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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937950/vectors-and-gene-delivery-to-the-retina
#1
Arthur Planul, Deniz Dalkara
One of the great advantages of the retina as a target tissue for gene delivery is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed in the past decade. This includes a variety of vectors for therapeutic gene delivery to most types of retinal neurons and glia, as well as cell type-specific promoters for restricted gene expression in distinct neuronal subtypes. Within the scope of neuroscience applications and for gene therapy, it is now routine to express reporter genes, replacement genes, neuronal activity indicators, and microbial opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse retina...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937876/pilot-study-of-the-pulsatile-neuro-peripapillary-retinal-deformation-in-glaucoma-and-its-relationship-with-glaucoma-risk-factors
#2
Maribel Hidalgo-Aguirre, Santiago Costantino, Mark Richard Lesk
PURPOSE: To perform a pilot study of the neuro-peripapillary retinal tissue deformation during the cardiac cycle among healthy eyes, ocular hypertensive (OHT), open angle glaucoma suspect (OAG-S), and early open angle glaucoma (EOAG) patients using video rate optical coherence tomography (OCT) image series. METHODS: OCT line scan sequences of the same region of the optic nerve head (ONH) were obtained from 15 EOAG, 6 OHT, 10 OAG-S, and 10 healthy age-matched eyes...
September 22, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937827/effect-of-saffron-on-metabolic-profile-and-retina-in-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#3
Evangelos K Doumouchtsis, Aspasia Tzani, Ilias P Doulamis, Panagiotis Konstantopoulos, Korou Laskarina-Maria, Georgios Agrogiannis, Emmanouil Agapitos, Marilita M Moschos, Alkiviadis Kostakis, Despina N Perrea
Saffron is a spice that has been traditionally used as a regimen for a variety of diseases due to its potent antioxidant attributes. It is well documented that impaired systemic oxidative status is firmly associated with diverse adverse effects including retinal damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of saffron administration against the retinal damage in apoE -/- mice fed a high-fat diet, since they constitute a designated experimental model susceptible to oxidative stress. Twenty-one mice were allocated into three groups: Group A (control, n = 7 c57bl/6 mice) received standard chow diet; Group B (high-fat, n = 7 apoE -/- mice) received a high-fat diet; and Group C (high-fat and saffron, n = 7 apoE -/- mice) received a high-fat diet and saffron (25 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937236/impact-of-early-aggressive-nutrition-on-retinal-development-in-premature-infants
#4
N Lenhartova, K Matasova, Z Lasabova, K Javorka, A Calkovska
The normal retinal development is interrupted by preterm birth and a retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may develop as its consequence. ROP is characterized by aberrant vessel formation in the retina as a response to multiple risk factors influencing the process of retinal angiogenesis. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play an important role in the process of normal retinal vascularization. Insufficient nutrition during the first 4 postnatal weeks results in low serum levels of IGF-1, which is essential for correct retinal vessels formation, ensuring survival of the newly formed endothelial cells...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937146/associations-of-aniseikonia-with-metamorphopsia-and-retinal-displacements-after-epiretinal-membrane-surgery
#5
Y Ichikawa, Y Imamura, M Ishida
PurposeTo determine the correlation of the degree of aniseikonia with the retinal displacements and metamorphopsia in patients that have undergone successful epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery.MethodsSubjects were 28 eyes with an ERM in 28 patients. The New Aniseikonia Test (NAT) and M-CHARTS were used to quantify the degree of preoperative and postoperative aniseikonia and metamorphopsia. We also evaluated the distance between the intersections of 2 sets of retinal vessels situated vertically or horizontally by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images in 28 patients...
September 22, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936725/ampa-receptors-at-ribbon-synapses-in-the-mammalian-retina-kinetic-models-and-molecular-identity
#6
Espen Hartveit, Bas-Jan Zandt, Eirik Madsen, Áurea Castilho, Svein Harald Mørkve, Margaret Lin Veruki
In chemical synapses, neurotransmitter molecules released from presynaptic vesicles activate populations of postsynaptic receptors that vary in functional properties depending on their subunit composition. Differential expression and localization of specific receptor subunits are thought to play fundamental roles in signal processing, but our understanding of how that expression is adapted to the signal processing in individual synapses and microcircuits is limited. At ribbon synapses, glutamate release is independent of action potentials and characterized by a high and rapidly changing rate of release...
