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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328168/intrastriatal-transplantation-of-human-neural-stem-cells-restores-the-impaired-subventricular-zone-in-parkinsonian-mice
#1
Fuxing Zuo, Feng Xiong, Xia Wang, Xueyuan Li, Renzhi Wang, Wei Ge, Xinjie Bao
Cell replacement therapy using neural stem cells (NSCs) transplantation has recently emerged as a promising method of Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To gain new insights into the mechanisms of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesioning and therapeutic efficacy of human NSCs (hNSCs) transplantation, the striatum (ST) of intrastriatal 6-OHDA-injected parkinsonian mice were unilaterally engrafted with undifferentiated hNSCs. A high-throughput quantitative proteomic approach was used to characterize the proteome profiles of PD-related brain regions such as the SN, ST, olfactory bulb (OB), and subventricular zone (SVZ) in these mice...
March 22, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326927/glial-activation-in-the-collagenase-model-of-nociception-associated-with-osteoarthritis
#2
Sara Adães, Lígia Almeida, Catarina S Potes, Ana Rita Ferreira, José M Castro-Lopes, Joana Ferreira-Gomes, Fani L Neto
Background Experimental osteoarthritis entails neuropathic-like changes in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Since glial activation has emerged as a key player in nociception, being reported in numerous models of neuropathic pain, we aimed at evaluating if glial cell activation may also occur in the DRG and spinal cord of rats with osteoarthritis induced by intra-articular injection of collagenase. Methods Osteoarthritis was induced by two injections, separated by three days, of 500 U of type II collagenase into the knee joint of rats...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326889/aquaporin-4-autoimmunity-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-predominantly-population-based-study
#3
Nasrin Asgari, Sven Jarius, Helle Laustrup, Hanne Pb Skejoe, Soeren T Lillevang, Brian G Weinshenker, Anne Voss
BACKGROUND: Serum immunoglobulin G targeting the astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the central nervous system (CNS) is a biomarker for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD). Co-existence of NMOSD with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) putatively suggests susceptibility to antibody-mediated autoimmune disease. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of NMOSD in SLE and investigate the immunogenetic background for an association of NMOSD and SLE...
March 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325900/pegylated-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-affords-protection-and-facilitates-recovery-of-lost-functions-post-focal-ischemia
#4
Kim Parker, Antonio Berretta, Stefanie Saenger, Manaswini Sivaramakrishnan, Simon A Shirley, Friedrich Metzger, Andrew N Clarkson
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is involved in the maturation and maintenance of neurons, and impaired IGF-I signaling has been shown to play a role in various neurological diseases including stroke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of an optimized IGF-I variant by adding a 40 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain to IGF-I to form PEG-IGF-I. We show that PEG-IGF-I has a slower clearance which allows for twice-weekly dosing to maintain steady-state serum levels in mice. Using a photothrombotic model of focal stroke, dosing from 3 hrs post-stroke dose-dependently (0...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323865/the-microrna-302b-inhibited-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-2-signaling-pathway-induces-glioma-cell-apoptosis-by-targeting-nuclear-factor-ia
#5
Chin-Cheng Lee, Peng-Hsu Chen, Kuo-Hao Ho, Chwen-Ming Shih, Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Cheng-Wei Lin, Kur-Ta Cheng, Ann-Jeng Liu, Ku-Chung Chen
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally control the expression of genes involved in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) development. Although miR-302b functions as a tumor suppressor, its role in GBM is still unclear. Therefore, this study comprehensively explored the roles of miR-302b-mediated gene networks in GBM cell death. We found that miR-302b levels were significantly higher in primary astrocytes than in GBM cell lines. miR-302b overexpression dose dependently reduced U87-MG cell viability and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase degradation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323246/the-role-of-spinal-gabab-receptors-in-cancelr-induced-bone-pain-in-rats
