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Drug abuse in women

Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, Atami O Sagna, C Nathan Marti
BACKGROUND: US suicide rates among older women have substantially increased over the past decade. We examined potential differences in sociodemographic and risk/precipitating factors among older female suicide decedents who died by drug overdose versus firearms, hanging/suffocation, and other means, and postmortem toxicology results by suicide means. METHODS: Data are from the 2005 to 2015 US National Violent Death Reporting System (N = 12,401 female decedents aged 50 years and over)...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Chang You, Bertha Vandegrift, Mark S Brodie
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) evaluates salience of environmental stimuli and provides dopaminergic innervation to many brain areas affected by acute and chronic ethanol exposure. While primarily associated with rewarding and reinforcing stimuli, recent evidence indicates a role for the VTA in aversion as well. Ethanol actions in the VTA may trigger neuroadaptation resulting in reduction of the aversive responses to alcohol and a relative increase in the rewarding responses. In searching for effective pharmacotherapies for the treatment of alcohol abuse and alcoholism, recognition of this imbalance may reveal novel strategies...
March 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Fatemeh Jahanbakhsh, Fahimeh Bagheri Amiri, Abbas Sedaghat, Noushin Fahimfar, Ehsan Mostafavi
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the prevalence for hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) and syphilis among homeless in the city of Tehran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 596 homeless were recruited in Tehran. A researcher-designed questionnaire was used to study demographic data. Using enzyme-linked immunoassay, and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, we evaluated the seroprevalence of HAV anti-body, HEV IgG, herpes, HSV2 IgG, and syphilis among sheltered homeless in Tehran...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Celia Hsiao, Deborah Fry, Catherine L Ward, Gary Ganz, Tabitha Casey, Xiaodong Zheng, Xiangming Fang
Despite the extent and magnitude of violence against children in South Africa, political and financial investments to prevent violence against children remain low. A recent costing study investigating the social burden and economic impact of violence against children in South Africa found notable reductions to mental and physical health outcomes in the population if children were prevented from experiencing violence, neglect and witnessing family violence. The results showed, among others, that drug abuse in the entire population could be reduced by up to 14% if sexual violence against children could be prevented, self-harm could be reduced by 23% in the population if children did not experience physical violence, anxiety could be reduced by 10% if children were not emotionally abused, alcohol abuse could be reduced by 14% in women if they did not experience neglect as children, and lastly, interpersonal violence in the population could be reduced by 16% if children did not witness family violence...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Tara L White, Mollie A Monnig, Edward G Walsh, Adam Z Nitenson, Ashley D Harris, Ronald A Cohen, Eric C Porges, Adam J Woods, Damon G Lamb, Chelsea A Boyd, Sinda Fekir
Prescription psychostimulants produce rapid changes in mood, energy, and attention. These drugs are widely used and abused. However, their effects in human neocortex on glutamate and glutamine (pooled as Glx), and key neurometabolites such as N-acetylaspartate (tNAA), creatine (tCr), choline (Cho), and myo-inositol (Ins) are poorly understood. Changes in these compounds could inform the mechanism of action of psychostimulant drugs and their abuse potential in humans. We investigated the acute impact of two FDA-approved psychostimulant drugs on neurometabolites using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS)...
March 6, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Dorian Fernandez, Imoleayo Salami, Janelle Davis, Florence Mbah, Aisha Kazeem, Abreah Ash, Justin Babino, Laquiesha Carter, Jason L Salemi, Kiara K Spooner, Omonike A Olaleye, Hamisu M Salihu
Objective: HIV and tuberculosis represent diseases of major public health importance worldwide. Very little is known about HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant women, especially from industrialized settings. In this study, we examined the association between TB, HIV, and HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant mothers and obstetric complications, alcohol use, drug abuse, and depression. Method: We examined inpatient hospital discharges in the United States from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2014...
