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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786697/imaging-glutathione-depletion-in-the-rat-brain-using-ascorbate-derived-hyperpolarized-mr-and-pet-probes
#1
Hecong Qin, Valerie N Carroll, Renuka Sriram, Javier E Villanueva-Meyer, Cornelius von Morze, Zhen Jane Wang, Christopher A Mutch, Kayvan R Keshari, Robert R Flavell, John Kurhanewicz, David M Wilson
Oxidative stress is a critical feature of several common neurologic disorders. The brain is well adapted to neutralize oxidative injury by maintaining a high steady-state concentration of small-molecule intracellular antioxidants including glutathione in astrocytes and ascorbic acid in neurons. Ascorbate-derived imaging probes for hyperpolarized 13 C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography have been used to study redox changes (antioxidant depletion and reactive oxygen species accumulation) in vivo...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786550/generation-of-defined-neural-populations-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#2
REVIEW
Sarah F McComish, Maeve A Caldwell
Effective and efficient generation of human neural stem cells and subsequently functional neural populations from pluripotent stem cells has facilitated advancements in the study of human development and disease modelling. This review will discuss the established protocols for the generation of defined neural populations including regionalized neurons and astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. Early protocols were established in embryonic stem cells (ESC) but the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in 2006 provided a new platform for modelling human disorders of the central nervous system (CNS)...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786109/engulfment-of-platelets-delays-endothelial-cell-aging-via-girdin-and-its-phosphorylation
#3
Yong Lan, Yongjun Li, Dajun Li, Peng Li, Jiyang Wang, Yongpeng Diao, Guodong Ye, Yangfang Li
Endothelial cells are critical in angiogenesis and maintain the homeostasis of the blood‑brain barrier (BBB). Platelets (PLTs) are essential in vascular biology, including angiogenesis. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of PLTs on the aging of endothelial cells. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) and human astrocytes were co‑cultured to mimic the BBB. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the engulfment of PLTs. Confocal microscopy was used to observe the co‑localization of PLTs, girders of actin filament (girdin) and phosphorylated (p‑)girdin...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786071/dopamine-d2-receptor-restricts-astrocytic-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-via-enhancing-the-interaction-of-%C3%AE-arrestin2-and-nlrp3
#4
Jialei Zhu, Zhaoli Hu, Xiaojuan Han, Dongshuo Wang, Qingling Jiang, Jianhua Ding, Ming Xiao, Cong Wang, Ming Lu, Gang Hu
Astrocytes are involved in the neuroinflammation of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Among the numerous inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) produced by astrocytic Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP) inflammasome is crucial in the pathogenesis of PD. β-arrestin2-mediated dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2) signal transduction has been regarded as a potential anti-inflammatory target. Our previous study revealed that astrocytic Drd2 suppresses neuroinflammation in the central nervous system...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785346/integrated-bioinformatic-changes-and-analysis-of-retina-with-time-in-diabetic-rats
#5
Zekai Cui, Qiaolang Zeng, Yonglong Guo, Shiwei Liu, Jiansu Chen
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common chronic complication of diabetes. It can cause impaired vision and even blindness. However, the pathological mechanism of DR is still unknown. In the present study, we use bioinformatic analysis to reveal the pathological changes of early DR in a streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes rat model. The dataset GSE28831 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. To clarify the pathological mechanism of early DR, genes which were up-regulated (UP group) or down-regulated (DOWN group) over time were identified...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784938/characterization-of-the-rat-cerebrospinal-fluid-proteome-following-acute-cerebral-ischemia-using-an-aptamer-based-proteomic-technology
