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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613071/potent-inhibitor-of-drug-resistant-hiv-1-strains-identified-from-the-medicinal-plant-justicia-gendarussa
#1
Hong-Jie Zhang, Emily Rumschlag-Booms, Yi-Fu Guan, Dong-Ying Wang, Kang-Lun Liu, Wan-Fei Li, Van H Nguyen, Nguyen M Cuong, Djaja D Soejarto, Harry H S Fong, Lijun Rong
Justicia gendarussa, a medicinal plant collected in Vietnam, was identified as a potent anti-HIV-1 active lead from the evaluation of over 4500 plant extracts. Bioassay-guided separation of the extracts of the stems and roots of this plant led to the isolation of an anti-HIV arylnaphthalene lignan (ANL) glycoside, patentiflorin A (1). Evaluation of the compound against both the M- and T-tropic HIV-1 isolates showed it to possess a significantly higher inhibition effect than the clinically used anti-HIV drug AZT...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571400/design-and-calibration-of-hot-electron-spectrometer-array-for-angle-resolved-measurement
#2
Huiya Liu, Honghai An, Jie Shen, Ning Kang, Shenlei Zhou, Anle Lei, Zunqi Lin
A hot-electron spectrometer array with two-dimensional distribution has been designed with a wide-angle range and high-energy resolution to measure the spatially resolved electron spectra for high-power-laser plasma interaction experiments. It consisted of 19 identical electron spectrometers set in three directions with an interval of 10°. Each electron spectrometer was designed with a uniform magnetic field to detect electrons in the range from 20 to 500 keV. The spectrometers were calibrated using electrons from an accelerator...
May 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559280/crystal-structure-of-the-thioesterification-conformation-of-bacillus-subtilis-o-succinylbenzoyl-coa-synthetase-reveals-a-distinct-substrate-binding-mode
#3
Yaozong Chen, Tin Lok Li, Xingbang Lin, Xin Li, Xiang David Li, Zhihong Guo
o-Succinylbenzoyl-CoA (OSB-CoA) synthetase (MenE) is an essential enzyme in bacterial vitamin K biosynthesis and an important target in the development of new antibiotics. It is a member of the adenylating enzymes (ANL) family, which reconfigure their active site in two different active conformations, one for the adenylation half-reaction and the other for a thioesterification half-reaction, in a domain-alternation catalytic mechanism. Although several aspects of the adenylating mechanism in MenE have recently been uncovered, its thioesterification conformation remains elusive...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520214/mtorc1-inhibits-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nfatc1-signaling-and-prevents-osteoclast-precursor-differentiation-in-vitro-and-in-mice
#4
Yue Zhang, Song Xu, Kai Li, Kang Tan, Kangyan Liang, Jian Wang, Junhui Shen, Wenchong Zou, Le Hu, Daozhang Cai, Changhai Ding, Mangmang Li, Guozhi Xiao, Bin Liu, Anling Liu, Xiaochun Bai
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a critical sensor for bone homeostasis and bone formation; however, the role of mTORC1 in osteoclast development and the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully established. Here, we found that mTORC1 activity declined during osteoclast precursors differentiation in vitro and in vivo. We further targeted deletion of Raptor (mTORC1 key component) or Tsc1 (mTORC1 negative regulator) to constitutively inhibit or activate mTORC1 in osteoclast precursors (monocytes/macrophages), using LyzM-cre mice...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507784/geraniin-attenuates-naloxone-precipitated-morphine-withdrawal-and-morphine-induced-tolerance-in-mice
#5
Ella Anle Kasanga, Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Robert Peter Biney, James Oppong Kyekyeku, Christian Agyare, Eric Woode
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Potentially life-threatening and unpleasant side effects associated with some analgesics have fueled the drive for the search for more analgesics with better side effect profiles. Geraniin, the most dominant secondary metabolite in the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Phyllanthus muellerianus, has been shown to possess antinociceptive properties mediated partly by opioidergic mechanisms. The purpose of this study is to determine whether geraniin exhibits tolerance and if it is able to ameliorate withdrawal signs in naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal...
