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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636132/trpc1-and-trpc3-dependent-ca-2-signaling-in-mouse-cortical-astrocytes-affects-injury-evoked-astrogliosis-in-vivo
#1
Thabet Belkacemi, Alexander Niermann, Laura Hofmann, Ulrich Wissenbach, Lutz Birnbaumer, Petra Leidinger, Christina Backes, Eckart Meese, Andreas Keller, Xianshu Bai, Anja Scheller, Frank Kirchhoff, Stephan E Philipp, Petra Weissgerber, Veit Flockerzi, Andreas Beck
Following brain injury astrocytes change into a reactive state, proliferate and grow into the site of lesion, a process called astrogliosis, initiated and regulated by changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) . Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels may contribute to Ca(2+) influx but their presence and possible function in astrocytes is not known. By RT-PCR and RNA sequencing we identified transcripts of Trpc1, Trpc2, Trpc3, and Trpc4 in FACS-sorted glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)-positive cultured mouse cortical astrocytes and subcloned full-length Trpc1 and Trpc3 cDNAs from these cells...
June 21, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634726/connexin-channels-at-the-glio-vascular-interface-gatekeepers-of-the-brain
#2
Marijke De Bock, Luc Leybaert, Christian Giaume
Neuronal survival, electrical signaling and synaptic activity require a well-balanced micro-environment in the central nervous system. This is achieved by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), an endothelial barrier situated in the brain capillaries, that controls near-to-all passage in and out of the brain. The endothelial barrier function is highly dependent on signaling interactions with surrounding glial, neuronal and vascular cells, together forming the neuro-glio-vascular unit. Within this functional unit, connexin (Cx) channels are of utmost importance for intercellular communication between the different cellular compartments...
June 20, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634469/alexander-disease-mutations-produce-cells-with-coexpression-of-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-and-ng2-in-neurosphere-cultures-and-inhibit-differentiation-into-mature-oligodendrocytes
#3
Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, Maria Salomé Sirerol-Piquer, María Durán-Moreno, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Jorge Matias-Guiu
BACKGROUND: Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The disease is characterized by presence of GFAP aggregates in the cytoplasm of astrocytes and loss of myelin. OBJECTIVES: Determine the effect of AxD-related mutations on adult neurogenesis. METHODS: We transfected different types of mutant GFAP into neurospheres using the nucleofection technique. RESULTS: We find that mutations may cause coexpression of GFAP and NG2 in neurosphere cultures, which would inhibit the differentiation of precursors into oligodendrocytes and thus explain the myelin loss occurring in the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634078/astrocytes-regulate-the-expression-of-sp1r3-on-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-through-cx47-and-promote-their-proliferation
#4
Dan Xu, Zhaoyu Liu, Shang Wang, Yan Peng, Xiaochuan Sun
Many degenerative diseases of the central nervous system are associated with demyelination. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are potential stem cells that can differentiate into various cell types, including oligodendrocytes (OLs). Promoting the proliferation and differentiation of OPCs into mature OLs that can myelinate axons is the key to stimulate remyelination. Here, we report that astrocytes (ASTs) increase the number of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors 3 (S1pR3) on OPCs and promote OPCs proliferation through a direct contact via connexin 47 (Cx47)...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631858/sensory-response-in-host-and-engrafted-astrocytes-of-adult-brain-in-vivo
#5
REVIEW
Kuan Zhang, Xiaowei Chen
Rapid advances in Ca(2+) imaging techniques enable us to simultaneously monitor the activities of hundreds of astrocytes in the intact brain, thus providing a powerful tool for understanding the functions of both host and engrafted astrocytes in sensory processing in vivo. These techniques include both improved Ca(2+) indicators and advanced optical recording methods. Astrocytes in multiple cortical and sub-cortical areas are able to respond to the corresponding sensory modalities. These sensory stimuli produce astrocytic Ca(2+) responses through different cellular mechanisms...
