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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821834/ocular-fundus-pulsations-within-the-posterior-rat-eye-chorioscleral-motion-and-response-to-elevated-intraocular-pressure
#1
Marco Augustin, Stanislava Fialová, Corinna Fischak, Leopold Schmetterer, Christoph K Hitzenberger, Bernhard Baumann
A multi-functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) approach is presented to determine ocular fundus pulsations as an axial displacement between the retina and the chorioscleral complex in the albino rat eye. By combining optical coherence elastography and OCT angiography (OCTA), we measure subtle deformations in the nanometer range within the eye and simultaneously map retinal and choroidal perfusion. The conventional OCT reflectivity contrast serves as a backbone to segment the retina and to define several slabs which are subsequently used for quantitative ocular pulsation measurements as well as for a qualitative exploration of the multi-functional OCT image data...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821742/rock-1-mediates-diabetes-induced-retinal-pigment-epithelial-and-endothelial-cell-blebbing-contribution-to-diabetic-retinopathy
#2
Pierre-Raphaël Rothschild, Sawsen Salah, Marianne Berdugo, Emmanuelle Gélizé, Kimberley Delaunay, Marie-Christine Naud, Christophe Klein, Alexandre Moulin, Michèle Savoldelli, Ciara Bergin, Jean-Claude Jeanny, Laurent Jonet, Yvan Arsenijevic, Francine Behar-Cohen, Patricia Crisanti
In diabetic retinopathy, the exact mechanisms leading to retinal capillary closure and to retinal barriers breakdown remain imperfectly understood. Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), an effector of the small GTPase Rho, involved in cytoskeleton dynamic regulation and cell polarity is activated by hyperglycemia. In one year-old Goto Kakizaki (GK) type 2 diabetic rats retina, ROCK-1 activation was assessed by its cellular distribution and by phosphorylation of its substrates, MYPT1 and MLC. In both GK rat and in human type 2 diabetic retinas, ROCK-1 is activated and associated with non-apoptotic membrane blebbing in retinal vessels and in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) that respectively form the inner and the outer barriers...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820703/assessment-of-u-s-pediatrician-knowledge-of-toxocariasis
#3
Dana M Woodhall, Amanda P Garcia, Craig A Shapiro, Shequenta L Wray, Andi L Shane, Chitra S Mani, Kelly K Stimpert, LeAnne M Fox, Susan P Montgomery
Toxocariasis, one of a group of parasitic diseases known as neglected parasitic infections, is a disease caused by the larvae of two species of Toxocara roundworms, Toxocara canis, from dogs, and less commonly Toxocara cati, from cats. Although most infected individuals are asymptomatic, clinical manifestations may include fever, fatigue, coughing, wheezing, or abdominal pain (visceral toxocariasis) or vision loss, retina damage, or eye inflammation (ocular toxocariasis). To assess U.S. pediatrician knowledge of toxocariasis, we conducted an electronic survey of American Academy of Pediatrics members...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820625/multimodal-image-analysis-of-the-retina-in-hunter-syndrome-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii-case-report
#4
Isadora Darriba Macedo Salvucci, Simone Finzi, Maria Kiyoko Oyamada, Chong Ae Kim, Sérgio Luis Gianotti Pimentel
INTRODUCTION: We report a case of retinal and posterior ocular findings in a 33-year-old man diagnosed with Hunter syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis type II) in a multimodal imaging way. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient was complaining of blurred night vision for the past 3 years. He had not received any systemic treatment for Hunter syndrome. Vision acuity was 20/20 in both eyes and corneas were clear. Fundus examination revealed bilateral crowded and hyperemic optic nerve heads (elevated in the ocular ultrasound) and areas of subretinal hypopigmentation...
