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Bergmann glia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772246/preterm-birth-disrupts-cerebellar-development-by-affecting-granule-cell-proliferation-program-and-bergmann-glia
#1
Igor Y Iskusnykh, Randal K Buddington, Victor V Chizhikov
Preterm birth is a leading cause of long-term motor and cognitive deficits. Clinical studies suggest that some of these deficits result from disruption of cerebellar development, but the mechanisms that mediate cerebellar abnormalities in preterm infants are largely unknown. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment directly disrupt cerebellar development or indirectly by increasing the probability of cerebellar injury, including that resulting from clinical interventions and protocols associated with the care of preterm infants...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763885/intrauterine-growth-restriction-affects-cerebellar-granule-cells-in-the-developing-guinea-pig-brain
#2
Mary Tolcos, Annie McDougall, Amy Shields, Yoonyoung Chung, Rachael O'Dowd, Ann Turnley, Megan Wallace, Sandra Rees
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae in postnatal life. However, the effects of IUGR on the cerebellum are still to be fully elucidated. A major determinant of growth and development of the cerebellum is proliferation and subsequent migration of cerebellar granule cells. Our objective was to determine whether IUGR, induced by chronic placental insufficiency (CPI) in guinea pigs, results in abnormal cerebellar development due to deficits suggestive of impaired granule cell proliferation and/or migration...
May 15, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732603/sox2-conditional-mutation-in-mouse-causes-ataxic-symptoms-cerebellar-vermis-hypoplasia-and-postnatal-defects-of-bergmann-glia
#3
Valentina Cerrato, Sara Mercurio, Ketty Leto, Elisa Fucà, Eriola Hoxha, Sara Bottes, Miriam Pagin, Marco Milanese, Chew-Yee Ngan, Giulia Concina, Sergio Ottolenghi, Chia-Lin Wei, Giambattista Bonanno, Giulio Pavesi, Filippo Tempia, Annalisa Buffo, Silvia K Nicolis
Sox2 is a transcription factor active in the nervous system, within different cell types, ranging from radial glia neural stem cells to a few specific types of differentiated glia and neurons. Mutations in the human SOX2 transcription factor gene cause various central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities, involving hippocampus and eye defects, as well as ataxia. Conditional Sox2 mutation in mouse, with different Cre transgenes, previously recapitulated different essential features of the disease, such as hippocampus and eye defects...
May 6, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651133/refined-protocols-of-tamoxifen-injection-for-inducible-dna-recombination-in-mouse-astroglia
#4
Hannah M Jahn, Carmen V Kasakow, Andreas Helfer, Julian Michely, Alexei Verkhratsky, Hans H Maurer, Anja Scheller, Frank Kirchhoff
Inducible DNA recombination of floxed alleles in vivo by liver metabolites of tamoxifen (TAM) is an important tool to study gene functions. Here, we describe protocols for optimal DNA recombination in astrocytes, based on the GLAST-CreERT2 /loxP system. In addition, we demonstrate that quantification of genomic recombination allows to determine the proportion of cell types in various brain regions. We analyzed the presence and clearance of TAM and its metabolites (N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen) in brain and serum of mice by liquid chromatographic-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS) and assessed optimal injection protocols by quantitative RT-PCR of several floxed target genes (p2ry1, gria1, gabbr1 and Rosa26-tdTomato locus)...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615573/ttc21b-is-required-in-bergmann-glia-for-proper-granule-cell-radial-migration
#5
Ashley M Driver, Christopher Shumrick, Rolf W Stottmann
Proper cerebellar development is dependent on tightly regulated proliferation, migration, and differentiation events. Disruptions in any of these leads to a range of cerebellar phenotypes from ataxia to childhood tumors. Animal models have shown that proper regulation of sonic hedgehog ( Shh ) signaling is crucial for normal cerebellar architecture, and increased signaling leads to cerebellar tumor formation. Primary cilia are known to be required for the proper regulation of multiple developmental signaling pathways, including Shh ...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491163/alpha-beta-interferon-ifn-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-signaling-in-astrocytes-mediates-protection-against-viral-encephalomyelitis-and-regulates-ifn-%C3%AE-dependent-responses
#6
Mihyun Hwang, Cornelia C Bergmann
