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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346778/diverse-brain-myeloid-expression-profiles-reveal-distinct-microglial-activation-states-and-aspects-of-alzheimer-s-disease-not-evident-in-mouse-models
#1
Brad A Friedman, Karpagam Srinivasan, Gai Ayalon, William J Meilandt, Han Lin, Melanie A Huntley, Yi Cao, Seung-Hye Lee, Patrick C G Haddick, Hai Ngu, Zora Modrusan, Jessica L Larson, Joshua S Kaminker, Marcel P van der Brug, David V Hansen
Microglia, the CNS-resident immune cells, play important roles in disease, but the spectrum of their possible activation states is not well understood. We derived co-regulated gene modules from transcriptional profiles of CNS myeloid cells of diverse mouse models, including new tauopathy model datasets. Using these modules to interpret single-cell data from an Alzheimer's disease (AD) model, we identified microglial subsets-distinct from previously reported "disease-associated microglia"-expressing interferon-related or proliferation modules...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346744/2017-national-standards-for-diabetes-self-management-education-and-support
#2
Joni Beck, Deborah A Greenwood, Lori Blanton, Sandra T Bollinger, Marcene K Butcher, Jo Ellen Condon, Marjorie Cypress, Priscilla Faulkner, Amy Hess Fischl, Theresa Francis, Leslie E Kolb, Jodi M Lavin-Tompkins, Janice MacLeod, Melinda Maryniuk, Carolé Mensing, Eric A Orzeck, David D Pope, Jodi L Pulizzi, Ardis A Reed, Andrew S Rhinehart, Linda Siminerio, Jing Wang
Purpose The purpose of this study is to review the literature for Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support (DSMES) to ensure the National Standards for DSMES (Standards) align with current evidence-based practices and utilization trends. Methods The 10 Standards were divided among 20 interdisciplinary workgroup members. Members searched the current research for diabetes education and support, behavioral health, clinical, health care environment, technical, reimbursement, and business practice for the strongest evidence that guided the Standards revision...
February 2018: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346737/quantitative-and-qualitative-assessment-of-the-relative-arterial-contributions-to-the-calcaneus
#3
Johanna C E Donders, Craig E Klinger, Andre D Shaffer, Lionel E Lazaro, Ryan R Thacher, Jonathan P Dyke, David S Wellman, David L Helfet, Dean G Lorich
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively assess relative arterial contributions to the calcaneus. METHOD: Fourteen cadaveric ankle pairs were used. In each specimen, the posterior tibial artery, peroneal artery, and anterior tibial artery were cannulated and used for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Quantitative MRI analysis of the pre- and postcontrast MRI scans facilitated assessment of relative arterial contributions...
January 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346709/rating-the-quality-of-a-body-of-evidence-on-the-effectiveness-of-health-and-social-interventions-a-systematic-review-and-mapping-of-evidence-domains
#4
Ani Movsisyan, Jane Dennis, Eva Rehfuess, Sean Grant, Paul Montgomery
INTRODUCTION: Rating the quality of a body of evidence is an increasingly common component of research syntheses on intervention effectiveness. This study sought to identify and examine existing systems for rating the quality of a body of evidence on the effectiveness of health and social interventions. METHODS: We used a multi-component search strategy to search for full-length reports of systems for rating the quality of a body of evidence on the effectiveness of health and social interventions published in English from 1995 onward...
January 18, 2018: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346703/pursuing-personal-passion-learner-centered-research-mentoring
#5
William R Phillips
New researchers often face difficulty finding and focusing research questions. I describe a new tool for research mentoring, the Pursuing Personal Passion (P3) interview, and a systematic approach to help learners organize their curiosity and develop researchable questions aligned with their personal and professional priorities. The learner-centered P3 research interview parallels the patient-centered clinical interview. This paper reviews experience with 27 research mentees over the years 2009 to 2016, using the P3 approach to identify their initial research topics, classify their underlying passions and track the evolution into their final research questions...
January 2018: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346701/identifying-prevalence-and-characteristics-of-behavioral-health-education-in-family-medicine-clerkships-a-cera-study
#6
Mario P DeMarco, Renée M Betancourt, Kelly M Everard, Kent D W Bream
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many patients with behavioral health disorders do not seek or receive adequate care for their conditions. Among those that do, most will receive care in a primary care setting. To best meet this need, clinicians will need to demonstrate proficiency of behavioral health skills and evidence-based practices. We sought to explore the degree to which these skills are being taught in family medicine clerkships. METHODS: The Council of Academic Family Medicine's (CAFM) Educational Research Alliance (CERA) 2016 survey of clerkship directors (CDs) was sent to 141 CDs at US and Canadian medical schools with a required family medicine run course...
