keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Astrocytes

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742117/comparison-of-gcamp3-and-gcamp6f-for-studying-astrocyte-ca2-dynamics-in-the-awake-mouse-brain
#1
Liang Ye, Mateen A Haroon, Angelica Salinas, Martin Paukert
In recent years it has become increasingly clear that astrocytes play a much more active role in neural processes than the traditional view of them as supporting cells suggests. Although not electrically excitable, astrocytes exhibit diverse Ca2+ dynamics across spatial and temporal scales, more or less dependent on the animal's behavioral state. Ca2+ dynamics range from global elevations lasting multiple seconds encompassing the soma up to the finest processes, to short elevations restricted to so-called microdomains within fine processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742087/type-1-skewed-neuroinflammation-and-vascular-damage-associated-with-orientia-tsutsugamushi-infection-in-mice
#2
Lynn Soong, HeThomas R Shelite, Yan Xing, Harica Kodakandla, Yuejin Liang, Brandon J Trent, Paulina Horton, Kathryn C Smith, Zhenyang Zhao, Jiaren Sun, Donald H Bouyer, Jiyang Cai
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a life-threatening disease, due to infection with O. tsutsugamushi, a Gram-negative bacterium that preferentially replicates in endothelial cells and professional phagocytes. Meningoencephalitis has been reported in scrub typhus patients and experimentally-infected animals; however, the neurological manifestation and its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we focused on Orientia tsutsugamushi Karp strain (OtK), and examined host responses in the brain during lethal versus self-healing scrub typhus disease in our newly established murine models...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740735/structure-and-function-relationship-of-activated-retinal-glia-in-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-patients
#3
Christoph Nützi, Andreas Schötzau, Matthias C Grieshaber
PURPOSE: To evaluate clinically activated retinal astrocytes and Müller cells (ARAM) regarding retinal sensitivity and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: Central visual field (VF; i.e., retinal sensitivity) was measured with a custom-made macular pattern by microperimetry and correlated with the presence (ARAM+) or absence (ARAM-) of ARAM on red-free fundus photography and with the corresponding RNFL by optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740449/genetic-factors-affecting-intraoperative-5-aminolevulinic-acid-induced-fluorescence-of-diffuse-gliomas
#4
Kiyotaka Saito, Toshinori Hirai, Hideo Takeshima, Yoshihito Kadota, Shinji Yamashita, Asya Ivanova, Kiyotaka Yokogami
BACKGROUND: In patients operated for malignant glioma, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-induced fluorescence guidance is useful. However, we occasionally experience instances of non-visible fluorescence despite a histopathological diagnosis of high-grade glioma. We sought to identify factors that influence the intraoperative visualization of gliomas by their 5-ALA-induced fluorescence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed data from 60 patients with astrocytic or oligodendroglial tumors who underwent tumor removal under 5-ALA-induced fluorescence guidance between January 2014 and December 2015...
June 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738904/increased-interleukin-27-cytokine-expression-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#5
Patrice H Lalive, Mario Kreutzfeldt, Odile Devergne, Imke Metz, Wolfgang Bruck, Doron Merkler, Caroline Pot
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation, demyelination, and neuronal damage. During autoimmunity, cytokines are important mediators of the inflammation. In this line, interleukin-27 (IL-27) modulates inflammation and can be produced directly at inflammatory sites such as in the joints during rheumatoid arthritis or in the central nervous system (CNS) during MS. While in animal models of MS, treatment with IL-27 decreases the disease severity, its role in humans is not clearly established and it is not known if IL-27 could be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738351/major-depression-as-a-neuroprogressive-prelude-to-dementia-what-is-the-evidence
#6
Brian E Leonard
Epidemiological studies implicate chronic depression as a predisposing factor for dementia in later life. However, the link is incompletely understood and controversial. The aim of this review is to consider some of the biological factors that contribute to neuroprogressive brain dysfunction in late life as a consequence of prolonged, low-grade inflammation in the course of depressive episodes. As chronic inflammation is known to precipitate increased apoptosis of neurons and astrocytes, this could be a contributing factor to brain dysfunction...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737515/cell-biology-of-spinal-cord-injury-and-repair
#7
Timothy M O'Shea, Joshua E Burda, Michael V Sofroniew
Spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions present diverse challenges for repair strategies. Anatomically complete injuries require restoration of neural connectivity across lesions. Anatomically incomplete injuries may benefit from augmentation of spontaneous circuit reorganization. Here, we review SCI cell biology, which varies considerably across three different lesion-related tissue compartments: (a) non-neural lesion core, (b) astrocyte scar border, and (c) surrounding spared but reactive neural tissue. After SCI, axon growth and circuit reorganization are determined by neuron-cell-autonomous mechanisms and by interactions among neurons, glia, and immune and other cells...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737511/astrocytes-to-the-rescue-glia-limitans-astrocytic-endfeet-control-cns-inflammation
