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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064039/roles-of-an-n-terminal-coiled-coil-containing-domain-in-the-localization-and-function-of-bem3-a-rho-gtpase-activating-protein-in-budding-yeast
#1
Wen-Chao Nie, Fei He, Si-Min Yuan, Zhi-Wen Jia, Rui-Rui Wang, Xiang-Dong Gao
GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) play critical roles in the spatial and temporal control of small GTPases. The budding yeast Bem3 is a GAP for Cdc42, a Rho GTPase crucial for actin and septin organization. Bem3 localizes to the sites of polarized growth. However, the amino acid sequence determinants mediating recruitment of Bem3 to its physiological sites of action and those important for Bem3 function are not clear. Here, we show that Bem3's localization is guided by two distinct targeting regions-the PX-PH-domain-containing TD1 and the coiled-coil-containing TD2...
January 4, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056033/fiji-macro-3d-art-veselect-3d-automated-reconstruction-tool-for-vesicle-structures-of-electron-tomograms
#2
Kristin Verena Kaltdorf, Katja Schulze, Frederik Helmprobst, Philip Kollmannsberger, Thomas Dandekar, Christian Stigloher
Automatic image reconstruction is critical to cope with steadily increasing data from advanced microscopy. We describe here the Fiji macro 3D ART VeSElecT which we developed to study synaptic vesicles in electron tomograms. We apply this tool to quantify vesicle properties (i) in embryonic Danio rerio 4 and 8 days past fertilization (dpf) and (ii) to compare Caenorhabditis elegans N2 neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) wild-type and its septin mutant (unc-59(e261)). We demonstrate development-specific and mutant-specific changes in synaptic vesicle pools in both models...
January 5, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035516/circadian-rhythm-of-methylated-septin-9-cell-free-dna-amount-and-tumor-markers-in-colorectal-cancer-patients
#3
Kinga Tóth, Árpád V Patai, Alexandra Kalmár, Barbara Kinga Barták, Zsófia Brigitta Nagy, Orsolya Galamb, Barnabás Wichmann, Zsolt Tulassay, Béla Molnár
To determine the level of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), Septin 9 (SEPT9) and tumor markers (CEA, AFP, CA19-9, TPA, CA72-4). Plasma samples were collected four times a day (06:00, 12:00, 18:00, 24:00) from 9 patients with CRC (5 stage I-II, 4 stage III-IV), from one with colorectal adenoma and from one healthy control. CfDNA was isolated, quantified and bisulfite-converted. CfDNA and methylated SEPT9 were determined by RT-PCR. Plasma levels of conventional tumor markers were also measured. The lowest cfDNA concentrations were observed at 24:00 and 18:00 in stage I-III patients...
December 30, 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028881/the-microtubule-end-binding-protein-fgeb1-regulates-polar-growth-and-fungicide-sensitivity-via-different-interactors-in-fusarium-graminearum
#4
Zunyong Liu, Sisi Wu, Yun Chen, Xinyue Han, Qin Gu, Yanni Yin, Zhonghua Ma
In yeasts, the end-binding protein 1 (EB1) homologs regulate microtubule dynamics, cell polarization, and chromosome stability. However, functions of EB1 orthologs in plant pathogenic fungi have not been characterized yet. Here, we observed that the FgEB1 deletion mutant (ΔFgEB1) of Fusarium graminearum exhibits twisted hyphae, increased hyphal branching and curved conidia, indicating that FgEB1 is involved in the regulation of cellular polarity. Microscopic examination further showed that the microtubules of ΔFgEB1 exhibited less organized in comparison with those of the wild type...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028232/two-independent-s-phase-checkpoints-regulate-appressorium-mediated-plant-infection-by-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#5
Míriam Osés-Ruiz, Wasin Sakulkoo, George R Littlejohn, Magdalena Martin-Urdiroz, Nicholas J Talbot
To cause rice blast disease, the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae develops a specialized infection structure called an appressorium. This dome-shaped, melanin-pigmented cell generates enormous turgor and applies physical force to rupture the rice leaf cuticle using a rigid penetration peg. Appressorium-mediated infection requires septin-dependent reorientation of the F-actin cytoskeleton at the base of the infection cell, which organizes polarity determinants necessary for plant cell invasion. Here, we show that plant infection by M...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018901/regulation-of-store-operated-ca-2-entry-by-septins
#6
Bipan K Deb, Gaiti Hasan
The mechanism of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) brings extracellular Ca(2+) into cells after depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis by SOCE helps control various intracellular signaling functions in both non-excitable and excitable cells. Whereas essential components of the SOCE pathway are well characterized, molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of this pathway need investigation. A class of proteins recently demonstrated as regulating SOCE is septins. These are filament-forming GTPases that assemble into higher order structures...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011197/septin-7-reduces-nonmuscle-myosin-iia-activity-in-the-snap23-complex-and-hinders-glut4-storage-vesicle-docking-and-fusion
#7
Anita A Wasik, Vincent Dumont, Jukka Tienari, Tuula A Nyman, Christopher L Fogarty, Carol Forsblom, Markku Lehto, Eero Lehtonen, Per-Henrik Groop, Sanna Lehtonen
Glomerular epithelial cells, podocytes, are insulin responsive and can develop insulin resistance. Here, we demonstrate that the small GTPase septin 7 forms a complex with nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA; encoded by MYH9), a component of the nonmuscle myosin IIA (NM-IIA) hexameric complex. We observed that knockdown of NMHC-IIA decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Both septin 7 and NM-IIA associate with SNAP23, a SNARE protein involved in GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSV) docking and fusion with the plasma membrane...