June 20, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631721/disc1-in-astrocytes-influences-adult-neurogenesis-and-hippocampus-dependent-behaviors-in-mice
#6
Chantelle E Terrillion, Bagrat Abazyan, Zhongxi Yang, Joshua Crawford, Alexey V Shevelkin, Yan Jouroukhin, Ki Hyun Yoo, Chang Hoon Cho, Robin Roychaudhuri, Solomon H Snyder, Mi-Hyeon Jang, Mikhail V Pletnikov
The functional role of genetic variants in glia in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders remains poorly studied. Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a genetic risk factor implicated in major mental disorders, has been implicated in regulation of astrocyte functions. As both astrocytes and DISC1 influence adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, we hypothesized that selective expression of dominant-negative C-terminus truncated human DISC1 (mutant DISC1) in astrocytes would affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent behaviors...
June 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631579/opening-of-katp-channel-regulates-tonic-currents-from-pyramidal-neurons-in-rat-brain
#7
Zhongxia Li, Jiangping Wang, Huimin Yu, Kewen Jiang
BACKGROUND: ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels couple metabolic state to cellular excitability. Activation of neuronal and astrocytic mitochondrial KATP (mitoKATP) channels regulates a variety of neuronal functions. However, less is known about the impact of mitoKATP on tonic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition. Tonic GABA inhibition is mediated by the binding of ambient GABA on extrasynaptic GABA A-type receptors (GABAARs) and is involved in regulating neuronal excitability. METHODS: We determined the impact of activation of KATP channels with diazoxide (DIZ) on tonic inhibition and recorded tonic current from rat cortical layer 5 pyramidal cells by patch-clamp recordings...
June 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631360/reduced-cell-attachment-to-poly-2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate-coated-ventricular-catheters-in-vitro
#8
Brian W Hanak, Chia-Yun Hsieh, William Donaldson, Samuel R Browd, Kenneth K S Lau, William Shain
The majority of patients with hydrocephalus are dependent on ventriculoperitoneal shunts for diversion of excess cerebrospinal fluid. Unfortunately, these shunts are failure-prone and over half of all life-threatening pediatric failures are caused by obstruction of the ventricular catheter by the brain's resident immune cells, reactive microglia and astrocytes. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogels are widely used for biomedical implants. The extreme hydrophilicity of PHEMA confers resistance to protein fouling, making it a strong candidate coating for ventricular catheters...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630251/valnoctamide-inhibits-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-developing-brain-and-attenuates-neurobehavioral-dysfunctions-and-brain-abnormalities
#9
Sara Ornaghi, Lawrence S Hsieh, Angélique Bordey, Patrizia Vergani, Michael J Paidas, Anthony N van den Pol
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common infectious cause of brain defects and neurological dysfunction in developing human babies. Due to the teratogenicity and toxicity of available CMV antivirals, treatment options during early development are markedly limited. Valnoctamide (VCD), a neuroactive mood stabilizer with no known teratogenic activity, was recently demonstrated to have anti-CMV potential. However, it is not known whether this can be translated into an efficacious therapeutic effect to improve CMV-induced adverse neurological outcomes...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629741/establishment-of-an-ideal-time-window-model-in-hypothermic-targeted-temperature-management-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#10
Wan-Yong Zhao, Shao-Bo Chen, Jing-Jing Wang, Chao Xu, Ming-Liang Zhao, Hua-Jiang Dong, Hai-Qian Liang, Xiao-Hong Li, Yue Tu, Sai Zhang, Chong Chen, Hong-Tao Sun
Although hypothermic-targeted temperature management (HTTM) holds great potential for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI), translation of the efficacy of hypothermia from animal models to TBI patientshas no entire consistency. This study aimed to find an ideal time window model in experimental rats which was more in accordance with clinical practice through the delayed HTTM intervention. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral cortical contusion injury and received therapeutic hypothermia at 15 mins, 2 hours, 4 hours respectively after TBI...