The contribution of distinct central nervous system (CNS) resident cells to protective alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) function following viral infections is poorly understood. Based on numerous immune regulatory functions of astrocytes, we evaluated the contribution of astrocyte IFN-α/β signaling toward protection against the nonlethal glia- and neuronotropic mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strain A59. Analysis of gene expression associated with IFN-α/β function, e.g., pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), revealed lower basal mRNA levels in brain-derived astrocytes than in microglia...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479318/circadian-clock-proteins-and-melatonin-receptors-in-neurons-and-glia-of-the-sapajus-apella-cerebellum
#7
Leila M Guissoni Campos, Alessandre Hataka, Isis Z Vieira, Rogério L Buchaim, Isadora F Robalinho, Giovanna E P S Arantes, Joyce S Viégas, Henrique Bosso, Rafael M Bravos, Luciana Pinato
Oscillations of brain proteins in circadian rhythms are important for determining several cellular and physiological processes in anticipation of daily and seasonal environmental rhythms. In addition to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the primary central oscillator, the cerebellum shows oscillations in gene and protein expression. The variety of local circuit rhythms that the cerebellar cortex contains influences functions such as motivational processes, regulation of feeding, food anticipation, language, and working memory...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335065/effects-of-maternal-marginal-iodine-deficiency-on-interactions-between-cerebellar-bergmann-glia-cells-and-purkinje-cells-in-rat-offspring
#8
Ye Yu, Jing Dong, Yuan Wang, Yi Wang, Hui Min, Zhong Yan Shan, Wei Ping Teng, Jie Chen
Iodine deficiency (ID) during early pregnancy has an adverse effect on children's psychomotor and motor function but the mechanism has not been clarified. Therefore, our aim was to study the effect of maternal marginal ID on cerebellar neurodevelopment and the underlying mechanism. After obtaining marginal ID rats, we examined interactions between Bergmann glia cells (BGs) and Purkinje cells (PCs) using immunofluorescence and expression of the glutamate transporter and receptor by western blot. Our results showed that marginal ID reduced the number of contacted points between BGs and PCs, and disturbed expression of the glutamate transporter and receptor...
December 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330091/cdc42ep4-a-perisynaptic-scaffold-protein-in-bergmann-glia-is-required-for-glutamatergic-tripartite-synapse-configuration
#9
Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Kohtarou Konno, Maya Yamazaki, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Makoto Kinoshita
Configuration of tripartite synapses, comprising the pre-, post-, and peri-synaptic components (axon terminal or bouton, dendritic spine, and astroglial terminal process), is a critical determinant of neurotransmitter kinetics and hence synaptic transmission. However, little is known about molecular basis for the regulation of tripartite synapse morphology. Previous studies showed that CDC42EP4, an effector protein of a cell morphogenesis regulator CDC42, is expressed exclusively in Bergmann glia in the cerebellar cortex, that it forms tight complex with the septin heterooligomer, and that it interacts indirectly with the glutamate transporter GLAST and MYH10/nonmuscle myosin ΙΙB...
January 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326173/transcriptional-regulator-zeb2-is-essential-for-bergmann-glia-development
#10
Li He, Kun Yu, Fanghui Lu, Jiajia Wang, Laiman N Wu, Chuntao Zhao, Qianmei Li, Xianyao Zhou, Hanmin Liu, Dezhi Mu, Mei Xin, Mengsheng Qiu, Q Richard Lu
Bergmann glia facilitate granule neuron migration during development and maintain the cerebellar organization and functional integrity. At present, molecular control of Bergmann glia specification from cerebellar radial glia is not fully understood. In this report, we show that ZEB2 (aka, SIP1 or ZFHX1B), a Mowat-Wilson syndrome-associated transcriptional regulator, is highly expressed in Bergmann glia, but hardly detectable in astrocytes in the cerebellum. The mice lacking Zeb2 in cerebellar radial glia exhibit severe deficits in Bergmann glia specification, and develop cerebellar cortical lamination dysgenesis and locomotion defects...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315537/vitamin-transporters-in-mice-brain-with-aging
#11
P Marcos, J González-Fuentes, L Castro-Vázquez, M V Lozano, M J Santander-Ortega, V Rodríguez-Robledo, N Villaseca-González, M M Arroyo-Jiménez
Its high metabolic rate and high polyunsaturated fatty acid content make the brain very sensitive to oxidative damage. In the brain, neuronal metabolism occurs at a very high rate and generates considerable amounts of reactive oxygen species and free radicals, which accumulate inside neurons, leading to altered cellular homeostasis and integrity and eventually irreversible damage and cell death. A misbalance in redox metabolism and the subsequent neurodegeneration increase throughout the course of normal aging, leading to several age-related changes in learning and memory as well as motor functions...
