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Calpain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783071/mef2a-regulates-calpain-3-expression-in-l6-myoblasts
#1
Ronghua Wu, Jun Wang, Jian Yao, Zhangji Dong, Yan Liu, Mei Liu
Calpain 3 (Capn3), a skeletal muscle-specific member of the calpain family, executes some non-proteolytic functions besides its role as a Ca2+ -regulated proteolytic enzyme. Previously, we found that changes in Capn3 expression were linearly correlated with the degree of muscular atrophy following reversible sciatic nerve injury and that knockdown of Capn3 gene expression promoted myoblast differentiation. While the regulation of capn3 gene expression is interesting, transcriptional regulation of Capn3 is still unclear...
May 18, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776406/the-effect-of-dpp-4-inhibition-to-improve-functional-outcome-after-stroke-is-mediated-by-the-sdf-1%C3%AE-cxcr4-pathway
#2
Fausto Chiazza, Harald Tammen, Hiranya Pintana, Grazyna Lietzau, Massimo Collino, Thomas Nyström, Thomas Klein, Vladimer Darsalia, Cesare Patrone
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are approved drugs for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. These effects are mainly mediated by inhibiting endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) cleavage. Interestingly, gliptins can also improve stroke outcome in rodents independently from GLP1. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a DPP-4 substrate and CXCR4 agonist promoting beneficial effects in injured brains...
May 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775750/the-effects-of-capn1-gene-inactivation-on-the-differential-expression-of-genes-in-skeletal-muscle
#3
William T Olive, Brittney N Keel, Amanda K Lindholm-Perry, Justyna Horodyska, Andrew P Foote
Protein turnover is required for muscle growth and regeneration and several proteolytic enzymes, including the calpains, degrade myofibrillar proteins during this process. In a previous experiment, phenotypic differences were observed between μ-calpain knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice, including nutrient accretion and fiber type differences. These changes were particularly evident as the animals aged. Thus, we utilized 18 mice (9 KO and 9 WT) to compare transcript abundance to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 52 wk of age...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772491/calpain-inhibition-reduces-nmda-receptor-rundown-in-rat-substantia-nigra-dopamine-neurons
#4
Jerry Zhao, Michel Baudry, Susan Jones
Repeated activation of N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) causes a Ca2+ -dependent reduction in NMDAR-mediated current in dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in one week old rats; however, a Ca2+ -dependent regulatory protein has not been identified. The role of the Ca2+ -dependent cysteine protease, calpain, in mediating NMDAR current rundown was investigated. In brain slices from rats aged postnatal day 7-9 ('P7'), bath application of either of the membrane permeable calpain inhibitors, N-Acetyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-norleucinal (ALLN, 20 μM) or MDL-28170 (30 μM) significantly reduced whole-cell NMDAR current rundown...
May 4, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768467/alpha-7-nicotinic-receptors-attenuate-neurite-development-through-calcium-activation-of-calpain-at-the-growth-cone
#5
Justin R King, Nadine Kabbani
The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a ligand-gated ion channel that plays an important role in cellular calcium signaling contributing to synaptic development and plasticity, and is a key drug target for the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that α7 nAChR mediated calcium signals in differentiating PC12 cells activate the proteolytic enzyme calpain leading to spectrin breakdown, microtubule retraction, and attenuation in neurite growth. Imaging in growth cones confirms that α7 activation decreases EB3 comet motility in a calcium dependent manner as demonstrated by the ability of α7 nAChR, ryanodine, or IP3 receptor antagonists to block the effect of α7 nAChR on growth...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768017/the-signaling-network-resulting-in-ventilator-induced-diaphragm-dysfunction
#6
Huibin Tang, Joseph B Shrager
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure for those incapable of adequately ventilating or oxygenating without assistance. Unfortunately, even brief periods of MV result in diaphragm weakness (i.e., "ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction" - VIDD) that may render it difficult to wean the ventilator. Prolonged MV is associated with cascading complications and is a strong risk factor for death. Thus, prevention of VIDD may have a dramatic impact on mortality rates. Here, we summarized the current understanding of the pathogenic events underlying VIDD...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766831/phagocytosis-and-motility-in-human-neutrophils-is-competent-but-compromised-by-pharmacological-inhibition-of-ezrin-phosphorylation
#7
Rhiannon E Roberts, Geetha L Elumalai, Maurice B Hallett
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Ezrin links the cortical cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane and plays a role in regulating cell shape change. Recently NSC668394 has been shown to inhibit a key step for its activity, i.e. phosphorylation at threonine 567. In neutrophils, another key regulatory step is the Ca2+-mediated cleavage of ezrin by calpain. METHODS: In this paper we use NSC668394 as a pharmacological inhibitor to investigate the interplay between these two steps in regulating neutrophil shape change...
