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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018044/rnf43
#1
REVIEW
Stefano Serra, Runjan Chetty
RNF43 (E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF43 or RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase RNF43) functions as a tumor suppressor, by exerting a predominant negative feedback mechanism in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. RNF43 inhibits Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by ubiquitinating Frizzled receptor and targeting it to the lysosomal pathway for degradation. Loss of function of RNF43 results in decrease/lack of degradation of Frizzled with enhancement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Mutations of RNF43 have been reported in different cancers...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017451/multiplex-pcr-point-of-care-testing-versus-routine-laboratory-based-testing-in-the-treatment-of-adults-with-respiratory-tract-infections-a-quasi-randomised-study-assessing-impact-on-length-of-stay-and-antimicrobial-use
#2
Denise Andrews, Yumela Chetty, Ben S Cooper, Manjinder Virk, Stephen K Glass, Andrew Letters, Philip A Kelly, Malur Sudhanva, Dakshika Jeyaratnam
BACKGROUND: Laboratory-based respiratory pathogen (RP) results are often available too late to influence clinical decisions such as hospitalisation or antibiotic treatment due to time delay in transport of specimens and testing schedules. Ward-based i.e. point of care (POC) testing providing rapid results may alter the clinical management pathway. METHODS: FilmArray® RP polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems were placed in three in-patient and out-patient medical areas...
October 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976934/restoration-of-dap-kinase-tumor-suppressor-function-a-therapeutic-strategy-to-selectively-induce-apoptosis-in-cancer-cells-using-immunokinase-fusion-proteins
#3
REVIEW
Mehmet Kemal Tur, Adebukola K Daramola, Stefan Gattenlöhner, Marco Herling, Shivan Chetty, Stefan Barth
Targeted cancer immunotherapy is designed to selectively eliminate tumor cells without harming the surrounding healthy tissues. The death-associated protein kinases (DAPk) are a family of proapoptotic proteins that play a vital role in the regulation of cellular process and have been identified as positive mediators of apoptosis via extrinsic and intrinsic death-regulating signaling pathways. Tumor suppressor activities have been shown for DAPk1 and DAPk2 and they are downregulated in e.g., Hodgkin's (HL) and B cell lymphoma (CLL), respectively...
October 4, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899658/knockdown-of-lrp-lr-induces-apoptosis-in-pancreatic-cancer-and-neuroblastoma-cells-through-activation-of-caspases
#4
Carryn J Chetty, Eloise Ferreira, Katarina Jovanovic, Stefan F T Weiss
The 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) serves various physiological and pathological roles such as enhancing tumour-related processes including metastasis, angiogenesis, cellular viability and telomerase activation in cancerous cell lines. The present study investigates the effect of siRNA mediated downregulation of LRP/LR on pancreatic cancer (AsPC-1) and neuroblastoma (IMR-32) cells. MTT and BrdU assays revealed that siRNA mediated downregulation of LRP resulted in a significant reduction in cell viability and cell proliferation...
September 9, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895912/cd64-an-attractive-immunotherapeutic-target-for-m1-type-macrophage-mediated-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Olusiji A Akinrinmade, Shivan Chetty, Adebukola K Daramola, Mukit-Ul Islam, Theo Thepen, Stefan Barth
To date, no curative therapy is available for the treatment of most chronic inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, or autoimmune disorders. Current treatments require a lifetime supply for patients to alleviate clinical symptoms and are unable to stop the course of disease. In contrast, a new series of immunotherapeutic agents targeting the Fc γ receptor I (CD64) have emerged and demonstrated significant clinical potential to actually resolving chronic inflammation driven by M1-type dysregulated macrophages...
September 12, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811379/geography-of-intergenerational-mobility-and-child-development
#6
Louis Donnelly, Irwin Garfinkel, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Brandon G Wagner, Sarah James, Sara McLanahan
Recent research by Chetty and colleagues finds that children's chances of upward mobility are affected by the communities in which they grow up [Chetty R, Hendren N (2016) Working paper 23002]. However, the developmental pathways through which communities of origin translate into future economic gain are not well understood. In this paper we examine the association between Chetty and Hendren's county-level measure of intergenerational mobility and children's cognitive and behavioral development. Focusing on children from low-income families, we find that growing up in a county with high upward mobility is associated with fewer externalizing behavioral problems by age 3 years and with substantial gains in cognitive test scores between ages 3 and 9 years...
August 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792495/investigating-the-enhanced-best-performance-algorithm-for-annual-crop-planning-problem-based-on-economic-factors
#7
Aderemi Oluyinka Adewumi, Sivashan Chetty
The Annual Crop Planning (ACP) problem was a recently introduced problem in the literature. This study further expounds on this problem by presenting a new mathematical formulation, which is based on market economic factors. To determine solutions, a new local search metaheuristic algorithm is investigated which is called the enhanced Best Performance Algorithm (eBPA). eBPA's results are compared against two well-known local search metaheuristic algorithms; these include Tabu Search and Simulated Annealing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747163/incident-hiv-during-pregnancy-and-early-postpartum-period-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-a-rural-area-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#8
Terusha Chetty, Alain Vandormael, Claire Thorne, Anna Coutsoudis
BACKGROUND: The evidence on the effect of pregnancy on acquiring HIV is conflicting, with studies reporting both higher and lower HIV acquisition risk during pregnancy when prolonged antiretroviral therapy was accessible. The aim of this study was to assess the pregnancy effect on HIV acquisition where antiretroviral therapy was widely available in a high HIV prevalence setting. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study nested within a population-based surveillance to determine HIV incidence in HIV-uninfected women from 15 to 49 years from 2010 through 2015 in rural KwaZulu-Natal...
