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Neisseria gonorrhea

Souleymane Diabaté, Annie Chamberland, Nassirou Geraldo, Cécile Tremblay, Michel Alary
Female sex workers (FSWs) continue to carry a heavy burden of sexually transmitted infections (STI). For prevention purposes, there is a need to identify most-at-risk subgroups among them. The objective of this longitudinal cohort study conducted at Dispensaire IST, Cotonou, Benin, was to assess Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) / Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) incidence and determinants; and HIV incidence among FSWs in presence of STI/HIV risk reduction activities. Overall, 319 adult FSWs were followed quarterly from September 2008 to March 2012...
2018: PloS One
Jeanne Tamarelle, Anne C M Thiébaut, Bertille de Barbeyrac, Cécile Bébéar, Jacques Ravel, Elisabeth Delarocque-Astagneau
OBJECTIVES: The vaginal microbiota may modulate susceptibility to Human papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between these infections and the vaginal microbiota. METHODS: The search (2000-2016) yielded 1054 articles, of which 39 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed. The vaginal microbiota was dichotomized into high-Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota (HL-VMB) and low-Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota (LL-VMB), using either Nugent score, Amsel's criteria, presence of clue cells or gene sequencing...
May 2, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ricardo Gianecini, Claudia Oviedo, Lucia Irazu, Marcelo Rodríguez, Patricia Galarza
Gentamicin is a promising antibiotic for the treatment of multidrug-resistant gonorrhea. The aim of this study was to analyze the suitability and reliably of disk diffusion to monitor the susceptibility to gentamicin. We studied 237 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained in 2013 and 2015. Reference MICs were correlated with inhibition zone diameters (in millimeters) of gentamicin 10 µg disks manufactured by BBL and Oxoid. The Pearson correlation between disk diffusion and agar dilution was r = -.68 (P < 0...
March 29, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Emily J Weston, Kimberly Workowski, Elizabeth Torrone, Hillard Weinstock, Mark R Stenger
Gonorrhea, the sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is the second most common notifiable disease in the United States after chlamydia; 468,514 cases were reported to state and local health departments in 2016, an increase of 18.5% from 2015 (1). N. gonorrhoeae has progressively developed resistance to most antimicrobials used to treat the infection (2). As a result, CDC recommends two antimicrobials (250 mg of ceftriaxone [IM] plus 1 g of azithromycin [PO]) for treating uncomplicated gonorrhea to improve treatment efficacy and, potentially, to slow the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance...
April 27, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Leah R Vincent, Ann E Jerse
There is a growing public health interest in controlling sexually transmitted infections (STIs) through vaccination due to increasing recognition of the global disease burden of STIs and the role of STIs in women's reproductive health, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and the health and well-being of neonates. Neisseria gonorrhoeae has historically challenged vaccine development through the expression of phase and antigenically variable surface molecules and its capacity to cause repeated infections without inducing protective immunity...
April 18, 2018: Vaccine
Sonja Hirk, Sarah Lepuschitz, Adriana Cabal Rosel, Steliana Huhulescu, Marion Blaschitz, Anna Stöger, Silke Stadlbauer, Petra Hasenberger, Alexander Indra, Daniela Schmid, Werner Ruppitsch, Franz Allerberger
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhea and was identified by the World Health Organization as an urgent public health threat due to emerging antibiotic resistance. Here, we report 13 draft genome sequences of N. gonorrhoeae isolates derived from two epidemiologically linked cases from Austria.
