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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339487/nucleolar-asymmetry-and-the-importance-of-septin-integrity-upon-cell-cycle-arrest
#1
Urvashi Rai, Fadi Najm, Alan M Tartakoff
Cell cycle arrest can be imposed by inactivating the anaphase promoting complex (APC). In S. cerevisiae this arrest has been reported to stabilize a metaphase-like intermediate in which the nuclear envelope spans the bud neck, while chromatin repeatedly translocates between the mother and bud domains. The present investigation was undertaken to learn how other features of nuclear organization are affected upon depletion of the APC activator, Cdc20. We observe that the spindle pole bodies and the spindle repeatedly translocate across the narrow orifice at the level of the neck...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338090/septin-9_i2-is-downregulated-in-tumors-impairs-cancer-cell-migration-and-alters-subnuclear-actin-filaments
#2
P Verdier-Pinard, D Salaun, H Bouguenina, S Shimada, M Pophillat, S Audebert, E Agavnian, S Coslet, E Charafe-Jauffret, T Tachibana, A Badache
Functions of septin cytoskeletal polymers in tumorigenesis are still poorly defined. Their role in the regulation of cytokinesis and cell migration were proposed to contribute to cancer associated aneuploidy and metastasis. Overexpression of Septin 9 (Sept9) promotes migration of cancer cell lines. SEPT9 mRNA and protein expression is increased in breast tumors compared to normal and peritumoral tissues and amplification of SEPT9 gene was positively correlated with breast tumor progression. However, the existence of multiple isoforms of Sept9 is a confounding factor in the analysis of Sept9 functions...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282450/secretory-proteins-are-delivered-to-the-septin-organized-penetration-interface-during-root-infection-by-verticillium-dahliae
#3
Ting-Ting Zhou, Yun-Long Zhao, Hui-Shan Guo
Successful infection of the host requires secretion of effector proteins to evade or suppress plant immunity. Secretion of effectors in root-infecting fungal pathogens, however, remains unexplored. We previously reported that Verticillium dahliae, a root-infecting phytopathogenic fungus, develops a penetration peg from a hyphopodium to infect cotton roots. In this study, we report that a septin ring, requiring VdSep5, partitions the hyphopodium and the invasive hypha and form the specialized fungus-host interface...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265560/functional-redundancy-of-septin-homologs-in-dendritic-branching
#4
Charlotte Kaplan, Mayra Steinmann, Natalia A Zapiorkowska, Helge Ewers
Septins are cytoskeletal GTPases present in nonpolar heteromeric complexes that assemble in a palindromic fashion from two to eight subunits. Mammalian septins function in several fundamental cellular processes at the membrane-cytoskeleton interface including dendritic branching in neurons. Sequence homology divides the 13 mammalian septin genes into four homology groups. Experimental findings suggest that septin function is redundant among septins from one homology group. This is best understood for the isoforms of the SEPT2 group, which form a homodimer at the center of septin complexes...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261668/staurosporine-induces-filamentation-in-the-human-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans-via-signaling-through-cyr1-and-protein-kinase-a
#5
Jinglin L Xie, Teresa R O'Meara, Elizabeth J Polvi, Nicole Robbins, Leah E Cowen
Protein kinases are key regulators of signal transduction pathways that participate in diverse cellular processes. In fungal pathogens, kinases regulate signaling pathways that govern drug resistance, stress adaptation, and pathogenesis. The impact of kinases on the fungal regulatory circuitry has recently garnered considerable attention in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which is a leading cause of human morbidity and mortality. Complex regulatory circuitry governs the C. albicans morphogenetic transition between yeast and filamentous growth, which is a key virulence trait...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261064/expression-of-sept3-sept5a-and-sept5b-in-the-developing-and-adult-nervous-system-of-the-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#6
