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Chlamydia trachomatis

Phu Hai Nguyen, Erika I Lutter, Ted Hackstadt
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that replicates within a vacuole termed an inclusion. At the end of their intracellular developmental cycle, chlamydiae are released either by lysis of the host cell or extrusion of the intact inclusion. The inclusion membrane is extensively modified by the insertion of type III secreted inclusion membrane proteins, Incs, which contribute to inclusion membrane structure and facilitate host-pathogen interactions. An interaction was identified between the inclusion membrane protein, MrcA, and the Ca2+ channel inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 3 (ITPR3)...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva, Heloisa Loureiro de Sá Neves Motta, Erik Friedrich Alex de Souza, Pedro Afonso Nogueira Moises Cardoso, José Henrique Pilotto, Walter Araujo Eyer-Silva, Luiz Cláudio Pereira Ribeiro, Mônica Soares Dos Santos, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes de Azevedo, Jorge Francisco da Cunha Pinto, Rogerio Neves Motta, Fernando Raphael de Almeida Ferry
OBJECTIVES: The increase in HIV transmissibility in non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infection is already well-established. It is estimated that symptomatic carriers of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis have a relative risk of 4.8-fold and 3.6-fold, respectively, for the sexual acquisition of HIV. This type of evaluation for asymptomatic urethritis is necessary to reinforce strategies to combat HIV transmission. This study aims to assess the prevalence of patients with asymptomatic urethritis among men diagnosed with HIV-1 and determine the risk factors associated with this infection...
March 8, 2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Juliën N A P Wijers, Geneviève A F S van Liere, Christian J P A Hoebe, Jochen W L Cals, Petra F G Wolffs, Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers
BACKGROUND: For Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), a test of cure (TOC) within 3-5 weeks is not recommended. International guidelines differ in advising a Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) TOC. Retesting CT and NG positives within 3-12 months is recommended in international guidelines. We assessed TOC and retesting practices including extragenital testing in general practitioner (GP) practices located in different socioeconomic status (SES) areas to inform and optimize local test practices. METHODS: Laboratory data of 48 Dutch GP practices between January 2011 and July 2016 were used...
2018: PloS One
Scot P Ouellette
Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular bacterium and, as such, has significantly reduced its genome size and content. Although recent advances have allowed for transformation of C. trachomatis with an exogenous plasmid, genetic manipulation of Chlamydia remains challenging. In particular, the ability to create conditional knockouts has not been developed. This is particularly important given the likelihood that most genes within the small genome of Chlamydia may be essential. Here, I describe the feasibility of using CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) based on the catalytically inactive Cas9 variant (dCas9) of Staphylococcus aureus to inducibly, and reversibly, repress gene expression in C...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Xiaojing Zheng, Catherine M O'Connell, Wujuan Zhong, Uma M Nagarajan, Manoj Tripathy, De'Ashia Lee, Ali N Russell, Harold Wiesenfeld, Sharon Hillier, Toni Darville
Sexually transmitted infections with Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseria gonorrhoeae and rates of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women continue to rise, with reinfection being common because of poor adaptive immunity. Diagnosis remains imprecise, and pathogenesis data are derived primarily from monoinfection of mice with C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae By comparing blood mRNA responses of women with C. trachomatis - and/or N. gonorrhoeae -induced PID and histologic endometritis with those from women with C...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Susanne Paukner, Astrid Gruss, Jørgen Skov Jensen
The pleuromutilin antibiotic lefamulin demonstrated in vitro activity against the most relevant bacterial pathogens causing sexually transmitted infections (STI) including Chlamydia trachomatis (MIC50/90 of 0.02/0.04 mg/L, n =15), susceptible and multidrug-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium (MIC range 0.002-0.063 mg/L, n =6) and susceptible and resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (MIC50/90 , 0.12/0.5 mg/L, n =25). The results suggest that lefamulin could be a promising first-line antibiotic for the treatment of STI, particularly in populations with high resistance rates to standard of care antibiotics...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Andreas Brandt Gormsen, Jon Erik-Fraes Diernæs, Jørgen Skov Jensen, Uffe Koppelhus
This is a case report of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) manifesting as haemorrhagic proctocolitis in a homosexual HIV-positive male. The primary symptom was a rectal abscess, which was initially surgically treated and subsequently insufficiently treated with single-dose tablet azithromycin. The patient's symptoms were successfully treated after a 21-day doxycycline regime. LGV is a sexually transmitted infection with a rising incidence among persons with risk behaviour. This case report underlines the importance, that all positive rectal screenings for Chlamydia trachomatis should be routinely serotyped...
