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Vera L Bonilha, Brent A Bell, Mary E Rayborn, Ivy S Samuels, Anna King, Joe G Hollyfield, Chengsong Xie, Huaibin Cai
Oxidative stress alters physiological function in most biological tissues and can lead to cell death. In the retina, oxidative stress initiates a cascade of events leading to focal loss of RPE and photoreceptors, which is thought to be a major contributing factor to geographic atrophy. Despite these implications, the molecular regulation of RPE oxidative stress under normal and pathological conditions remains largely unknown. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in regulating RPE and photoreceptors oxidative stress response is greatly needed...
January 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Jiang-Fan Chen, Shuya Zhang, Rong Zhou, Zhenlang Lin, Xiaohong Cai, Jing Lin, Yuqin Huo, Xiaoling Liu
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a major cause of childhood blindness in the world and is caused by oxygen-induced damage to the developing retinal vasculature, resulting in hyperoxia-induced vaso-obliteration and subsequent delayed retinal vascularization and hypoxia-induced pathological neovascularization driven by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway in retina. Current anti-VEGF therapy has shown some effective in a clinical trial, but is associated with the unintended effects on delayed eye growth and retinal vasculature development of preterm infants...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Kishore Pratap Sanghvi, Nandkishor S Kabra, Phalguni Padhi, Umesh Singh, Swarup Kumar Dash, Bhupendra S Avasthi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of prophylactic propranolol in the prevention of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in infants ≤32 weeks of gestational age and their visual outcome at 1 year of corrected gestational age. DESIGN: Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial, parallel group nrolment with allocation ratio of 1:1. SETTINGS: Two level III neonatal intensive care units. PARTICIPANTS: 109 preterm neonates of ≤32 weeks of gestation with postnatal age ≤8 days old...
January 13, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
C S Cowan, J Sabharwal, R L Seilheimer, S M Wu
The remarkable dynamic range of vision is facilitated by adaptation of retinal sensitivity to ambient lighting conditions. An important mechanism of sensitivity adaptation is control of the spatial and temporal window over which light is integrated. The retina accomplishes this by switching between parallel synaptic pathways with differing kinetics and degrees of synaptic convergence. However, the relative shifts in spatial and temporal integration are not well understood - particularly in the context of the antagonistic spatial surround...
January 10, 2017: Vision Research
Jinhui Zhang, Songlin Chen, Jing Cai, Zhiqiang Hou, Xiaohan Wang, Allan Kachelmeier, Xiaorui Shi
The vestibular blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) is comprised of perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes (PVM/Ms) and pericytes (PCs), in addition to endothelial cells (ECs) and basement membrane (BM), and bears strong resemblance to the cochlear BLB in the stria vascularis. Over the past few decades, in vitro cell-based models have been widely used in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retina barrier (BRB) research, and have proved to be powerful tools for studying cell-cell interactions in their respective organs...