Frederik Helmprobst, Christina Lillesaar, Christian Stigloher
Septins are a highly conserved family of small GTPases that form cytoskeletal filaments. Their cellular functions, especially in the nervous system, still remain largely enigmatic, but there are accumulating lines of evidence that septins play important roles in neuronal physiology and pathology. In order to further dissect septin function in the nervous system a detailed temporal resolved analysis in the genetically well tractable model vertebrate zebrafish (Danio rerio) is crucially necessary. To close this knowledge gap we here provide a reference dataset describing the expression of selected septins (sept3, sept5a and sept5b) in the zebrafish central nervous system...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256936/proteomic-analysis-of-the-neurotrophic-effect-of-gelidium-amansii-in-primary-cultured-neurons
#7
Md Abdul Hannan, Md Mohibbullah, Yong-Ki Hong, Il Soo Moon
Gelidium amansii is an edible and economically important red alga consumed in South Eastern Asia. In previous studies, we reported that the ethanol extracts of G. amansii (GAE) has promising modulatory activity with respect to the morphological and functional maturation of hippocampal neurons in culture. In this study, we show that the chloroform (CHCl3) subfraction of GAE and the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction dose-dependently promoted neurite outgrowth, and their effects were comparable with that of GAE. We further assessed in cultured cortical neurons, proteins differentially expressed in the presence/absence of the GAE, CHCl3 subfraction, and the EtOAc fraction by 2D-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
March 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238781/caspofungin-exposure-alters-the-core-septin-aspb-interactome-of-aspergillus-fumigatus
#8
José M Vargas-Muñiz, Hilary Renshaw, Greg Waitt, Erik J Soderblom, M Arthur Moseley, Jonathan M Palmer, Praveen R Juvvadi, Nancy P Keller, William J Steinbach
Aspergillus fumigatus, the main etiological agent of invasive aspergillosis, is a leading cause of death in immunocompromised patients. Septins, a conserved family of GTP-binding proteins, serve as scaffolding proteins to recruit enzymes and key regulators to different cellular compartments. Deletion of the A. fumigatus septin aspB increases susceptibility to the echinocandin antifungal caspofungin. However, how AspB mediates this response to caspofungin is unknown. Here, we characterized the AspB interactome under basal conditions and after exposure to a clinically relevant concentration of caspofungin...
April 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224124/the-mammalian-septin-interactome
#9
REVIEW
Katharina Neubauer, Barbara Zieger
Septins are GTP-binding and membrane-interacting proteins with a highly conserved domain structure involved in various cellular processes, including cytoskeleton organization, cytokinesis, and membrane dynamics. To date, 13 different septin genes have been identified in mammals (SEPT1 to SEPT12 and SEPT14), which can be classified into four distinct subgroups based on the sequence homology of their domain structure (SEPT2, SEPT3, SEPT6, and SEPT7 subgroup). The family members of these subgroups have a strong affinity for other septins and form apolar tri-, hexa-, or octameric complexes consisting of multiple septin polypeptides...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188860/genetic-incorporation-of-n-%C3%AE%C2%B5-acetyllysine-reveals-a-novel-acetylation-sumoylation-switch-in-yeast
#10
Sang-Woo Kim, Kyung Jin Lee, Sinil Kim, Jihyo Kim, Kyukwang Cho, Hyeon-Su Ro, Hee-Sung Park
The lysine acetylation of proteins plays a key role in regulating protein functions, thereby controlling a wide range of cellular processes. Despite the prevalence and significance of lysine acetylation in eukaryotes, however, its systematic study has been challenged by the technical limitations of conventional approaches for selective lysine acetylation in vivo. Here, we report the in vivo study of lysine acetylation via the genetic incorporation of N(ε)-acetyllysine in yeast. We demonstrate that a newly discovered acetylation-sumoylation switch precisely controls the localization and cellular function of the yeast septin protein, Cdc11, during the cell cycle...