April 19, 2018: Genome Announcements
Edward W Hook, Robert D Kirkcaldy
Background: Progressively decreasing susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to the antibiotics recommended for treatment has raised concerns about the public health threat of antibiotic resistant gonorrhea. This is not a new process and the organism has reliably developed resistance to all modern antibiotics used for treatment since the dawn of the antibiotic era. The history of changing recommendations for gonorrhea therapy however is complex and has been influenced by diagnostic test methods and surveillance...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Lindley A Barbee, Seema U Nayak, Jeffrey L Blumer, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Wesley Gray, Jonathan M Zenilman, Matthew R Golden, J McLeod Griffiss
BACKGROUND: There are no fully oral recommended treatment regimens for gonorrhea. Inadequately treated pharyngeal gonococcal infections are a likely reservoir for transmission and development of antimicrobial resistance. We sought to determine an oral cefixime dosing regimen that would theoretically treat pharyngeal infections by gonococci with MICs 0.5μg/mL. METHODS: We conducted an open label, non-randomized, Phase I pharmacokinetic and safety study of cefixime in 25 healthy male and female volunteers divided into four dosing cohorts (Cohort A, 400 mg; Cohort B, 800 mg; Cohort C, 1200 mg; and Cohort D, 800 mg q8h x 3 doses [total dose 2400mg]) with a target serum concentration of ≥2...
April 5, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Stephanie N Taylor, David H Morris, Ann K Avery, Kimberly A Workowski, Byron E Batteiger, Courtney A Tiffany, Caroline R Perry, Aparna Raychaudhuri, Nicole E Scangarella-Oman, Mohammad Hossain, Etienne F Dumont
Background: In this phase 2 study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral gepotidacin, a novel triazaacenaphthylene bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitor, for the treatment of uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea. Methods: Adult participants with suspected urogenital gonorrhea were enrolled and completed baseline (day 1) and test-of-cure (days 4-8) visits. Pretreatment and posttreatment urogenital swabs were collected for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) culture and susceptibility testing...
April 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Leah R Vincent, Samuel R Kerr, Yang Tan, Joshua Tomberg, Erica L Raterman, Julie C Dunning Hotopp, Magnus Unemo, Robert A Nicholas, Ann E Jerse
Resistance to ceftriaxone in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is mainly conferred by mosaic penA alleles that encode penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) variants with markedly lower rates of acylation by ceftriaxone. To assess the impact of these mosaic penA alleles on gonococcal fitness, we introduced the mosaic penA alleles from two ceftriaxone-resistant (Cror ) clinical isolates (H041 and F89) into a Cros strain (FA19) by allelic exchange and showed that the resultant Cror mutants were significantly outcompeted by the Cros parent strain in vitro and in a murine infection model...
April 3, 2018: MBio
Jennifer L Edwards, Michael P Jennings, Kate L Seib
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted infections, with an estimated more than 100 million cases of gonorrhea each year worldwide. N. gonorrhoeae has gained recent increasing attention because of the alarming rise in incidence and the widespread emergence of multidrug-resistant gonococcal strains. Vaccine development is one area of renewed interest. Herein, we review the recent advances in this area. RECENT FINDINGS: Vaccine development for N...
March 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Y Chen, W R Premasiri, L D Ziegler
SERS spectra excited at 785 nm of the bacteria Chlamydia trahomatis (elementary bodies, EB) and Neisseria gonorrheoae, the causative pathogens for the two most common sexually transmitted diseases (STD), chlamydia and gonorrhea, respectively, are reported. Although both are Gram-negative bacteria, the SERS signatures of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrheoae are completely different. N. gonorrheoae SERS spectra are due to the starvation induced nucleotide metabolites adenine and guanine, and the surface associated co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and are very similar on Au and Ag although the spectrum appears more rapidly on Ag...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kyle P Obergfell, Ryan E Schaub, Lauren L Priniski, Joseph P Dillard, H Steven Seifert
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea and is adapted to survive in humans, its only host. The N. gonorrhoeae cell wall is critical for maintaining envelope integrity, resisting immune cell killing, and production of cytotoxic peptidoglycan (PG) fragments. Deletion of the N. gonorrhoeae strain FA1090 genes encoding two predicted low-molecular-mass, penicillin-binding proteins (LMM PBPs), DacB and DacC, substantially altered the PG cross-linking. Loss of the DacB peptidase resulted in global alterations to the PG composition, while loss of the DacC protein affected a much narrower subset of PG peptide components...