December 20, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002737/heterotypic-coiled-coil-formation-is-essential-for-the-correct-assembly-of-the-septin-heterofilament
#8
Fernanda A Sala, Napoleão F Valadares, Joci N A Macedo, Julio C Borges, Richard C Garratt
Protein-protein interactions play a critical role in promoting the stability of protein quaternary structure and in the assembly of large macromolecular complexes. What drives the stabilization of such assemblies is a central question in biology. A limiting factor in fully understanding such systems is the transient nature of many complexes, making structural studies difficult. Septins comprise a conserved family of guanine nucleotide binding proteins that polymerize in the form of heterofilaments. In structural terms, they have a common organization: a central GTPase domain, an N-terminal domain, and a C-terminal domain; the latter is predicted to form a coiled coil...
December 20, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990280/hyphal-ontogeny-in-neurospora-crassa-a-model-organism-for-all-seasons
#9
REVIEW
Meritxell Riquelme, Leonora Martínez-Núñez
Filamentous fungi have proven to be a better-suited model system than unicellular yeasts in analyses of cellular processes such as polarized growth, exocytosis, endocytosis, and cytoskeleton-based organelle traffic. For example, the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa develops a variety of cellular forms. Studying the molecular basis of these forms has led to a better, yet incipient, understanding of polarized growth. Polarity factors as well as Rho GTPases, septins, and a localized delivery of vesicles are the central elements described so far that participate in the shift from isotropic to polarized growth...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974709/adenovirus-mediated-overexpression-of-septin-2-attenuates-%C3%AE-smooth-muscle-actin-expression-and-adventitial-myofibroblast-migration-induced-by-angiotensin-ii
#10
Shu-Jie Guo, Peng Zhang, Ling-Yun Wu, Guan-Nan Zhang, Wen-Dong Chen, Ping-Jin Gao
Phenotypic transformation from adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) to myofibroblasts (MFs) is critical for vascular remodeling. Septin 2 was found to be downregulated during the differentiation of AFs to MFs induced by angiotensin II (Ang II); however, the role of septin 2 in this process is still unknown. In this study, we investigate whether septin 2 contributes to the adventitial MF phenotypic modulation caused by Ang II. The decreased level of septin 2 and the increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker of MFs, were readily observed in Ang II-stimulated MF differentiation...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934514/septin-interferes-with-the-temperature-dependent-domain-formation-and-disappearance-of-lipid-bilayer-membranes
#11
Shunsuke Yamada, Takumi Isogai, Ryugo Tero, Yohko Tanaka-Takiguchi, Toru Ujihara, Makoto Kinoshita, Kingo Takiguchi
Domain formation or compartmentalization in a lipid bilayer membrane has been thought to take place dynamically in cell membranes and play important roles in the spatiotemporal regulation of their physiological functions. In addition, the membrane skeleton, which is a protein assembly beneath the cell membrane, also regulates the properties as well as the morphology of membranes because of its role as a diffusion barrier against constitutive molecules of the membrane or as a scaffold for physiological reactions...
December 6, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891501/septins-and-bacterial-infection
#12
REVIEW
Vincenzo Torraca, Serge Mostowy
Septins, a unique cytoskeletal component associated with cellular membranes, are increasingly recognized as having important roles in host defense against bacterial infection. A role for septins during invasion of Listeria monocytogenes into host cells was first proposed in 2002. Since then, work has shown that septins assemble in response to a wide variety of invasive bacterial pathogens, and septin assemblies can have different roles during the bacterial infection process. Here we review the interplay between septins and bacterial pathogens, highlighting septins as a structural determinant of host defense...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882315/septin-mutations-in-human-cancers
#13
REVIEW
Dimitrios Angelis, Elias T Spiliotis
Septins are GTP-binding proteins that are evolutionarily and structurally related to the RAS oncogenes. Septin expression levels are altered in many cancers and new advances point to how abnormal septin expression may contribute to the progression of cancer. In contrast to the RAS GTPases, which are frequently mutated and actively promote tumorigenesis, little is known about the occurrence and role of septin mutations in human cancers. Here, we review septin missense mutations that are currently in the Catalog of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878927/the-septin-protein-sep4-facilitates-host-infection-by-plant-fungal-pathogens-via-mediating-initiation-of-infection-structure-formation
#14
Hui-Qiang Feng, Gui-Hua Li, Du Shun-Wen, Song Yang, Xue-Qian Li, Paul de Figueiredo, Qing-Ming Qin
Many phytopathogenic fungi use infection structures (IFSs, i.e., appressoria and infection cushions) to penetrate host cuticles. However, the conserved mechanisms that mediate initiation of IFS formation in divergent pathogens upon sensing the presence of host plants remain obscure. Here, we demonstrate that a conserved septin gene SEP4 plays crucial roles in this process. Disruption of SEP4 in the plant gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea completely blocked IFS formation and abolished the virulence of ΔBcsep4 mutants on unwounded hosts...