June 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629513/erythropoietin-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis
#11
Soumyadeep Dey, Constance T Noguchi
Erythropoietin (EPO), known primarily for its erythropoietic activity, is commonly used clinically to treat anemia of chronic kidney disease. However, the expression of EPO receptor (EpoR) beyond erythroid tissue provides for potential extrahematopoietic effects of EPO, including EPO regulation of metabolic homeostasis (Zhang et al., 2014). Small clinical studies have shown that EPO treatment in patients with end-stage renal disease improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. Studies in animal models have shown that EPO regulation of metabolism is mainly attributed to its response in fat, and the hypothalamus-pituitary axis (Dey et al...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628111/interaction-of-reactive-astrocytes-with-type-i-collagen-induces-astrocytic-scar-formation-through-the-integrin-n-cadherin-pathway-after-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Masamitsu Hara, Kazu Kobayakawa, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Hiromi Kumamaru, Kazuya Yokota, Takeyuki Saito, Ken Kijima, Shingo Yoshizaki, Katsumi Harimaya, Yasuharu Nakashima, Seiji Okada
Central nervous system (CNS) injury transforms naive astrocytes into reactive astrocytes, which eventually become scar-forming astrocytes that can impair axonal regeneration and functional recovery. This sequential phenotypic change, known as reactive astrogliosis, has long been considered unidirectional and irreversible. However, we report here that reactive astrocytes isolated from injured spinal cord reverted in retrograde to naive astrocytes when transplanted into a naive spinal cord, whereas they formed astrocytic scars when transplanted into injured spinal cord, indicating the environment-dependent plasticity of reactive astrogliosis...
June 19, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627708/alterations-in-aqp4-expression-and-polarization-in-the-course-of-motor-neuron-degeneration-in-sod1g93a-mice
#13
Jiaying Dai, Weihao Lin, Minying Zheng, Qiang Liu, Baixuan He, Chuanming Luo, Xilin Lu, Zhong Pei, Huanxing Su, Xiaoli Yao
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. The disease progression is associated with the astrocytic environment. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels are the most abundant AQPs expressed in astrocytes, exerting important influences on central nervous system homeostasis. The present study aimed to characterize the alterations in AQP4 expression and loca-lization in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) G93A transgenic mice...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627585/role-of-metadherin-in-estrogen-regulated-gene-expression
#14
Yujun Li, Jesus Gonzalez Bosquet, Shujie Yang, Kristina W Thiel, Yuping Zhang, Haitao Liu, Kimberly K Leslie, Xiangbing Meng
The disruption of estrogen signaling is widely associated with the development of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers. As a multifunctional mediator of carcinogenesis, metadherin (MTDH)/astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) overexpression has been associated with numerous types of cancer, with reported roles in tumor initiation, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance. At the molecular level, MTDH has been shown to interact with proteins that drive tumorigenesis, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger (PLZF), BRCA2- and CDKN1A (p21Cip1/Waf-1/mda-6)-interacting protein α (BCCIPα) and staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain containing 1 (SND1)...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627408/developmental-exposure-to-glyphosate-based-herbicide-and-depressive-like-behavior-in-adult-offspring-implication-of-glutamate-excitotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress
#15
Daiane Cattani, Patrícia Acordi Cesconetto, Mauren Kruger Tavares, Eduardo Benedetti Parisotto, Paulo Alexandre De Oliveira, Carla Elise Heinz Rieg, Marina Concli Leite, Rui Daniel Schröder Prediger, Nestor Cubas Wendt, Guilherme Razzera, Danilo Wilhelm Filho, Ariane Zamoner
We have previously demonstrated that maternal exposure to glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) leads to glutamate excitotoxicity in 15-day-old rat hippocampus. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure to GBH on some neurochemical and behavioral parameters in immature and adult offspring. Rats were exposed to 1% GBH in drinking water (corresponding to 0.36% of glyphosate) from gestational day 5 until postnatal day (PND)-15 or PND60. Results showed that GBH exposure during both prenatal and postnatal periods causes oxidative stress, affects cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in offspring hippocampus from immature and adult rats...
