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Nicole K Bolt, Evan M Poncelet, Benjamin G Schultz, Janeen D Loehr
Philosophers have proposed that when people coordinate their actions with others they may experience a sense of joint agency, or shared control over actions and their effects. However, little empirical work has investigated the sense of joint agency. In the current study, pairs coordinated their actions to produce tone sequences and then rated their sense of joint agency on a scale ranging from shared to independent control. People felt more shared than independent control overall, confirming that people experience joint agency during joint action...
October 17, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Jangjin Kim, Mary E Goldsberry, Thomas C Harmon, John H Freeman
Hippocampal development is thought to play a crucial role in the emergence of many forms of learning and memory, but ontogenetic changes in hippocampal activity during learning have not been examined thoroughly. We examined the ontogeny of hippocampal function by recording theta and single neuron activity from the dorsal hippocampal CA1 area while rat pups were trained in associative learning. Three different age groups [postnatal days (P)17-19, P21-23, and P24-26] were trained over six sessions using a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) and a periorbital stimulation unconditioned stimulus (US)...
2016: PloS One
Christine Louw, De Wet Swanepoel, Robert H Eikelboom, Hermanus C Myburgh
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of smartphone-based hearing screening with the hearScreen™ application in terms of sensitivity, specificity, referral rates, and time efficiency at two primary health care clinics. DESIGN: Nonprobability purposive sampling was used at both clinics. A total of 1236 participants (mean age: 37.8 ± SD 17.9 and range 3 to 97 years; 71.3% female) were included in the final analysis. Participants were screened using the hearScreen™ application following a two-step screening protocol and diagnostic pure-tone audiometry to confirm hearing status...
October 19, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Albino Carrizzo, Antonio Damato, Mariateresa Ambrosio, Antonia Falco, Alessandra Rosati, Mario Capunzo, Michele Madonna, Maria C Turco, James L Januzzi, Vincenzo De Laurenzi, Carmine Vecchione
Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), is constitutively expressed in a few normal cell types, including myocytes, peripheral nerves and in the brain, and is also expressed in certain tumors. To date, the main studies about the role of BAG3 are focused on its pro-survival effect in tumors through various mechanisms that vary according to cellular type. Recently, elevated concentrations of a soluble form of BAG3 were described in patients affected by advanced stage of heart failure (HF), identifying BAG3 as a potentially useful biomarker in monitoring HF progression...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Hillary Anger Elfenbein, Daisung Jang, Sudeep Sharma, Jeffrey Sanchez-Burks
Emotional intelligence (EI) has captivated researchers and the public alike, but it has been challenging to establish its components as objective abilities. Self-report scales lack divergent validity from personality traits, and few ability tests have objectively correct answers. We adapt the Stroop task to introduce a new facet of EI called emotional attention regulation (EAR), which involves focusing emotion-related attention for the sake of information processing rather than for the sake of regulating one's own internal state...
October 20, 2016: Emotion
Gabriella Juhasz, Eva Csepany, Mate Magyar, Andrea Edit Edes, Nora Eszlari, Gabor Hullam, Peter Antal, Gyongyi Kokonyei, Ian Muir Anderson, John Francis William Deakin, Gyorgy Bagdy
One of the main effects of the endocannabinoid system in the brain is stress adaptation with presynaptic endocannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 receptors) playing a major role. In the present study, we investigated whether the effect of the CB1 receptor coding CNR1 gene on migraine and its symptoms is conditional on life stress. In a cross-sectional European population (n = 2426), recruited from Manchester and Budapest, we used the ID-Migraine questionnaire for migraine screening, the Life Threatening Experiences questionnaire to measure recent negative life events (RLE), and covered the CNR1 gene with 11 SNPs...