January 2018: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346699/teaching-chronic-pain-in-the-family-medicine-residency
#7
Kimberly Zoberi, Kelly M Everard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic pain is a significant condition affecting many Americans. Primary care physicians play an important role in chronic pain management, but many residents and physicians feel poorly prepared to manage it. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the 2016 Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance (CERA) Program Director Survey, which was sent electronically to 484 program directors in the United States. The authors sought to determine whether residency directors' attitudes about treating chronic pain were associated with the amount of time devoted to teaching family medicine residents about chronic pain assessment, therapy (use of opioids, use adjuvant pain medications, use of other nonopioids, use of nonpharmacological treatments), and risk management (risk assessment, use of pain management contracts, informed consent when prescribing opioids, and urine drug monitoring)...
January 2018: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346691/the-impact-of-near-peer-teaching-on-medical-students-transition-to-clerkships
#8
Alexander C Knobloch, Christy J W Ledford, Sean Wilkes, Adam K Saperstein
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The transition to clerkships is one of the most challenging times during medical school. To help students better cope, many schools have established transition-to-clerkship curricula. Such curricula may optimally prepare students through increasing their self-efficacy and response efficacy. We hypothesized that a small-group, near-peer-led format would be ideally suited to help students achieve these outcomes. METHODS: During process improvement for a transition-to-clerkship curriculum, we conducted an informal focus group and subsequent survey of postclerkship students to guide curricular innovation, including incorporation of third- and fourth-year students as near-peer instructors in a seminar format...
January 2018: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346683/strigolactones-mediators-of-osmotic-stress-responses-with-a-potential-for-agrochemical-manipulation-of-crop-resilience
#9
Francesca Cardinale, Paolo Korwin Krukowski, Andrea Schubert, Ivan Visentin
After quickly touching upon general aspects of strigolactones biology and functions, including structure, synthesis and perception, this review focuses on the role and regulation of the strigolactone pathway during osmotic stress, in light of the most recent research developments. We discuss available data on organ-specific dynamics of strigolactone synthesis and interaction with abscisic acid in the acclimatization response, with emphasis on the ecophysiological implications of the effects on the stomatal closure process...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346675/in-search-of-the-best-xenogeneic-material-for-a-paediatric-conduit-an-experimental-study
#10
Irina Y Zhuravleva, Nataliya R Nichay, Yuriy Y Kulyabin, Tatyana P Timchenko, Alexander A Korobeinikov, Yuliya F Polienko, Svetlana S Shatskaya, Elena V Kuznetsova, Alexey V Voitov, Alexander V Bogachev-Prokophiev, Alexander M Karaskov
OBJECTIVES: The development of calcification-resistant bioprosthetic materials is a very important challenge for paediatric surgery. The subcutaneous implantation in rats is the well-known first-stage model for this kind of research. Using this model, we aimed to compare calcification of the porcine aortic wall and bovine pericardium and jugular vein wall cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) and ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (DE). We also determined the efficacy of DE-preserved tissue modification with 2-(2-carboxyethylamino)ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid (CEABA)...
January 15, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346674/integrating-research-techniques-to-improve-quality-and-safety-in-the-preanalytical-phase
#11
Adolfo Romero, Juan Gómez-Salgado, José Andrés Domínguez-Gómez, Carlos Ruiz-Frutos
Background: Reducing errors in the preanalytical phase is difficult, which suggests the issue may be multidimensional. As such, qualitative research may be truly innovative in this context. Method: We carried out a descriptive study using a qualitative method incorporating 4 focus groups. Data analysis followed the principles of Grounded Theory. Results: We queried in each of the 4 focus groups collectively to identify weaknesses in the system...
January 13, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346664/challenges-for-prevention-research
#12
François Alla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346644/genome-wide-analysis-of-disease-progression-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#13
Qi Yan, Ying Ding, Yi Liu, Tao Sun, Lars G Fritsche, Traci Clemons, Rinki Ratnapriya, Michael L Klein, Richard J Cook, Yu Liu, Ruzong Fan, Lai Wei, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Anand Swaroop, Emily Y Chew, Daniel E Weeks, Wei Chen
Family- and population-based genetic studies have successfully identified multiple disease-susceptibility loci for Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), one of the first batch and most successful examples of genome-wide association study (GWAS). However, most genetic studies to date have focused on case-control studies of late AMD (choroidal neovascularization [CNV] or geographic atrophy [GA]). The genetic influences on disease progression are largely unexplored. We assembled unique resources to perform a genome-wide bivariate time-to-event analysis to test for association of time-to-late-AMD with ∼9 million variants on 2,721 Caucasians from a large multi-center randomized clinical trial, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study...