April 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450969/characterization-of-carboxylic-acid-reductases-as-enzymes-in-the-toolbox-for-synthetic-chemistry
#6
William Finnigan, Adam Thomas, Holly Cromar, Ben Gough, Radka Snajdrova, Joseph P Adams, Jennifer A Littlechild, Nicholas J Harmer
Carboxylic acid reductase enzymes (CARs) meet the demand in synthetic chemistry for a green and regiospecific route to aldehydes from their respective carboxylic acids. However, relatively few of these enzymes have been characterized. A sequence alignment with members of the ANL (Acyl-CoA synthetase/ NRPS adenylation domain/Luciferase) superfamily of enzymes shed light on CAR functional dynamics. Four unstudied enzymes were selected by using a phylogenetic analysis of known and hypothetical CARs, and for the first time, a thorough biochemical characterization was performed...
March 20, 2017: ChemCatChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450306/osteoblasts-support-megakaryopoiesis-through-production-of-interleukin-9
#7
Min Xiao, Yongkui Wang, Chen Tao, Zhenyu Wang, Jun Yang, Zhenguo Chen, Zhipeng Zou, Mangmang Li, Anling Liu, Chunhong Jia, Bin Huang, Bo Yan, Pinglin Lai, Changhai Ding, Daozhang Cai, Guozhi Xiao, Yu Jiang, Xiaochun Bai
Severe thrombocytopenia is a significant challenge in patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy for malignancies. Understanding the biology of platelet-producing megakaryocytes development in the bone marrow microenvironment may facilitate the development of novel therapies to stimulate platelet production and prevent thrombocytepenia. We report here that osteoblasts supported megakaryopoiesis by secreting interleukin-9 (IL-9), which stimulated IL-9 receptor (IL-9R)/Stat3 signaling in promoting megakaryopoiesis...
April 27, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419802/programming-post-translational-control-over-the-metabolic-labeling-of-cellular-proteins-with-a-non-canonical-amino-acid
#8
Emily E Thomas, Naresh Pandey, Sarah E Knudsen, Zachary T Ball, Jonathan J Silberg
Transcriptional control can be used to program cells to label proteins with non-canonical amino acids by regulating the expression of orthogonal aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). However, we cannot yet program cells to control labeling in response to aaRS and ligand binding. To identify aaRSs whose activities can be regulated by interactions with ligands, we used a combinatorial approach to discover fragmented variants of Escherichia coli methionyl tRNA synthetase (MetRS) that require fusion to associating proteins for maximal activity...
April 18, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416324/e4bp4-mediates-glucocorticoid-regulated-adipogenesis-through-cox2
#9
Yang Yang, Hongkui Wei, Tongxing Song, Anle Cai, Yuanfei Zhou, Jie Peng, Siwen Jiang, Jian Peng
Adipogenesis is mediated by glucocorticoids via transcriptional regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) target genes. However, the mechanism by which GR participates in adipogenesis has hitherto been poorly characterized. In this study, E4 promoter-binding protein 4 (E4BP4) was found to have a critical role in adipogenic differentiation of preadipocytes. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies revealed that E4BP4 acts as a positive regulator of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. E4BP4 was markedly induced by glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) via GR and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) during adipogenesis...
April 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402794/increased-phylogenetic-resolution-within-the-ecologically-important-rhizopogon-subgenus-amylopogon-using-10-anonymous-nuclear-loci
#10
Nicholas J Dowie, Lisa C Grubisha, Brent A Burton, Matthew R Klooster, Steven L Miller
Rhizopogon species are ecologically significant ectomycorrhizal fungi in conifer ecosystems. The importance of this system merits the development and utilization of a more robust set of molecular markers specifically designed to evaluate their evolutionary ecology. Anonymous nuclear loci (ANL) were developed for R. subgenus Amylopogon. Members of this subgenus occur throughout the United States and are exclusive fungal symbionts associated with Pterospora andromedea, a threatened mycoheterotrophic plant endemic to disjunct eastern and western regions of North America...