October 19, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Mikko J Peltola, Tiina Mäkelä, E Juulia Paavonen, Elina Vierikko, Outi Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Tiina Paunio, Jari K Hietanen, Anneli Kylliäinen
Maternal prenatal anxiety is associated with infants' temperamental negative affectivity (NA), but it is unclear to what extent children vary in their susceptibility to prenatal influences. We tested a hypothesis that infants' respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of parasympathetic vagal tone and a potential marker of differential susceptibility to environmental influences, moderates the effects of maternal prenatal anxiety on the development of infant NA. Prenatal anxiety was assessed during the last trimester of pregnancy in a low-risk community sample...
October 20, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
David Reigada, Rosa María Navarro-Ruiz, Marcos Javier Caballero-López, Ángela Del Águila, Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano, Rodrigo M Maza, Manuel Nieto-Díaz
Reducing cell death during the secondary injury is a major priority in the development of a cure for traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). One of the earliest processes that follow SCI is the excitotoxicity resulting from the massive release of excitotoxicity mediators, including ATP, which induce an excessive and/or prolonged activation of their receptors and a deregulation of the calcium homeostasis. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) is an endogenous purinergic agonist, present in both extracellular and intracellular fluids, with promising cytoprotective effects in different diseases including neurodegenerative processes...
October 19, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Riccardo Bientinesi, Cesare Mancuso, Maria Martire, Pier Francesco Bassi, Emilio Sacco, Diego Currò
Voltage-gated type 7 K(+) (KV7 or KCNQ) channels regulate the contractility of various smooth muscles. With this study, we aimed to assess the role of KV7 channels in the regulation of human detrusor contractility, as well as the gene and protein expression of KV7 channels in this tissue. For these purposes, the isolated organ technique, RT-qPCR, and Western blot were used, respectively. XE-991, a selective KV7 channel blocker, concentration-dependently contracted the human detrusor; mean EC50 and Emax of XE-991-induced concentration-response curve were 14...
October 19, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Zixin Yong, Po-Jang Hsieh, Dan Milea
Acquired auditory-visual synesthesia (AVS) is a rare neurological sign, in which specific auditory stimulation triggers visual experience. In this study, we used event-related fMRI to explore the brain regions correlated with acquired monocular sound-induced phosphenes, which occurred 2 months after unilateral visual loss due to an ischemic optic neuropathy. During the fMRI session, 1-s pure tones at various pitches were presented to the patient, who was asked to report occurrence of sound-induced phosphenes by pressing one of the two buttons (yes/no)...
October 19, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Zahra Polat, Erdoğan Bulut, Ahmet Ataş
BACKGROUND: Spoken word recognition and speech perception tests in quiet are being used as a routine in assessment of the benefit which children and adult cochlear implant users receive from their devices. Cochlear implant users generally demonstrate high level performances in these test materials as they are able to achieve high level speech perception ability in quiet situations. Although these test materials provide valuable information regarding Cochlear Implant (CI) users' performances in optimal listening conditions, they do not give realistic information regarding performances in adverse listening conditions, which is the case in the everyday environment...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Jung-Woo Park, Jin-Soo Park, Seyoung Kim, Minkyu Park, Hyunrim Choi, Sinye Lim
BACKGROUND: This study is aimed at finding out the relationship between long working hours, one of major job stress elements, and hearing impairment in unexposed workers to occupational and environmental noise. METHODS: This study was performed on 1628 regular, full-time wage workers between the age of 25-64 who indicated in the survey of having no experience of exposure to noise, normal otoscopic findings, and not suffering from diabetes based on the data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2010-2012)...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Hayley A Young, Heather Watkins