September 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936713/manual-removal-of-primary-posterior-capsular-plaques-using-retinal-end-grasping-forceps
#7
Gennady Landa, Khoa Pham
INTRODUCTION: Primary posterior capsular plaques can be highly adherent to the posterior capsule leading to possible posterior capsular rupture during attempted removal. Here we describe a novel method for posterior capsular plaque removal using a technique inspired by the experience of retina surgeon in the peeling of membranes from the posterior pole. METHODS: Retinal end-grasping forceps were used to peel the plaque from the posterior capsule. RESULTS: We have performed this technique on 12 eyes with successful removal of the posterior capsular plaque in all instances without compromise of the posterior capsule in any case...
September 21, 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936466/mouse-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-isolation-and-culture
#8
Xiao Liu, Luosheng Tang, Yongqing Liu
Müller cells are the major supportive and protective glial cells across the retina. Unlike in fish, they have lost the capacity to regenerate the retina in mammals. But, mammalian Müller cells still retain certain retinal stem cell properties with various degree of self-renewal and differentiation potentials, and thereby held a merit in cell-based therapies for treating retinal degeneration diseases. In our laboratory, we use an enzymatic procedure to isolate, purify, and culture mouse Müller cells.
August 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936366/constitutive-and-stress-induced-expression-of-ccl5-machinery-in-rodent-retina
#9
D'Anne S Duncan, William M McLaughlin, Noah Vasilakes, Franklin D Echevarria, Cathryn R Formichella, Rebecca M Sappington
Signaling by inflammatory cytokines and chemokines is associated with neurodegeneration in disease and injury. Here we examined expression of the β-chemokine CCL5 and its receptors in the mouse retina and evaluated its relevance in glaucoma, a common optic neuropathy associated with sensitivity to intraocular pressure (IOP). Using quantitative PCR, fluorescent in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis, we found CCL5 mRNA and protein was constitutively expressed in the inner retina and synaptic layers...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935399/optical-coherence-tomography-biomarkers-as-functional-outcome-predictors-in-diabetic-macular-edema-treated-with-dexamethasone-implant
#10
Dinah Zur, Matias Iglicki, Catharina Busch, Alessandro Invernizzi, Miriana Mariussi, Anat Loewenstein
PURPOSE: Identification and characterization of patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) are important for individualizing treatment and optimizing outcome. We investigated optical coherence tomography (OCT) biomarkers for DME treated by intravitreal dexamethasone (DEX) implant. DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 299 eyes from 284 patients treated with DEX implant for DME (naïve, n = 209; refractory, n = 90)...
September 18, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934261/light-entrainment-of-the-murine-intraocular-pressure-circadian-rhythm-utilizes-non-local-mechanisms
#11
Shunsuke Tsuchiya, Ethan D Buhr, Tomomi Higashide, Kazuhisa Sugiyama, Russell N Van Gelder
PURPOSE: Intraocular pressure (IOP) is known to have a strong circadian rhythm, yet how light/dark cycles entrain this rhythm is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess whether, like the retina, the mammalian ciliary body and IOP clocks have an intrinsic ability to entrain to light/dark cycles. METHODS: Iris-ciliary body complexes were obtained from period2:luciferase (PER2::LUC) mice and cultured to measure bioluminescence rhythmicity. Pairs of the iris-ciliary body complex were exposed to antiphasic 9:15 h light/dark cycle in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934255/quantitative-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-macular-vascular-structure-and-foveal-avascular-zone-in-glaucoma
#12
Jaewan Choi, Junki Kwon, Joong Won Shin, Jiyun Lee, Saem Lee, Michael S Kook
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the quantitative characteristics of the macular vessel density (VD) and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in glaucoma using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). DESIGN: Cross-sectional, age- and sex-matched case-control study. METHODS: Fifty-two eyes of 52 patients with primary open angle glaucoma and 52 eyes from 52 healthy participants were recruited retrospectively. OCT-A was performed on a 3 x 3-mm macular region centered on the fovea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933517/new-treatment-modalities-for-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#13
Patricio G Schlottmann, Arturo A Alezzandrini, Marcelo Zas, Francisco J Rodriguez, José D Luna, Lihteh Wu
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is considered one of the main causes of severe vision loss in older adults. The neovascular form (nAMD) is an advanced stage, which is responsible for the most severe vision loss. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is at present the main factor that leads to the development of a neovascular membrane and the increased leakage from the membrane to the retina. At present, anti-VEGF therapy is the only treatment that achieves vision gains in many patients and halts progression in most of them...
September 14, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933233/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-retinal-vascular-network-assessment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Roberta Lanzillo, Gilda Cennamo, Chiara Criscuolo, Antonio Carotenuto, Nunzio Velotti, Federica Sparnelli, Alessandra Cianflone, Marcello Moccia, Vincenzo Brescia Morra
BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography is a new method to assess the density of the vascular networks. Vascular abnormalities are considered involved in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. OBJECTIVE: To assess the presence of vascular abnormalities in MS and to evaluate their correlation to disease features. METHODS: A total of 50 MS patients with and without history of optic neuritis (ON) and 46 healthy subjects were included...