March 12, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
C L Shannon, C C Bristow, N A Hoff, A Wynn, M Nguyen, A Medina-Marino, J Cabeza, A W Rimoin, J D Klausner
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infections during pregnancy are linked with adverse birth outcomes. However, few countries have prenatal CT, NG, or TV screening programs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of CT, NG, and TV screening and treatment among pregnant women across six low-to-middle income countries. METHODS: A total 1,817 pregnant women were screened for CT, NG, and TV in Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Haiti, South Africa, and Vietnam...
March 9, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Sarah Jonsson, Husam Oda, Eva Lundin, Jan Olsson, Annika Idahl
OBJECTIVE: Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection has been suggested to promote epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development. This study sought to explore the presence of C. trachomatis DNA and chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (chsp60) in ovarian tissue, as well as anti-chlamydial IgG antibodies in plasma, in relation to subtypes of EOC. METHODS: This cross-sectional cohort consisted of 69 women who underwent surgery due to suspected ovarian pathology. Ovarian tissue and corresponding blood samples were collected at the time of diagnosis...
March 7, 2018: Translational Oncology
Ryan E Wiegand, Gretchen Cooley, Brook Goodhew, Natalie Banniettis, Stephan Kohlhoff, Sarah Gwyn, Diana L Martin
Latent class modeling can be used to combine the results of multiple tests to compare the sensitivity and specificity of those tests in the absence of a gold standard. Seroepidemiology for chlamydia infection may be useful for determining the cumulative risk of infection within a population. Initial studies using the Chlamydia trachomatis immunodominant antigen Pgp3 have shown utility for seroepidemiology of sexually transmitted chlamydia and the eye disease trachoma. We present our latent class modeling results for comparison of antibody data obtained from three different Pgp3-based platforms - multiplex bead array, ELISA, and lateral flow assay...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eser S Ozyurek, Tolga Karacan, Cenk Ozdalgicoglu, Salih Yilmaz, Salman Isik, Mevlide San, Erdal Kaya
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of anti-human heat shock protein 60 (hHsp60) antibody positivity in the pathogenesis of ectopic pregnancy, following Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection. STUDY DESIGN: In a case-control study, serological tests for anti-hHsp60 were performed in ectopic pregnancies (study group) and parturients with normal reproductive histories (control group). All participants in both groups were CT IgG(+). hHsp60 IgG(+) prevalences were compared between the two groups, by semiquantitative ELISA...
March 5, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Saowarop Hinkan, Jureeporn Chuerduangphui, Tipaya Ekalaksananan, Jiratha Budkaew, Kanisara Proyrungroj, Charinya Pimson, Bandit Chumworathayi, Tanyaporn Hanond, Chamsai Pientong
Chlamydia trachomatis is a common agent of sexually transmitted infection, especially in asymptomatic extra-genital sites among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aims to investigate anatomical site distribution and genotypes of C. trachomatis from asymptomatic MSM in northeast Thailand. Specimens were collected using swabs from anorectal, oropharyngeal, and urethral sites in 346 asymptomatic MSM. C. trachomatis infection was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and genotyping was based on sequences of the ompA gene...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Marco Grasse, Ida Rosenkrands, Anja Olsen, Frank Follmann, Jes Dietrich
Globally, an estimated 131 million new cases of chlamydial infection occur annually. Chlamydia trachomatis infection can cause permanent damage to the fallopian tubes in woman, resulting in infertility and a risk of ectopic pregnancy. There is a great need for a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis and as a result there is a need for assays to evaluate functional immune responses for use in future clinical trials and epidemiological studies. Antibodies play a crucial role in the defense against infection and can be protective by several functions, including phagocytosis and neutralization...