2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375148/low-dose-fixed-target-serial-synchrotron-crystallography
#11
Robin L Owen, Danny Axford, Darren A Sherrell, Anling Kuo, Oliver P Ernst, Eike C Schulz, R J Dwayne Miller, Henrike M Mueller-Werkmeister
The development of serial crystallography has been driven by the sample requirements imposed by X-ray free-electron lasers. Serial techniques are now being exploited at synchrotrons. Using a fixed-target approach to high-throughput serial sampling, it is demonstrated that high-quality data can be collected from myoglobin crystals, allowing room-temperature, low-dose structure determination. The combination of fixed-target arrays and a fast, accurate translation system allows high-throughput serial data collection at high hit rates and with low sample consumption...
April 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351287/neuromelioidosis-a-series-of-seven-cases-in-hainan-province-china
#12
Yuefu Zhan, Yehua Wu, Qun Li, Anle Yu
Melioidosis, which is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is predominately a disease of tropical climates and is especially widespread in south-east Asia and northern Australia. Melioidosis affecting the central nervous system has a low incidence but a high mortality. We present seven cases of neuromelioidosis and analyze the disease characteristics and imaging features. Typical clinical features of this disease included high fever and headache. Five patients had an irregular fever with a temperature ≥ 39℃...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261000/a-versatile-system-for-high-throughput-in-situ-x-ray-screening-and-data-collection-of-soluble-and-membrane-protein-crystals
#13
Jana Broecker, Viviane Klingel, Wei-Lin Ou, Aidin R Balo, David J Kissick, Craig M Ogata, Anling Kuo, Oliver P Ernst
In recent years, in situ data collection has been a major focus of progress in protein crystallography. Here, we introduce the Mylar in situ method using Mylar-based sandwich plates that are inexpensive, easy to make and handle, and show significantly less background scattering than other setups. A variety of cognate holders for patches of Mylar in situ sandwich films corresponding to one or more wells makes the method robust and versatile, allows for storage and shipping of entire wells, and enables automated crystal imaging, screening, and goniometer-based X-ray diffraction data-collection at room temperature and under cryogenic conditions for soluble and membrane-protein crystals grown in or transferred to these plates...
November 2, 2016: Crystal Growth & Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259411/genetic-and-functional-analysis-of-the-bovine-uterine-microbiota-part-ii-purulent-vaginal-discharge-versus-healthy-cows
#14
M L S Bicalho, S Lima, C H Higgins, V S Machado, F S Lima, R C Bicalho
The aim of this study was to characterize, using metagenomic shotgun DNA sequencing, the intrauterine microbial population and its predicted functional diversity within healthy cows and cows presenting purulent vaginal discharge (PVD). Twenty Holstein dairy cows from a single farm were enrolled in the study at 25 to 35 d postpartum. Purulent vaginal discharge was diagnosed by retrieving and scoring vaginal discharge using the Metricheck device (Simcro, Hamilton, New Zealand). Intrauterine samples for metagenomic analysis were collected by the cytobrush technique from 8 cows diagnosed with PVD and 12 healthy cows...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259404/genetic-and-functional-analysis-of-the-bovine-uterine-microbiota-part-i-metritis-versus-healthy-cows
#15
M L S Bicalho, V S Machado, C H Higgins, F S Lima, R C Bicalho
Metritis is a uterine disease that affects 10 to 30% of all lactating dairy cows and has detrimental effects on reproductive performance, milk production, and survival. Data regarding the identity and abundance of bacterial genes governing traits such as virulence, antibiotic resistance, and stress responses could enable identification of previously unknown agents that play a role in metritis pathogenesis. Moreover, such knowledge could lead to the development of improved treatments or preventive methods. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to characterize the uterine microbial population and to differentiate, for the first time, the microbial functional diversity in cows with metritis versus healthy cows...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251459/lycorine-inhibits-breast-cancer-growth-and-metastasis-via-inducing-apoptosis-and-blocking-src-fak-involved-pathway
#16
Xuexiang Ying, Anling Huang, Yajing Xing, Liping Lan, Zhengfang Yi, Pingqing He
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer type worldwide among women and more than 90% of patients die from tumor metastasis. Lycorine, a natural alkaloid, has been widely reported possessing potential efficacy against cancer proliferation and metastasis. In our study, the anti-tumor potency on breast cancer was evaluated in vitro and in vivo for the first time. Our results indicated that lycorine inhibited breast cancer cells growth, migration and invasion as well as induced their apoptosis. In in vivo study, lycorine not only suppressed breast tumor growth in xenograft models and inhibited breast tumor metastasis in MDA-MB-231 tail vein model...
