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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971094/editorial-emerging-functions-of-septins
#1
EDITORIAL
Manoj B Menon, Matthias Gaestel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919876/peptide-composition-of-stroke-causing-emboli-correlate-with-serum-markers-of-atherosclerosis-and-inflammation
#2
Neal M Rao, Joseph Capri, Whitaker Cohn, Maram Abdaljaleel, Lucas Restrepo, Jeffrey A Gornbein, William H Yong, David S Liebeskind, Julian P Whitelegge
INTRODUCTION: The specific protein composition of stroke-causing emboli is unknown. Because ischemic stroke has a varied etiology, it is possible that the composition of the thrombus from which an embolus originated will have distinctive molecular characteristics reflective of the underlying pathophysiology. We used mass spectrometry to evaluate the protein composition of retrieved emboli from patients with differing stroke etiologies and correlated the protein levels to serum predictors of atherosclerosis...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905266/septin-structure-and-filament-assembly
#3
REVIEW
Napoleão Fonseca Valadares, Humberto d' Muniz Pereira, Ana Paula Ulian Araujo, Richard Charles Garratt
Septins are able to polymerize into long apolar filaments and have long been considered to be a component of the cytoskeleton alongside intermediate filaments (which are also apolar in nature), microtubules and actin filaments (which are not). Their central guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding domain, which is essential for stabilizing the filament itself, is flanked by N- and C-terminal domains for which no direct structural information is yet available. In most cases, physiological filaments are built from a number of different septin monomers, and in the case of mammalian septins this is most commonly either three or four...
September 13, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895884/interaction-of-recombinant-gallus-gallus-sept5-and-brain-proteins-of-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus-infected-chickens
#4
Jasmine Elanie Khairat, Vinod Balasubramaniam, Iekhsan Othman, Abdul Rahman Omar, Sharifah Syed Hassan
Septin forms a conserved family of cytoskeletal guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding proteins that have diverse roles in protein scaffolding, vesicle trafficking, and cytokinesis. The involvement of septins in infectious viral disease pathogenesis has been demonstrated by the upregulation of SEPT5 protein and its mRNA in brain tissues of H5N1-infected chickens, thus, providing evidence for the potential importance of this protein in the pathogenesis of neurovirulence caused by the avian influenza virus. In this study, cloning, expression, and purification of Gallus gallus SEPT5 protein was performed in Escherichia coli...
September 12, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851826/protein-phosphorylation-in-spermatozoa-motility-of-acipenser-ruthenus-and-cyprinus-carpio
#5
Ievgeniia Gazo, Mariola A Dietrich, Gérard Prulière, Anna Shaliutina-Kolešová, Olena Shaliutina, Jacky Cosson, Janet Chenevert
Spermatozoa of externally fertilizing freshwater fish possess several different modes of motility activation. Spermatozoa of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) are activated by hypoosmolality, whereas spermatozoa of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) require Ca2+ and low concentration of K+ for motility activation. Intracellular signaling differs between these two species as well, particularly in terms of utilization of secondary messengers (cAMP and Ca2+), and kinase activities. The current study was performed in order to determine the importance of protein phosphorylation and protein kinases for activation of sperm motility in carp and sterlet...
November 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818052/proteomic-analysis-during-of-spore-germination-of-moniliophthora-perniciosa-the-causal-agent-of-witches-broom-disease-in-cacao
#6
Joise Hander Mares, Karina Peres Gramacho, Everton Cruz Santos, André da Silva Santiago, Juliano Oliveira Santana, Aurizângela Oliveira de Sousa, Fátima Cerqueira Alvim, Carlos Priminho Pirovani
BACKGROUND: Moniliophthora perniciosa is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for witches' broom disease of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.). Understanding the molecular events during germination of the pathogen may enable the development of strategies for disease control in these economically important plants. In this study, we determined a comparative proteomic profile of M. perniciosa basidiospores during germination by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A total of 316 proteins were identified...
August 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817802/molecular-memory-of-morphologies-by-septins-during-neuron-generation-allows-early-polarity-inheritance
#7
Leila Boubakar, Julien Falk, Hugo Ducuing, Karine Thoinet, Florie Reynaud, Edmund Derrington, Valérie Castellani
Transmission of polarity established early during cell lineage history is emerging as a key process guiding cell differentiation. Highly polarized neurons provide a fascinating model to study inheritance of polarity over cell generations and across morphological transitions. Neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate to the dorsal root ganglia to generate neurons directly or after cell divisions in situ. Using live imaging of vertebrate embryo slices, we found that bipolar NCC progenitors lose their polarity, retracting their processes to round for division, but generate neurons with bipolar morphology by emitting processes from the same locations as the progenitor...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776765/s-cerevisiae-gle2-rae1-is-involved-in-septin-organization-essential-for-cell-cycle-progression
#8
Gesa Zander, Wilfried Kramer, Anika Seel, Heike Krebber
Gle2/Rae1 is highly conserved from yeast to humans and described as an mRNA export factor. Additionally, it is implicated in the anaphase-promoting complex (APC)-mediated cell cycle regulation in higher eukaryotes. Here we identified an involvement for S. cerevisiae Gle2 in septin organization, which is crucial for cell cycle progression and cell division. Gle2 genetically and physically interacts with components of the septin-ring. Importantly, deletion of GLE2 leads to elongated buds, severe defects in septin-assembly and their cellular mislocalization...
