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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438904/actin-microtubule-septin-and-escrt-filament-remodeling-during-late-steps-of-cytokinesis
#1
REVIEW
Cyril Addi, Jian Bai, Arnaud Echard
Cytokinesis is the process by which a mother cell is physically cleaved into two daughter cells. In animal cells, cytokinesis begins with the contraction of a plasma membrane-associated actomyosin ring that is responsible for the ingression of a cleavage furrow. However, the post-furrowing steps of cytokinesis are less understood. Here, we highlight key recent findings that reveal a profound remodeling of several classes of cytoskeletal elements and cytoplasmic filaments (septins, microtubules, actin and ESCRT) in the late steps of cytokinesis...
February 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435015/phosphoproteomic-analysis-of-the-antitumor-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg3-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#2
Mingjin Zou, Jing Wang, Jidong Gao, Hui Han, Yi Fang
The incidence of breast cancer has been increasing in China and the age of breast cancer onset is earlier compared with Western countries. Compounds commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) are an important source of anticancer drugs. Ginseng is one of the most common medicines used in TCM. Ginsenosides, which are saponins found in the ginseng plant, are the major active components responsible for the chemopreventive effects of ginseng in cancer. However, the mechanisms by which ginsenosides exert their anticancer effects remain elusive...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396461/the-anillin-related-int1-protein-and-the-sep7-septin-collaborate-to-maintain-cellular-ploidy-in-candida-albicans
#3
Sara Orellana-Muñoz, Encarnación Dueñas-Santero, Yolanda Arnáiz-Pita, Francisco Del Rey, Jaime Correa-Bordes, Carlos R Vázquez de Aldana
Variation in cell ploidy is a common feature of Candida albicans clinical isolates that are resistant to the antifungal drug fluconazole. Here, we report that the anillin-related protein Int1 interacts with septins for coupling cytokinesis with nuclear segregation. Loss of Int1 results in a rapid disassembly of duplicated septin rings from the bud neck at the onset of actomyosin ring contraction. Strikingly, this has no major impact on cytokinesis and septum formation. However, Int1 genetically interacts with the Sep7 septin, maintaining the diffusion barrier at the bud neck and guarantying a faithful nuclear segregation...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361537/septins-are-involved-at-the-early-stages-of-macroautophagy-in-s-cerevisiae
#4
Gaurav Barve, Shreyas Sridhar, Amol Aher, Mayurbhai H Sahani, Sarika Chinchwadkar, Sunaina Singh, K N Lakshmeesha, Michael A McMurray, Ravi Manjithaya
Autophagy is a conserved cellular degradation pathway wherein double-membrane vesicle called autophagosomes capture long-lived proteins and damaged or superfluous organelles and deliver them to the lysosome for degradation. Septins are conserved GTP-binding proteins involved in many cellular processes, including phagocytosis and autophagy of intracellular bacteria, but no role in general autophagy was known. In budding yeast, septins polymerize into ring-shaped arrays of filaments required for cytokinesis. In an unbiased genetic screen and in subsequent targeted analysis, we found autophagy defects in septin mutants, and co-localized septins in rings at the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS) and on autophagosomes where they physically interact with the autophagy proteins Atg8 and Atg9...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360625/meeting-report-shining-light-on-septins
#5
REVIEW
Fabrice Caudron, Smita Yadav
Septins are enigmatic proteins; they bind GTP and assemble together like molecular Lego blocks to form intracellular structures of varied shapes such as filaments, rings and gauzes. To shine light on the biological mysteries of septin proteins, leading experts in the field came together for the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) workshop held from 8-11 October 2017 in Berlin. Organized by Helge Ewers (Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany) and Serge Mostowy (Imperial College, London, UK), the workshop convened at the Harnack-Haus, a historic hub of scientific discourse run by the Max Planck Society...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344665/overexpression-of-septin-7-inhibits-melatonin-induced-cell-apoptosis-in-human-fetal-osteoblastic-cells-via-suppression-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#6
Xiaotong Meng, Yue Zhu, Lin Tao, Sichao Zhao, Shui Qiu
Our previous study demonstrated that melatonin could induce apoptosis in the human fetal osteoblastic (hFOB) 1.19 cell line via induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), and recent studies have demonstrated that the expression of septin‑7 (SEPT7) exhibits a positive correlation with the concentration of melatonin. Western blotting demonstrated the expression level of SEPT7 was significantly upregulated in a dose‑dependent manner following treatment with differing concentrations of melatonin compared with the control groups, which did not receive any treatment...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337282/comparative-proteome-analysis-of-monolayer-and-spheroid-culture-of-canine-osteosarcoma-cells
#7
Christiane Gebhard, Ingrid Miller, Karin Hummel, Martina Neschi Née Ondrovics, Sarah Schlosser, Ingrid Walter
Osteosarcoma is an aggressive bone tumor with high metastasis rate in the lungs and affects both humans and dogs in a similar way. Three-dimensional tumor cell cultures mimic the in vivo situation of micro-tumors and metastases and are therefore better experimental in vitro models than the often applied two-dimensional monolayer cultures. The aim of the present study was to perform comparative proteomics of standard monolayer cultures of canine osteosarcoma cells (D17) and three-dimensional spheroid cultures, to better characterize the 3D model before starting with experiments like migration assays...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330091/cdc42ep4-a-perisynaptic-scaffold-protein-in-bergmann-glia-is-required-for-glutamatergic-tripartite-synapse-configuration
#8
Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Kohtarou Konno, Maya Yamazaki, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Makoto Kinoshita
Configuration of tripartite synapses, comprising the pre-, post-, and peri-synaptic components (axon terminal or bouton, dendritic spine, and astroglial terminal process), is a critical determinant of neurotransmitter kinetics and hence synaptic transmission. However, little is known about molecular basis for the regulation of tripartite synapse morphology. Previous studies showed that CDC42EP4, an effector protein of a cell morphogenesis regulator CDC42, is expressed exclusively in Bergmann glia in the cerebellar cortex, that it forms tight complex with the septin heterooligomer, and that it interacts indirectly with the glutamate transporter GLAST and MYH10/nonmuscle myosin ΙΙB...