#6
Ya-Qun Zhou, Shu-Ping Chen, Dai-Qiang Liu, Anne Manyande, Wen Zhang, Shao-Bing Yang, Bing-Rui Xiong, Qiao-Chu Fu, Zhen-Peng Song, Heike Rittner, Da-Wei Ye, Yu-Ke Tian
Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) remains a major challenge in advanced cancer patients due to our lack of understanding of its mechanisms. Previous studies have demonstrated the vital role of GABAB receptors (GABABRs) in regulating nociception and various neuropathic pain models have shown diminished activity of GABABRs. However, the role of spinal GABABRs in CIBP remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the specific cellular mechanisms of GABABRs in the development and maintenance of CIBP in rats...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323206/ligands-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-promote-glutamate-transporter-1-endocytosis-in-astrocytes
#7
Hui-Ting Huang, Chih-Kai Liao, Wen-Tai Chiu, Shun-Fen Tzeng
Astrocytes, a stellate-shape glial population in the central nervous system (CNS), maintain glutamate homeostasis in adult CNS by undergoing glutamate uptake at the synapse through their glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) can be activated by endogenous saturated fatty acids to regulate astrocytic lipid metabolism and functions. However, it is unclear if PPARα can exert the regulatory action on GLT-1 expression in astrocytes. This study showed that treatment with palmitic acid (PA) and the other two PPARα agonists (GW 7647 and WY 14,643) caused no change in the morphology of astrocytes, whereas membranous GLT-1 protein levels in astrocytes were significantly decreased by PA and PPARα agonists...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323022/astrocyte-heme-oxygenase-1-reduces-mortality-and-improves-outcome-after-collagenase-induced-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#8
Jing Chen-Roetling, Pramod Kamalapathy, Yang Cao, Wei Song, Hyman M Schipper, Raymond F Regan
Pharmacotherapies that increase CNS expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and other antioxidant proteins have improved outcome in experimental models of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In order to more specifically investigate the relationship between HO-1 and ICH outcome, mice expressing human HO-1 driven by the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter (GFAP·HMOX1 mice) were tested in a model of in situ parenchymal hemorrhage. Injection of collagenase into the striata of wild-type (WT) mice resulted in a 26...
March 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323006/the-role-of-sumoylation-in-cerebral-hypoxia-and-ischemia
#9
REVIEW
Myriam Peters, Betty Wielsch, Johannes Boltze
The process of protein modification by adding or detaching small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO) proteins, called SUMOylation, contributes to the regulation of numerous processes in eukaryotic cells. SUMOylation also represents a key response and adaption mechanism to different forms of metabolic stress. The central nervous system (CNS) and neurons in particular are highly susceptible to hypoxic-ischemic stress due to the lack of significant oxygen and energy reserves. SUMOylation is observed in many molecular responses to metabolic stress in the brain, and is therefore supposed to represent an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism...
March 17, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323000/knockdown-of-astrocyte-elevated-gene-1-inhibited-cell-growth-and-induced-apoptosis-and-suppressed-invasion-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#10
Jiewen Wang, Xiaodong Chen, Maoqing Tong
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that AEG-1 (astrocyte elevated gene-1) plays a pivotal oncogenic role in tumorigenesis. However, the molecular mechanism by which AEG-1 exerts its oncogenic function is elusive in ovarian cancer. To explore the role and molecular insight on AEG-1-mediated tumorigenesis in ovarian cancer, multiple approaches are performed including MTT assay, flow cytometry for apoptosis and cell cycle assay, gene transfection, real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and Transwell assay. Our MTT assay showed that knockdown of AEG-1 by its siRNA significantly inhibited cell growth in ovarian cancer cells...
