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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885024/septin-regulated-actin-dynamics-promote-salmonella-invasion-of-host-cells
#1
Kirsten C Boddy, Aggie Duan Gao, Dorothy Truong, Moshe S Kim, Carol D Froese, William S Trimble, John H Brumell
Actin nucleators and their binding partners play crucial roles during Salmonella invasion, but how these factors are dynamically coordinated remains unclear. Here, we show that septins, a conserved family of GTPases, play a role during the early stages of Salmonella invasion. We demonstrate that septins are rapidly recruited to sites of bacterial entry and contribute to the morphology of invasion ruffles. Expression of Septin 2, Septin 7 and Septin 9 is required for efficient bacterial invasion. We found that septins contribute to the recruitment of ROCK2 kinase during Salmonella invasion and the downstream activation of the actin nucleating protein FHOD1...
June 8, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791841/functional-genomic-screening-reveals-core-modulators-of-echinocandin-stress-responses-in-candida-albicans
#2
Tavia Caplan, Elizabeth J Polvi, Jinglin L Xie, Shoshana Buckhalter, Michelle D Leach, Nicole Robbins, Leah E Cowen
Candida albicans is a leading cause of death due to fungal infection. Treatment of systemic candidiasis often relies on echinocandins, which disrupt cell wall synthesis. Resistance is readily acquired via mutations in the drug target gene, FKS1. Both basal tolerance and resistance to echinocandins require cellular stress responses. We performed a systematic analysis of 3,030 C. albicans mutants to define circuitry governing cellular responses to echinocandins. We identified 16 genes for which deletion or transcriptional repression enhanced echinocandin susceptibility, including components of the Pkc1-MAPK signaling cascade...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777035/septin-dependent-remodeling-of-cortical-microtubule-drives-cell-reshaping-during-epithelial-wound-healing
#3
Asako Shindo, Anastasia Audrey, Maki Takagishi, Masahide Takahashi, John B Wallingford, Makoto Kinoshita
Wounds in embryos heal rapidly through the contraction of the wound edges. Despite well-recognized significance of the actomyosin purse-string for wound closure, roles for other cytoskeletal components are largely unknown. Here, we report that the septin cytoskeleton cooperates with actomyosin and microtubules to coordinate circumferential contraction of the wound margin and concentric elongation of wound-proximal cells in Xenopus laevis embryos. Microtubules reoriented radially, forming bundles along lateral cell cortices in elongating wound-proximal cells...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771630/septins-regulate-junctional-integrity-of-endothelial-monolayers
#4
Joanna Kim, John A Cooper
Junctional integrity of endothelial monolayers is crucial to control movement of molecules and cells across the endothelium. Examining the structure and dynamics of cell junctions in endothelial monolayers, we discovered a role for septins. Contacts between adjacent endothelial cells were dynamic, with protrusions extending above or below neighboring cells. VE-cadherin was present at cell junctions, with a membrane-associated layer of F-actin. Septins localized at cell-junction membranes, in patterns distinct from VE-cadherin and F-actin...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763674/septin-associated-protein-kinase-gin4-affects-localization-and-phosphorylation-of-chs4-the-regulatory-subunit-of-the-baker-s-yeast-chitin-synthase-iii-complex
#5
Simon Gohlke, Daniela Heine, Hans-Peter Schmitz, Hans Merzendorfer
Chitin is mainly formed by the chitin synthase III complex (CSIII) in yeast cells. This complex is considered to be composed of the catalytic subunit Chs3 and the regulatory subunit Chs4, both of which are phosphoproteins and transported to the plasma membrane by different trafficking routes. During cytokinesis, Chs3 associates with Chs4 and other proteins at the septin ring, which results in an active CSIII complex. In this study, we focused on the role of Chs4 as a regulatory subunit of the CSIII complex...
May 12, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752866/a-requirement-for-septins-and-the-autophagy-receptor-p62-in-the-proliferation-of-intracellular-shigella
#6
Damián Lobato-Márquez, Sina Krokowski, Andrea Sirianni, Gerald Larrouy-Maumus, Serge Mostowy
Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen, causes inflammatory destruction of the human intestinal epithelium. During infection of epithelial cells, Shigella escape from the phagosome to the cytosol, where they reroute host cell glycolysis to obtain nutrients for proliferation. Septins, a poorly understood component of the cytoskeleton, can entrap cytosolic Shigella targeted to autophagy in cage-like structures to restrict bacterial proliferation. Although bacterial entrapment by septin caging has been the subject of intense investigation, the role of septins and the autophagy machinery in the proliferation of non-caged Shigella is mostly unknown...
May 12, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747238/septins-active-gtpases-or-just-gtp-binding-proteins
#7
Megha Abbey, Matthias Gaestel, Manoj B Menon
Septins are conserved cytoskeletal proteins with unique filament forming capabilities and roles in cytokinesis and cell morphogenesis. Septins undergo hetero-oligomerization and assemble into higher order structures including filaments, rings and cages. Hetero- and homotypic interactions of septin isoforms involve alternating GTPase (G)-domain interfaces and those mediated by N- and C-terminal extensions. While most septins bind GTP, display weak GTP-hydrolysis activity and incorporate guanine nucleotides in their interaction interfaces, studies using GTPase-inactivating mutations have failed to conclusively establish a crucial role for GTPase activity in mediating septin functions...
