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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155241/multilocus-sequence-typing-based-analysis-of-moraxella-catarrhalis-population-structure-reveals-clonal-spreading-of-drug-resistant-strains-isolated-from-childhood-pneumonia
#1
Yinju Du, Haijian Zhou, Fei Wang, Shengnan Liang, Lihong Cheng, Xiaofei Du, Feng Pang, Jinjing Tian, Jinxing Zhao, Biao Kan, Jianguo Xu, Juan Li, Furong Zhang
This work revealed the drug resistance and population structure of Moraxella catarrhalis strains isolated from children less than three years old with pneumonia. Forty-four independent M. catarrhalis strains were analyzed using broth dilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The highest non-susceptibility rate was observed for amoxicillin (AMX), which reached 95.5%, followed by clindamycin (CLI) (n=33; 75.0%), azithromycin (AZM) (61.4%), cefaclor (CEC) (25.0%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (15...
November 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154843/clinical-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-solely-resistant-to-mecillinam-prevalence-and-epidemiology
#2
Aurore Bousquet, Sarah Bugier, Sébastien Larréché, Christine Bigaillon, Philippe Weber, Hervé Delacour, Eric Valade, Dominique De Briel, Audrey Mérens
OBJECTIVES: We observed a particular resistance phenotype: an E. coli isolate from urine sample exhibited resistance to mecillinam (Amd) but was fully susceptible to other β-lactam antibiotics (Amd-R-BL-S). Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of this phenotype and to describe their phenotype, molecular epidemiology and genetic background. METHODS: Between the 1st Jan 2014 and the 31st Jan 2016, Amd-R-BL-S E. coli isolates from urine were collected. We analysed genes previously reported as mostly involved in Amd resistance...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150513/high-prevalence-and-genetic-diversity-of-large-phicd211-phicdif1296t-like-prophages-in-clostridioides-difficile
#3
Julian R Garneau, Ognjen Sekulovic, Bruno Dupuy, Olga Soutourina, Marc Monot, Louis-Charles Fortier
Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) is a pathogenic bacterium displaying great genetic diversity. A significant proportion of this diversity is due to the presence of integrated prophages. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of phiCD211, also known as phiCDIF1296T, the largest phage identified in C. difficile so far, with a genome of 131-kbp. It shares morphological and genomic similarity with other large siphophages like phage 949 infecting Lactococcus lactis and phage c-st infecting Clostridium botulinum...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149337/mechanisms-leading-to-in-vivo-ceftolozane-tazobactam-resistance-development-during-the-treatment-of-infections-caused-by-mdr-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#4
Pablo A Fraile-Ribot, Gabriel Cabot, Xavier Mulet, Leonor Periañez, M Luisa Martín-Pena, Carlos Juan, José L Pérez, Antonio Oliver
Objectives: Characterization of the mechanisms driving ceftolozane/tazobactam resistance development in 5 of 47 (10.6%) patients treated for MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in a Spanish hospital. Methods: Five pairs of ceftolozane/tazobactam-susceptible/resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were studied. MICs were determined by broth microdilution, clonal relatedness was assessed by MLST and resistance mechanisms were investigated by phenotypic and genotypic methods, including WGS...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149293/distribution-of-putative-virulence-markers-in-enterococcus-faecium-towards-a-safety-profile-review
#5
Ana R Freitas, Ana P Tedim, Carla Novais, Teresa M Coque, Luísa Peixe
Objectives: The criteria for identification of Enterococcus faecium (Efm) with the ability to cause human infections are currently being debated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Strains that have an MIC of ampicillin of ≤ 2 mg/L and lack IS16/esp/hyl genes should be regarded as safe for use as feed additives in animal nutrition, despite the lack of knowledge about putative virulence marker (PVM) distribution in community Efm. We analysed the distribution of major PVM and ampicillin phenotypes in large Efm collections to investigate further the safety of strains from a public health perspective...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149242/long-term-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-the-general-population-in-the-netherlands