January 10, 2017: Hearing Research
Yuki Ishimaru, Akihide Sumino, Daiki Kajioka, Fumiya Shibagaki, Akiko Yamamuro, Yasuhiro Yoshioka, Sadaaki Maeda
Glutamate excitotoxicity mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is an important cause of retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma. To elucidate whether apelin protects against retinal neuronal cell death, we examined protective effects of exogenous and endogenous apelin on neuronal cell death induced by intravitreal injection of NMDA in the retinas of mice. An intravitreal injection of NMDA induced neuronal cell death in both the retinal ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer, and reduced the amplitudes of scotopic threshold response (STR) in electroretinography studies...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Sven Micklisch, Yuchen Lin, Saskia Jacob, Marcus Karlstetter, Katharina Dannhausen, Prasad Dasari, Monika von der Heide, Hans-Martin Dahse, Lisa Schmölz, Felix Grassmann, Medhanie Alene, Sascha Fauser, Harald Neumann, Stefan Lorkowski, Diana Pauly, Bernhard H Weber, Antonia M Joussen, Thomas Langmann, Peter F Zipfel, Christine Skerka
BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries. The polymorphism rs10490924 in the ARMS2 gene is highly associated with AMD and linked to an indel mutation (del443ins54), the latter inducing mRNA instability. At present, the function of the ARMS2 protein, the exact cellular sources in the retina and the biological consequences of the rs10490924 polymorphism are unclear. METHODS: Recombinant ARMS2 was expressed in Pichia pastoris, and protein functions were studied regarding cell surface binding and complement activation in human serum using fluoresence-activated cell sorting (FACS) as well as laser scanning microscopy (LSM)...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
A Lappas, T S Dietlein, A Rosentreter, A M Foerster, A M Hedergott, B Kirchhof
Silicone oil is an intraocular tamponade that is essential for the treatment of complicated retinal detachment. As a long-term tamponade, it improves retinal reattachment and visual outcome. Unexpectedly, surgery with silicone oil tamponade may result in irreversible visual loss of unknown origin. In this report, we provide a general overview of unexplained visual loss after surgery with silicone oil. The frequency of such reports has increased continuously in recent years. The German Retina Society - supported by Retinanet (http://retina-net...
January 13, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Shwetha Mangalesh, Xi Chen, Du Tran-Viet, Christian Viehland, Sharon F Freedman, Cynthia A Toth
PURPOSE: This report aims at expanding the current knowledge of retinal microanatomy in children with incontinentia pigmenti using hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). METHODS: We reviewed OCT scans from 7 children (4 weeks-13 years) obtained either in the clinic or during an examination under anesthesia. The scans were analyzed for anatomical changes in the outer and inner retina, by certified graders. Medical records were assessed for systemic findings...
January 12, 2017: Retina
Jost B Jonas, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, Wen Jun Jiang, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas
BACKGROUND: The process of emmetropization is the adjustment of the length of the optical axis to the given optical properties of the cornea and lens after the end of the second year of life. Since its underlying mechanisms have not been fully explored yet, we reviewed findings available in the literature to discuss its potential etiology and the mechanism of myopization as an overshooting of emmetropization. METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: The process of emmetropization occurs by axial elongation...
January 12, 2017: Retina
Anthony Rososinski, Tuan Tran, Justin Galvin, Chirag Patel, Adrian T Fung
PURPOSE: To describe ocular features and long-term follow-up in a patient with microcephaly, chorioretinopathy, and KIF11 mutation. METHODS: Multimodal imaging including fundus color photography, autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, visual fields, electrophysiologic assessment, and neuroimaging. RESULTS: A 44-year-old man with microcephaly and long-standing poor vision in his right eye presented for general ophthalmic review...
January 12, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Carly Seidman, Szilard Kiss, Anton Orlin
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To present the first reported case of outer retinal tubulations in the setting of a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. METHODS: Case report. PATIENTS: A 56-year-old man presented with a right eye retinal detachment of unclear duration. On examination, he was found to have a chronic-appearing rhegmatogenous retinal detachment involving the peripheral macula with a demarcation line. RESULTS: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed outer retinal tubulations in the area of demarcation but not in the area of the detached retina...
January 12, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Sibel Doguizi, Mehmet A Sekeroglu, Mustafa A Anayol, Pelin Yilmazbas
PURPOSE: To report a patient with central retinal artery occlusion with double cilioretinal artery sparing. METHODS: Retrospective case report. RESULTS: A 45-year-old woman presented with sudden vision loss in her left eye for 10 days. Her best-corrected visual acuity was counting fingers at 2 meters in the left eye and 20/20 in the right eye. Funduscopy showed retinal opacity of posterior fundus, most marked in the macular region, and two small areas of the normal retina; one temporal to the optic disk and the other superior to the optic disk corresponding to the patent cilioretinal retinal arteries in the left eye; the right eye was normal...
