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Genotyping of candida

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597685/a-gain-of-function-mutation-of-stat1-a-novel-genetic-factor-contributing-to-chronic-mucocutaneous-candidiasis
#1
Narges Eslami, Marzieh Tavakol, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Mohammad Gharegozlou, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Anne Puel, Satoshi Okada, Saba Arshi, Mohammad Hassan Bemanian, Morteza Fallahpour, Rasool Molatefi, Farhad Seif, Samaneh Zoghi, Nima Rezaei, Mohammad Nabavi
Heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) have increasingly been identified as a genetic cause of autosomal-dominant (AD) chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). In this article, we describe a 33-year-old man who experienced chronic refractory candidiasis, recurrent otitis media, and pneumonia resulting in bronchiectasis, severe oral and esophageal candidiases with strictures associated with hypothyroidism and immune hemolytic anemia. His son also suffered from persistent candidiasis, chronic diarrhea, poor weight gain, and pneumonia that resulted in his demise because of sepsis...
June 9, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595520/a-case-of-fulminant-type-1-diabetes-following-anti-pd1-immunotherapy-in-a-genetically-susceptible-patient
#2
Manuel Araújo, Dário Ligeiro, Luís Costa, Filipa Marques, Helder Trindade, José Manuel Correia, Candida Fonseca
Programmed cell death-1 protein (PD-1) is an immune checkpoint that has gained popularity in the treatment of several advanced cancers. Inhibiting this checkpoint is known to enhance immune response, but is also known to diminish immune tolerance and to increase autoimmune toxicity. We discuss a case of rapid onset fulminant Type 1 diabetes induced by treatment with anti-programmed cell death-1 monoclonal antibody, nivolumab, in a patient with late-stage non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma. The patient had no history of previous diabetes but did reveal a high-risk genotype for Type 1 diabetes development (DR3-DQ2; DR4-DQ8)...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588560/molecular-epidemiology-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-candida-glabrata-in-china-august-2009-to-july-2014-a-multi-center-study
#3
Xin Hou, Meng Xiao, Sharon C-A Chen, Fanrong Kong, He Wang, Yun-Zhuo Chu, Mei Kang, Zi-Yong Sun, Zhi-Dong Hu, Ruo-Yu Li, Juan Lu, Kang Liao, Tie-Shi Hu, Yu-Xing Ni, Gui-Ling Zou, Ge Zhang, Xin Fan, Yu-Pei Zhao, Ying-Chun Xu
Candida glabrata is an increasingly important cause of invasive candidiasis. In China, relatively little is known of the molecular epidemiology of C. glabrata and of its antifungal susceptibility patterns. Here we studied 411 non-duplicate C. glabrata isolates from 411 patients at 11 hospitals participating in the National China Hospital Invasive Fungal Surveillance Net program (CHIF-NET; 2010-2014). Genotyping was performed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) employing six genetic loci and by microsatellite analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543785/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characteristics-of-candida-albicans-isolates-from-bloodstream-and-mucosal-infections
#4
Marina Mandelblat, Michael Frenkel, Darren Abbey, Ronen Ben Ami, Judith Berman, Esther Segal
The interaction of Candida albicans with the host is of a complex nature involving fungal factors and host's response. In this study, we concentrated on the phenotypic expression of virulence attributes and genotypic characteristics of C. albicans isolates from two distinct clinical entities of candidiasis-blood stream and vaginal infections, and the possible role of these factors. Hence, we conducted a comparative in vitro assessment of virulence characteristics, including adhesion to epithelial cells and HaCat cell line, biofilm formation, aspartic proteinases and phospholipase activity of 20 C...