September 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933041/macular-hole-caused-by-retained-subfoveal-perfluorocarbon-that-subsequently-closed-after-its-spontaneous-resolution-a-case-report
#15
Reiko Tanabu, Yukihiko Suzuki, Kaori Suzuki, Shizuka Takahashi, Mitsuru Nakazawa, Hideyuki Mizutani
INTRODUCTION: To prevent local reduction in retinal function caused by retained subretinal perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL), it has been noted that removal of PFCL under the fovea should be considered, with a vitrectomy selected for such removal. CASE REPORT: A vitrectomy was performed for traumatic retinal detachment during which PFCL was temporarily used as an intraocular tamponade for retina flattening. Following surgery, subfoveal PFCL was retained beneath the retina...
September 20, 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931831/hyperhomocysteinemia-alters-retinal-endothelial-cells-barrier-function-and-angiogenic-potential-via-activation-of-oxidative-stress
#16
Riyaz Mohamed, Isha Sharma, Ahmed S Ibrahim, Heba Saleh, Nehal M Elsherbiny, Sadanand Fulzele, Khaled Elmasry, Sylvia B Smith, Mohamed Al-Shabrawey, Amany Tawfik
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with several human visual disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) is linked to vision loss in DR and AMD. Our previous work revealed that HHcy altered BRB in retinal endothelial cells in vivo. Here we hypothesize that homocysteine (Hcy) alters retinal endothelial cell barrier function and angiogenic potential via activation of oxidative stress. Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) treated with and without different concentrations of Hcy showed a reduction of tight junction protein expression, increased FITC dextran leakage, decreased transcellular electrical resistance and increased angiogenic potential...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931408/cell-type-specific-effects-of-p27-kip1-loss-on-retinal-development
#17
Mariko Ogawa, Fuminori Saitoh, Norihiro Sudou, Fumi Sato, Hiroki Fujieda
BACKGROUND: Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors play an important role in regulating cell cycle progression, cell cycle exit and cell differentiation. p27(KIP1) (p27), one of the major CDK inhibitors in the retina, has been shown to control the timing of cell cycle exit of retinal progenitors. However, the precise role of this protein in retinal development remains largely unexplored. We thus analyzed p27-deficient mice to characterize the effects of p27 loss on proliferation, differentiation, and survival of retinal cells...
September 20, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930702/gcamp-expression-in-retinal-ganglion-cells-characterized-using-a-low-cost-fundus-imaging-system
#18
Yao-Chuan Chang, Steven T Walston, Robert H Chow, James D Weiland
OBJECTIVE: Virus-transduced, intracellular-calcium indicators are effective reporters of neural activity, offering the advantage of cell-specific labeling. Due to the existence of an optimal time window for the expression of calcium indicators, a suitable tool for tracking GECI expression in vivo following transduction is highly desirable. APPROACH: We developed a noninvasive imaging approach based on a custom-modified, low-cost fundus viewing system that allowed us to monitor and characterize in vivo bright-field and fluorescence images of the mouse retina...
October 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930613/an-automated-approach-for-early-detection-of-diabetic-retinopathy-using-sd-oct-images
#19
Ahmed H ElTanboly, Agustina Palacio, Ahmed M Shalaby, Andrew E Switala, Omar Helmy, Shlomit Schaal, Ayman El-Baz
  This study was to demonstrate the feasibility of an automatic approach for early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) from SD-OCT images. These scans were prospectively collected from 200 subjects through the fovea then were automatically segmented, into 12 layers. Each layer was characterized by its thickness, tortuosity, and normalized reflectivity. 26 diabetic patients, without DR changes visible by funduscopic examination, were matched with 26 controls, according to age and sex, for purposes of statistical analysis using mixed effects ANOVA...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930545/classification-of-retinal-diseases-based-on-oct-images
#20
Nabila Eladawi, Mohammed M Elmogy, Mohammed Ghazal, Omar Helmy, Ahmed Aboelfetouh, Alaa Riad, Shlomit Schaal, Ayman El-Baz
Optical Coherence Topography (OCT) is an emerging biomedical imaging technology that offers non-invasive real-time, high-resolution imaging of highly scattering tissues. It is widely used in ophthalmology to perform diagnostic imaging on the structure of the anterior eye and the retina. Clinical studies are carried out to assess the application of OCT for some retinal diseases. OCT can provide means for early detection for various types of diseases because morphological changes often occur before the physical symptoms of these diseases...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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