August 18, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820183/technique-of-retinal-gene-therapy-delivery-of-viral-vector-into-the-subretinal-space
#5
K Xue, M Groppe, A P Salvetti, R E MacLaren
PurposeSafe and reproducible delivery of gene therapy vector into the subretinal space is essential for successful targeting of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptors. The success of surgery is critical for the clinical efficacy of retinal gene therapy. Iatrogenic detachment of the degenerate (often adherent) retina in patients with hereditary retinal degenerations and small volume (eg, 0.1 ml) subretinal injections pose new surgical challenges.MethodsOur subretinal gene therapy technique involved pre-operative planning with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and autofluorescence (AF) imaging, 23 G pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane staining with Membrane Blue Dual (DORC BV, Zuidland, Netherlands), a two-step subretinal injection using a 41 G Teflon tipped cannula (DORC) first with normal saline to create a parafoveal bleb followed by slow infusion of viral vector via the same self-sealing retinotomy...
August 18, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820168/therapeutic-surprise-photodynamic-therapy-for-cavernous-haemangioma-of-the-disc
#6
Mahesh P Shanmugam, Rajesh Ramanjulu, Shyamal Dwivedi, Aditya Barigali, Ajith Havanje
PURPOSE: To report the response of cavernous haemangioma of the disc to PDT. METHODS AND PATIENTS: A 32 years old lady presented to us with complaints of sudden onset of blurry vision in her right eye. What seemed initially as polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy turned out as cavernous haemangioma of the disc after pneumatic displacement of the sub-retinal haeme. She was treated with PDT as she was prone to recurrent haemorrhage from the lesion due to her low platelet count...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819299/the-correlation-between-crb1-variants-and-the-clinical-severity-of-brazilian-patients-with-different-inherited-retinal-dystrophy-phenotypes
#7
Fabiana Louise Motta, Mariana Vallim Salles, Karita Antunes Costa, Rafael Filippelli-Silva, Renan Paulo Martin, Juliana Maria Ferraz Sallum
Inherited retinal dystrophies are characterized by progressive retina degeneration and mutations in at least 250 genes have been associated as disease-causing. CRB1 is one of many genes analyzed in molecular diagnosis for inherited retinal dystrophy. Crumbs homolog-1 protein encoded by CRB1 is important for cell-to-cell contact, polarization of epithelial cells and the morphogenesis of photoreceptors. Pathogenic variants in CRB1 lead to a huge variety of phenotypes ranging from milder forms of inherited retinal dystrophy, such as retinitis pigmentosa to more severe phenotypes such as Leber congenital amaurosis...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819250/oblique-scanning-laser-microscopy-for-simultaneously-volumetric-structural-and-molecular-imaging-using-only-one-raster-scan
#8
Lei Zhang, Amalia Capilla, Weiye Song, Gustavo Mostoslavsky, Ji Yi
Multi-modal three dimensional (3D) optical imaging combining both structural sensitivity and molecular specificity is highly desirable in biomedical research. In this paper, we present a method termed oblique scanning laser microscopy (OSLM) to combine optical coherence tomography (OCT), for simultaneously volumetric structural and molecular imaging with cellular resolution in all three dimensions. Conventional 3D laser scanning fluorescence microscopy requires repeated optical sectioning to create z-stacks in depth...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818478/mutations-in-ddhd1-encoding-a-phospholipase-a1-is-a-novel-cause-of-retinopathy-and-neurodegeneration-with-brain-iron-accumulation
#9
Rodolphe Dard, Claire Meyniel, Valérie Touitou, Giovanni Stevanin, Foudil Lamari, Alexandra Durr, Claire Ewenczyk, Fanny Mochel
Defects of phospholipids remodelling and synthesis are inborn errors of metabolism responsible for various clinical presentations including spastic paraplegia, retinopathy, optic atrophy, myo- and cardiomyopathies, and osteo-cutaneous manifestations. DDHD1 encodes a phospholipase A1, which is involved in the remodelling of phospholipids. We previously described a relatively pure hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) phenotype associated with mutations in DDHD1. Here we report a complex form of HSP associated with retinal dystrophy and a pattern of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) on brain MRI, due to a novel homozygous mutation in DDHD1...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817571/automated-segmentation-of-mouse-oct-volumes-asimov-validation-clinical-study-of-a-light-damage-model
#10
Bhavna Josephine Antony, Byung-Jin Kim, Andrew Lang, Aaron Carass, Jerry L Prince, Donald J Zack
The use of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is becoming commonplace for the in vivo longitudinal study of murine models of ophthalmic disease. Longitudinal studies, however, generate large quantities of data, the manual analysis of which is very challenging due to the time-consuming nature of generating delineations. Thus, it is of importance that automated algorithms be developed to facilitate accurate and timely analysis of these large datasets. Furthermore, as the models target a variety of diseases, the associated structural changes can also be extremely disparate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817420/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-for-the-detection-of-secondary-choroidal-neovascularization-in-vitelliform-macular-dystrophy
#11
Martin Stattin, Daniel Ahmed, Carl Glittenberg, Ilse Krebs, Siamak Ansari-Shahrezaei
PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is used to assess vascular abnormality in advanced stage vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD2). METHODS: Multimodal imaging including spectral domain (SD) OCT, autofluorescence (AF), fluorescein (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) as well as optical coherence tomography angiography were performed. PATIENTS: Two eyes in one young patient with diagnosed vitelliform macular dystrophy were investigated for progressive visual dysfunction...