August 4, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768828/sphingolipids-facilitate-age-asymmetry-of-membrane-proteins-in-dividing-yeast-cells
#9
Pushpendra Singh, Sree Kumar Ramachandran, Jin Zhu, Byoung Choul Kim, Debojyoti Biswas, Taekjip Ha, Pablo A Iglesias, Rong Li
One proposed mechanism of cellular aging is the gradual loss of certain cellular components that are insufficiently renewed. In an earlier study, multidrug resistance transporters (MDRs) were postulated to be such aging determinants during the yeast replicative life span (RLS). Aged MDR proteins were asymmetrically retained by the aging mother cell and did not diffuse freely into the bud, whereas newly synthesized MDR proteins were thought to be deposited mostly in the bud before cytokinesis. In this study, we further demonstrate the proposed age asymmetry of MDR proteins in dividing yeast cells and investigate the mechanism that controls diffusive properties of MDR proteins to maintain this asymmetry...
October 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751190/septin-6-regulates-engraftment-and-lymphoid-differentiation-potential-of-murine-long-term-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#10
Katharina Senger, Gina Marka, Karin Soller, Vadim Sakk, Maria Carolina Florian, Hartmut Geiger
Septins are a family of filament-forming GTP-binding proteins that serve as scaffolds and diffusion barriers in various cellular processes. Septin 6 is known as a fusion partner of mixed-lineage leukemia in infant acute myeloid leukemia. The occurrence of the fusion gene is associated with a reduced expression of septin 6 itself. The role of septin 6 in hematopoiesis and whether it is involved in scaffolds within hematopoietic cells is not known. Septin 6-deficient hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) present with an increased engraftment potential but altered lymphoid differentiation with a reduced contribution to the T-cell compartment and an increased B-cell contribution...
July 24, 2017: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742127/tpc1-is-an-important-zn-ii-2cys6-transcriptional-regulator-required-for-polarized-growth-and-virulence-in-the-rice-blast-fungus
#11
Rita Galhano, Adriana Illana, Lauren S Ryder, Julio Rodríguez-Romero, Marie Demuez, Muhammad Badaruddin, Ana Lilia Martinez-Rocha, Darren M Soanes, David J Studholme, Nicholas J Talbot, Ane Sesma
The establishment of polarity is a critical process in pathogenic fungi, mediating infection-related morphogenesis and host tissue invasion. Here, we report the identification of TPC1 (Transcription factor for Polarity Control 1), which regulates invasive polarized growth in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. TPC1 encodes a putative transcription factor of the fungal Zn(II)2Cys6 family, exclusive to filamentous fungi. Tpc1-deficient mutants show severe defects in conidiogenesis, infection-associated autophagy, glycogen and lipid metabolism, and plant tissue colonisation...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731446/effect-of-apoe-genotype-on-synaptic-proteins-in-earlier-adult-life
#12
Lindsey I Sinclair, Seth Love
BACKGROUND: Possession of APOEɛ4 is a strong risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease and is associated with loss of synaptic proteins in the elderly even in the absence of Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that ɛ4 allele possession in non-demented adults aged under-75 would also be associated with alterations in the levels of synaptic proteins. METHODS: We measured synaptophysin, PSD95, drebrin, SNAP-25, and septin 7 by ELISA in hippocampus and superior temporal gyrus from 103 adults aged <75 without dementia...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711459/influence-of-the-bud-neck-on-nuclear-envelope-fission-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
Patricia G Melloy, Mark D Rose
Studies have shown that nuclear envelope fission (karyokinesis) in budding yeast depends on cytokinesis, but not distinguished whether this was a direct requirement, indirect, because of cell cycle arrest, or due to bud neck-localized proteins impacting both processes. To determine the requirements for karyokinesis, we examined mutants conditionally defective for bud emergence and/or nuclear migration. The common mutant phenotype was completion of the nuclear division cycle within the mother cell, but karyokinesis did not occur...