May 15, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752430/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-hinders-photoreceptor-cell-death-by-reducing-intracellular-calcium-in-the-degenerating-retina
#8
Antonella Comitato, Preeti Subramanian, Giandomenico Turchiano, Monica Montanari, S Patricia Becerra, Valeria Marigo
Calcium ions play a critical role in neuronal cell death. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a promising neuroprotective protein for photoreceptor cells but the mechanisms mediating its effects against retinal degeneration are still not well characterized. We addressed this question in the rd1 degenerating mouse retina that bears a mutation in the Pde6b gene encoding one subunit of the phosphodiesterase enzyme. Loss of phosphodiesterase activity in rod photoreceptor cells increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels leading to a rise in intracellular calcium...
May 11, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751895/inhibitory-effects-of-chitosan-based-coatings-on-endogenous-enzyme-activities-proteolytic-degradation-and-texture-softening-of-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idellus-fillets-stored-at-4-%C3%A2-c
#9
Dawei Yu, Joe M Regenstein, Jinhong Zang, Wenshui Xia, Yanshun Xu, Qixing Jiang, Fang Yang
The study evaluated the inhibitory effects of chitosan-based coatings on endogenous enzyme activities, proteolytic degradation and texture softening of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets stored at 4 °C for 15 days. In general, the inhibitory effects of chitosan coating were worse than that of chitosan composite coatings, which significantly inhibited cathepsin B, B + L and calpain activities of fillets, with the most reductions of 58%, 65% and 41%, respectively when compared to the corresponding values of control fillets...
October 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751221/postmortem-role-of-calpain-11-in-ostrich-skeletal-muscle
#10
Ya-Shiou Chang, Man-Jung Hsu, Rong-Ghi R Chou
The postmortem calpain-11 role in ostrich muscle was investigated. Pairs of ostrich muscle (Iliotibialis cranialis) were excised from 32 ostrich carcasses in 3-h postmortem and randomly assigned into four treatments. The muscle was cut into 2.5-cm thick meat cores. The cores were incubated in 30 mM CaCl2 , 30 mM EDTA, 90 mM NaCl, or control. The cores from the left-side carcasses were sampled after 0, 1, 2, and 3 days of incubation at 5 °C, while the right-side meat cores were taken at 1-day and 3-day incubation for shear force measurements...
April 24, 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751219/the-physical-and-biochemical-effects-of-pre-rigor-high-pressure-processing-of-beef
#11
James D Morton, Hannah Y-Y Lee, R Grant Pearson, Roy Bickerstaffe
High pressure processing (HPP) of pre-rigor longissimus thoracis (strip loin) from prime and bull animals substantially decreased the shear force and improved consumer eating attributes of the final meat product. The improved tenderness in both prime and bull meat was associated with a lower myofibrillar fragmentation index and reduced calpain 1 activity which indicated the mechanism of tenderisation was different from that which occurred in chill aged meat. Light microscopy showed disruption to the fibre packing within the muscle and electron microscopy confirmed significant disruption of the Z discs and M lines and disappearance of the A lines...
April 24, 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750291/collagen-peptides-from-soft%C3%A2-shelled-turtle-induce-calpain%C3%A2-1-expression-and-regulate-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-in-hacat-human-skin-keratinocytes
#12
Tetsushi Yamamoto, Saori Nakanishi, Kuniko Mitamura, Atsushi Taga
Collagen peptides (CPs), derived by hydrolyzing collagen with chemicals or enzymes, are often used as functional materials, due to their various bioactivities and high bioavailability. A previous study by our group reported that collagen from soft‑shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, induces keratinocytes to undergo epithelial‑mesenchymal transition and facilitates wound healing. Therefore, CPs derived from soft‑shelled turtle collagen may have useful effects on the skin. In the present study, the functional effects of CPs on human skin were examined by analyzing CP‑treated human keratinocytes with a shotgun liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry‑based global proteomic approach...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749521/ephrinb-ephb-signaling-contributes-to-spinal-nociceptive-processing-via-calpain%C3%A2-1-and-caspase%C3%A2-3
#13
Mei Yang, Wei Chen, Yu Zhang, Rui Yang, Yiru Wang, Hongbin Yuan
Previous studies have indicated that an important subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases, ephrins and their receptors, are important in pain signaling, particularly in spinal nociceptive processing. In the present study, the role of the ephrin/Eph signaling pathway was confirmed, and it was shown that this signaling was also involved in spinal nociceptive processing through the actions of calpain‑1 and caspase‑3. First, the ephrinB ligands, ephrinB1‑Fc or ephrinB2‑Fc, were introduced into experimental mice via intrathecal injection, and it was found that this injection induced marked time‑ and dose‑dependent mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, accompanied by increased levels of calpain‑1 and caspase‑3 in the spinal cord...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739616/schistosoma-egg-induced-liver-pathology-resolution-by-sm-p80-based-schistosomiasis-vaccine-in-baboons
#14
Loc Le, Adebayo J Molehin, Stewart Nash, Souad R Sennoune, Gul Ahmad, Workineh Torben, Weidong Zhang, Afzal A Siddiqui
Schistosomiasis remains a serious chronic debilitating hepato-intestinal disease. Current control measures based on mass drug administration are inadequate due to sustained re-infection rates, low treatment coverage and emergence of drug resistance. Hence, there is an urgent need for a schistosomiasis vaccine for disease control. In this study, we assessed the anti-pathology efficacy of Schistosoma mansoni large subunit of calpain (Sm-p80)-based vaccine against schistosomiasis caused by infections with Schistosoma mansoni in baboons...