#8
Francisco J Quintana
The blood brain barrier (BBB) and the glia limitans serve to prevent the migration of cells and other large molecules from the blood into the CNS. Neuroinflammatory diseases are characterized by disruption of the BBB and increased leukocyte infiltration into the CNS. In this issue of the JCI, Horng and colleagues demonstrate that astrocytes of the glia limitans induce tight junction formation in response to inflammatory cues, thereby tightening the border to limit the number of activated T cells infiltrating the CNS...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737509/astrocytic-tight-junctions-control-inflammatory-cns-lesion-pathogenesis
#9
Sam Horng, Anthony Therattil, Sarah Moyon, Alexandra Gordon, Karla Kim, Azeb Tadesse Argaw, Yuko Hara, John N Mariani, Setsu Sawai, Per Flodby, Edward D Crandall, Zea Borok, Michael V Sofroniew, Candice Chapouly, Gareth R John
Lesions and neurologic disability in inflammatory CNS diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) result from the translocation of leukocytes and humoral factors from the vasculature, first across the endothelial blood-brain barrier (BBB) and then across the astrocytic glia limitans (GL). Factors secreted by reactive astrocytes open the BBB by disrupting endothelial tight junctions (TJs), but the mechanisms that control access across the GL are unknown. Here, we report that in inflammatory lesions, a second barrier composed of reactive astrocyte TJs of claudin 1 (CLDN1), CLDN4, and junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) subunits is induced at the GL...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737298/amp-activated-protein-kinase-is-involved-in-induction-of-protective-autophagy-in-astrocytes-exposed-to-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#10
Bożena Gabryel, Alicja Kost, Daniela Kasprowska, Sebastian Liber, Grzegorz Machnik, Ryszard Wiaderkiewicz, Krzysztof Łabuzek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736792/double-injected-human-stem-cells-enhance-rehabilitation-in-tbi-mice-via-modulation-of-survival-and-inflammation
#11
Chul Kim, Ji-Min Park, TaeHo Kong, Seungmin Lee, Ki-Weon Seo, Yuri Choi, Young Sook Song, Jisook Moon
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a complicated form of brain damage, is a major cause of mortality in adults. Following mechanical and structural primary insults, a battery of secondary insults, including neurotransmitter-mediated cytotoxicity, dysregulation of calcium and macromolecule homeostasis, and increased oxidative stress, exacerbate brain injury and functional deficits. Although stem cell therapy is considered to be an alternative treatment for brain injuries, such as TBI and stroke, many obstacles remain...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736361/-effect-of-nucleolin-silencing-on-differentiation-of-rat-neural-stem-cells-in-vitro-and-the-molecular-mechanism
#12
Chong-Feng Chen, Huai-Cai Yang, Guo-Sheng Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of nucleolin silencing on the differentiation of rat neural stem cells (NSCs) and the role of Wnt signaling pathway in mediating such effect. METHODS: Adenovirus vectors expressing small interfering RNA (siRNA) against nucleolin were constructed, verified, and packaged in HEK293A cells. The adenovirus was then transfected into NSCs isolated from neonatal SD rats and the differentiation of the NSCs was examined by detecting the expressions of neuron specific encloase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) using immunocytochemistry...
July 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736215/human-ipsc-glial-mouse-chimeras-reveal-glial-contributions-to-schizophrenia
#13
Martha S Windrem, Mikhail Osipovitch, Zhengshan Liu, Janna Bates, Devin Chandler-Militello, Lisa Zou, Jared Munir, Steven Schanz, Katherine McCoy, Robert H Miller, Su Wang, Maiken Nedergaard, Robert L Findling, Paul J Tesar, Steven A Goldman
In this study, we investigated whether intrinsic glial dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SCZ). Our approach was to establish humanized glial chimeric mice using glial progenitor cells (GPCs) produced from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from patients with childhood-onset SCZ. After neonatal implantation into myelin-deficient shiverer mice, SCZ GPCs showed premature migration into the cortex, leading to reduced white matter expansion and hypomyelination relative to controls...
July 18, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736077/replication-of-the-zika-virus-in-different-ipsc-derived-neuronal-cells-and-implications-to-assess-efficacy-of-antivirals
#14
Kristina Lanko, Kristel Eggermont, Abdulsamie Patel, Suzanne Kaptein, Leen Delang, Catherine M Verfaillie, Johan Neyts
Infections with the Zika virus (ZIKV) are responsible for congenital abnormalities and neurological disorders. We here demonstrate that ZIKV productively infects three types of human iPSC (induced pluripotent stem cells)-derived cells from the neural lineage, i.e. cortical and motor neurons as well as astrocytes. ZIKV infection results in all three cell types in the production of infectious virus particles and induces cytopathic effects (CPE). In cortical and motor neurons, an Asian isolate (PRVABC59) produced roughly 10-fold more virus than the prototypic African strain (MR766 strain)...