March 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322979/3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma-ecstasy-produces-edema-due-to-bbb-disruption-induced-by-mmp-9-activation-in-rat-hippocampus
#11
Mercedes Pérez-Hernández, María Encarnación Fernández-Valle, Ana Rubio-Araiz, Rebeca Vidal, María Dolores Gutiérrez-López, Esther O'Shea, María Isabel Colado
The recreational drug of abuse, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) disrupts blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in rats through an early P2X7 receptor-mediated event which induces MMP-9 activity. Increased BBB permeability often causes plasma proteins and water to access cerebral tissue leading to vasogenic edema formation. The current study was performed to examine the effect of a single neurotoxic dose of MDMA (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) on in vivo edema development associated with changes in the expression of the perivascular astrocytic water channel, AQP4, as well as in the expression of the tight-junction (TJ) protein, claudin-5 and Evans Blue dye extravasation in the hippocampus of adult male Dark Agouti rats...
March 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322752/neuroprotector-effect-of-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth-transplanted-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-involves-inhibition-of-early-neuronal-apoptosis
#12
Fabrício do Couto Nicola, Marília Rossato Marques, Felipe Odorcyk, Danusa Mar Arcego, Letícia Petenuzzo, Dirceu Aristimunha, Adriana Vizuete, Eduardo Farias Sanches, Daniela Pavulack Pereira, Natasha Maurmann, Carla Dalmaz, Patricia Pranke, Carlos A Netto
Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) transplants have been investigated as a possible treatment strategy for spinal cord injuries (SCI) due to their potential for promoting functional recovery. The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of SHED on neuronal death after an experimental model of SCI. METHODS: Wistar rats were spinalized using NYU impactor®. Animals were randomly distributed into 4 groups: Control (Naive) or Surgical control, Sham (laminectomy with no SCI); SCI (laminectomy followed by SCI, treated with vehicle); SHED (SCI treated with intraspinal transplantation of 3×10(5) SHED, 1 h after SCI)...
March 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322622/central-nervous-system-changes-induced-by-underbody-blast-induced-hyperacceleration-an-in-vivo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#13
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, William L Fourney, Ulrich H Leiste, Julie L Proctor, Gary Fiskum, Rao P Gullapalli
Blast-related traumatic brain injury (bTBI) resulting from improvised explosive devices is the hallmark injury of recent wars, and affects many returning veterans who experienced either direct or indirect exposure. Many of these veterans have long-term neurocognitive symptoms. However, there is very little evidence to show whether blast-induced acceleration alone, in the absence of secondary impacts, can cause mild TBI. In this study, we examine the effect of under-vehicle blast-induced hyperacceleration (uBIH) of ∼1700 g on the biochemical and microstrucutral changes in the brain using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322274/a-rare-missense-variant-in-rcl1-segregates-with-depression-in-extended-families
#14
N Amin, F M S de Vrij, M Baghdadi, R W W Brouwer, J G J van Rooij, O Jovanova, A G Uitterlinden, A Hofman, H L A Janssen, S Darwish Murad, R Kraaij, J Stedehouder, M C G N van den Hout, J M Kros, W F J van IJcken, H Tiemeier, S A Kushner, C M van Duijn
Depression is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder with a complex and elusive etiology that is moderately heritable. Identification of genes would greatly facilitate the elucidation of the biological mechanisms underlying depression, however, its complex etiology has proved to be a major bottleneck in the identification of its genetic risk factors, especially in genome-wide association-like studies. In this study, we exploit the properties of a genetic isolate and its family-based structure to explore whether relatively rare exonic variants influence the burden of depressive symptoms in families...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322255/ca-2-permeable-ampa-receptors-in-mouse-olfactory-bulb-astrocytes
#15
Damian Droste, Gerald Seifert, Laura Seddar, Oliver Jädtke, Christian Steinhäuser, Christian Lohr
Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytes is considered to be mainly mediated by metabotropic receptors linked to intracellular Ca(2+) release. However, recent studies demonstrate a significant contribution of Ca(2+) influx to spontaneous and evoked Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytes, suggesting that Ca(2+) influx might account for astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling to a greater extent than previously thought. Here, we investigated AMPA-evoked Ca(2+) influx into olfactory bulb astrocytes in mouse brain slices using Fluo-4 and GCaMP6s, respectively...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322157/diabetes-related-neurological-implications-and-pharmacogenomics