2018: Journal of Pregnancy
Anni I Lehikoinen, Olli K Kärkkäinen, Marko A S Lehtonen, Seppo O K Auriola, Kati J Hanhineva, Seppo T Heinonen
BACKGROUND: Although the effects of alcohol on metabolic processes in the body have been studied widely, there do not appear to be any previous reports clarifying how substance abuse changes metabolic profiles of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of substance abuse, especially alcohol use, on the metabolic profile of pregnant women during the first trimester. STUDY DESIGN: We applied mass spectrometry based non-targeted metabolite profiling of serum collected during routine visit to the hospital between gestational weeks 9 + 0 to 11 + 6 from controls (n = 55), alcohol users (n = 19), drug users (n = 24) and tobacco smokers (n = 40)...
February 17, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Tomasz Pawlowski, Piotr Baranowski
Background: Coercive measures are applied in psychiatry as a last resort to control self- and hetero-aggressive behaviors in situations where all other possible strategies have failed. For ethical and clinical reasons, the number of instances of coercion should be reduced as far as possible. Aim: The aim of the study was to identify sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients that were associated with coercion during hospital treatment. Materials and Methods: The study has a descriptive, longitudinal design, based on a 1 year prospective observation of patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital consisting of six inpatient psychiatric wards with a total of 236 beds...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Q Duan, R Li, M Z Liao, P X Huang, H Y Yu, T Yang, S X Shan, D M Kang
Objective: This study aimed to understand the herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection and related factors among female drug abusers in the women's compulsory drug rehabilitation center of Shandong province and to provide reference for the prevention and control of HSV-2 in these settings. Methods: We screened all of 451 female drug abusers in the women's compulsory drug rehabilitation centers in of Shandong province and conducted a study using both questionnaire investigation and serological tests for HSV-2, HIV and syphilis...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Janusz Springer, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała
Tianeptine is an atypical antidepressant approved in 25 countries for the treatment of depressive syndromes. Tianeptine abuse among psychiatric patients in the community and at inpatient wards has been increasingly reported in recent years. The purpose of this article is to alert clinicians to tianeptine abuse potential and identify any patterns in the literature. We searched the Academic Search Complete, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, Science Citation Index, Scopus, and the Social Sciences Citation Index for articles published between 1960-2017 in any language containing the keywords: "tianeptine abuse," "tianeptine misuse," "tianeptine dependence...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Victoria H Coleman-Cowger, Emmanuel A Oga, Erica N Peters, Kathleen Trocin, Bartosz Koszowski, Katrina Mark
INTRODUCTION: Prescription-drug use in the USA has increased by more than 60% in the last three decades. Prevalence of prescription-drug use among pregnant women is currently estimated around 50%. Prevalence of illicit drug use in the USA is 14.6% among pregnant adolescents, 8.6% among pregnant young adults and 3.2% among pregnant adults. The first step in identifying problematic drug use during pregnancy is screening; however, no specific substance-use screener has been universally recommended for use with pregnant women to identify illicit or prescription-drug use...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Stian Magnus Staurung Orlien, Nejib Yusuf Ismael, Tekabe Abdosh Ahmed, Nega Berhe, Trine Lauritzen, Borghild Roald, Robert David Goldin, Kathrine Stene-Johansen, Anne Margarita Dyrhol-Riise, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Marsha Yvonne Morgan, Asgeir Johannessen
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is assumed to be the major cause of chronic liver disease (CLD) in sub-Saharan Africa. The contribution of other aetiological causes of CLD is less well documented and hence opportunities to modulate other potential risk factors are being lost. The aims of this study were to explore the aetiological spectrum of CLD in eastern Ethiopia and to identify plausible underlying risk factors for its development. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken between April 2015 and April 2016 in two public hospitals in Harar, eastern Ethiopia...
February 13, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Emilie Jouanjus, Grégory Guernec, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre
Diversion of prescription drugs is difficult to assess in quality and quantity. This study aimed to characterize diversion of prescription drugs in France through a comparative analysis of falsified prescriptions collected during three periods from 2001 to 2012. The data recorded in a national program which records all falsified prescriptions presented to community pharmacies were studied. Included data regarded: subjects, prescription forms and drugs. Description of the dataset in 3 periods (2001-2004, 2005-2008, and 2009-2012) was completed with clustering analyses to characterize profiles of prescriptions and subjects associated with the most reported drugs...