March 24, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Piera Valenti, Luigi Rosa, Daniela Capobianco, Maria Stefania Lepanto, Elisa Schiavi, Antimo Cutone, Rosalba Paesano, Paola Mastromarino
The innate defense system of the female mucosal genital tract involves a close and complex interaction among the healthy vaginal microbiota, different cells, and various proteins that protect the host from pathogens. Vaginal lactobacilli and lactoferrin represent two essential actors in the vaginal environment. Lactobacilli represent the dominant bacterial species able to prevent facultative and obligate anaerobes outnumber in vaginal microbiota maintaining healthy microbial homeostasis. Several mechanisms underlie the protection exerted by lactobacilli: competition for nutrients and tissue adherence, reduction of the vaginal pH, modulation of immunity, and production of bioactive compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Vikram Singh, Manju Bala, Aradhana Bhargava, Monika Kakran, Ravi Bhatnagar
BACKGROUND: Recent WHO guidelines recommend dual therapy with ceftriaxone or cefixime plus azithromycin for gonorrhea. Azithromycin in combination with gentamicin or spectinomycin has been recommended in treatment failure cases. Due to emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, it is important to look for efficacy of these combinations and also of others that might be used in future. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate in vitro synergy of 21 dual combinations including current and alternative WHO recommended treatment regimens and other dual combinations...
2018: PloS One
Achilleas Tsoumanis, Niel Hens, Chris Richard Kenyon
BACKGROUND: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) could become untreatable in the near future. Indeed, while the treatment of symptomatic gonorrhea in core groups, such men who have sex with men (MSM), is crucial for gonorrhea control programs, screening for and treating asymptomatic gonorrhea/Chlamydia trachomatis(chlamydia) in MSM may contribute to antibiotic resistance in gonorrhea. In this systematic review we aim to assess if there is evidence that screening MSM for gonorrhea/chlamydia is associated with a decline in the prevalence of these infections...
February 26, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Michelle M Butler, Samanthi L Waidyarachchi, Kristie L Connolly, Ann E Jerse, Weirui Chai, Richard E Lee, Stephan A Kohlhoff, Dean L Shinabarger, Terry L Bowlin
Bacterial sexually transmitted infections are widespread and common, with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) and Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) being the two most frequent causes. If left untreated, both infections can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and other sequelae. The recommended treatment for gonorrhea is ceftriaxone plus azithromycin (to empirically treat chlamydial coinfections). Antibiotic resistance to all existing therapies has developed in gonorrheal infections...
May 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Harrell W Chesson, Robert D Kirkcaldy, Thomas L Gift, Kwame Owusu-Edusei, Hillard S Weinstock
Preventing the emergence of ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae can potentially avert hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs of gonorrhea and gonorrhea-attributable HIV infections. In the illustrative scenario we examined, emerging ceftriaxone resistance could lead to 1.2 million additional N. gonorrhoeae infections within 10 years, costing $378.2 million.
April 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Emily J Weston, Robert D Kirkcaldy, Mark Stenger, Eloisa Llata, Brooke Hoots, Elizabeth A Torrone
To assess trends in Neisseria gonorrhoeae among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM), we reviewed existing and published gonorrhea surveillance data in the United States. Data identified in this review include the following: national gonorrhea case report data and data from 3 other surveillance programs, the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP), the STD Surveillance Network (SSuN), and National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.Rates of reported cases of gonorrhea among men increased 54...
April 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Z Mike Chirenje, Nicholas Dhibi, H Hunter Handsfield, Elizabeth Gonese, Beth Tippett Barr, Lovemore Gwanzura, Ahmed S Latif, Dumisili Venessa Maseko, Ranmini S Kularatne, Mufuta Tshimanga, Peter H Kilmarx, Anna Machiha, Owen Mugurungi, Cornelis A Rietmeijer
INTRODUCTION: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is a common gynecological condition managed syndromically in most developing countries. In Zimbabwe, women presenting with symptomatic vaginal discharge are treated with empirical regimens that commonly cover both sexually transmitted infections (STI) and reproductive tract infections, typically including a combination of an intramuscular injection of kanamycin, and oral doxycycline and metronidazole regimens. This study was conducted to determine the current etiology of symptomatic vaginal discharge and assess adequacy of current syndromic management guidelines...
November 29, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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