January 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326311/spatial-effects%C3%A2-%C3%A2-site-specific-regulation-of-actin-and-microtubule-organization-by-septin-gtpases
#9
REVIEW
Elias T Spiliotis
The actin and microtubule cytoskeletons comprise a variety of networks with distinct architectures, dynamics and protein composition. A fundamental question in eukaryotic cell biology is how these networks are spatially and temporally controlled, so they are positioned in the right intracellular places at the right time. While significant progress has been made in understanding the self-assembly of actin and microtubule networks, less is known about how they are patterned and regulated in a site-specific manner...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321251/control-of-septin-filament-flexibility-and-bundling-by-subunit-composition-and-nucleotide-interactions
#10
Anum Khan, Jay Newby, Amy S Gladfelter
Septins self-assemble into heteromeric rods and filaments to act as scaffolds and modulate membrane properties. How cells tune the biophysical properties of septin filaments to control filament flexibility and length, and in turn the size, shape, and position of higher-order septin structures is not well understood. We examined how rod composition and nucleotide availability influence physical properties of septins such as annealing, fragmentation, bundling and bending. We found that septin complexes have symmetric termini, even when both Shs1 and Cdc11 are coexpressed...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262371/asymmetric-flows-in-the-intercellular-membrane-during-cytokinesis
#11
Vidya V Menon, S S Soumya, Amal Agarwal, Sundar R Naganathan, Mandar M Inamdar, Anirban Sain
Eukaryotic cells undergo shape changes during their division and growth. This involves flow of material both in the cell membrane and in the cytoskeletal layer beneath the membrane. Such flows result in redistribution of phospholipid at the cell surface and actomyosin in the cortex. Here we focus on the growth of the intercellular surface during cell division in a Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. The growth of this surface leads to the formation of a double-layer of separating membranes between the two daughter cells...
December 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146903/wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-protein-regulates-autophagy-and-inflammasome-activity-in-innate-immune-cells
#12
Pamela P Lee, Damián Lobato-Márquez, Nayani Pramanik, Andrea Sirianni, Vanessa Daza-Cajigal, Elizabeth Rivers, Alessia Cavazza, Gerben Bouma, Dale Moulding, Kjell Hultenby, Lisa S Westerberg, Michael Hollinshead, Yu-Lung Lau, Siobhan O Burns, Serge Mostowy, Mona Bajaj-Elliott, Adrian J Thrasher
Dysregulation of autophagy and inflammasome activity contributes to the development of auto-inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence highlights the importance of the actin cytoskeleton in modulating inflammatory responses. Here we show that deficiency of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp), which signals to the actin cytoskeleton, modulates autophagy and inflammasome function. In a model of sterile inflammation utilizing TLR4 ligation followed by ATP or nigericin treatment, inflammasome activation is enhanced in monocytes from WAS patients and in WAS-knockout mouse dendritic cells...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133115/structural-features-of-the-interaction-of-the-3-untranslated-region-of-mrna-containing-exosomal-rna-specific-motifs-with-yb-1-a-potential-mediator-of-mrna-sorting
#13
Darya D Yanshina, Olga A Kossinova, Alexander V Gopanenko, Olga A Krasheninina, Alexey A Malygin, Alia G Ven'yaminova, Galina G Karpova
We have previously shown that YB-1 is the only protein of the HEK293 cell cytoplasmic (S100) extract that specifically interacts with RNA hairpins each containing one of the motifs ACCAGCCU (1), CAGUGAGC (2) and UAAUCCCA (3), which had been identified as often found in exosomal RNA and proposed as potential cis-acting elements targeting RNAs into exosomes. Here we explored the interactions of YB-1 with a fragment of the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of septin 14 mRNA (SEPT14 RNA), which contains all three motifs...