January 15, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346635/a-scoping-study-of-frameworks-for-adapting-public-health-evidence-based-interventions
#14
Cam Escoffery, Erin Lebow-Skelley, Hallie Udelson, Elaine A Böing, Richard Wood, Maria E Fernandez, Patricia D Mullen
Evidence-based public health translation of research to practice is essential to improve the public's health. Dissemination and implementation researchers have explored what happens once practitioners adopt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) and have developed models and frameworks to describe the adaptation process. This scoping study identified and summarized adaptation frameworks in published reports and grey literature. We followed the recommended steps of a scoping study: (a) identifying the research question; (b) identifying relevant studies; (c) selecting studies; (d) charting the data; (e) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results; and (f) consulting with experts...
January 16, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346616/racial-differences-in-family-health-history-knowledge-of-type-2-diabetes-exploring-the-role-of-interpersonal-mechanisms
#15
Jielu Lin, Christopher S Marcum, Melanie F Myers, Laura M Koehly
Collecting complete and accurate family health history is critical to preventing type 2 diabetes. Whether there are any racial difference in family health history knowledge of type 2 diabetes and whether such differences are related to interpersonal mechanisms remain unclear. We seek to identify the interpersonal mechanisms that give rise to discrepancies in family health history knowledge of type 2 diabetes in families of different racial backgrounds. We analyze informant-dyad consensus with respect to shared family history of type 2 diabetes in 127 informants of 45 families in the greater Cincinnati area (white: 28 families, 78 informants; black/African-American: 17 families, 49 informants)...
January 16, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346613/review-of-chronic-non-cancer-pain-research-among-aboriginal-people-in-canada
#16
Nancy Julien, Anaïs Lacasse, Oscar Labra, Hugo Asselin
Purpose: Aboriginal people in Canada are disproportionately affected by chronic illnesses, compared to non-Aboriginal Canadians. The purpose of this review was to determine whether differences exist between the two groups with respect to chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) in order to better inform clinical practice and to identify research gaps. Data sources: Four electronic databases were searched for the period of 1990-2015. Study selection: Only English and French language original studies that examined CNCP prevalence, assessment tools and beliefs among Aboriginal people in Canada were considered...
January 16, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346599/magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-hypothalamic-hamartomas-a-retrospective-review
#17
David S Xu, Tsinsue Chen, Randall J Hlubek, Ruth E Bristol, Kris A Smith, Francisco A Ponce, John F Kerrigan, Peter Nakaji
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic hamartomas (HH) are rare lesions associated with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Open surgery results in modest seizure control (about 50%) but has a significant associated morbidity. Radiosurgery is limited to a subset of patients due to latent therapeutic effects. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) offers a novel minimally invasive option. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a single center's outcomes for the LITT treatment of HH...
January 13, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346582/it-s-not-just-what-you-do-it-s-also-the-way-that-you-do-it-patient-and-public-involvement-in-the-development-of-health-research
#18
Tracey J Devonport, Wendy Nicholls, Lynne H Johnston, Robin Gutteridge, Angela Watt
Purpose: This article presents a reflective account of Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) in the development of obesity and binge eating research. Method: We established Patient Advisory Groups (PAGs) at two English regional National Health Service (NHS) weight management services. PPI was evaluated as follows: (i) PAG members completed a Post Participation Evaluation Questionnaire, (ii) PAG meetings captured group discussion on PPI involvement, (iii) practitioner and researchers produced written reflections on PPI and (iv) sources one to three were consolidated during reflections that took place via e-mail and telephone correspondence between researchers and practitioners, culminating in a summary SKYPE meeting between one practitioner and one researcher involved in the PAGs...
January 16, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346531/doppler-assessment-of-aortic-stenosis-a-25-operator-study-demonstrating-why-reading-the-peak-velocity-is-superior-to-velocity-time-integral
#19
Stefania Sacchi, Niti M Dhutia, Matthew J Shun-Shin, Massoud Zolgharni, Nilesh Sutaria, Darrel P Francis, Graham D Cole
Aims: Measurements with superior reproducibility are useful clinically and research purposes. Previous reproducibility studies of Doppler assessment of aortic stenosis (AS) have compared only a pair of observers and have not explored the mechanism by which disagreement between operators occurs. Using custom-designed software which stored operators' traces, we investigated the reproducibility of peak and velocity time integral (VTI) measurements across a much larger group of operators and explored the mechanisms by which disagreement arose...
January 15, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346510/viper-a-web-application-for-rapid-expert-review-of-variant-calls
#20
Marius Wöste, Martin Dugas
Summary: With the rapid development in next-generation sequencing, cost and time requirements for genomic sequencing are decreasing, enabling applications in many areas such as cancer research. Many tools have been developed to analyze genomic variation ranging from single nucleotide variants to whole chromosomal aberrations. As sequencing throughput increases, the number of variants called by such tools also grows. Often employed manual inspection of such calls is thus becoming a time-consuming procedure...
January 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
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