July 13, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650995/septins-restrict-inflammation-and-protect-zebrafish-larvae-from-shigella-infection
#14
Maria J Mazon-Moya, Alexandra R Willis, Vincenzo Torraca, Laurent Boucontet, Avinash R Shenoy, Emma Colucci-Guyon, Serge Mostowy
Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen, causes inflammatory destruction of the human intestinal epithelium. Infection by S. flexneri has been well-studied in vitro and is a paradigm for bacterial interactions with the host immune system. Recent work has revealed that components of the cytoskeleton have important functions in innate immunity and inflammation control. Septins, highly conserved cytoskeletal proteins, have emerged as key players in innate immunity to bacterial infection, yet septin function in vivo is poorly understood...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630940/fluconazole-induced-ploidy-change-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-results-from-the-uncoupling-of-cell-growth-and-nuclear-division
#15
Sophie Altamirano, Diana Fang, Charles Simmons, Shreyas Sridhar, Peipei Wu, Kaustuv Sanyal, Lukasz Kozubowski
Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes lethal cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. One of the challenges in treating cryptococcosis is the development of resistance to azole antifungals. Previous studies linked azole resistance to elevated numbers of copies of critical resistance genes in aneuploid cells. However, how aneuploidy is formed in the presence of azole drugs remains unclear. This study showed that treatment with inhibitory concentrations of an azole drug, fluconazole (FLC), resulted in a significant population of cells with increased DNA content, through the following defects: inhibition of budding, premature mitosis, and inhibition of cytokinesis followed by replication in the mother cell...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625841/identification-of-a-new-subtilisin-like-protease-nbslp2-interacting-with-cytoskeletal-protein-septin-in-microsporidia-nosema-bombycis
#16
Fangyan Liu, Qiang Ma, Xiaoqun Dang, Ying Wang, Yue Song, Xianzhi Meng, Jialing Bao, Jie Chen, Guoqing Pan, Zeyang Zhou
Nosema bombycis is the pathogen of pébrine which brings heavy losses to sericulture every year. As a member of serine proteases, subtilisin-like protease (SLP) is related to the pathogenicity in fungi. In this study, we characterized a novel 63.8kDa subtilisin-like protease NbSLP2 with a predicted transmembrane domain from Microsporidia, N. bombycis. RT-PCR showed that the transcript of NbSLP2 was detected from third day post infection. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) indicated that NbSLP2 mainly scattered around the spore wall of N...
September 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541184/the-step-wise-pathway-of-septin-hetero-octamer-assembly-in-budding-yeast
#17
Andrew Weems, Michael McMurray
Septin proteins bind guanine nucleotides and form rod-shaped hetero-oligomers. Cells choose from a variety of available septins to assemble distinct hetero-oligomers, but the underlying mechanism was unknown. Using a new in vivo assay, we find that a stepwise assembly pathway produces the two species of budding yeast septin hetero-octamers: Cdc11/Shs1-Cdc12-Cdc3-Cdc10-Cdc10-Cdc3-Cdc12-Cdc11/Shs1. Rapid GTP hydrolysis by monomeric Cdc10 drives assembly of the core Cdc10 homodimer. The extended Cdc3 N terminus autoinhibits Cdc3 association with Cdc10 homodimers until prior Cdc3-Cdc12 interaction...
May 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516085/analysis-of-septin-reorganization-at-cytokinesis-using-polarized-fluorescence-microscopy
#18
Molly McQuilken, Maximilian S Jentzsch, Amitabh Verma, Shalin B Mehta, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Amy S Gladfelter
Septins are conserved filament-forming proteins that act in diverse cellular processes. They closely associate with membranes and, in some systems, components of the cytoskeleton. It is not well understood how filaments assemble into higher-order structures in vivo or how they are remodeled throughout the cell cycle. In the budding yeast S. cerevisiae, septins are found through most of the cell cycle in an hourglass organization at the mother-bud neck until cytokinesis when the collar splits into two rings that disassemble prior to the next cell cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515105/free-circulating-methylated-dna-in-blood-for-diagnosis-staging-prognosis-and-monitoring-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients-an-observational-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Andreas Schröck, Annette Leisse, Luka de Vos, Heidrun Gevensleben, Freya Dröge, Alina Franzen, Malin Wachendörfer, Friederike Schröck, Joerg Ellinger, Marcus Teschke, Timo Wilhelm-Buchstab, Jennifer Landsberg, Stefan Holdenrieder, Gunther Hartmann, John K Field, Friedrich Bootz, Glen Kristiansen, Dimo Dietrich
BACKGROUND: Circulating cell-free DNA methylation testing in blood has recently received regulatory approval for screening of colorectal cancer. Its application in other clinical settings, including staging, prognosis, prediction, and recurrence monitoring is highly promising, and of particular interest in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) that represent a heterogeneous group of cancers with unsatisfactory treatment guidelines. METHODS: Short stature homeobox 2 (SHOX2) and septin 9 (SEPT9) DNA methylation in plasma from 649 prospectively enrolled patients (training study: 284 HNSCC/122 control patients; testing study: 141 HNSCC/102 control patients) was quantified before treatment and longitudinally during surveillance...
July 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476887/filaments-and-fingers-novel-structural-aspects-of-the-single-septin-from-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#20
Andressa P A Pinto, Humberto M Pereira, Ana E Zeraik, Heloisa Ciol, Frederico M Ferreira, José Brandão-Neto, Ricardo DeMarco, Marcos V A S Navarro, Cristina Risi, Vitold E Galkin, Richard C Garratt, Ana P U Araujo
Septins are filament-forming GTP-binding proteins involved in many essential cellular events related to cytoskeletal dynamics and maintenance. Septins can self-assemble into heterocomplexes, which polymerize into highly organized, cell membrane-interacting filaments. The number of septin genes varies among organisms, and although their structure and function have been thoroughly studied in opisthokonts (including animals and fungi), no structural studies have been reported for other organisms. This makes the single septin from Chlamydomonas (CrSEPT) a particularly attractive model for investigating whether functional homopolymeric septin filaments also exist...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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