#6
Alba Simats, Teresa García-Berrocoso, Laura Ramiro, Dolors Giralt, Natalia Gill, Anna Penalba, Alejandro Bustamante, Anna Rosell, Joan Montaner
The limited accessibility to the brain has turned the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into a valuable source that may contribute to the complete understanding of the stroke pathophysiology. Here we have described the CSF proteome in the hyper-acute phase of cerebral ischemia by performing an aptamer-based proteomic assay (SOMAscan) in CSF samples collected before and 30 min after male Wistar rats had undergone a 90 min Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) or sham-surgery. Proteomic results indicated that cerebral ischemia acutely increased the CSF levels of 716 proteins, mostly overrepresented in leukocyte chemotaxis and neuronal death processes...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784925/acrylamide-acute-neurotoxicity-in-adult-zebrafish
#7
Melissa Faria, Tamar Ziv, Cristian Gómez-Canela, Shani Ben-Lulu, Eva Prats, Karen Adriana Novoa-Luna, Arie Admon, Benjamin Piña, Romà Tauler, Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván, Demetrio Raldúa
Acute exposure to acrylamide (ACR), a type-2 alkene, may lead to a ataxia, skeletal muscles weakness and numbness of the extremities in human and laboratory animals. In the present manuscript, ACR acute neurotoxicity has been characterized in adult zebrafish, a vertebrate model increasingly used in human neuropharmacology and toxicology research. At behavioral level, ACR-treated animals exhibited "depression-like" phenotype comorbid with anxiety behavior. At transcriptional level, ACR induced down-regulation of regeneration-associated genes and up-regulation of oligodendrocytes and reactive astrocytes markers, altering also the expression of genes involved in the presynaptic vesicle cycling...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784795/correction-for-woo-et-al-control-of-motor-coordination-by-astrocytic-tonic-gaba-release-through-modulation-of-excitation-inhibition-balance-in-cerebellum
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784452/regulation-of-the-oxidative-balance-with-coenzyme-q10-sensitizes-human-glioblastoma-cells-to-radiation-and-temozolomide
#9
Javier Frontiñán-Rubio, Raquel María Santiago-Mora, Consuelo María Nieva-Velasco, Gustavo Ferrín, Alicia Martínez-González, María Victoria Gómez, María Moreno, Julia Ariza, Eva Lozano, Jacinto Arjona-Gutiérrez, Antonio Gil-Agudo, Manuel De la Mata, Milica Pesic, Juan Ramón Peinado, José M Villalba, Luis Pérez-Romasanta, Víctor M Pérez-García, Francisco J Alcaín, Mario Durán-Prado
OBJECTIVES: To investigate how the modulation of the oxidative balance affects cytotoxic therapies in glioblastoma, in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human glioblastoma U251 and T98 cells and normal astrocytes C8D1A were loaded with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ). Mitochondrial superoxide ion (O2 - ) and H2 O2 were measured by fluorescence microscopy. OXPHOS performance was assessed in U251 cells with an oxytherm Clark-type electrode. Radio- and chemotherapy cytotoxicity was assessed by immunostaining of γH2AX (24 h), annexin V and nuclei morphology, at short (72 h) and long (15 d) time...
May 18, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782926/decoding-cell-signalling-and-regulation-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#10
REVIEW
A K Santos, M S Vieira, R Vasconcellos, V A M Goulart, A H Kihara, R R Resende
Oligodendrocytes are fundamental for the functioning of the nervous system; they participate in several cellular processes, including axonal myelination and metabolic maintenance for astrocytes and neurons. In the mammalian nervous system, they are produced through waves of proliferation and differentiation, which occur during embryogenesis. However, oligodendrocytes and their precursors continue to be generated during adulthood from specific niches of stem cells that were not recruited during development. Deficiencies in the formation and maturation of these cells can generate pathologies mainly related to myelination...
