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Caiyun Liu, Zhigang Li, Junjie Xing, Jun Yang, Zhao Wang, Hong Zhang, Deng Chen, You-Liang Peng, Xiao-Lin Chen
Protein post-translational modifications play critical roles in cellular processes, development and stress response. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to proteins is one of the essential modifications in eukaryotes, but its function remains largely unknown in plant pathogenic fungi. We present a comprehensive analysis combined with proteomic, molecular and cellular approaches to explore the roles of sumoylation in the model plant fungal pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae. We found the SUMO pathway plays key roles in colony growth, conidia formation and virulence to the host, as well as cell-cycle-related phenotypes...
April 16, 2018: New Phytologist
Gaurav Barve, Priyadarshini Sanyal, Ravi Manjithaya
Autophagy is a vital conserved recycling process where eukaryotic cells remove unwanted proteins and organelles via lysosomal degradation and in turn, generate nutrients for the cells. The special feature of autophagy process is the formation of double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes that engulf cellular cargo and deliver them to the vacuole or lysosomes for degradation. Inspite of more than 40 AuTophaGy (ATG) proteins and several organelles as known membrane source, autophagosome biogenesis is not entirely understood...
April 12, 2018: Current Genetics
Farida Tripodi, Roberta Fraschini, Monica Zocchi, Veronica Reghellin, Paola Coccetti
Before anaphase onset, budding yeast cells must align the mitotic spindle parallel to the mother-bud axis to ensure proper chromosome segregation. The protein kinase Snf1/AMPK is a highly conserved energy sensor, essential for adaptation to glucose limitation and in response to cellular stresses. However, recent findings indicate that it plays important functions also in non-limiting glucose conditions. Here we report a novel role of Snf1/AMPK in the progression through mitosis in glucose-repressing condition...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Meritxell Riquelme, Jesús Aguirre, Salomon Bartnicki-García, Gerhard H Braus, Michael Feldbrügge, Ursula Fleig, Wilhelm Hansberg, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Jörg Kämper, Ulrich Kück, Rosa R Mouriño-Pérez, Norio Takeshita, Reinhard Fischer
Filamentous fungi constitute a large group of eukaryotic microorganisms that grow by forming simple tube-like hyphae that are capable of differentiating into more-complex morphological structures and distinct cell types. Hyphae form filamentous networks by extending at their tips while branching in subapical regions. Rapid tip elongation requires massive membrane insertion and extension of the rigid chitin-containing cell wall. This process is sustained by a continuous flow of secretory vesicles that depends on the coordinated action of the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons and the corresponding motors and associated proteins...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Margaret L Thomas, Paola Marcato
Aberrant epigenetic modifications are an early event in carcinogenesis, with the epigenetic landscape continuing to change during tumor progression and metastasis-these observations suggest that specific epigenetic modifications could be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for many cancer types. DNA methylation, post-translational histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs are all dysregulated in cancer and are detectable to various degrees in liquid biopsies such as sputum, urine, stool, and blood...
April 1, 2018: Cancers
Julia Bergheim, Alexander Semaan, Heidrun Gevensleben, Susanne Groening, Andreas Knoblich, Jörn Dietrich, Julia Weber, Jörg C Kalff, Friedrich Bootz, Glen Kristiansen, Dimo Dietrich
BACKGROUND: Septin 9 (SEPT9) and short stature homeobox 2 (SHOX2) methylation in circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) are powerful biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, as well as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma staging and monitoring. In the present study, we investigated SEPT9 and SHOX2 ccfDNA methylation as auxiliary pre and post-therapeutic staging parameters in CRC patients. METHODS: ccfDNA methylation was quantified in 184 prospectively enrolled patients prior to and 3-10 days after surgery, and biomarker levels were associated with clinico-pathological parameters...