May 22, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542393/head-to-head-comparison-of-microflex-lt-and-vitek-ms-systems-for-routine-identification-of-microorganisms-by-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-in-chile
#5
Lorena Porte, Patricia García, Stephanie Braun, María Teresa Ulloa, Mónica Lafourcade, Alisson Montaña, Carolina Miranda, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Thomas Weitzel
BACKGROUND: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is a new and revolutionary identification method for microorganisms and has recently been introduced into clinical microbiology in many industrialized countries in Europe and North America. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to compare the performance and practicality of two commercial MALDI-TOF MS platforms in a head-to head manner at a routine laboratory in Chile...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516267/methods-of-candida-dubliniensis-identification-and-its-occurrence-in-human-clinical-material
#6
Martina Mahelová, Filip Růžička
Candida dubliniensis was reported as a new species in 1995. This species is often misidentified as Candida albicans. The aims of this work were to determine the occurrence of C. dubliniensis in various clinical materials, to evaluate several ways to identify it and to examine the genetic variability of isolates. Among 7706 isolates originally identified as C. albicans, 237 were identified as C. dubliniensis (3.1%). Most of the C. dubliniensis isolates were obtained from the upper and lower respiratory tract (61...
May 17, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491252/inhibitory-effects-of-carvacrol-on-the-expression-of-secreted-aspartyl-proteinases-1-3-in-fluconazole-resistant-candida-albicans-isolates
#7
Seyedeh Sedigheh Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Yadegari, Masoumeh Rajabibazl, Ezzat Allah Ghaemi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase (SAP) is one of the main virulence factors in the pathogenesis of Candida. This enzyme is encoded by a family of at least ten genes. Among these genes, the role of SAP1-3 in mucosal infections is evident. This study aimed to investigate the expression of SAP1-3 genes of Candida albicans isolates after treatment with Echinophora platyloba extract, carvacrol and caspofungin drug. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vaginal samples of 68 women with suspected vaginitis were obtained and cultured...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490578/investigating-clinical-issues-by-genotyping-of-medically-important-fungi-why-and-how
#8
REVIEW
Alexandre Alanio, Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Dea Garcia-Hermoso, Stéphane Bretagne
Genotyping studies of medically important fungi have addressed elucidation of outbreaks, nosocomial transmissions, infection routes, and genotype-phenotype correlations, of which secondary resistance has been most intensively investigated. Two methods have emerged because of their high discriminatory power and reproducibility: multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) using short tandem repeat (STR) markers. MLST relies on single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the coding regions of housekeeping genes...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482076/genotyping-of-clinical-isolates-of-candida-glabrata-from-iran-by-multilocus-sequence-typing-and-determination-of-population-structure-and-drug-resistance-profile
#9
Saeid Amanloo, Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Mohammad Ghahri, Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh
Candida glabrata is often the second most common causative agent for candidiasis following Candida albicans. Despite the importance of C. glabrata infections, few epidemiological studies have been conducted on this issue. The goal of this study was genotyping of clinical isolates of C. glabrata by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) technique for determination of the endemic prevalent genotypes and any association between isolation source and drug resistance. A total of 50 C. glabrata clinical isolates from Iran were analyzed by MLST and tested for in-vitro susceptibilities to amphotericin-B, caspofungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A4 document guidelines...
