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Drug addiction in women

Natalie J Loxton, Renée J Tipman
Sensitivity to the rewarding properties of appetitive substances has long been implicated in excessive consumption of palatable foods and drugs of abuse. Previous research focusing on individual differences in reward responsiveness has found heightened trait reward sensitivity to be associated with binge-eating, hazardous drinking, and illicit substance use. Food addiction has been proposed as an extreme form of compulsive-overeating and has been associated with genetic markers of heightened reward responsiveness...
October 15, 2016: Appetite
Tyra Dark, Heather A Flynn, George Rust, Heidi Kinsell, Jeffrey S Harman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of anxiety-related emergency department (ED) visits in the United States and assess the care provided during those visits. METHODS: Data from the 2009-2011 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were used to identify all ED visits in which the patient received a primary anxiety diagnosis or declared anxiety as the reason for the visit (N=1,029). Patient characteristics, treatment provided, and dispositions of these nationally representative visits were assessed...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Roman Gabrhelík, Blanka Nechanská, Viktor Mravčík, Svetlana Skurtveit, Ingunn Olea Lund, Marte Handal
Licit and illicit drug use in pregnant women constitutes a long lasting and serious problem worldwide. Information on long-term effects of maternal drug use on the child is limited. Nationwide registers provide a great potential to study short and long-term consequences for children exposed to licit and illicit drugs during pregnancy. We discuss this potential, with a special emphasis on exposure to methamphetamine, heroin and prescription drugs used for opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). We also discuss the advantages of register data and of merging such data from different regions...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
F Jamshidi, I Nazari, Z Rahimi, M Cheraghi
AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to determine the pattern of drug use and the affective demographic factors in addicts in self-referred drug rehabilitation centers in Khuzestan province. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study which has done on 4400 addicts in self-referred drug rehabilitation centers in Khuzestan province from March 2014 to March 2015. The collected data were analyzed in SPSS version 22 software. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for continuous variables and the frequency and percentage frequency were calculated for nominal and classified variables, and also t-test, χ2 and ANOVA were used to examine the relationships between variables...
2016: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
Julia M Geynisman-Tan, Jolyn S Taylor, Terri Edersheim, Debra Taubel
Trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation is the fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world. This is a public health crisis and, as physicians who have direct contact with victims, we have a unique opportunity to intervene. The authors developed a specialty clinic for survivors of sex trafficking in 2013 at an academic medical center in New York City. Twenty of the 24 women seen in the Survivor Clinic saw a physician while being trafficked. Sex trafficking violates basic human rights, including the rights to bodily integrity, dignity, health and freedom from violence and torture...
September 21, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Dawn E Sugarman, Sara B Wigderson, Brittany R Iles, Julia S Kaufman, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, E Yvette Hilario, Michael S Robbins, Shelly F Greenfield
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A Stage II, two-site randomized clinical trial compared the manualized, single-gender Women's Recovery Group (WRG) to mixed-gender group therapy (Group Drug Counseling; GDC) and demonstrated efficacy. Enhanced affiliation and support in the WRG is a hypothesized mechanism of efficacy. This study sought to extend results of the previous small Stage I trial that showed the rate of supportive affiliative statements occurred more frequently in WRG than GDC. METHODS: Participants (N = 158; 100 women, 58 men) were 18 years or older, substance dependent, and had used substances within the past 60 days...
October 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Nadia Fairbairn, Kanna Hayashi, M-J Milloy, Seonaid Nolan, Paul Nguyen, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is associated with a multitude of severe health consequences. While risk behaviors related to illicit drug use are commonly studied among people who inject drugs (PWID), the role of alcohol use has received substantially less attention in this population. We explored whether drug and sexual risk behaviors as well as experiences of violence were associated with hazardous alcohol use in a cohort of PWID. METHODS: Analyses were conducted using observational data from a prospective cohort of community-recruited HIV-negative PWID in Vancouver, Canada...
September 17, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok, Robert Pudlo, Magdalena Jarząb, Agnieszka Szymlak
Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used...
2016: Medycyna Pracy
Imaneh Abasi, Parvaneh Mohammadkhani
CONTEXT: Recent years have produced many articles about women's addiction and its risk factors and the consequences of substance use and misuse in the emotional, social, psychological, and economic domains of life. Family vulnerabilities are one of the most important variables contributing to addiction among women. Thus, the purpose of this article is to investigate areas of family life that lead to women's taking up and maintaining drug and alcohol abuse. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A database search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, and Google Scholar was conducted using the following keywords: "women and addiction", "women addiction and family", "addiction", "substance abuse" and "family"...
June 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Farzaneh Zolala, Mina Mahdavian, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mohammad Karamouzian
BACKGROUND: Addiction is characterized differently among women and men, and they begin using drugs for different reasons and motives. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore the gendered experiences and patterns of illicit drug use initiation in an Iranian context. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 29 participants (15 men and 14 women) took part in in-depth interviews conducted at a HIV triangulation clinic (for men and women) and drop-in-center for women in Kerman in 2011...