April 3, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Xinlu Wang, Fei Fei, Jie Qu, Chunyuan Li, Yuwei Li, Shiwu Zhang
Septins are a conserved family of cytoskeletal GTPases present in different organisms, including yeast, drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans and humans. In humans, septins are involved in various cellular processes, including exocytosis, apoptosis, leukemogenesis, carcinogenesis and neurodegeneration. Septin 7 is unique out of 13 human septins. Mammalian septin 6, septin 7, septin 2 and septin 9 coisolate together in complexes to form the core unit for the generation of the septin filaments. Physiological septin filaments are hetero-oligomeric complexes consisting of core septin hexamers and octamers...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Xiaotong Meng, Yue Zhu, Lin Tao, Sichao Zhao, Shui Qiu
The present study aimed to investigate the association between septin 7 (SEPT7) and melatonin-induced apoptosis in the human fetal osteoblastic cell line hFOB 1.19. MicroRNA (miR)‑590‑3p was identified by identifying overlapping miRNAs that target SEPT7, across different databases (miRDB, DIANA and Targetscan). Apoptosis was assessed via flow cytometric analysis. Small interfering RNA of SEPT7 and a miR‑590‑3p inhibitor were used for gene silencing and the efficiency was assessed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Deepesh Kumar Gupta, Jian Du, Siamak A Kamranvar, Staffan Johansson
Previous studies have shown that cytokinetic abscission at the end of mitosis is executed by the ESCRT machinery in mammalian cells, and that the process is dependent on adhesion-induced integrin signalling via a FAK-PLK1-CEP55-TSG101/Alix-CHMP4B pathway. The present study identified an alternative abscission mechanism driven by mechanical force. In the absence of integrin signals (non-adherent conditions), cytokinesis in non-transformed human fibroblasts proceeds to CEP55 accumulation at the midbody, but after prolonged time (>3 hours) the major midbody components Aurora B, MKLP1 and CEP55 were no longer detected in the area...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Marzieh Rezaei, Saman Nikeghbalian, Zahra Mojtahedi, Abbas Ghaderi
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive malignancy characterized by early invasiveness and resistance to treatment. Surgery in early stages is the only effective treatment, thus finding new biomarkers for the early detection of PDAC remains a major challenge. The present study aimed to compare the immunoproteome between PDAC patients and healthy controls using serological proteome analysis method. Firstly, cell lysates from two different pancreatic cancer cell lines were separated by two dimensional (2D) gels, and then transferred onto membranes probed with sera from 20 PDAC patients and 10 healthy controls...
February 28, 2018: Oncology Reports
Allison K Simi, Alisya A Anlas, Melody Stallings-Mann, Sherry Zhang, Tiffaney Hsia, Magdalena A Cichon, Derek C Radisky, Celeste M Nelson
Multinucleation is found in more than one third of tumors and is linked to increased tolerance for mutation, resistance to chemotherapy, and invasive potential. The integrity of the genome depends on proper execution of the cell cycle, which can be altered through mechanotransduction pathways as the tumor microenvironment stiffens during tumorigenesis. Here we show that signaling downstream of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) or transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta), known inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), also promotes multinucleation in stiff microenvironments through Snail-dependent expression of the filament-forming protein septin-6, resulting in midbody persistence, abscission failure, and multinucleation...
February 26, 2018: Cancer Research
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Thomas O'Loughlin, Thomas A Masters, Folma Buss
The intracellular functions of myosin motors requires a number of adaptor molecules, which control cargo attachment, but also fine-tune motor activity in time and space. These motor-adaptor-cargo interactions are often weak, transient or highly regulated. To overcome these problems, we use a proximity labelling-based proteomics strategy to map the interactome of the unique minus end-directed actin motor MYO6. Detailed biochemical and functional analysis identified several distinct MYO6-adaptor modules including two complexes containing RhoGEFs: the LIFT (LARG-Induced F-actin for Tethering) complex that controls endosome positioning and motility through RHO-driven actin polymerisation; and the DISP (DOCK7-Induced Septin disPlacement) complex, a novel regulator of the septin cytoskeleton...