#6
Engeline van Duijkeren, Cornelia C H Wielders, Cindy M Dierikx, Angela H A M van Hoek, Paul Hengeveld, Christiaan Veenman, Alice Florijn, Aniek Lotterman, Lidwien A M Smit, Jaap T van Dissel, Catharina B M Maassen, Sabine C de Greeff
Background: This longitudinal study aimed to investigate (risk factors for) persistence of carriage and molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum and pAmpC β-lactamase-producing (ESBL/pAmpC) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-E/K) in adults in the Dutch community. Methods: Following a cross-sectional study (ESBL-E/K prevalence 4.5%), a subset of ESBL-E/K positive (n=76) and negative (n=249) individuals volunteered to provide five monthly faecal samples and questionnaires...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148379/characterization-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-from-animal-clinical-specimens-spain
#7
Ana Isabel Vela, Pilar Villalón, Juan Antonio Sáez-Nieto, Gema Chacón, Lucas Domínguez, José Francisco Fernández-Garayzábal
Streptococcus pyogenes appears to be almost exclusively restricted to humans, with few reports on isolation from animals. We provide a detailed characterization (emm typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE], and multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) of 15 S. pyogenes isolates from animals associated with different clinical backgrounds. We also investigated erythromycin resistance mechanisms and phenotypes and virulence genes. We observed 2 emm types: emm12 (11 isolates) and emm77 (4 isolates). Similarly, we observed 2 genetic linages, sequence type (ST) 26 and ST63...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145853/molecular-characterization-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-in-clinical-isolates-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#8
Kevin M Raible, Bhaswati Sen, Nancy Law, Tiffany E Bias, Christopher L Emery, Garth D Ehrlich, Suresh G Joshi
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen which is establishing as a major cause of morbidity and mortality within the healthcare community. The success of this pathogen is largely due to its ability to rapidly gain resistance to antimicrobial therapies and its capability to persist in an abiotic environment through the production of a biofilm. Our tertiary-care hospital has showed high incidence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates. METHODS: In this study we explore both genotypic and phenotypic properties of 26 CRAB isolates: 16 isolates were collected from January 2010 to March 2011, and 10 were collected between February and May 2015...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140998/using-whole-genome-sequencing-to-study-american-foulbrood-epidemiology-in-honeybees
#9
Joakim Ågren, Marc Oliver Schäfer, Eva Forsgren
American foulbrood (AFB), caused by Paenibacillus larvae, is a devastating disease in honeybees. In most countries, the disease is controlled through compulsory burning of symptomatic colonies causing major economic losses in apiculture. The pathogen is endemic to honeybees world-wide and is readily transmitted via the movement of hive equipment or bees. Molecular epidemiology of AFB currently largely relies on placing isolates in one of four ERIC-genotypes. However, a more powerful alternative is multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) using whole-genome sequencing (WGS), which allows for high-resolution studies of disease outbreaks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137652/characterization-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-from-austrian-companion-animals-and-horses
#10
Maximilian Ginders, Michael Leschnik, Frank Künzel, Doris Kampner, Claudia Mikula, Georg Steindl, Inga Eichhorn, Andrea T Feßler, Stefan Schwarz, Joachim Spergser, Igor Loncaric
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic relatedness and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of a collection of Austrian Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from companion animals and horses. A total of 12 non-repetitive isolates presumptively identified as S. pneumoniae were obtained during routinely diagnostic activities between March 2009 and January 2017. RESULTS: Isolates were confirmed as S. pneumoniae by bile solubility and optochin susceptibility testing, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and sequence analysis of a part recA and the 16S rRNA genes...