#16
Rojas Carranza Camilo Andrés, Bustos Cruz Rosa Helena, Pino Pinzón Carmen Juliana, Ariza Marquez Yeimy Viviana, Gómez Bello Rosa Margarita, Cañadas Garre Marisa
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most commonly occurring cause of neuropathy around the world and is beginning to grow in countries where there is a risk of obesity. DM Type II, (T2DM) is a common age-related disease and is a major health concern, particularly in developed countries in Europe where the population is aging. T2DM is a chronic disease which is characterised by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, together with the body's inability to use glucose as energy. Such metabolic disorder produces a chronic inflammatory state, as well as changes in lipid metabolism leading to hypertriglyceridemia, thereby producing chronic deterioration of the organs and premature morbidity and mortality...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321769/n-propargyl-caffeamide-paca-ameliorates-dopaminergic-neuronal-loss-and-motor-dysfunctions-in-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-in-mpp-induced-neurons-via-promoting-the-conversion-of-prongf-to-ngf
#17
Dan Luo, Jia Zhao, Yuanyuan Cheng, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Jianhui Rong
Insufficient production of nerve growth factor (NGF) is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently discovered that caffeic acid derivative N-propargyl caffeamide (PACA) not only potentiated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth but also attenuated 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxicity in neuronal culture. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PACA could increase NGF levels against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity in a mouse PD model. We induced parkinsonism in mice by intraperitoneal injection of MPTP for seven consecutive days...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321434/transient-creb-mediated-transcription-is-key-in-direct-neuronal-reprogramming
#18
Sergio Gascón, Felipe Ortega, Magdalena Götz
Combinations of neuronal determinants and/or small-molecules such as Forskolin (Fk) can be used to convert different cell types into neurons. As Fk is known to activate cAMP-dependent pathways including CREB-activity, we aimed here to determine the role of CREB in reprogramming - including its temporal profile. We show that transient expression of the dominant-positive CREB-VP16 followed by its inactivation mediated by the dominant-negative ICER improves neuronal conversion of astrocytes mediated by the neurogenic determinant Ascl1...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320516/l-f001-a-novel-multifunctional-rock-inhibitor-suppresses-neuroinflammation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-involvement-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibition-and-nrf2-pathway-activation
#19
Jingkao Chen, Wei Yin, Yalin Tu, Shengnan Wang, Xiaohong Yang, Qiuhe Chen, Xiao Zhang, Yifan Han, Rongbiao Pi
Microglia and astrocytes are largely responsible for inflammatory injury in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence has indicated that Rho kinase (ROCK) plays an important role in the regulation of neuroinflammation. Previously, we synthesized a new chemical entity L-F001 and proved its potential inhibitory effects on ROCK and oxidative stress. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and the molecular mechanisms of L-F001 in vitro and in vivo. L-F001 remarkably suppressed lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-elevated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necreactive oxygen speciesis factor-α (TNF-α) in microglial BV-2 cells and in cultured astrocytes...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320442/analysis-of-monocyte-infiltration-in-mptp-mice-reveals-that-microglial-cx3cr1-protects-against-neurotoxic-over-induction-of-monocyte-attracting-ccl2-by-astrocytes
#20
Vincent R Parillaud, Guillaume Lornet, Yann Monnet, Anne-Laure Privat, Andrei T Haddad, Vanessa Brochard, Amaury Bekaert, Camille Baudesson de Chanville, Etienne C Hirsch, Christophe Combadière, Stéphane Hunot, Christian S Lobsiger
BACKGROUND: Evidence from mice suggests that brain infiltrating immune cells contribute to neurodegeneration, and we previously identified a deleterious lymphocyte infiltration in Parkinson's disease mice. However, this remains controversial for monocytes, due to artifact-prone techniques used to distinguish them from microglia. Our aim was to reassess this open question, by taking advantage of the recent recognition that chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 can differentiate between inflammatory monocytes and microglia, enabling to test whether CCR2(+) monocytes infiltrate the brain during dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration and whether they contribute to neuronal death...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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