February 21, 2018: EMBO Reports
Cyril Addi, Jian Bai, Arnaud Echard
Cytokinesis is the process by which a mother cell is physically cleaved into two daughter cells. In animal cells, cytokinesis begins with the contraction of a plasma membrane-associated actomyosin ring that is responsible for the ingression of a cleavage furrow. However, the post-furrowing steps of cytokinesis are less understood. Here, we highlight key recent findings that reveal a profound remodeling of several classes of cytoskeletal elements and cytoplasmic filaments (septins, microtubules, actin and ESCRT) in the late steps of cytokinesis...
February 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Mingjin Zou, Jing Wang, Jidong Gao, Hui Han, Yi Fang
The incidence of breast cancer has been increasing in China and the age of breast cancer onset is earlier compared with Western countries. Compounds commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) are an important source of anticancer drugs. Ginseng is one of the most common medicines used in TCM. Ginsenosides, which are saponins found in the ginseng plant, are the major active components responsible for the chemopreventive effects of ginseng in cancer. However, the mechanisms by which ginsenosides exert their anticancer effects remain elusive...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Sara Orellana-Muñoz, Encarnación Dueñas-Santero, Yolanda Arnáiz-Pita, Francisco Del Rey, Jaime Correa-Bordes, Carlos R Vázquez de Aldana
Variation in cell ploidy is a common feature of Candida albicans clinical isolates that are resistant to the antifungal drug fluconazole. Here, we report that the anillin-related protein Int1 interacts with septins for coupling cytokinesis with nuclear segregation. Loss of Int1 results in a rapid disassembly of duplicated septin rings from the bud neck at the onset of actomyosin ring contraction. Strikingly, this has no major impact on cytokinesis and septum formation. However, Int1 genetically interacts with the Sep7 septin, maintaining the diffusion barrier at the bud neck and guarantying a faithful nuclear segregation...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gaurav Barve, Shreyas Sridhar, Amol Aher, Mayurbhai H Sahani, Sarika Chinchwadkar, Sunaina Singh, Lakshmeesha K N, Michael A McMurray, Ravi Manjithaya
Autophagy is a conserved cellular degradation pathway wherein double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes capture long-lived proteins, and damaged or superfluous organelles, and deliver them to the lysosome for degradation. Septins are conserved GTP-binding proteins involved in many cellular processes, including phagocytosis and the autophagy of intracellular bacteria, but no role in general autophagy was known. In budding yeast, septins polymerize into ring-shaped arrays of filaments required for cytokinesis...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Fabrice Caudron, Smita Yadav
Septins are enigmatic proteins; they bind GTP and assemble together like molecular Lego blocks to form intracellular structures of varied shapes such as filaments, rings and gauzes. To shine light on the biological mysteries of septin proteins, leading experts in the field came together for the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) workshop held from 8-11 October 2017 in Berlin. Organized by Helge Ewers (Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany) and Serge Mostowy (Imperial College, London, UK), the workshop convened at the Harnack-Haus, a historic hub of scientific discourse run by the Max Planck Society...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Xiaotong Meng, Yue Zhu, Lin Tao, Sichao Zhao, Shui Qiu
Our previous study demonstrated that melatonin could induce apoptosis in the human fetal osteoblastic (hFOB) 1.19 cell line via induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), and recent studies have demonstrated that the expression of septin‑7 (SEPT7) exhibits a positive correlation with the concentration of melatonin. Western blotting demonstrated the expression level of SEPT7 was significantly upregulated in a dose‑dependent manner following treatment with differing concentrations of melatonin compared with the control groups, which did not receive any treatment...
March 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Christiane Gebhard, Ingrid Miller, Karin Hummel, Martina Neschi Née Ondrovics, Sarah Schlosser, Ingrid Walter
Osteosarcoma is an aggressive bone tumor with high metastasis rate in the lungs and affects both humans and dogs in a similar way. Three-dimensional tumor cell cultures mimic the in vivo situation of micro-tumors and metastases and are therefore better experimental in vitro models than the often applied two-dimensional monolayer cultures. The aim of the present study was to perform comparative proteomics of standard monolayer cultures of canine osteosarcoma cells (D17) and three-dimensional spheroid cultures, to better characterize the 3D model before starting with experiments like migration assays...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
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