November 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100341/septin-remodeling-is-essential-for-the-formation-of-cell-membrane-protrusions-microtentacles-in-detached-tumor-cells
#14
Kristine Østevold, Ana V Meléndez, Friederike Lehmann, Gudula Schmidt, Klaus Aktories, Carsten Schwan
Microtentacles are mostly microtubule-based cell protrusions that are formed by detached tumor cells. Here, we report that the formation of tumor cell microtentacles depends on the presence and dynamics of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins of the septin family, which are part of the cytoskeleton. In matrix-attached breast, lung, prostate and pancreas cancer cells, septins are associated with the cytosolic actin cytoskeleton. Detachment of cells causes redistribution of septins to the membrane, where microtentacle formation occurs...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079679/phosphorylation-of-pnut-at-the-early-steps-of-drosophila%C3%A2-embryo-development-affects-association-of-the-septin-complex-with-membrane-and-is-important-for-viability
#15
Katarina Akhmetova, Maxim Balasov, Anton Svitin, Elena Chesnokova, Matthew Renfrow, Igor Chesnokov
Septin proteins are polymerizing GTPases that are found in most eukaryotic species. Septins are important for cytokinesis and participate in many processes involving spatial modifications of the cell cortex. In Drosophila, septin proteins Pnut, Sep1 and Sep2 form a hexameric septin complex. Here, we found that septin protein Pnut is phosphorylated during the first two hours of Drosophila embryo development. To study the effect of Pnut phosphorylation in a live organism, we created a new Drosophila pnut null mutant which allows for the analysis of Pnut mutations during embryogenesis...
October 27, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051266/sumoylation-of-human-septins-is-critical-for-septin-filament-bundling-and-cytokinesis
#16
David Ribet, Serena Boscaini, Clothilde Cauvin, Martin Siguier, Serge Mostowy, Arnaud Echard, Pascale Cossart
Septins are cytoskeletal proteins that assemble into nonpolar filaments. They are critical in diverse cellular functions, acting as scaffolds for protein recruitment and as diffusion barriers for subcellular compartmentalization. Human septins are encoded by 13 different genes and are classified into four groups based on sequence homology (SEPT2, SEPT3, SEPT6, and SEPT7 groups). In yeast, septins were among the first proteins reported to be modified by SUMOylation, a ubiquitin-like posttranslational modification...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046399/dynamic-localization-of-a-yeast-development-specific-pp1-complex-during-prospore-membrane-formation-is-dependent-on-multiple-localization-signals-and-complex-formation
#17
Tsuyoshi S Nakamura, Yumi Numajiri, Yuuya Okumura, Junji Hidaka, Takayuki Tanaka, Ichiro Inoue, Yasuyuki Suda, Tetsuo Takahashi, Hideki Nakanishi, Xiao-Dong Gao, Aaron M Neiman, Hiroyuki Tachikawa
During the developmental process of sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, membrane structures called prospore membranes are formed de novo, expand, extend, round up, and finally become plasma membranes of the spores. GIP1 encodes a regulatory/targeting subunit of protein phosphatase type 1 that is required for sporulation. Gip1 recruits the catalytic subunit Glc7 to septin structures that form along the prospore membrane; however, the molecular basis of its localization and function is not fully understood...
October 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971094/editorial-emerging-functions-of-septins
#18
EDITORIAL
Manoj B Menon, Matthias Gaestel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919876/peptide-composition-of-stroke-causing-emboli-correlate-with-serum-markers-of-atherosclerosis-and-inflammation
#19
Neal M Rao, Joseph Capri, Whitaker Cohn, Maram Abdaljaleel, Lucas Restrepo, Jeffrey A Gornbein, William H Yong, David S Liebeskind, Julian P Whitelegge
INTRODUCTION: The specific protein composition of stroke-causing emboli is unknown. Because ischemic stroke has a varied etiology, it is possible that the composition of the thrombus from which an embolus originated will have distinctive molecular characteristics reflective of the underlying pathophysiology. We used mass spectrometry to evaluate the protein composition of retrieved emboli from patients with differing stroke etiologies and correlated the protein levels to serum predictors of atherosclerosis...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905266/septin-structure-and-filament-assembly
#20
REVIEW
Napoleão Fonseca Valadares, Humberto d' Muniz Pereira, Ana Paula Ulian Araujo, Richard Charles Garratt
Septins are able to polymerize into long apolar filaments and have long been considered to be a component of the cytoskeleton alongside intermediate filaments (which are also apolar in nature), microtubules and actin filaments (which are not). Their central guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding domain, which is essential for stabilizing the filament itself, is flanked by N- and C-terminal domains for which no direct structural information is yet available. In most cases, physiological filaments are built from a number of different septin monomers, and in the case of mammalian septins this is most commonly either three or four...
October 2017: Biophysical Reviews
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