in 30% of healthy pregnant women and 80% of patients with VVC...
November 23, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864011/molecular-characterization-of-candida-isolates-from-intensive-care-unit-patients-krakow-poland
#2
Marianna Małek, Paulina Paluchowska, Bożena Bogusz, Alicja Budak
BACKGROUND: Over the last decades, Candida species have emerged as important pathogens in immunocompromised patients. Nosocomial infections are mainly of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, some cases of exogenous candidiasis have also been reported. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic relatedness between Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida kefyr isolates recovered from intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
November 15, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855078/echinocandin-resistance-in-candida-spp-isolated-from-liver-transplant-recipients
#3
Gwénolé Prigent, Nawel Aït-Ammar, Eric Levesque, Arnaud Fekkar, Jean-Marc Costa, Sarra El Anbassi, Françoise Foulet, Christophe Duvoux, Jean-Claude Merle, Eric Dannaoui, Françoise Botterel
Liver transplant recipients are at risk of invasive fungal infections, especially candidiasis. Echinocandin is recommended as prophylactic treatment but is increasingly associated with resistance. Our aim was to assess echinocandin drug resistance in Candida spp. isolated from liver transplant recipients treated with this antifungal class. For this, all liver-transplanted patients in a University Hospital (Créteil, France) between January and June of 2013 and 2015 were included. Susceptibilities of Candida isolates to echinocandins were tested by Etest® and EUCAST reference method...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836494/associations-between-vaginal-infections-and-potential-high-risk-and-high-risk-human-papillomavirus-genotypes-in-female-sex-workers-in-western-kenya
#4
Sonia Menon, Davy Vanden Broeck, Rodolfo Rossi, Emiliono Ogbe, Stacy Harmon, Hillary Mabeya
PURPOSE: Infection with and persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) are the strongest risk factors for cervical cancer. Little is known about the prevalence and role of concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) found in HPV-infected female sex workers (FSW) in Africa. This study purports to test our a priori hypotheses that STIs are associated with genotypes pertaining to the α-group species 9. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida spp in FSW, the association between these STIs and the prevalence of any potential HR and HR HPV genotypes in FSWs...
November 8, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824006/white-opaque-switching-in-different-mating-type-like-locus-gene-types-of-clinical-candida-albicans-isolates
#5
Hou-Min Li, Yumi Shimizu-Imanishi, Reiko Tanaka, Ruo-Yu Li, Takashi Yaguchi
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans (C. albicans) can become a pathogen causing superficial as well as life-threatening systemic infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Many phenotypic attributes contribute to its capacity to colonize human organs. In our study, 93 C. albicans isolates from patients of various candidiasis in a hospital of China were surveyed. We aimed to investigate the white-opaque (WO) switching competence, drug sensitivity, and virulence of mating type-like (MTL) a/α isolates...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820850/novel-polymorphic-multilocus-microsatellite-markers-to-distinguish-candida-tropicalis-isolates
#6
Xin Fan, Meng Xiao, Ping Liu, Sharon Chen, Fanrong Kong, He Wang, Li Zhang, Xin Hou, Ying-Chun Xu
Candida tropicalis is an important pathogen. Here we developed and evaluated a polymorphic multilocus microsatellite scheme employing novel genetic markers for genotyping of C. tropicalis. Using 10 isolates from 10 unique (separate) patients to screen over 4000 tandem repeats from the C. tropicalis genome (strain MYA-3404), six new candidate microsatellite loci (ctm1, ctm3, ctm8, ctm18, ctm24 and ctm26) were selected according to amplification success, observed polymorphisms and stability of flanking regions by preliminary testing...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816903/molecular-and-antifungal-susceptibility-study-on-trichosporonemia-and-emergence-of-trichosporon-mycotoxinivorans-as-a-bloodstream-pathogen
#7
Yubhisha Dabas, Immaculata Xess, Pratibha Kale
A total of 21 Trichosporon spp. isolates from blood over a period of 5 years (January 2009 to December 2013) were included in the study. The most common underlying diseases found were pancreatitis (33.3%) and cancer (33.3%). Trichosporon asahii (80.9%) was the commonest species followed by Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans (14.2%) and Trichosporon faecale (4.7%). On IGS1 region sequencing the most predominant T. asahii type in our region was genotype 1 (16/17 isolates; 94.1%) and one isolate belonged to genotype 4...