April 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249940/propofol-exposure-in-early-life-induced-developmental-impairments-in-the-mouse-cerebellum
#12
Rui Xiao, Dan Yu, Xin Li, Jing Huang, Sheng Jing, Xiaohang Bao, Tiande Yang, Xiaotang Fan
Propofol is a widely used anesthetic in the clinic while several studies have demonstrated that propofol exposure may cause neurotoxicity in the developing brain. However, the effects of early propofol exposure on cerebellar development are not well understood. Propofol (30 or 60 mg/kg) was administered to mice on postnatal day (P)7; Purkinje cell dendritogenesis and Bergmann glial cell development were evaluated on P8, and granule neuron migration was analyzed on P10. The results indicated that exposure to propofol on P7 resulted in a significant reduction in calbindin-labeled Purkinje cells and their dendrite length...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218544/the-molecular-pathway-regulating-bergmann-glia-and-folia-generation-in-the-cerebellum
#13
REVIEW
Alan W Leung, James Y H Li
Evolution of complex behaviors in higher vertebrates and primates require the development of sophisticated neuronal circuitry and the expansion of brain surface area to accommodate the vast number of neuronal and glial populations. To achieve these goals, the neocortex in primates and the cerebellum in amniotes have developed specialized types of basal progenitors to aid the folding of their cortices. In the cerebellum, Bergmann glia constitute such a basal progenitor population, having a distinctive morphology and playing a critical role in cerebellar corticogenesis...
February 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163059/oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-induces-bergmann-glia-membrane-depolarization-and-ca-2-rises-mainly-mediated-by-k-and-atp-increases-in-the-extracellular-space
#14
Romain Helleringer, Oana Chever, Hervé Daniel, Micaela Galante
During brain ischemia, intense energy deficiency induces a complex succession of events including pump failure, acidosis and exacerbated glutamate release. In the cerebellum, glutamate is the principal mediator of Purkinje neuron anoxic depolarization during episodes of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Here, the impact of OGD is studied in Bergmann glia, specialized astrocytes closely associated to Purkinje neurons. Patch clamp experiments reveal that during OGD Bergmann glial cells develop a large depolarizing current that is not mediated by glutamate and purinergic receptors but is mainly due to the accumulation of K+ in the extracellular space...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079544/megalencephalic-leukoencephalopathy-with-subcortical-cysts-a-personal-biochemical-retrospective
#15
REVIEW
Raúl Estévez, Xabier Elorza-Vidal, Héctor Gaitán-Peñas, Carla Pérez-Rius, Mercedes Armand-Ugón, Marta Alonso-Gardón, Efren Xicoy-Espaulella, Sònia Sirisi, Tanit Arnedo, Xavier Capdevila-Nortes, Tania López-Hernández, Marisol Montolio, Anna Duarri, Oscar Teijido, Alejandro Barrallo-Gimeno, Manuel Palacín, Virginia Nunes
Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare type of leukodystrophy characterized by dysfunction of the role of glial cells in controlling brain fluid and ion homeostasis. Patients affected by MLC present macrocephaly, cysts and white matter vacuolation, which lead to motor and cognitive impairments. To date, there is no treatment for MLC, only supportive care. MLC is caused by mutations in the MLC1 and GLIALCAM genes. MLC1 is a membrane protein with low identity to the Kv1.1 potassium channel and GlialCAM belongs to an adhesion molecule family...