May 6, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450854/microbial-disease-spectrum-linked-to-a-novel-il-12r%C3%AE-1-n-terminal-signal-peptide-stop-gain-homozygous-mutation-with-paradoxical-receptor-cell-surface-expression
#10
Thais Louvain de Souza, Regina C de Souza Campos Fernandes, Juliana Azevedo da Silva, Vladimir Gomes Alves Júnior, Adelia Gomes Coelho, Afonso C Souza Faria, Nabia M Moreira Salomão Simão, João T Souto Filho, Caroline Deswarte, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Dara Torgerson, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Jacinta Bustamante, Enrique Medina-Acosta
Patients with Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Diseases (MSMD) exhibit variable vulnerability to infections by mycobacteria and other intramacrophagic bacteria (e.g., Salmonella and Klebsiella) and fungi (e.g., Histoplasma, Candida, Paracoccidioides, Coccidioides, and Cryptococcus). The hallmark of MSMD is the inherited impaired production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) or the lack of response to it. Mutations in the interleukin (IL)-12 receptor subunit beta 1 (IL12RB1) gene accounts for 38% of cases of MSMD...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424474/molecular-epidemiology-and-azole-resistance-mechanism-study-of-candida-guilliermondii-from-a-chinese-surveillance-system
#11
Jing-Wei Cheng, Kang Liao, Timothy Kudinha, Shu-Ying Yu, Meng Xiao, He Wang, Fanrong Kong, Ying-Chun Xu
We studied the molecular epidemiology and mechanism of azole resistance of 164 C. guilliermondii isolates from a nationwide multi-center surveillance program. The isolates were identified by ITS gene sequencing, and the in vitro susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole was determined by broth microdilution method. The 14-α-demethylase gene ERG11 was amplified and sequenced, and microsatellite analysis was performed to study the genetic relatedness of the isolates. Amongst the 164 C. guilliermondii isolates, 15 (9...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423089/phenotypic-and-genotypic-detection-of-candida-albicans-and-candida-dubliniensis-strains-isolated-from-oral-mucosa-of-aids-pediatric-patients
#12
Harisson Oliveira Livério, Luciana da Silva Ruiz, Roseli Santos de Freitas, Angela Nishikaku, Ana Clara de Souza, Claudete Rodrigues Paula, Carina Domaneschi
The aim of this study was to assess a collection of yeasts to verify the presence of Candida dubliniensis among strains isolated from the oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients which were initially characterized as Candida albicans by the traditional phenotypic method, as well as to evaluate the main phenotypic methods used in the discrimination between the two species and confirm the identification through genotypic techniques, i.e., DNA sequencing. Twenty-nine samples of C. albicans isolated from this population and kept in a fungi collection were evaluated and re-characterized...
April 13, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421052/whole-genome-based-amplified-fragment-length-polymorphism-analysis-reveals-genetic-diversity-in-candida-africana
#13
Anuradha Chowdhary, Ferry Hagen, Cheshta Sharma, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Letterio Giuffrè, Domenico Giosa, Shangrong Fan, Hamid Badali, Maria Rosa Felice, Sybren de Hoog, Jacques F Meis, Orazio Romeo
This study aimed at investigating the genetic diversity of a panel of Candida africana strains recovered from vaginal samples in different countries. All fungal strains were heterozygous at the mating-type-like locus and belonged to the genotype A of Candida albicans. Moreover, all examined C. africana strains lack N-acetylglucosamine assimilation and sequence analysis of the HXK1 gene showed a distinctive polymorphism that impair the utilization of this amino sugar in this yeast. Multi-locus sequencing of seven housekeeping genes revealed a substantial genetic homogeneity among the strains, except for the CaMPIb, SYA1 and VPS13 loci which contributed significantly to the classification of our set of C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383598/genetic-relatedness-of-peri-implants-and-buccal-candida-albicans-isolates-determined-by-rapd-pcr
#14
Adriana M Bertone, Alcira C Rosa, Natalia Nastri, Hector D Santillán, Yamila Ariza, Cristina A Iovannitti, Virginia M Jewtuchowicz
Molecular techniques have been used in recent studies to identify a wide range of potential bacterial pathogens in periimplant pockets of the oral cavity. However, the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of yeasts and species distribution related to periimplantitis are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of yeasts in periimplant biofilm and to study genetic relatedness of Candida albicans. Yeasts recovered from periimplant biofilm samples (n=89) and buccal samples (n=120) were studied in 40 immunocompetent nonsmoking patients who visited the dental clinic of the Asociación Implantodontológica Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and had received oral rehabilitation with implants for more than five years...