January 12, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Shihui Liu, Toshihiko Matsuo, Osamu Hosoya, Tetsuya Uchida
PURPOSE: Our previous study demonstrated that photoelectric dye-coupled polyethylene film (Okayama University-type retinal prosthesis), which was implanted in subretinal space of the eyes of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, prevented retinal neurons from apoptotic death. In this study, we aimed to examine whether photoelectric dye itself would protect retinal neurons from apoptosis in RCS rats. METHODS: RCS rats received intravitreous injection of different concentrations of the dye in the left eye and housed under a 12-h light-dark cycle...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
C A Smith, J R Vianna, B C Chauhan
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss is the hallmark of optic neuropathies, including glaucoma, where damage to RGC axons occurs at the level of the optic nerve head. In experimental glaucoma, damage is assessed at the axon level (in the retinal nerve fibre layer and optic nerve head) or at the soma level (in the retina). In clinical glaucoma where measurements are generally limited to non-invasive techniques, structural measurements of the retinal nerve fibre layer and optic nerve head, or functional measurements with perimetry provide surrogate estimates of RGC integrity...
January 13, 2017: Eye
N Von Thun Und Hohenstein-Blaul, S Kunst, N Pfeiffer, F H Grus
Glaucoma, a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, is often not diagnosed until many years after disease onset. Early and objective diagnostic measures are yet missing. Besides the main risk factor, an elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), age, sex, and ethnicity are known to affect disease progression and severity. Furthermore, oxidative stress, elevated glutamate concentrations, and an autoimmune component are considered possible risk factors. We could identify several potential proteomic biomarkers in glaucoma and examine distinct changes in the glaucomatous human retina proteome...
January 13, 2017: Eye
Kyoung Min Lee, Se Joon Woo, Jeong-Min Hwang
PURPOSE: To describe a funduscopic sign that can be used to differentiate between optic disc drusen (ODD) and optic disc oedema (ODE). METHODS: A total of 73 eyes from 73 consecutive subjects with disc margin blurring who had been evaluated using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were included. Final diagnosis was made by SD-OCT; ODD was defined by direct visualization of ODD, while ODE was defined by documentation of retinal nerve fibre layer oedema (nasal retinal nerve fibre layer thickness >78...
January 13, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
UnChul Park, In Hwan Cho, Sang Woong Moon, Hyeong Gon Yu
PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term changes of subfoveal choroidal thickness (SCT) in Behçet's disease (BD) patients with posterior uveitis. METHODS: Changes in SCT measured with enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography during quiescent phase were assessed during >24 months in 63 BD patients and control group. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics showed no difference, but the BD group showed poorer visual acuity (p = 0.013) and smaller SCT (p = 0...
January 12, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Alexandra Miere, Giuseppe Querques, Oudy Semoun, Francesca Amoroso, Olivia Zambrowski, Thibaut Chapron, Vittorio Capuano, Eric H Souied
PURPOSE: To investigate the morphologic changes on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) of treatment-naive Type 3 neovascularization secondary to exudative age-related macular degeneration after 1 year of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. METHODS: Consecutive patients diagnosed with treatment-naive early-stage Type 3 neovascularization were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients underwent color fundus photographs/MultiColor (Heidelberg Engineering) imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, structural spectral domain OCT, and OCTA Optovue RTVue XR Avanti (Optovue) at baseline, and repeated OCTA and structural spectral domain OCT at Month 12...
January 10, 2017: Retina
Kazuyuki Kumagai, Masanori Hangai, Mariko Furukawa, Tetsuyuki Suetsugu, Nobuchika Ogino
PURPOSE: To report a case that showed centripetal movements of the capillaries in the central macular region after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling. METHODS: A 57-year-old pseudophakic woman underwent successful vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling and air tamponade for a vitreomacular traction. Optical coherence tomography angiographic images of the 3 mm × 3 mm inner retinal vascular plexus were examined preoperatively and at 3 months postoperatively...
January 11, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
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