May 5, 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734379/sphingosine-1-phosphate-attenuates-mmp2-and-mmp9-in-human-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer-c643-cells-importance-of-s1p2
#15
Muhammad Yasir Asghar, Kati Kemppainen, Taru Lassila, Kid Törnquist
In anaplastic thyroid cancer C643 cells, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) attenuates migration by activating the S1P2 receptor and the Rho-ROCK pathway. In the present study, we show that stimulating C643 cells with S1P decreases the expression, secretion and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), and to a lesser extent MMP9. Using receptor-specific antagonists, and S1P2 siRNA, we showed that the inhibition of expression of MMP2 is mediated through S1P2. Furthermore, S1P inhibited calpain activity, and inhibiting calpain pharmacologically, inhibited the effect of S1P on MMP2 expression and activity, and on MMP9 activity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728827/susceptibility-of-promastigotes-and-intracellular-amastigotes-from-distinct-leishmania-species-to-the-calpain-inhibitor-mdl28170
#16
Pedro Soares de Sousa Araújo, Simone Santiago Carvalho de Oliveira, Claudia Masini d'Avila-Levy, André Luis Souza Dos Santos, Marta Helena Branquinha
Despite the available drug options, leishmaniasis treatment remains unsatisfactory. The repurposing of calpain inhibitors originally developed for human diseases became an interesting alternative, since Leishmania cells express calpain-related proteins. The susceptibility of six Leishmania species (L. amazonensis, L. braziliensis, L. major, L. mexicana, L. chagasi, and L. donovani) to the calpain inhibitor MDL28170 was determined. Promastigote and intracellular amastigote viability in the presence of MDL28170 was evaluated...
May 4, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722369/correction-new-localization-and-function-of-calpain-2-in-nucleoli-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-in-ribosomal-biogenesis-effect-of-kras-status
#17
Marcelino Telechea-Fernández, Lucia Rodríguez-Fernández, Concha García, Rosa Zaragozá, Juan R Viña, Andrés Cervantes, Elena R García-Trevijano
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.23888.].
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721956/protein-carbonylation-dependent-photoreceptor-cell-death-induced-by-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea-in-mice
#18
Ayako Furukawa, Kayo Sugitani, Yoshiki Koriyama
Retinal degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa, are characterized by night blindness and peripheral vision loss caused by the slowly progressive loss of photoreceptor cells. A comprehensive molecular mechanism of the photoreceptor cell death remains unclear. We previously reported that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), which has a protective effect on neuronal cells, was cleaved by a calcium-dependent protease, calpain, in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-treated mice retina. Carbonylated HSP70 is much more vulnerable than noncarbonylated HSP70 to calpain cleavage...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719463/compound-k-induced-apoptosis-via-endoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-release-through-ryanodine-receptor-in-human-lung-cancer-cells
#19
Dong-Hyun Shin, Dong-Gyu Leem, Ji-Sun Shin, Joo-Il Kim, Kyung-Tack Kim, Sang Yoon Choi, Myung-Hee Lee, Jung-Hye Choi, Kyung-Tae Lee
Background: Extended endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may initiate apoptotic pathways in cancer cells, and ER stress has been reported to possibly increase tumor death in cancer therapy. We previously reported that caspase-8 played an important role in compound K-induced apoptosis via activation of caspase-3 directly or indirectly through Bid cleavage, cytochrome c release, and caspase-9 activation in HL-60 human leukemia cells. The mechanisms leading to apoptosis in A549 and SK-MES-1 human lung cancer cells and the role of ER stress have not yet been understood...
April 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718706/myc-nick-promotes-efferocytosis-through-m2-macrophage-polarization-during-resolution-of-inflammation
#20
Xiancai Zhong, Ha-Na Lee, Seung Hyeon Kim, Sin-Aye Park, Wonki Kim, Young-Nam Cha, Young-Joon Surh
A key event required for effective resolution of inflammation is efferocytosis, which is defined as phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells mostly by macrophages acquiring an alternatively activated phenotype (M2). c-Myc has been reported to play a role in alternative activation of human macrophages and is proposed as one of the M2 macrophage markers. We found that M2-like peritoneal macrophages from zymosan A-treated mice exhibited a marked accumulation of Myc-nick, a truncated protein generated by a Calpain-mediated proteolytic cleavage of full-length c-Myc...
May 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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