November 14, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136156/increase-in-antimicrobial-resistance-and-emergence-of-major-international-high-risk-clonal-lineages-in-dogs-and-cats-with-urinary-tract-infection-16-year-retrospective-study
#11
Cátia Marques, Adriana Belas, Andreia Franco, Catarina Aboim, Luís Telo Gama, Constança Pomba
Objectives: To evaluate temporal trends in antimicrobial resistance, over 16 years, in bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with urinary tract infection (UTI) and the clonal lineages of bacteria harbouring critical antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted for 948 bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with UTI (1999-2014). Resistance mechanisms were detected by PCR, namely ESBL/AmpC in third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis, mecA in methicillin-resistant staphylococci, and aac(6')-Ieaph(2″)-Ia and aph(2″)-1d in high-level gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) enterococci...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135361/molecular-characteristics-of-new-clonal-complexes-of-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius-from-clinically-normal-dogs
#12
Jae-Ik Han, Haerin Rhim, Cheol-Ho Yang, Hee-Myung Park
BACKGROUND: High prevalence of methicillin resistance among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius obtained from dogs was reported in Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea. However, no information on genetic lineage and clonal spread is currently available. OBJECTIVE: To identify the genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant or -susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MRSP and MSSP, respectively) from healthy dogs. ANIMALS AND METHODS: From 119 healthy dogs, 29 isolates consisting of 20 MRSP and 9 MSSP were collected from June 2013 to February 2014...
November 14, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127343/global-phylogenetic-analysis-of-escherichia-coli-and-plasmids-carrying-the-mcr-1-gene-indicates-bacterial-diversity-but-plasmid-restriction
#13
Sébastien Matamoros, Jarne M van Hattem, Maris S Arcilla, Niels Willemse, Damian C Melles, John Penders, Trung Nguyen Vinh, Ngo Thi Hoa, Menno D de Jong, Constance Schultsz
To understand the dynamics behind the worldwide spread of the mcr-1 gene, we determined the population structure of Escherichia coli and of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) carrying the mcr-1 gene. After a systematic review of the literature we included 65 E. coli whole genome sequences (WGS), adding 6 recently sequenced travel related isolates, and 312 MLST profiles. We included 219 MGEs described in 7 Enterobacteriaceae species isolated from human, animal and environmental samples. Despite a high overall diversity, 2 lineages were observed in the E...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127051/genomic-analysis-of-in-vivo-acquired-resistance-to-colistin-and-rifampin-in-acinetobacter-baumannii
#14
Nadia Jaidane, Thierry Naas, Wejdene Mansour, Bechir Ben Radhia, Sofiene Jerbi, Noureddine Boujaafar, Olfa Bouallegue, Rémy A Bonnin
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen in health-care facilities responsible for nosocomial infections mostly in immune-compromised patients. Colistin resistance is increasingly reported worldwide in that species. We describe here in vivo selection of colistin and rifampin resistance in a carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (Ab). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, plasmid analysis, and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) were performed to fully characterize the resistome of AbS1 and AbS2 clinical isolates...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124834/prevalence-and-characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-causing-community-acquired-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-on-java-and-bali-indonesia
#15
Dewi Santosaningsih, Sanarto Santoso, Nanik Setijowati, Harun A Rasyid, Nyoman S Budayanti, Ketut Suata, Dicky B Widhyatmoko, Priyo B Purwono, Kuntaman Kuntaman, Damayanti Damayanti, Cita R S Prakoeswa, Mitchell Laurens, Josephine W I van Nierop, Geraldine L Nanninga, Neline Oudenes, Michelle de Regt, Susan V Snijders, Henri A Verbrugh, Juliëtte A Severin
OBJECTIVES: To define the role of Staphylococcus aureus in community settings among patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Indonesia. METHODS: S. aureus were cultured from anterior nares, throat, and wounds of 567 ambulatory patients presenting with SSTI. The mecA gene and genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL; lukF-PV and lukS-PV) and exfoliative toxin (ET; eta and etb) were determined by PCR. Clonal relatedness among methicillin-resistant S...