January 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030097/transient-vimentin-expression-during-the-embryonic-development-of-the-chicken-cerebellum
#16
Vasiliki Kommata, Catherine R Dermon
Complex morphogenetic events, critical for the development of normal cerebellum foliation and layering, are known to involve type III intermediate filament protein such as vimentin expressed by Bergmann glia. The present study aimed to determine aspects of intermediate and late embryonic pattern of vimentin expression during the corticogenesis of chicken cerebellum at embryonic days 10-19 (E10-E19), using single and double immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence. Vimentin expression showed partial co-localization with the glial markers GFAP and BLBP...
April 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953319/bergmann-glia-translocation-a-new-disease-marker-for-vanishing-white-matter-identifies-therapeutic-effects-of-guanabenz-treatment
#17
S Dooves, M Bugiani, L E Wisse, T E M Abbink, M S van der Knaap, V M Heine
AIM: Vanishing White Matter (VWM) is a devastating leucoencephalopathy without effective treatment options. Patients have mutations in the EIF2B1-5 genes, encoding the five subunits of eIF2B, a guanine exchange factor that is an important regulator of protein translation. We recently developed mouse models for VWM that replicate the human disease. To study disease improvement after treatment in these mice, it is essential to have sensitive biomarkers related to disease stage. The Bergmann glia of the cerebellum, an astrocytic subpopulation, translocate into the molecular layer in symptomatic VWM mice and patients...
May 13, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875233/glutamate-dependent-translational-control-of-glutamine-synthetase-in-bergmann-glia-cells
#18
Reynaldo Tiburcio-Félix, Miguel Escalante-López, Bruno López-Bayghen, Daniel Martínez, Luisa C Hernández-Kelly, Samuel Zinker, Dinorah Hernández-Melchor, Esther López-Bayghen, Tatiana N Olivares-Bañuelos, Arturo Ortega
Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter of the vertebrate brain. It exerts its actions through the activation of specific plasma membrane receptors expressed both in neurons and in glial cells. Recent evidence has shown that glutamate uptake systems, particularly enriched in glia cells, trigger biochemical cascades in a similar fashion as receptors. A tight regulation of glutamate extracellular levels prevents neuronal overstimulation and cell death, and it is critically involved in glutamate turnover...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804448/erythropoietin-protects-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-microgliosis-and-abnormal-granule-cell-development-in-the-ovine-fetal-cerebellum
#19
Annie R A McDougall, Nadia Hale, Sandra Rees, Richard Harding, Robert De Matteo, Stuart B Hooper, Mary Tolcos
Erythropoietin (EPO) ameliorates inflammation-induced injury in cerebral white matter (WM). However, effects of inflammation on the cerebellum and neuroprotective effects of EPO are unknown. Our aims were to determine: (i) whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intrauterine inflammation causes injury to, and/or impairs development of the cerebellum; and (ii) whether recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) mitigates these changes. At 107 ± 1 days gestational age (DGA; ~0.7 of term), fetal sheep received LPS (~0.9 μg/kg; i...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733588/neurogenesis-from-sox2-expressing-cells-in-the-adult-cerebellar-cortex
#20
Julia Ahlfeld, Severin Filser, Felix Schmidt, Annika K Wefers, Daniel J Merk, Rainer Glaß, Jochen Herms, Ulrich Schüller
We identified a rare undifferentiated cell population that is intermingled with the Bergmann glia of the adult murine cerebellar cortex, expresses the stem cell markers Sox2 and Nestin, and lacks markers of glial or neuronal differentiation. Interestingly, such Sox2(+) S100(-) cells of the adult cerebellum expanded after adequate physiological stimuli in mice (exercise), and Sox2(+) precursors acquired positivity for the neuronal marker NeuN over time and integrated into cellular networks. In human patients, SOX2(+) S100(-) cells similarly increased in number after relevant pathological insults (infarcts), suggesting a similar expansion of cells that lack terminal glial differentiation...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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