February 13, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Lynn Falletta, Kelsey Hamilton, Rebecca Fischbein, Julie Aultman, Beth Kinney, Deric Kenne
Pregnant, opioid-using women represent a challenge to healthcare providers attempting to engage them in prenatal and substance abuse services. Limited, primarily international research suggests that child welfare clients have mixed feelings about Child Protective Services (CPS) and that fear of CPS may present a barrier to care. Understanding how pregnant opioid-using women in substance abuse treatment perceive CPS may be useful in encouraging substance abuse treatment initiation. Participants were currently or recently (within past 12 months) pregnant women with current or recent (within past 12 months) abuse/dependence of pharmaceutical opioids at a drug treatment facility...
February 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Ting Wang, Baohua Shen, Hejian Wu, Jingying Hu, Huili Xu, Min Shen, Ping Xiang
Methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) are widely abused drugs. These compounds contain a chiral center, and their enantiomers exhibit different pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and metabolic properties due to differences in binding affinities to their receptor sites. Until now, there was a lack of information on the decline in the concentration of drugs in hair after abstinence. A simple procedure for the chiral separation and determination of methamphetamine (MA) and its metabolite amphetamine (AM) enantiomers by LC-MS/MS in hair samples has been developed and fully validated...
January 30, 2018: Forensic Science International
Maria A Christou, Stelios Tigas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent data on the adverse reproductive consequences of androgen abuse, focusing on the recovery of reproductive function following androgen discontinuation. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence is mostly based on case reports and observational studies. Androgen abuse leads to a state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with impaired spermatogenesis, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia as well as menstrual irregularities, virilization and subfertility...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Dominic Sagoe, Ståle Pallesen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To systematically review current epidemiological literature on androgen abuse. Estimates from 32 empirical epidemiological articles were reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Generally, androgen abuse epidemiology and prevalence is higher in Europe, the Middle East, North America (the USA), Oceania (Australia and New Zealand), and South America (Brazil) and lower in Africa and Asia. In contrast to the general population, androgen abuse epidemiology and prevalence is higher among athletes, injection drug users, recreational sportspeople, and sexual and gender minorities...
January 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Joanne Neale, Charlotte N E Tompkins, Alison D Marshall, Carla Treloar, John Strang
BACKGROUND: Women-only addiction services tend to be provided on a poorly evidenced assumption that women want single-sex treatment. We draw upon women's expectations and experiences of women-only residential rehabilitation to stimulate debate on this issue. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 19 women aged 25-44 years [currently in treatment (n = 9), successfully completed treatment (n = 5), left treatment prematurely (n = 5)]. All had histories of physical or sexual abuse, and relapses linked to relationships with men...
January 24, 2018: Addiction
Liselotte Pochard, Julie Dupouy, Elisabeth Frauger, Adeline Giocanti, Joëlle Micallef, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre
Pregnancy can be a motivation for decrease in drug abusing but may also represent a period of high vulnerability for relapse.We aimed to assess psychoactive substance use among women with substance use disorders followed in addiction care centers in France. We analyzed data from women aged 15-44 years included in the 'Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medication survey' (OPPIDUM), an annualcross-sectional survey collecting details on psychoactive substances used. Characteristics of women included in 2005 to 2012 yearly surveys were compared depending on their pregnant or not pregnant status...
January 16, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Naoki Kondo, Yoshiki Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomically vulnerable people are likely to have more health risks because of inadequate behaviour choices related to chronic social stresses. Brain science suggests that stress causes cognitively biased automatic decision making, preferring instant stress relief and pleasure (eg, smoking, alcohol use and drug abuse) as opposed to reflectively seeking health-maintenance services (eg, health check-ups). As such, hedonic stimuli that nudge people towards preventive actions could reduce health behaviour disparities...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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