July 20, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735099/subcellular-expression-of-aquaporin-4-in-substantia-nigra-of-normal-and-mptp-treated-mice
#15
Agnete Prydz, Katja Stahl, Maja Puchades, Nina Davarpaneh, Maria Nadeem, Ole Petter Ottersen, Vidar Gundersen, Mahmood Amiry-Moghaddam
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in mammalian CNS where it is localized at the perivascular astrocytic foot processes abutting brain microvessels. Several lines of evidence suggest that AQP4 is involved in important homeostatic functions and that mislocalization of the perivascular pool of AQP4 is implicated in several different brain disorders. A recent study suggests that the differential susceptibility of midbrain dopaminergic neurons to the parkinsonogenic toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) depends on the expression of AQP4...
July 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735029/peptide-modification-of-polyimide-insulated-microwires-towards-improved-biocompatibility-through-reduced-glial-scarring
#16
Sangita Sridar, Matthew A Churchward, Vivian K Mushahwar, Kathryn G Todd, Anastasia L Elias
The goal of this study is to improve the integration of implanted microdevices with tissue in the central nervous system (CNS). The long-term utility of neuroprosthetic devices implanted in the CNS is affected by the formation of a scar by resident glial cells (astrocytes and microglia), limiting the viability and functional stability of the devices. Reduction in the proliferation of glial cells is expected to enhance the biocompatibility of devices. We demonstrate the modification of polyimide-insulated microelectrodes with a bioactive peptide KHIFSDDSSE...
July 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734063/atp-and-astrocytes-play-a-prominent-role-in-the-control-of-the-respiratory-pattern-generator-in-the-lamprey
#17
Elenia Cinelli, Ludovica Iovino, Donatella Mutolo
The role of ATP and astrocytes in respiratory rhythm modulation has been recently investigated in neonatal rodents. However, no information on the role of ATP and astrocytes within the respiratory network of the lamprey is available, particularly within the paratrigeminal respiratory group (pTRG), the proposed respiratory central pattern generator. To address these issues, the present study was carried out on isolated brainstems of the adult lamprey. Bath application of ATP caused marked increases in respiratory frequency followed by decreases in the respiratory motor output, mediated by the ATP metabolite adenosine at the level of the pTRG...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733900/the-putative-role-of-environmental-mercury-in-the-pathogenesis-and-pathophysiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-subtypes
#18
REVIEW
G Morris, B K Puri, R E Frye, M Maes
Exposure to organic forms of mercury has the theoretical capacity to generate a range of immune abnormalities coupled with chronic nitro-oxidative stress seen in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The paper discusses possible mechanisms explaining the neurotoxic effects of mercury and possible associations between mercury exposure and ASD subtypes. Environmental mercury is neurotoxic at doses well below the current reference levels considered to be safe, with evidence of neurotoxicity in children exposed to environmental sources including fish consumption and ethylmercury-containing vaccines...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733356/steady-state-free-ca2-in-astrocytes-is-decreased-by-experience-and-impacts-arteriole-tone
#19
Eslam M F Mehina, Ciaran Murphy-Royal, Grant R Gordon
Astrocytes can control basal synaptic strength and arteriole tone via their resting Ca2+ activity. However, whether resting astrocyte Ca2+ can adjust to a new steady-state level, with an impact on surrounding brain cells, remains unknown. Using two-photon Ca2+ imaging in male rat acute brain slices of the somatosensory neocortex, we found that theta burst neural activity produced an unexpected long-lasting reduction in astrocyte free Ca2+ in the soma and endfeet. The drop in intracellular Ca2+ was attenuated by antagonists targeting multiple ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, and intracellular cascades involved Ca2+ stores and nitric oxide...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733241/live-imaging-using-a-fret-glucose-sensor-reveals-glucose-delivery-to-all-cell-types-in-the-drosophila-brain
#20
Anne Volkenhoff, Johannes Hirrlinger, Johannes M Kappel, Christian Klämbt, Stefanie Schirmeier
All complex nervous systems are metabolically separated from circulation by a blood-brain barrier (BBB) that prevents uncontrolled leakage of solutes into the brain. Thus, all metabolites needed to sustain energy homeostasis must be transported across this BBB. In invertebrates, such as Drosophila, the major carbohydrate in circulation is the disaccharide trehalose and specific trehalose transporters are expressed by the glial BBB. Here we analyzed whether glucose is able to contribute to energy homeostasis in Drosophila...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
keyword
keyword
13137
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"