June 13, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627367/nrf2-pathway-activation-upon-rotenone-treatment-in-human-ipsc-derived-neural-stem-cells-undergoing-differentiation-towards-neurons-and-astrocytes
#16
Francesca Pistollato, David Canovas-Jorda, Dimitra Zagoura, Anna Bal-Price
Activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway occurs ubiquitously in most cell types upon induction of oxidative stress. Rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, can be used to trigger oxidative stress, stimulate the activation of Nrf2 pathway in neuronal and astrocytic cells and assess neurotoxicity. We have previously demonstrated that an acute treatment with rotenone can induce Nrf2 activation, which leads to astrocyte activation and dopaminergic (DA) neuronal cell death in a mixed neuronal/astrocytic cell model derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)...
June 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627088/astrogliosis-and-impaired-aquaporin-4-and-dystrophin-systems-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#17
Per Kristian Eide, Hans-Arne Hansson
AIMS: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is one subtype of dementia that may improve following drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This prospective observational study explored whether expression of the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and the anchoring molecule dystrophin 71 (Dp71) are altered at astrocytic perivascular endfeet and in adjacent neuropil of iNPH patient. Observations were related to measurements of pulsatile and static intracranial pressure (ICP). METHODS: The study included iNPH patients undergoing overnight monitoring of the pulsatile/static ICP, in whom a biopsy was taken from the frontal cerebral cortex during placement of the ICP sensor...
June 19, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626362/nanoporous-gold-biointerfaces-modifying-nanostructure-to-control-neural-cell-coverage-and-enhance-electrophysiological-recording-performance
#18
Christopher A R Chapman, Ling Wang, Hao Chen, Joshua Garrison, Pamela J Lein, Erkin Seker
Nanostructured neural interface coatings have significantly enhanced recording fidelity in both implantable and in vitro devices. As such, nano-porous gold (np-Au) has shown promise as a multifunctional neural interface coating due, in part, to its ability to promote nanostructure-mediated reduction in astrocytic surface coverage while not affecting neuronal coverage. The goal of this study is to provide insight into the mechanisms by which the np-Au nanostructure drives the differential response of neurons versus astrocytes in an in vitro model...
January 19, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626344/increased-transendothelial-transport-of-ccl3-is-insufficient-to-drive-immune-cell-transmigration-through-the-blood-brain-barrier-under-inflammatory-conditions-in-vitro
#19
Maxime De Laere, Carmelita Sousa, Megha Meena, Roeland Buckinx, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Zwi Berneman, Nathalie Cools
Many neuroinflammatory diseases are characterized by massive immune cell infiltration into the central nervous system. Identifying the underlying mechanisms could aid in the development of therapeutic strategies specifically interfering with inflammatory cell trafficking. To achieve this, we implemented and validated a blood-brain barrier (BBB) model to study chemokine secretion, chemokine transport, and leukocyte trafficking in vitro. In a coculture model consisting of a human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line and human astrocytes, proinflammatory stimulation downregulated the expression of tight junction proteins, while the expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines was upregulated...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626198/the-therapeutic-effect-of-dexmedetomidine-on-rat-diabetic-neuropathy-pain-and-the-mechanism
#20
Yuecheng Lu, Baohua Lin, Junmin Zhong
Diabetic neuropathy pain (DNP) is a common chronic complication of diabetes characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. Dexmedetomidine is a selective α2 adrenergic agonist that relieves sympathetic nervous tension and reduces the release of glutamate. Thus, it is possible that dexmedetomidine may relieve DNP as well. In this study, we examined the effect of dexmedetomidine on DNP in the presence or absence of the α2 adrenergic antagonist yohimbine in rats utilizing a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes as a model of DNP...
June 14, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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