November 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120301/antimicrobial-susceptibility-virulence-potential-and-sequence-types-associated-with-arcobacter-strains-recovered-from-human-faeces
#16
Alba Pérez-Cataluña, Josepa Tapiol, Clara Benavent, Carolina Sarvisé, Frederic Gómez, Bruno Martínez, Margarida Terron-Puig, Gemma Recio, Angels Vilanova, Isabel Pujol, Frederic Ballester, Antonio Rezusta, María Jose Figueras
PURPOSE: The genus Arcobacter includes bacteria that are considered emergent pathogens because they can produce infections in humans and animals. The most common symptoms are bloody and non-bloody persistent diarrhea but cases with abdominal cramps without diarrhea or asymptomatic cases have also been described as well as cases with bacteremia. The objective was to characterize Arcobacter clinical strains isolated from the faeces of patients from three Spanish hospitals. METHODOLOGY: We have characterized 28 clinical strains (27 of A...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116485/prevalence-risk-factors-and-response-to-treatment-for-hypersomnia-of-central-origin-in-survivors-of-childhood-brain-tumors
#17
Raja B Khan, Thomas E Merchant, Zsila S Sadighi, Mercedes S Bello, Zhaohua Lu, April Sykes, Merrill S Wise, Valerie M Crabtree, Jennifer Zabrowski, Andrea Simmons, Mary E Clark, Belinda N Mandrell
Daytime sleepiness is recognized in childhood brain tumor survivors. Our objective was to determine prevalence, risk factors for PSG/MLST proven hypersomnia/narcolepsy, and response to stimulants in childhood brain tumor survivors. Standard PSG/MSLT criteria were used to diagnose hypersomnia/narcolepsy. Medical records of brain tumor survivors having undergone a PSG/MSLT were reviewed for the diagnostic code of hypersomnia/narcolepsy. Survivors with hypersomnia/narcolepsy were matched with 2-3 survivors without reported hypersomnia/narcolepsy by age at tumor diagnosis, gender, and time from tumor diagnosis...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114396/molecular-evidence-of-listeria-monocytogenes-infection-relapse-in-a-severe-case-of-endocarditis
#18
Giulia Ciceri, Maria Gori, Silvia Bianchi, Giovanni Corrado, Paolo Panisi, Angela Papa, Elisabetta Tanzi, Mirella Pontello
Introduction. Endocarditis is a rare complication of bacteraemia due to Listeria monocytogenes and is characterized by a high fatality rate (37-50 %). Recurrent infection by Listeria monocytogenes occurs even more rarely. Case presentation. We report a case of recurrent Listeria monocytogenes infection that resulted in severe endocarditis in a 66-year-old patient with an aortic valve prosthesis. Relapse was confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Conclusion...
September 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113933/spread-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st395-non-susceptible-to-carbapenems-and-resistant-to-fluoroquinolones-in-north-eastern-france
#19
Anaëlle Muggeo, Thomas Guillard, Frédéric Klein, Fany Reffuveille, Caroline François, Anamaria Babosan, Odile Bajolet, Xavier Bertrand, Christophe de Champs
Fluoroquinolones (FQ) are potential treatments to treat infections from extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing-Enterobacteriaceae susceptible to FQ. Due to increasing non-susceptibility to carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae, we characterized FQ resistance mechanisms in 36 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates that are non-susceptible to ertapenem in North-Eastern France in 2012 and described the population structure by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Among them, 36% (13/36) carried a carbapenemase encoding-gene...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113628/livestock-associated-meticillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-among-human-mrsa-isolates-european-union-european-economic-area-countries-2013
#20
Pete Kinross, Andreas Petersen, Robert Skov, Evelyn Van Hauwermeiren, Annalisa Pantosti, Frédéric Laurent, Andreas Voss, Jan Kluytmans, Marc J Struelens, Ole Heuer, Dominique L Monnet, The European Human LA-Mrsa Study Group
Currently, surveillance of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in humans in Europe is not systematic but mainly event-based. In September 2014, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) initiated a questionnaire to collect data on the number of LA-MRSA from human samples (one isolate per patient) from national/regional reference laboratories in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries in 2013. Identification of LA-MRSA as clonal complex (CC) 398 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was preferred, although surrogate methods such as spa-typing were also accepted...
November 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
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