November 23, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878118/cancer-related-functions-and-subcellular-localizations-of-septins
#15
REVIEW
Christian Poüs, Laurence Klipfel, Anita Baillet
Since the initial discovery of septin family GTPases, the understanding of their molecular organization and cellular roles keeps being refined. Septins have been involved in many physiological processes and the misregulation of specific septin gene expression has been implicated in diverse human pathologies, including neurological disorders and cancer. In this minireview, we focus on the importance of the subunit composition and subcellular localization of septins relevant to tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866222/the-cytoskeletal-protein-septin-11-is-associated-with-human-obesity-and-is-involved-in-adipocyte-lipid-storage-and-metabolism
#16
Natalia Moreno-Castellanos, Amaia Rodríguez, Yoana Rabanal-Ruiz, Alejandro Fernández-Vega, José López-Miranda, Rafael Vázquez-Martínez, Gema Frühbeck, María M Malagón
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Septins are newly identified members of the cytoskeleton that have been proposed as biomarkers of a number of diseases. However, septins have not been characterised in adipose tissue and their relationship with obesity and insulin resistance remains unknown. Herein, we characterised a member of this family, septin 11 (SEPT11), in human adipose tissue and analysed its potential involvement in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism. METHODS: Gene and protein expression levels of SEPT11 were analysed in human adipose tissue...
February 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857942/septins-as-modulators-of-endo-lysosomal-membrane-traffic
#17
REVIEW
Kyungyeun Song, Giulia Russo, Michael Krauss
Septins constitute a family of GTP-binding proteins, which assemble into non-polar filaments in a nucleotide-dependent manner. These filaments can be recruited to negatively charged membrane surfaces. When associated with membranes septin filaments can act as diffusion barriers, which confine subdomains of distinct biological functions. In addition, they serve scaffolding roles by recruiting cytosolic proteins and other cytoskeletal elements. Septins have been implicated in a large variety of membrane-dependent processes, including cytokinesis, signaling, cell migration, and membrane traffic, and several family members have been implicated in disease...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857941/septin-organization-and-functions-in-budding-yeast
#18
REVIEW
Oliver Glomb, Thomas Gronemeyer
The septins are a conserved family of GTP-binding proteins present in all eukaryotic cells except plants. They were originally discovered in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that serves until today as an important model organism for septin research. In yeast, the septins assemble into a highly ordered array of filaments at the mother bud neck. The septins are regulators of spatial compartmentalization in yeast and act as key players in cytokinesis. This minireview summarizes the recent findings about structural features and cell biology of the yeast septins...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847804/septin-associated-protein-kinases-in-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#19
REVIEW
Adam M Perez, Gregory C Finnigan, Françoise M Roelants, Jeremy Thorner
Septins are a family of eukaryotic GTP-binding proteins that associate into linear rods, which, in turn, polymerize end-on-end into filaments, and further assemble into other, more elaborate super-structures at discrete subcellular locations. Hence, septin-based ensembles are considered elements of the cytoskeleton. One function of these structures that has been well-documented in studies conducted in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is to serve as a scaffold that recruits regulatory proteins, which dictate the spatial and temporal control of certain aspects of the cell division cycle...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811987/a-critical-role-of-solute-carrier-22a14-in-sperm-motility-and-male-fertility-in-mice
#20
Shin-Ya Maruyama, Momoe Ito, Yuusuke Ikami, Yu Okitsu, Chizuru Ito, Kiyotaka Toshimori, Wataru Fujii, Keiichiro Yogo
We previously identified solute carrier 22a14 (Slc22a14) as a spermatogenesis-associated transmembrane protein in mice. Although Slc22a14 is a member of the organic anion/cation transporter family, its expression profile and physiological role have not been elucidated. Here, we show that Slc22a14 is crucial for sperm motility and male fertility in mice. Slc22a14 is expressed specifically in male germ cells, and mice lacking the Slc22a14 gene show severe male infertility. Although the overall differentiation of sperm was normal, Slc22a14(-/-) cauda epididymal spermatozoa showed reduced motility with abnormal flagellar bending...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
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