May 18, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782809/the-effects-of-normal-aging-on-regional-accumulation-of-hyaluronan-and-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-in-the-mouse-brain
#11
May J Reed, Mamatha Damodarasamy, Jasmine L Pathan, Michelle A Erickson, William A Banks, Robert B Vernon
The brain changes in volume and composition with normal aging. Cellular components of the brain are supported by an extracellular matrix (ECM) comprised largely of hyaluronan (HA) and HA-associated members of the lectican family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). We examined regional differences in microvascular density, neuronal and glial markers, and accumulation of HA and CSPGs in mouse brains during normal aging. The cortex, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum of young (4 months), middle-aged (14 months), and aged (24-26 months) brains were analyzed...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782623/astrocytic-hypertrophy-in-the-rat-ventral-tegmental-area-following-chronic-morphine-differs-with-age
#12
Emily C Goins, Dusica Bajic
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the origin of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system known to play an integral role in mediating reward and development of drug addiction. Although the differences in neuronal plasticity of VTA at various ages remain to be understood, age is known to influence the effects of chronic opioids. In addition, adaptations associated with exposure to opioids within glial populations located in the VTA are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to determine if there are changes in astrocytic immunofluorescent labeling in the VTA following chronic morphine administration in a rat model at different ages: newborn at postnatal day (PD)7 and adult (estimated PD57)...
2018: Journal of neurology and neurorehabilitation research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782397/novel-preretinal-hair-pin-like-vessel-in-retinal-astrocytic-hamartoma-with-vitreous-hemorrhage
#13
Megumi Soeta, Yusuke Arai, Hidenori Takahashi, Yujiro Fujino, Tatsuro Tanabe, Yuji Inoue, Hidetoshi Kawashima
BACKGROUD/PURPOSE: To report a case of retinal astrocytic hamartoma with vitreous hemorrhage and a hair pin-like vessel adhering to a posterior vitreous membrane. A 33-year-old man with a retinal astrocytic hamartoma presented with vitreous hemorrhage 5 times. METHODS: Multimodal imaging, including fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and B-mode ultrasonography. RESULTS: Multimodal imaging demonstrated a novel hair pin-like vessel that adhered to the posterior vitreous membrane...
July 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782323/role-of-blood-brain-barrier-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Zhiyou Cai, Pei-Feng Qiao, Cheng-Qun Wan, Min Cai, Nan-Kai Zhou, Qin Li
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). BBB is a highly selective semipermeable structural and chemical barrier which ensures a stable internal environment of the brain and prevents foreign objects invading the brain tissue. BBB dysfunction induces the failure of Aβ transport from brain to the peripheral circulation across the BBB. Especially, decreased levels of LRP-1 (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1) and increased levels of RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) at the BBB can cause the failure of Aβ transport...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782001/a-simple-and-reproducible-method-to-prepare-membrane-samples-from-freshly-isolated-rat-brain-microvessels
#15
Hrvoje Brzica, Wazir Abdullahi, Bianca G Reilly, Patrick T Ronaldson
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic barrier tissue that responds to various pathophysiological and pharmacological stimuli. Such changes resulting from these stimuli can greatly modulate drug delivery to the brain and, by extension, cause considerable challenges in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Many BBB changes that affect pharmacotherapy, involve proteins that are localized and expressed at the level of endothelial cells. Indeed, such knowledge on BBB physiology in health and disease has sparked considerable interest in the study of these membrane proteins...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779943/astroglial-cb-1-receptors-determine-synaptic-d-serine-availability-to-enable-recognition-memory
#16
Laurie M Robin, José F Oliveira da Cruz, Valentin C Langlais, Mario Martin-Fernandez, Mathilde Metna-Laurent, Arnau Busquets-Garcia, Luigi Bellocchio, Edgar Soria-Gomez, Thomas Papouin, Marjorie Varilh, Mark W Sherwood, Ilaria Belluomo, Georgina Balcells, Isabelle Matias, Barbara Bosier, Filippo Drago, Ann Van Eeckhaut, Ilse Smolders, Francois Georges, Alfonso Araque, Aude Panatier, Stéphane H R Oliet, Giovanni Marsicano
Bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes shapes synaptic plasticity and behavior. D-serine is a necessary co-agonist of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), but the physiological factors regulating its impact on memory processes are scantly known. We show that astroglial CB1 receptors are key determinants of object recognition memory by determining the availability of D-serine at hippocampal synapses. Mutant mice lacking CB1 receptors from astroglial cells (GFAP-CB1 -KO) displayed impaired object recognition memory and decreased in vivo and in vitro long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses...