June 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Jorien L Treur, Dorret I Boomsma, Lannie Ligthart, Gonneke Willemsen, Jacqueline M Vink
BACKGROUND: High sugar consumption contributes to the rising prevalence of obesity. Sugar can have rewarding effects that are similar to, but less strong than, the effects of addictive substances. People who consume large amounts of sugar also tend to use more addictive substances, but it is unclear whether this is due to shared genetic or environmental risk factors. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether there are genetic influences on the consumption of sugar-containing drinks and whether genetic factors can explain the association with substance use...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Nicole Vincent Jordan, Aditya Bardia, Ben S Wittner, Cyril Benes, Matteo Ligorio, Yu Zheng, Min Yu, Tilak K Sundaresan, Joseph A Licausi, Rushil Desai, Ryan M O'Keefe, Richard Y Ebright, Myriam Boukhali, Srinjoy Sil, Maristela L Onozato, Anthony J Iafrate, Ravi Kapur, Dennis Sgroi, David T Ting, Mehmet Toner, Sridhar Ramaswamy, Wilhelm Haas, Shyamala Maheswaran, Daniel A Haber
Circulating tumour cells in women with advanced oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer acquire a HER2-positive subpopulation after multiple courses of therapy. In contrast to HER2-amplified primary breast cancer, which is highly sensitive to HER2-targeted therapy, the clinical significance of acquired HER2 heterogeneity during the evolution of metastatic breast cancer is unknown. Here we analyse circulating tumour cells from 19 women with ER(+)/HER2(-) primary tumours, 84% of whom had acquired circulating tumour cells expressing HER2...
August 24, 2016: Nature
Harriet Beitscher-Campbell, Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Margaret A Madigan, John Giordano, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Eric R Braverman, Kristina Dushaj, Mona Li, Mark S Gold
Background The reward deficiency syndrome hypothesis posits that genes are responsible for reward dependence and related behaviors. There is evidence that both bulimia and anorexia nervosa, especially in women, have been linked to a lifetime history of substance use disorder (SUD). There are difficulties in accepting food as an addiction similar to drugs; however, increasingly neuroimaging studies favor such an assertion. Case presentations We are reporting the evidence of comorbidity of eating disorders with SUD found within these case presentations...
September 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Melanie Canterberry, MacKenzie R Peltier, Kathleen T Brady, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Cocaine users often report a loss of arousal for nondrug-related stimuli, which may contribute to their response to drug-related rewards. However, little is known about users' neural reactivity to emotional nondrug-related stimuli and the potential influence of gender. OBJECTIVES: Test the hypotheses that cocaine-dependent individuals have an attenuated neural response to arousing stimuli relative to controls and that this difference is amplified in women...
September 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Niphattra Haritavorn
Mothers who use drugs face much discriminatory action as society in general finds female drug users' modes of caring for their children unacceptable. In this article, I explore the ways in which Thai women's injecting practices revolve around the role of mother 'maae' and the ways they employ tactics to challenge the motherhood discourse. This article draws on in-depth interviews with 30 Thai mothers injecting drugs. Thai mothers injecting drugs struggled with stigma and self-blame. They internalise the values of the mother 'maae', that is, what the mother is supposed to be; attempting to combine their drug use with their parental responsibilities...
September 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
Carolyn Heckman, Susan Darlow, Jessye Cohen-Filipic, Jacqueline Kloss
Indoor tanning (IT) has been linked with psychiatric and addictive symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction). The current study evaluated the effects of an IT episode on mood states and the association of these effects with psychiatric and addictive symptoms among young adult female indoor tanners. One-hundred thirty-nine female university students aged 18-25 years who had indoor tanned completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affects Scales and a standardized psychiatric interview (the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview) via telephone...
June 23, 2016: Health Psychology Research
L Simmat-Durand, N Vellut, C Lejeune, M Jauffret-Roustide, S Mougel, L Michel, M Planche
: Pathways from alcoholism to recovery are documented; less often are those from drug addiction to alcoholism. Biographical approaches allow analyzing how people change their uses and talk about their trajectories of recovery. METHODS: Three hundred and forty-one people (34% women) in the Paris area were questioned on their trajectories with a biographical questionnaire. Some open questions were aimed to understand the connection they made between events in their lives, how recovered they felt and what they considered strengths or obstacles...
June 29, 2016: L'Encéphale
Adele Minutillo, Roberta Pacifici, Giulia Scaravelli, Roberto De Luca, Ilaria Palmi, Claudia Mortali, Luisa Mastrobattista, Paolo Berretta
INTRODUCTION: Gender disparity in different fields of addiction such as tobacco smoking, alcohol use, drugs of abuse consumption and doping practice has been investigated in Italian population. METHODS: We used the surveys and studies carried out for the above reported issues in recent years as revised by the "National Observatory on Tobacco smoke, Drugs of abuse, Alcohol and Doping" at Istituto Superiore di Sanità. RESULTS: Concerning tobacco habit, the trend of smoking women has been in constant decrease from a 19...
April 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Janaína Barden Schallemberger, Christiane de Fátima Colet
INTRODUCTION: Benzodiazepines are among the most prescribed drugs for anxiety and one of the most used drug classes in the world and have a high potential for addiction. The objective of this study was to assess levels of dependence and anxiety among users of these drugs in the public health system. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive and quantitative study. Benzodiazepine users treated on the public health system were selected. Anxiety levels were assessed with the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and dependency with the Benzodiazepine Dependence Self-Report Questionnaire...
June 27, 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Kanna Hayashi, Ben Daly-Grafstein, Huiru Dong, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
OBJECTIVES: Street-involved youth are highly vulnerable to violence. While involvement in income-generating activities within illicit drug scenes is recognized as shaping youths' vulnerability to violence, the relative contributions of different income-generating activities remain understudied. We sought to examine the independent effects of drug dealing and sex work on experiencing violence among street-involved youth. METHODS: Data were derived from a prospective cohort of street-involved youth aged 14-26 who used drugs in Vancouver, British Columbia, between September 2005 and May 2014...
2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
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