March 7, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Heather J Tarbet, Lee Dolat, Timothy J Smith, Brett M Condon, E Timothy O'Brien, Raphael H Valdivia, Michael Boyce
Intermediate filaments (IF) are a major component of the metazoan cytoskeleton and are essential for normal cell morphology, motility, and signal transduction. Dysregulation of IFs causes a wide range of human diseases, including skin disorders, cardiomyopathies, lipodystrophy, and neuropathy. Despite this pathophysiological significance, how cells regulate IF structure, dynamics, and function remains poorly understood. Here, we show that site-specific modification of the prototypical IF protein vimentin with O-linked β- N -acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) mediates its homotypic protein-protein interactions and is required in human cells for IF morphology and cell migration...
March 7, 2018: ELife
Alexandre Dumusc, Thomas Hügle
Reactive arthritis is usually regarded as a form of spondylarthritis. Patients generally present with an acute asymmetrical oligoarthritis following an episode of diarrhea or urethritis. The most frequent involved pathogens are Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter and Chlamydia trachomatis. Additional causative pathogens have been described. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the first line treatment for reactive arthritis, associated with physiotherapy. Occasionally, a short course of glucocorticoids or an intra-articular injection is needed...
March 7, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Şule Gökçe, Zafer Kurugöl, Candan Çiçek
The frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among young infants admitted with acute bronchiolitis was analysed to determine whether the former affects the clinical course of the latter. A total of 92 infants aged <6 months admitted with acute bronchiolitis were tested for C. trachomatis by a cell culture technique, obtaining nasal smears from each infant's nostrils. A second nasal sampling was taken for respiratory viruses from the study group and tested with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Clinical characteristics of C...
January 1, 2018: Tropical Doctor
Soazig Clifton, Katy Town, Martina Furegato, Michelle Cole, Hamish Mohammed, Sarah C Woodhall, J Kevin Dunbar, Helen Fifer, Gwenda Hughes
OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that treatment of STIs with azithromycin may facilitate development of azithromycin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) by exposing the organism to suboptimal doses. We investigated whether treatment history for non-rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) or NG (proxies for azithromycin exposure) in sexual health (GUM) services was associated with susceptibility of NG to azithromycin. METHODS: Azithromycin susceptibility data from the Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Programme (GRASP 2013-2015, n=4606) and additional high-level azithromycin-resistant isolates (HL-AziR) identified by the Public Health England reference laboratory (2013-2016, n=54) were matched to electronic patient records in the national GUMCAD STI surveillance dataset (2012-2016)...
March 6, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Jie Ren, Tingting Lian, Lili Shao, Yuanjun Liu, Quanzhong Liu
Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections. The effect of antibiotic treatment is not satisfactory, and there is currently no vaccine to prevent C. trachomatis infection. Our results showed that Chlamydia virus CPG1 capsid protein Vp1 treatment significantly inhibited C. trachomatis growth in cell culture, and the inclusion numbers of different C. trachomatis serotypes were decreased. In addition, we conducted a preliminary investigation of the possible mechanisms behind the Vp1 inhibition effects and C...
March 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Amanda D Brownell, Virginia Miraldi Utz, Kathi L Makoroff, Robert A Shapiro, Joel E Mortensen
Sexually transmitted infection as the result of child sexual abuse in prepubertal children is uncommon. Chlamydia trachomatis conjunctivitis is an even less common entity in prepubertal children outside the newborn period. This report details the presentation of 2 children with conjunctivitis who were subsequently diagnosed as having C. trachomatis conjunctivitis. One child was also diagnosed as having rectal and pharyngeal C. trachomatis infection, and the other also had genital C. trachomatis infection. Even with multisite C...
March 5, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Lao-Tzu Allan-Blitz, Elisa Mokany, Shelley Miller, Rachel Wee, Chelsea Shannon, Jeffrey D Klausner
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium is an important cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases. Diagnosis and susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma genitalium are limited by the fastidious nature of the organism. Therefore, the prevalence of infection and azithromycin resistance are poorly studied. METHODS: We conducted an exploratory study on remnant clinical specimens. We collected remnant DNA from urine samples and clinical swabs (cervical/vaginal, rectal, and pharyngeal) previously tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis using the Cobas 4800 CT/NG assay (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA) between March-April 2017 from across the University of California, Los Angeles Health System...
March 5, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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