November 5, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806045/multiple-origins-of-the-pathogenic-yeast-candida-orthopsilosis-by-separate-hybridizations-between-two-parental-species
#8
Markus S Schröder, Kontxi Martinez de San Vicente, Tâmara H R Prandini, Stephen Hammel, Desmond G Higgins, Eduardo Bagagli, Kenneth H Wolfe, Geraldine Butler
Mating between different species produces hybrids that are usually asexual and stuck as diploids, but can also lead to the formation of new species. Here, we report the genome sequences of 27 isolates of the pathogenic yeast Candida orthopsilosis. We find that most isolates are diploid hybrids, products of mating between two unknown parental species (A and B) that are 5% divergent in sequence. Isolates vary greatly in the extent of homogenization between A and B, making their genomes a mosaic of highly heterozygous regions interspersed with homozygous regions...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782182/opportunistic-fungal-pathogen-candida-glabrata-circulates-between-humans-and-yellow-legged-gulls
#9
Mohammed Hashim Al-Yasiri, Anne-Cécile Normand, Coralie L'Ollivier, Laurence Lachaud, Nathalie Bourgeois, Stanislas Rebaudet, Renaud Piarroux, Jean-François Mauffrey, Stéphane Ranque
The opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata is a component of the mycobiota of both humans and yellow-legged gulls that is prone to develop fluconazole resistance. Whether gulls are a reservoir of the yeast and facilitate the dissemination of human C. glabrata strains remains an open question. In this study, MLVA genotyping highlighted the lack of genetic structure of 190 C. glabrata strains isolated from either patients in three hospitals or fecal samples collected from gull breeding colonies located in five distinct areas along the French Mediterranean littoral...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777756/first-hospital-outbreak-of-the-globally-emerging-candida-auris-in-a-european-hospital
#10
Silke Schelenz, Ferry Hagen, Johanna L Rhodes, Alireza Abdolrasouli, Anuradha Chowdhary, Anne Hall, Lisa Ryan, Joanne Shackleton, Richard Trimlett, Jacques F Meis, Darius Armstrong-James, Matthew C Fisher
BACKGROUND: Candida auris is a globally emerging multidrug resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial transmission. We report an ongoing outbreak of C. auris in a London cardio-thoracic center between April 2015 and July 2016. This is the first report of C. auris in Europe and the largest outbreak so far. We describe the identification, investigation and implementation of control measures. METHODS: Data on C. auris case demographics, environmental screening, implementation of infection prevention/control measures, and antifungal susceptibility of patient isolates were prospectively recorded then analysed retrospectively...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756249/ureaplasma-parvum-genotype-combined-vaginal-colonisation-with-candida-albicans-and-spontaneous-preterm-birth-in-an-australian-cohort-of-pregnant-women
#11
Matthew S Payne, Demelza J Ireland, Rory Watts, Elizabeth A Nathan, Lucy L Furfaro, Matthew W Kemp, Jeffrey A Keelan, John P Newnham
BACKGROUND: Detection of Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma and Candida spp. in the vagina during pregnancy has previously been associated with preterm birth (PTB). However, the prevalence of these microorganisms and the associated obstetric risks (likely to be population-specific) have not been determined in Australian women; furthermore, in the case of Ureaplasma spp., very few studies have attempted characterisation at the species level and none have examined genotype/serovar status to further refine risk assessment...
October 18, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744307/genetic-diversity-of-the-hwp1-gene-and-his3-ef3-cdc3-microsatellites-and-antifungal-susceptibility-profiles-of-candida-albicans-isolates-from-yaound%C3%A3-hiv-infected-patients
#12
Thierry Kammalac Ngouana, Pascal Drakulovski, Donika Krasteva, Rufin Kuipou Toghueo, Charles Kouanfack, Jacques Reynes, Eric Delaporte, Fabrice Fekam Boyom, Michèle Mallié, Sébastien Bertout
The molecular epidemiology and the antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida albicans are scarce in Cameroon. Authors studied the genetic diversity and the antifungal susceptibility of C. albicans isolates from Yaoundé HIV-infected patients. Clinical isolates were obtained by mycological diagnosis of oropharyngeal swabs, stools, urine, and vaginal swabs from patients. C. albicans isolates were confirmed by the Light cycler real-time PCR of the ITS1 region of the 5.8s ribosomal DNA. The ABC genotypes and the Hwp1 gene amplification were carried out with specific primers...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713500/genome-sequencing-of-the-pyruvate-producing-strain-candida-glabrata-cctcc-m202019-and-genomic-comparison-with-strain-cbs138
#13
Nan Xu, Chao Ye, Xiulai Chen, Jia Liu, Liming Liu, Jian Chen
Candida glabrata CCTCC M202019 as an industrial yeast strain that is widely used to produce α-oxocarboxylic acid. Strain M202019 has been proven to have a higher pyruvate-producing capacity than the reference strain CBS138. To characterize the genotype of the M202019 strain, we generated a draft sequence of its genome, which has a size of 12.1 Mbp and a GC content of 38.47%. Evidence accumulated during genome annotation suggests that strain M202019 has strong capacities for glucose transport and pyruvate biosynthesis, defects in pyruvate catabolism, as well as variations in genes involved in nutrient and dicarboxylic acid transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and other relevant aspects of carbon metabolism, which might promote pyruvate accumulation...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701437/a-new-aspergillus-fumigatus-typing-method-based-on-hypervariable-tandem-repeats-located-within-exons-of-surface-protein-coding-genes-tresp