December 2016: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382028/notable-increasing-trend-in-azole-non-susceptible-candida-tropicalis-causing-invasive-candidiasis-in-china-august-2009-to-july-2014-molecular-epidemiology-and-clinical-azole-consumption
#15
Xin Fan, Meng Xiao, Kang Liao, Timothy Kudinha, He Wang, Li Zhang, Xin Hou, Fanrong Kong, Ying-Chun Xu
Objectives: To report the notable increasing trends of C. tropicalis antifungal resistance in the past 5 years, and explore molecular epidemiology, and the relationship between clinical azoles consumption and increased resistance rate. Methods: Between August 2009 and July 2014, 507 non-duplicated C. tropicalis isolates causing invasive candidiasis were collected from 10 hospitals in China. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility of nine common agents was determined by Sensititre YeastOne™ using current available species-specific clinical breakpoint (CBPs) or epidemiological cut-off values (ECVs)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380072/population-structure-and-molecular-genetic-characterization-of-5-flucytosine-susceptible-and-resistant-clinical-candida-dubliniensis-isolates-from-kuwait
#16
Mohammad Asadzadeh, Suhail Ahmad, Noura Al-Sweih, Ziauddin Khan
Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans are two closely related species. Although C. dubliniensis is less pathogenic, it has a higher propensity to develop resistance to fluconazole and some strains exhibit intrinsic resistance to 5-flucytosine (5-FC). All 5-FC-resistant isolates from Kuwait were previously shown to belong to one of seven internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA-based haplotypes. This study performed fingerprinting of C. dubliniensis isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine population structure of 5-FC-resistant and -susceptible strains and compared the results with data from a global collection of isolates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377311/new-approaches-for-antifungal-susceptibility-testing
#17
REVIEW
M Sanguinetti, B Posteraro
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal diseases, including those caused by (multi)drug-resistant Candida and Aspergillus species, still represent global public health concerns. Information about the antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) of fungal isolates must be quickly produced to help clinicians in administrating appropriate antifungal therapies. Unfortunately, reference AFST methods, albeit accurate, are labour-intensive and take several hours before patients' results can be available to the treating clinicians...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270801/molecular-fingerprinting-studies-do-not-support-intrahospital-transmission-of-candida-albicans-among-candidemia-patients-in-kuwait
#18
Mohammad Asadzadeh, Suhail Ahmad, Noura Al-Sweih, Ziauddin Khan
Candida albicans, a constituent of normal microbial flora of human mucosal surfaces, is a major cause of candidemia in immunocompromised individuals and hospitalized patients with other debilitating diseases. Molecular fingerprinting studies have suggested nosocomial transmission of C. albicans based on the presence of clusters or endemic genotypes in some hospitals. However, intrahospital strain transmission or a common source of infection has not been firmly established. We performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on 102 C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257640/risk-factors-for-candida-parapsilosis-bloodstream-infection-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-case-control-study
#19
Carmine Garzillo, Maria Bagattini, Lidija Bogdanović, Anna Di Popolo, Vita Dora Iula, Maria Rosaria Catania, Francesco Raimondi, Maria Triassi, Raffaele Zarrilli
BACKGROUND: Candida parapsilosis is increasingly responsible for invasive candidiasis in neonates. This study investigates phenotypic and genotypic features of C. parapsilosis microbial isolates and underlying clinical conditions associated with acquisition of C. parapsilosis in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Italy. METHODS: Identification of C. parapsilosis was performed by VITEK® 2 and MALDI TOF and confirmed by analysis of internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequences...
January 19, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195309/ploidy-tug-of-war-evolutionary-and-genetic-environments-influence-the-rate-of-ploidy-drive-in-a-human-fungal-pathogen
#20
Aleeza C Gerstein, Heekyung Lim, Judith Berman, Meleah A Hickman
Variation in baseline ploidy is seen throughout the tree of life, yet the factors that determine why one ploidy level is maintained over another remain poorly understood. Experimental evolution studies using asexual fungal microbes with manipulated ploidy levels intriguingly reveals a propensity to return to the historical baseline ploidy, a phenomenon that we term "ploidy drive." We evolved haploid, diploid, and polyploid strains of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans under three different nutrient limitation environments to test whether these conditions, hypothesized to select for low ploidy levels, could counteract ploidy drive...
April 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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