August 16, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817343/suppression-of-choroidal-neovascularization-in-mice-by-subretinal-delivery-of-multigenic-lentiviral-vectors-encoding-anti-angiogenic-micrornas
#12
Anne Louise Askou, Josephine Natalia Esther Benckendorff, Andreas Holmgaard, Tina Storm, Lars Aagaard, Toke Bek, Jacob Giehm Mikkelsen, Thomas Juhl Corydon
Lentivirus-based vectors have been used for the development of potent gene therapies. Here, application of a multigenic lentiviral vector (LV) producing multiple anti-angiogenic microRNAs following subretinal delivery in a laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) mouse model is presented. This versatile LV, carrying back-to-back RNApolII-driven expression cassettes, enables combined expression of microRNAs targeting vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) mRNA and fluorescent reporters. In addition, by including a vitelliform macular dystrophy 2 (VMD2) promoter, expression of microRNAs is restricted to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells...
August 2017: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816729/retina-expansion-technique-for-macular-hole-apposition-report-2-efficacy-closure-rate-and-risks-of-a-macular-detachment-technique-to-close-large-full-thickness-macular-holes
#13
Roger Wong, Catherine Howard, Giancarlo Dellʼaversana Orobona
PURPOSE: To describe the safety and efficacy of a technique to close large thickness macular holes. METHODS: A consecutive retrospective interventional case series of 16 patients with macular holes greater than 650 microns in "aperture" diameter were included. The technique involves vitrectomy, followed by internal limiting membrane peeling. The macula is detached using subretinal injection of saline. Fluid-air exchange is performed to promote detachment and stretch of the retina...
August 14, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815590/juxtanodin-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-expression-and-biological-activities-in-regulating-cell-morphology-and-actin-cytoskeleton-organization
#14
Fengyi Liang, Ji Hyun Hwang, Nicholas Weiwei Tang, Walter Hunziker
Juxtanodin (also known as ermin) was initially identified as an actin cytoskeleton-related oligodendroglial protein in the rat central nervous system. It was subsequently also found in the rat olfactory neuroepithelium, especially at the apical junctional belt of the sustentacular cells. We further examined juxtanodin expression and functional roles in the retina using fluorescence histochemistry, confocal microscopy, immuno-electron microscopy, molecular biology and cell culture. Prominent juxtanodin expression was found in the photoreceptor-supporting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), especially in a zone corresponding to the apices of RPE cells, at the roots of the RPE microvilli, and at the base of RPE cells next to the Bruch's membrane...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815501/immunohistochemical-procedures-for-characterizing-the-retinal-expression-patterns-of-cre-driver-mouse-lines
#15
Qi Lu, Zhuo-Hua Pan
The retina is a thin neural tissue sitting on the backside of the eye, composed of light-sensing cells, interneurons, and output ganglion neurons. The latter send electrical signals to higher visual centers in the brain. Transgenic mouse lines are becoming one of the most valuable mammalian animal models for the study of visual signal processing within the retina. Especially, the generation of Cre recombinase transgenic mouse lines provides a powerful tool for genetic manipulation. A key step for the utilization of transgenic lines is the characterization of their transgene expression patterns in the retina...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814984/protective-mechanisms-of-the-mitochondrial-derived-peptide-humanin-in-oxidative-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-rpe-cells
#16
REVIEW
Leonid Minasyan, Parameswaran G Sreekumar, David R Hinton, Ram Kannan