February 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148650/the-septin-associated-kinase-gin4-recruits-gps1-to-the-site-of-cell-division
#11
Franz Meitinger, Gislene Pereira
Cell cycle dependent morphogenesis of unicellular organisms depends on the spatio-temporal control of cell polarity. Rho GTPases are the major players that guide cells through structural reorganizations such as cytokinesis (Rho1-dependent) and polarity establishment (Cdc42-dependent). In budding yeast, the protein Gps1 plays a pivotal role in both processes. Gps1 resides at the bud-neck to maintain Rho1 localization and restrict Cdc42 activity during cytokinesis. Here, we analyzed how Gps1 is recruited to the bud-neck during the cell cycle...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147230/multimodal-and-polymorphic-interactions-between-anillin-and-actin-their-implications-for-cytokinesis
#12
Silvana Jananji, Cristina Risi, Indeewari K S Lindamulage, Louis-Philippe Picard, Robert Van Sciver, Guillaume Laflamme, Abe Albaghjati, Gilles R X Hickson, Benjamin H Kwok, Vitold E Galkin
Cytokinesis of animal cells requires the assembly of a contractile ring, which promotes daughter cell splitting. Anillin is a conserved scaffold protein involved in organizing the structural components of the contractile ring including filamentous actin (F-actin), myosin, and septins and in forming the subsequent midbody ring. Like other metazoan homologs, Drosophila anillin contains a conserved domain that can bind and bundle F-actin, but the importance and molecular details of its interaction with F-actin remain unclear...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064039/roles-of-an-n-terminal-coiled-coil-containing-domain-in-the-localization-and-function-of-bem3-a-rho-gtpase-activating-protein-in-budding-yeast
#13
Wen-Chao Nie, Fei He, Si-Min Yuan, Zhi-Wen Jia, Rui-Rui Wang, Xiang-Dong Gao
GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) play critical roles in the spatial and temporal control of small GTPases. The budding yeast Bem3 is a GAP for Cdc42, a Rho GTPase crucial for actin and septin organization. Bem3 localizes to the sites of polarized growth. However, the amino acid sequence determinants mediating recruitment of Bem3 to its physiological sites of action and those important for Bem3 function are not clear. Here, we show that Bem3's localization is guided by two distinct targeting regions-the PX-PH-domain-containing TD1 and the coiled-coil-containing TD2...
January 4, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056033/fiji-macro-3d-art-veselect-3d-automated-reconstruction-tool-for-vesicle-structures-of-electron-tomograms
#14
Kristin Verena Kaltdorf, Katja Schulze, Frederik Helmprobst, Philip Kollmannsberger, Thomas Dandekar, Christian Stigloher
Automatic image reconstruction is critical to cope with steadily increasing data from advanced microscopy. We describe here the Fiji macro 3D ART VeSElecT which we developed to study synaptic vesicles in electron tomograms. We apply this tool to quantify vesicle properties (i) in embryonic Danio rerio 4 and 8 days past fertilization (dpf) and (ii) to compare Caenorhabditis elegans N2 neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) wild-type and its septin mutant (unc-59(e261)). We demonstrate development-specific and mutant-specific changes in synaptic vesicle pools in both models...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035516/circadian-rhythm-of-methylated-septin-9-cell-free-dna-amount-and-tumor-markers-in-colorectal-cancer-patients
#15
Kinga Tóth, Árpád V Patai, Alexandra Kalmár, Barbara Kinga Barták, Zsófia Brigitta Nagy, Orsolya Galamb, Barnabás Wichmann, Zsolt Tulassay, Béla Molnár
To determine the level of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), Septin 9 (SEPT9) and tumor markers (CEA, AFP, CA19-9, TPA, CA72-4). Plasma samples were collected four times a day (06:00, 12:00, 18:00, 24:00) from 9 patients with CRC (5 stage I-II, 4 stage III-IV), from one with colorectal adenoma and from one healthy control. CfDNA was isolated, quantified and bisulfite-converted. CfDNA and methylated SEPT9 were determined by RT-PCR. Plasma levels of conventional tumor markers were also measured. The lowest cfDNA concentrations were observed at 24:00 and 18:00 in stage I-III patients...