Reducing the glycemic load (GL) of the diet may benefit appetite control but its utility is complicated by psychological influences on eating. Disinhibited behaviour, a risk factor for overconsumption, is characterized by reduced prefrontal cortex activity, which in turn modulates vagal tone; a phenomenon associated with glucoregulation. This double blind randomised controlled trial explored for the first time the influence of disinhibited eating and vagal tone (heart rate variability (HRV)) on hunger and the postprandial response to GL...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sophie Reijman, Lenneke R A Alink, Laura H C G Compier-De Block, Claudia D Werner, Athanasios Maras, Corine Rijnberk, Marinus H Van Ijzendoorn, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
This study assessed attachment representation and attachment-related autonomic regulation in a sample of 38 maltreating and 35 nonmaltreating mothers. Mothers' state of mind regarding attachment was measured using the Adult Attachment Interview. They further watched an attachment-based comfort paradigm, during which we measured skin conductance and vagal tone. More maltreating mothers (42%) than nonmaltreating mothers (17%) had an unresolved/disoriented attachment classification. Attachment representation was related to physiology during the comfort paradigm: an unresolved state of mind and a nonautonomous classification were associated with a decrease in skin conductance during the comfort paradigm, specifically during the responsive caregiver scenario...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
M Luz Sánchez-Sánchez, Maria-Arántzazu Ruescas-Nicolau, José-Antonio Pérez-Miralles, Elena Marqués-Sulé, Gemma-Victoria Espí-López
BACKGROUND: In chronic stroke, feasible physical therapy (PT) programs are needed to promote function throughout life. OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled pilot trial investigated the feasibility and effect of a PT program composed of strengthening exercises with elastic bands and bimanual functional training, with clearly defined doses based on the rate of perceived exertion (Borg scale), to counteract inactivity in chronic stroke. METHODS: Fifteen subjects > 6 month post-stroke were randomized to three-month of UE function training (UE group), or to lower extremity function training (LE group)...
October 19, 2016: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Wei Dong, Elizabeth S Olson
Cochlear frequency tuning is based on a mildly tuned traveling-wave response that is enhanced in amplitude and sharpness by outer hair cell (OHC)-based forces. The nonlinear and active character of this enhancement is the fundamental manifestation of cochlear amplification. Recently, mechanical (pressure) and electrical (extracellular OHC-generated voltage) responses were simultaneously measured close to the sensory tissue's basilar membrane. Both pressure and voltage were tuned and showed traveling-wave phase accumulation, evidence that they were locally generated responses...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Richard S Chadwick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Silje E Reme, Torill H Tveito, Anette Harris, Stein Atle Lie, Astrid Grasdal, Aage Indahl, Jens Ivar Brox, Tone Tangen, Eli Molde Hagen, Sigmund Gismervik, Arit Ødegård, Livar Fryland, Egil A Fors, Trudie Chalder, Hege R Eriksen
STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a tailored and manualized cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or nutritional supplements of seal oil and soy oil had any additional benefits over a brief cognitive intervention (BI) on return to work (RTW). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Brief intervention programs are clinically beneficial and cost-effective for patients with low back pain (LBP)...
October 15, 2016: Spine
Roxann Diez Gross, Ronit Gisser, Gregory Cherpes, Katie Hartman, Rishi Maheshwary
Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is caused by a genetic imprinting abnormality resulting from the lack of expression of the paternal genes at 15q11-q13. Intellectual disability, low muscle tone, and life-threatening hyperphagia are hallmarks of the phenotype. The need for the Heimlich maneuver, death from choking, and pulmonary infection occur in a disproportionally high number of persons with PWS. The widely held belief is that eating behaviors are responsible for choking and aspiration; yet, no investigation had sought to determine if swallowing impairments were present in persons with PWS...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Debra W Yen, Dennis C Nguyen, Gary B Skolnick, Sybill D Naidoo, Kamlesh B Patel, Lynn Marty Grames, Albert S Woo
BACKGROUND: Reconstruction of the levator musculature during cleft palate repair has been suggested to be important in long-term speech outcomes. In this study, we compare the need for postoperative speech therapy between 2 intravelar veloplasty techniques. METHODS: Chart review was performed for patients with nonsyndromic cleft palate who underwent either primary Kriens or overlapping intravelar veloplasty before 18 months of age. All subjects completed a follow-up visit at approximately 3 years of age...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
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