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe and irreversible vision loss and is characterized by progressive degeneration of the retina resulting in loss of central vision. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a critical site of pathology of AMD. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum which lie in close anatomic proximity to each other are targets of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, respectively, and contribute to the progression of AMD. The two organelles exhibit close interactive function via various signaling mechanisms...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814744/monocyte-infiltration-and-proliferation-reestablish-myeloid-cell-homeostasis-in-the-mouse-retina-following-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cell-injury
#17
Wenxin Ma, Yikui Zhang, Chun Gao, Robert N Fariss, Johnny Tam, Wai T Wong
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading contributor of vision loss, currently lacks comprehensive treatment. While AMD histopathology involves retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) injury associated with immune cell infiltration, the nature of immune cell responses to RPE injury remains undefined. We induced RPE injury pharmacologically and genetically in transgenic mouse models in which microglia and systemic monocytes were separately tagged, enabling a spatial and temporal dissection of the relative contributions of microglia vs...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814417/intravitreal-bevacizumab-monotherapy-in-myopic-choroidal-neovascularisation-5-year-outcomes-for-the-pan-american-collaborative-retina-study-group
#18
Jay Chhablani, Remya Mareen Paulose, Andres F Lasave, Lihteh Wu, Cristian Carpentier, Mauricio Maia, Silvio Lujan, Sergio Rojas, Martin Serrano, Maria H Berrocal, J Fernando Arevalo
PURPOSE: To report the long-term anatomical and visual outcomes of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) monotherapy in naive choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) caused by myopia. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of naive CNV secondary to myopia that underwent antivascular endothelial growth factor monotherapy was performed. Collected data included demographic details, clinical examination details including visual acuity at presentation and follow-up with imaging and treatment details...
August 16, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813718/transgenic-mice-over-expressing-rbp4-have-rbp4-dependent-and-light-independent-retinal-degeneration
#19
Mei Du, Eric Phelps, Michael J Balangue, Aaron Dockins, Gennadiy Moiseyev, Younghwa Shin, Shelley Kane, Laura Otalora, Jian-Xing Ma, Rafal Farjo, Krysten M Farjo
Purpose: Transgenic mice overexpressing serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4-Tg) develop progressive retinal degeneration, characterized by microglia activation, yet the precise mechanisms underlying retinal degeneration are unclear. Previous studies showed RBP4-Tg mice have normal ocular retinoid levels, suggesting that degeneration is independent of the retinoid visual cycle or light exposure. The present study addresses whether retinal degeneration is light-dependent and RBP4-dependent by testing the effects of dark-rearing and pharmacological lowering of serum RBP4 levels, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813666/microrna-9-couples-brain-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis
#20
Romain Madelaine, Steven A Sloan, Nina Huber, James H Notwell, Louis C Leung, Gemini Skariah, Caroline Halluin, Sergiu P Paşca, Gill Bejerano, Mark A Krasnow, Ben A Barres, Philippe Mourrain
In the developing brain, neurons expressing VEGF-A and blood vessels grow in close apposition, but many of the molecular pathways regulating neuronal VEGF-A and neurovascular system development remain to be deciphered. Here, we show that miR-9 links neurogenesis and angiogenesis through the formation of neurons expressing VEGF-A. We found that miR-9 directly targets the transcription factors TLX and ONECUTs to regulate VEGF-A expression. miR-9 inhibition leads to increased TLX and ONECUT expression, resulting in VEGF-A overexpression...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
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