December 30, 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028881/the-microtubule-end-binding-protein-fgeb1-regulates-polar-growth-and-fungicide-sensitivity-via-different-interactors-in-fusarium-graminearum
#16
Zunyong Liu, Sisi Wu, Yun Chen, Xinyue Han, Qin Gu, Yanni Yin, Zhonghua Ma
In yeasts, the end-binding protein 1 (EB1) homologs regulate microtubule dynamics, cell polarization, and chromosome stability. However, functions of EB1 orthologs in plant pathogenic fungi have not been characterized yet. Here, we observed that the FgEB1 deletion mutant (ΔFgEB1) of Fusarium graminearum exhibits twisted hyphae, increased hyphal branching and curved conidia, indicating that FgEB1 is involved in the regulation of cellular polarity. Microscopic examination further showed that the microtubules of ΔFgEB1 exhibited less organized in comparison with those of the wild type...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028232/two-independent-s-phase-checkpoints-regulate-appressorium-mediated-plant-infection-by-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#17
Míriam Osés-Ruiz, Wasin Sakulkoo, George R Littlejohn, Magdalena Martin-Urdiroz, Nicholas J Talbot
To cause rice blast disease, the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae develops a specialized infection structure called an appressorium. This dome-shaped, melanin-pigmented cell generates enormous turgor and applies physical force to rupture the rice leaf cuticle using a rigid penetration peg. Appressorium-mediated infection requires septin-dependent reorientation of the F-actin cytoskeleton at the base of the infection cell, which organizes polarity determinants necessary for plant cell invasion. Here, we show that plant infection by M...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018901/regulation-of-store-operated-ca-2-entry-by-septins
#18
Bipan K Deb, Gaiti Hasan
The mechanism of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) brings extracellular Ca(2+) into cells after depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis by SOCE helps control various intracellular signaling functions in both non-excitable and excitable cells. Whereas essential components of the SOCE pathway are well characterized, molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of this pathway need investigation. A class of proteins recently demonstrated as regulating SOCE is septins. These are filament-forming GTPases that assemble into higher order structures...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011197/septin-7-reduces-nonmuscle-myosin-iia-activity-in-the-snap23-complex-and-hinders-glut4-storage-vesicle-docking-and-fusion
#19
Anita A Wasik, Vincent Dumont, Jukka Tienari, Tuula A Nyman, Christopher L Fogarty, Carol Forsblom, Markku Lehto, Eero Lehtonen, Per-Henrik Groop, Sanna Lehtonen
Glomerular epithelial cells, podocytes, are insulin responsive and can develop insulin resistance. Here, we demonstrate that the small GTPase septin 7 forms a complex with nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA; encoded by MYH9), a component of the nonmuscle myosin IIA (NM-IIA) hexameric complex. We observed that knockdown of NMHC-IIA decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Both septin 7 and NM-IIA associate with SNAP23, a SNARE protein involved in GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSV) docking and fusion with the plasma membrane...
January 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002737/heterotypic-coiled-coil-formation-is-essential-for-the-correct-assembly-of-the-septin-heterofilament
#20
Fernanda A Sala, Napoleão F Valadares, Joci N A Macedo, Julio C Borges, Richard C Garratt
Protein-protein interactions play a critical role in promoting the stability of protein quaternary structure and in the assembly of large macromolecular complexes. What drives the stabilization of such assemblies is a central question in biology. A limiting factor in fully understanding such systems is the transient nature of many complexes, making structural studies difficult. Septins comprise a conserved family of guanine nucleotide binding proteins that polymerize in the form of heterofilaments. In structural terms, they have a common organization: a central GTPase domain, an N-terminal domain, and a C-terminal domain; the latter is predicted to form a coiled coil...
December 20, 2016: Biophysical Journal
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