February 27, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244316/highly-efficient-enzymatic-acylation-of-dihydromyricetin-by-the-immobilized-lipase-with-deep-eutectic-solvents-as-cosolvent
#17
Shi-Lin Cao, Xiao Deng, Pei Xu, Zi-Xuan Huang, Jian Zhou, Xue-Hui Li, Min-Hua Zong, Wen-Yong Lou
A novel deep eutectic solvent (DES)-DMSO cosolvent system has been, for the first time, successfully used as the reaction medium for the enzymatic acylation of dihydromyricetin (DMY) catalyzed by the immobilized lipase from Aspergillus niger (ANL). The cosolvent mixture, ChCl:Glycerol-DMSO (1:3, v/v) proved to be the optimal medium. With the newly developed cosolvent, the initial reaction rate of enzymatic acylation of DMY achieved 11.1 mM/h and the conversion of DMY was 91.6%. ANL@PD-MNPs is stable and recyclable in this cosolvent, offering 90% conversion rate after repeated use of 5 times...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169839/speech-intelligibility-as-a-cue-for-acceptable-noise-levels
#18
Karrie L Recker, Christophe Micheyl
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to examine whether individuals are using speech intelligibility to determine how much noise they are willing to accept while listening to running speech. Previous research has shown that the amount of background noise that an individual is willing to accept while listening to speech is predictive of his or her likelihood of success with hearing aids. If it were possible to determine the criterion by which individuals make this judgment, then it may be possible to alter this cue, especially for those who are unlikely to be successful with hearing aids, and thereby improve their chances of success with hearing aids...
February 6, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110956/anti-hiv-diphyllin-glycosides-from-justicia-gendarussa
#19
Hong-Jie Zhang, Emily Rumschlag-Booms, Yi-Fu Guan, Kang-Lun Liu, Dong-Ying Wang, Wan-Fei Li, Van Hung Nguyen, Nguyen Manh Cuong, Djaja Doel Soejarto, Harry H S Fong, Lijun Rong
In a search for new anti-HIV active leads from over several thousands of plant extracts, we have identified a potent plant lead. The active plant is determined as Justicia gendarussa (Acanthaceae), a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment of injury, arthritis and rheumatism in Asia including China. Our bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of the stems and barks of the plant led to the isolation of two anti-HIV compounds, justiprocumins A and B. The compounds are identified as new arylnaphthalide lignans (ANL) glycosides...
April 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057680/an-informative-approach-on-differential-abundance-analysis-for-time-course-metagenomic-sequencing-data
#20
Dan Luo, Sara Ziebell, Lingling An
Motivation: The advent of high-throughput next generation sequencing technology has greatly promoted the field of metagenomics where previously unattainable information about microbial communities can be discovered. Detecting differentially abundant features (e.g. species or genes) plays a critical role in revealing the contributors (i.e. pathogens) to the biological or medical status of microbial samples. However, currently available statistical methods lack power in detecting differentially abundant features contrasting different biological or medical conditions, in particular, for time series metagenomic sequencing data...
May 1, 2017: Bioinformatics
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