May 10, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743192/prolonged-cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibition-results-in-septin-perturbations-during-return-to-growth-and-mitosis
#8
Gabriel M Gihana, Tiffany R Musser, Oscar Thompson, Soni Lacefield
We investigated how Saccharomyces cerevisiae coordinate polarization, budding, and anaphase during a unique developmental program called return to growth (RTG) in which cells in meiosis return to mitosis upon nutrient shift. Cells reentering mitosis from prophase I deviate from the normal cell cycle by budding in G2 instead of G1. We found that cells do not maintain the bipolar budding pattern, a characteristic of diploid cells. Furthermore, strict temporal regulation of M-phase cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK; M-CDK) is important for polarity establishment and morphogenesis...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742803/septin-9-isoform-1-sept9_i1-specifically-interacts-with-importin-%C3%AE-7-to-drive-hypoxia-inducible-factor-hif-1%C3%AE-nuclear-translocation
#9
Keren Tazat, Susanne Schindler, Reinhard Deppeing, Nicola J Mabjeesh
We have shown previously that septin 9 isoform 1 (SEPT9_i1) protein associates with hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α to augment HIF-1 transcriptional activity by driving its importin-α-mediated nuclear translocation. Using in vitro and in vivo binding assays we identified that HIF-1α interacts with importin-α5 and importin-α7 in prostate cancer cells but only importin-α7 interacts with SEPT9_i1. The interaction with importin-α7 was dependent on the first 25 amino acids of SEPT9_i1 that are unique compared to other members of the mammalian septin family...
May 9, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722930/septins-regulate-the-equatorial-dynamics-of-the-separation-initiation-network-kinase-sid2p-and-glucan-synthases-to-ensure-proper-cytokinesis
#10
Shengnan Zheng, Fenfen Dong, Faiz Rasul, Xuebiao Yao, Quan-Wen Jin, Fan Zheng, Chuanhai Fu
Septins generally function as scaffolds, and as cortical barriers to restrict diffusion of membrane proteins. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, septins form a ring structure at the septum after spindle breakdown during constriction of the contractile actomyosin ring (CAR) and serve as a scaffold to recruit glucanases to mediate ultimate daughter cell separation. Despite this, it remains unclear if septins play any significant roles before the cell separation during cytokinesis. Employing live-cell microscopy, we carefully examined SIN (Septation Initiation Network) signaling and glucan synthases, two key factors ensuring proper function of the CAR...
May 3, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699512/regulation-of-calretinin-in-malignant-mesothelioma-is-mediated-by-septin-7-binding-to-the-calb2-promoter
#11
Walter Blum, László Pecze, Janine Wörthmüller Rodriguez, Martine Steinauer, Beat Schwaller
BACKGROUND: The calcium-binding protein calretinin (gene name: CALB2) is currently considered as the most sensitive and specific marker for the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma (MM). MM is a very aggressive tumor strongly linked to asbestos exposure and with no existing cure so far. The mechanisms of calretinin regulation, as well as its distinct function in MM are still poorly understood. METHODS: We searched for transcription factors binding to the CALB2 promoter and modulating calretinin expression...
April 27, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695686/-functional-characterization-of-septin-complexes
#12
K A Akhmetova, I N Chesnokov, S A Fedorova
Septins belong to a family of conserved GTP-binding proteins found in majority of eukaryotic species except for higher plants. Septins form nonpolar complexes that further polymerize into filaments and associate with cell membranes, thus comprising newly acknowledged cytoskeletal system. Septins participate in a variety of cell processes and contribute to various pathophysiological states, including tumorigenesis and neurodegeneration. Here, we review the structural and functional properties of septins and the regulation of their dynamics with special emphasis on the role of septin filaments as a cytoskeletal system and its interaction with actin and microtubule cytoskeletons...
March 2018: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663402/global-analysis-of-sumoylation-function-reveals-novel-insights-into-development-and-appressorium-mediated-infection-of-the-rice-blast-fungus
#13
Caiyun Liu, Zhigang Li, Junjie Xing, Jun Yang, Zhao Wang, Hong Zhang, Deng Chen, You-Liang Peng, Xiao-Lin Chen
Protein post-translational modifications play critical roles in cellular processes, development and stress response. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to proteins is one of the essential modifications in eukaryotes, but its function remains largely unknown in plant pathogenic fungi. We present a comprehensive analysis combined with proteomic, molecular and cellular approaches to explore the roles of sumoylation in the model plant fungal pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae. We found the SUMO pathway plays key roles in colony growth, conidia formation and virulence to the host, as well as cell-cycle-related phenotypes...