May 15, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779267/%C3%AE-synuclein-activates-innate-immunity-but-suppresses-interferon-%C3%AE-expression-in-murine-astrocytes
#17
Jintang Wang, Zheng Chen, Jeremy Walston, Peisong Gao, Maolong Gao, Sean X Leng
Glial activation and neuroinflammation contribute to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, linked to neuron loss and dysfunction. α-Synuclein (α-syn), as a metabolite of neuron, can induce microglia activation to trigger innate immune response. However, whether α-syn, as well as its mutants (A53T, A30P and E46K), induces astrocyte activation and inflammatory response is not fully elucidated. In this study, we used A53T mutant and wildtype α-syns to stimulate primary astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manners (0...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778792/valproic-acid-attenuates-manganese-induced-reduction-in-expression-of-glt-1-and-glast-with-concomitant-changes-in-murine-dopaminergic-neurotoxicity
#18
James Johnson, Edward Pajarillo, Pratap Karki, Judong Kim, Deok-Soo Son, Michael Aschner, Eunsook Lee
Exposure to elevated levels of manganese (Mn) causes manganism, a neurological disorder with similar characteristics to those of Parkinson's disease (PD). Valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic, is known to inhibit histone deacetylases and exert neuroprotective effects in many experimental models of neurological disorders. In the present study, we investigated if VPA attenuated Mn-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity and the possible mechanisms involved in VPA's neuroprotection, focusing on modulation of astrocytic glutamate transporters (glutamate aspartate transporter, GLAST and glutamate transporter 1, GLT-1) and histone acetylation in H4 astrocyte culture and mouse models...
May 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778441/hypoxic-postconditioning-enhances-functional-recovery-following-endothelin-1-induced-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-conscious-rats
#19
Hong L Nguyen, Alexander M Ruhoff, Thomas Fath, Nicole M Jones
Stroke is a leading cause of death and a major contributor to neurological disability in adults. Tissue plasminogen activator is the only approved treatment. However, due to its narrow therapeutic window, <5% of patients receive treatment. Recently, hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) was shown to reduce stroke induced-injury in mice, but the mechanisms and functional outcomes are still unknown. In the current study, male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to endothelin-1 induced stroke. HPC (8% O2 , 1 h/d for 5d) or normoxia treatments were started 24 h after stroke...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777762/astrocyte-elevated-gene-1-is-a-novel-regulator-of-astrogliosis-and-excitatory-amino-acid-transporter-2-via-interplaying-with-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-astrocytes-from-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-mouse-model-with-hsod1-g93a-mutation
#20
Xiang Yin, Shuyu Wang, Yan Qi, Xudong Wang, Hongquan Jiang, Tianhang Wang, Yueqing Yang, Ying Wang, Chunting Zhang, Honglin Feng
AEG-1 has received extensive attention on cancer research. However, little is known about its roles in astrogliosis of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we detected AEG-1 expression in hSOD1G93A -positive (mut-SOD1) astrocytes and wild type (wt-SOD1) astrocytes, and intend to elucidate its potential functions in ALS related astrogliosis and the always accompanied dysregulated glutamate clearance. Results showed elevated protein and mRNA levels of AEG-1 in mut-SOD1 astrocytes; Also, NF-κB signaling pathway related proteins and inflammatory cytokines were upregulated in mut-SOD1 astrocytes; AEG-1 knockdown attenuated astrocytes proliferation and pro-inflammatory release; also we found that AEG-1 silence inhibited translocation of p65 from cytoplasma to nuclear, which was associated with inhibited NF-κB signaling...
May 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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