#14
Rocio Garcia-Rubio, Horacio Gil, Maria Candida Monteiro, Teresa Pelaez, Emilia Mellado
Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic mold fungus ubiquitously found in the environment and is the most common species causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. For A. fumigatus genotyping, the short tandem repeat method (STRAf) is widely accepted as the first choice. However, difficulties associated with PCR product size and required technology have encouraged the development of novel typing techniques. In this study, a new genotyping method based on hypervariable tandem repeats within exons of surface protein coding genes (TRESP) was designed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697142/resistance-in-human-pathogenic-yeasts-and-filamentous-fungi-prevalence-underlying-molecular-mechanisms-and-link-to-the-use-of-antifungals-in-humans-and-the-environment
#15
Rasmus Hare Jensen
Antifungal drug resistance is a multifaceted clinical challenge, and when present, a primary cause of treatment failure in patients with severe fungal infections. Changing epidemiology, increasing resistance rates and a narrow antifungal armamentarium may further underline the required attention on resistance particularly within the most prevalent invasive fungal infections caused by Candida yeasts and Aspergillus moulds. In Denmark, the resistance epidemiology remains to be fully elucidated. This thesis sought to address this demand as well as provide insight into the landscape of underlying molecular resistance mechanisms...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573645/evaluation-of-genetic-diversity-of-candida-spp-and-klebsiella-spp-isolated-from-the-denture-plaque-of-copd-patients
#16
D Przybyłowska, K Piskorska, M Gołaś, M Sikora, E Swoboda-Kopeć, J Kostrzewa-Janicka, E Mierzwińska-Nastalska
Yeast-like fungi and gram-negative bacilli are the most frequent potential pathogens of the respiratory tract isolated from the denture plaque of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Dominant species among yeast-like fungi are Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. Significant frequency is also exhibited by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca. The purpose of this study was to analyze genetic diversity of the strains of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and Klebsiella spp. present in patients in stable phases of COPD...
August 30, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555560/molecular-study-of-the-candida-parapsilosis-complex-in-sfax-tunisia
#17
Sourour Neji, Houaida Trabelsi, Ines Hadrich, Fatma Cheikhrouhou, Hayet Sellami, Fattouma Makni, Ali Ayadi
Candida parapsilosis, which was previously considered to be a complex of three genetically distinct groups, has emerged as a significant agent of nosocomial infections. Recently, this complex was separated into three species: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis In Tunisia, data pertaining to these fungi are limited. Thus, the purpose of our study was to determine by BanI PCR-RFLP and ITS sequencing, the occurrence of Candida parapsilosis complex among 182 isolates identified as C...
August 23, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550360/rapid-detection-of-fks-associated-echinocandin-resistance-in-candida-glabrata
#18
Yanan Zhao, Yoji Nagasaki, Milena Kordalewska, Ellen G Press, Ryan K Shields, M Hong Nguyen, Cornelius J Clancy, David S Perlin
A novel and highly accurate diagnostic assay platform was established for rapid identification of FKS mutations associated with echinocandin resistance in Candida glabrata. The assay platform uses allele-specific molecular beacon and DNA melt analysis following asymmetric PCR. A dual assay for FKS1 and FKS2 was developed to identify within 3 h the most common and clinically relevant resistance associated mutations including 8 FKS1 HS1 (WT, S629P, F625S, D632Y, D632E <T1896G>, D632E <T1896A>, I634V, and F625F) and 7 FKS2 HS1 (WT, F659del, F659S, F659V, F659L, S663P, S663F) genotypes...
August 22, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514952/identification-antifungal-resistance-profile-in-vitro-biofilm-formation-and-ultrastructural-characteristics-of-candida-species-isolated-from-diabetic-foot-patients-in-northern-india
#19
D Kumar, T Banerjee, J Chakravarty, S K Singh, A Dwivedi, R Tilak
PURPOSE: Diabetic foot ulcers are a serious cause of diagnostic and therapeutic concern. The following study was undertaken to determine the fungal causes of diabetic foot ulcers, with their phenotypic and genotypic characterisation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 155 diabetic foot ulcers were studied for 1 year. Deep tissue specimen was collected from the wounds, and crushed samples were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol (0.05 g). Identification was done by growth on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and urease test...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511328/genotypes-and-virulence-factors-of-candida-species-isolated-from-oralcavities-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Soley Arslan, Ayşe Nedret Koç, Ahmet Ercan Şekerci, Fatih Tanriverdi, Hafize Sav, Gonca Aydemir, Halit Diri
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study compared the genotypes and virulence factors of Candida species isolated from oral cavities of healthy individuals and patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 142 healthy individuals and 73 diabetic patients participated in this study. Study populations were classified into 4 groups as follows: Group I - Healthy, without caries; Group II - Healthy, with caries; Group III - DM, with caries; Group IV - DM, without caries...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
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