April 16, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651536/septin-localization-and-function-during-autophagy
#14
REVIEW
Gaurav Barve, Priyadarshini Sanyal, Ravi Manjithaya
Autophagy is a vital conserved recycling process where eukaryotic cells remove unwanted proteins and organelles via lysosomal degradation and in turn, generate nutrients for the cells. The special feature of autophagy process is the formation of double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes that engulf cellular cargo and deliver them to the vacuole or lysosomes for degradation. Inspite of more than 40 AuTophaGy (ATG) proteins and several organelles as known membrane source, autophagosome biogenesis is not entirely understood...
April 12, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643469/snf1-ampk-is-involved-in-the-mitotic-spindle-alignment-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#15
Farida Tripodi, Roberta Fraschini, Monica Zocchi, Veronica Reghellin, Paola Coccetti
Before anaphase onset, budding yeast cells must align the mitotic spindle parallel to the mother-bud axis to ensure proper chromosome segregation. The protein kinase Snf1/AMPK is a highly conserved energy sensor, essential for adaptation to glucose limitation and in response to cellular stresses. However, recent findings indicate that it plays important functions also in non-limiting glucose conditions. Here we report a novel role of Snf1/AMPK in the progression through mitosis in glucose-repressing condition...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643171/fungal-morphogenesis-from-the-polarized-growth-of-hyphae-to-complex-reproduction-and-infection-structures
#16
REVIEW
Meritxell Riquelme, Jesús Aguirre, Salomon Bartnicki-García, Gerhard H Braus, Michael Feldbrügge, Ursula Fleig, Wilhelm Hansberg, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Jörg Kämper, Ulrich Kück, Rosa R Mouriño-Pérez, Norio Takeshita, Reinhard Fischer
Filamentous fungi constitute a large group of eukaryotic microorganisms that grow by forming simple tube-like hyphae that are capable of differentiating into more-complex morphological structures and distinct cell types. Hyphae form filamentous networks by extending at their tips while branching in subapical regions. Rapid tip elongation requires massive membrane insertion and extension of the rigid chitin-containing cell wall. This process is sustained by a continuous flow of secretory vesicles that depends on the coordinated action of the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons and the corresponding motors and associated proteins...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614786/epigenetic-modifications-as-biomarkers-of-tumor-development-therapy-response-and-recurrence-across-the-cancer-care-continuum
#17
REVIEW
Margaret L Thomas, Paola Marcato
Aberrant epigenetic modifications are an early event in carcinogenesis, with the epigenetic landscape continuing to change during tumor progression and metastasis-these observations suggest that specific epigenetic modifications could be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for many cancer types. DNA methylation, post-translational histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs are all dysregulated in cancer and are detectable to various degrees in liquid biopsies such as sputum, urine, stool, and blood...
April 1, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610456/potential-of-quantitative-sept9-and-shox2-methylation-in-plasmatic-circulating-cell-free-dna-as-auxiliary-staging-parameter-in-colorectal-cancer-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#18
Julia Bergheim, Alexander Semaan, Heidrun Gevensleben, Susanne Groening, Andreas Knoblich, Jörn Dietrich, Julia Weber, Jörg C Kalff, Friedrich Bootz, Glen Kristiansen, Dimo Dietrich
BACKGROUND: Septin 9 (SEPT9) and short stature homeobox 2 (SHOX2) methylation in circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) are powerful biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, as well as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma staging and monitoring. In the present study, we investigated SEPT9 and SHOX2 ccfDNA methylation as auxiliary pre and post-therapeutic staging parameters in CRC patients. METHODS: ccfDNA methylation was quantified in 184 prospectively enrolled patients prior to and 3-10 days after surgery, and biomarker levels were associated with clinico-pathological parameters...
May 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602250/the-role-of-septin-7-in-physiology-and-pathological-disease-a-systematic-review-of-current-status
#19
REVIEW
Xinlu Wang, Fei Fei, Jie Qu, Chunyuan Li, Yuwei Li, Shiwu Zhang
Septins are a conserved family of cytoskeletal GTPases present in different organisms, including yeast, drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans and humans. In humans, septins are involved in various cellular processes, including exocytosis, apoptosis, leukemogenesis, carcinogenesis and neurodegeneration. Septin 7 is unique out of 13 human septins. Mammalian septin 6, septin 7, septin 2 and septin 9 coisolate together in complexes to form the core unit for the generation of the septin filaments. Physiological septin filaments are hetero-oligomeric complexes consisting of core septin hexamers and octamers...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568931/mir-590-3p-mediates-melatonin-induced-cell-apoptosis-by-targeting-septin-7-in-the-human-osteoblast-cell-line-hfob-1-19
#20
Xiaotong Meng, Yue Zhu, Lin Tao, Sichao Zhao, Shui Qiu
The present study aimed to investigate the association between septin 7 (SEPT7) and melatonin-induced apoptosis in the human fetal osteoblastic cell line hFOB 1.19. MicroRNA (miR)‑590‑3p was identified by identifying overlapping miRNAs that target SEPT7, across different databases (miRDB, DIANA and Targetscan). Apoptosis was assessed via flow cytometric analysis. Small interfering RNA of SEPT7 and a miR‑590‑3p inhibitor were used for gene silencing and the efficiency was assessed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
May 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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