July 26, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718942/the-shift-toward-neo-adjuvant-chemotherapy-and-interval-debulking-surgery-for-management-of-advanced-ovarian-and-related-cancers-in-a-population-based-setting-impact-on-clinical-outcomes
#9
James L Nicklin, Shaun McGrath, Lee Tripcony, Andrea Garrett, Russell Land, Amy Tang, Lewis Perrin, Naven Chetty, Nisha Jagasia, Alex J Crandon, Marcelo Nascimento, Graeme Walker, Karen Sanday, Andreas Obermair
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of patients with advanced ovarian and related cancers (EOC+RC), treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and interval debulking surgery (NACT - IDS), and to determine if there was any relationship with optimal cytoreduction rates and overall survival (OS) in a state-wide gynaecologic oncology service over time. METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken using a population-based database of patients with stages 3 and 4 EOC+RC treated from 1982 till 2013 at the Queensland Centre for Gynaecological Cancer (QCGC)...
July 18, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714067/technical-note-evaluation-of-plastic-scintillator-detector-for-small-field-stereotactic-patient-specific-quality-assurance
#10
Yujiao Qin, Stephen J Gardner, Joshua Kim, Yimei Huang, Ning Wen, Anthony Doemer, Indrin J Chetty
PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of a commercial plastic scintillator detector (PSD) for small-field stereotactic patient-specific quality assurance (QA) measurements using flattening-filter-free beam. METHODS: A total of 10 spherical targets [volume range: (0.03 cc-2 cc)] were planned with two techniques: (a) dynamic conformal arc (DCA-10 plans) and (b) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT-10 plans). All plans were generated using Varian Eclipse treatment planning system, and AcurosXB v...
October 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685855/alcohol-exposure-during-pregnancy-altered-childhood-developmental-trajectories-in-a-rural-south-african-community
#11
Leigh-Anne Davies, Kate Cockcroft, Lynda Olinger, Matthew Chersich, Michael Urban, Candice M Chetty Makkan, Oliver H Turnbull, Leana Olivier, Denis Viljoen
AIM: This study examined the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on childhood development trajectories in a rural South African community between 2003 and 2008. METHODS: We assessed 121 children at 7-12 months (year one) and 5-6 years (year five) using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales - Extended Revised, which measures sensorimotor, cognitive and social development, with lower scores indicating developmental delay. We also interviewed their mothers or caregivers...
November 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673214/randomised-comparison-of-three-types-of-continuous-anterior-abdominal-wall-block-after-midline-laparotomy-for-gynaecological-oncology-surgery
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
P J Cowlishaw, P J Kotze, L Gleeson, N Chetty, L E Stanbury, P J Harms
Effective analgesia after midline laparotomy surgery is essential for enhanced recovery programs. We compared three types of continuous abdominal wall block for analgesia after midline laparotomy for gynaecological oncology surgery. We conducted a single-centre, double-blind randomised controlled trial. Ninety-four patients were randomised into three groups to receive two days of programmed intermittent boluses of ropivacaine (18 ml 0.5% ropivacaine every four hours) via either a transversus abdominis plane (TAP) catheter, posterior rectus sheath (PRS) catheter, or a subcutaneous (SC) catheter...
July 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657611/cspg4-a-target-for-selective-delivery-of-human-cytolytic-fusion-proteins-and-trail
#13
REVIEW
Sandra Jordaan, Shivan Chetty, Neelakshi Mungra, Iris Koopmans, Peter E van Bommel, Wijnand Helfrich, Stefan Barth
Chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is a transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed on malignant cells in several cancer types with only limited expression on normal cells. CSPG4 is implicated in several signaling pathways believed to drive cancer progression, particularly proliferation, motility and metastatic spread. Expression may serve as a prognostic marker for survival and risk of relapse in treatment-resistant malignancies including melanoma, triple negative breast cancer, rhabdomyosarcoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia...
June 28, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653985/human-map-tau-based-targeted-cytolytic-fusion-proteins
#14
REVIEW
Olusiji A Akinrinmade, Sandra Jordaan, Dmitrij Hristodorov, Radoslav Mladenov, Neelakshi Mungra, Shivan Chetty, Stefan Barth
Some of the most promising small molecule toxins used to generate antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) include anti-mitotic agents (e.g., auristatin and its derivatives) which are designed to attack cancerous cells at their most vulnerable state during mitosis. We were interested in identifying a human cystostatic protein eventually showing comparable activities and allowing the generation of corresponding targeted fully human cytolytic fusion proteins. Recently, we identified the human microtubule associated protein tau (MAP tau), which binds specifically to tubulin and modulates the stability of microtubules, thereby blocking mitosis and presumably vesicular transport...
June 27, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652671/aortic-velocity-propagation-a-novel-echocardiographic-method-in-predicting-atherosclerotic-coronary-artery-disease-burden
#15
Pakala Vasudeva Chetty, Durgaprasad Rajasekhar, Velam Vanajakshamma, Kummaraganti P Ranganayakulu, Dommara Kranthi Chaithanya
BACKGROUND: The major burden of cardiovascular disease mortality around the globe is due to atherosclerosis and its complications. Hence its early detection and management with easily accessible and noninvasive methods are valuable. Aortic velocity propagation (AVP) through color M-mode of the proximal descending aorta determines aortic stiffness, reflecting atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to find the utility of AVP in predicting coronary artery disease (CAD) burden assessed through SYNTAX (SYNergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXus and cardiac surgery) score and compared with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), which is an established surrogate marker of atherosclerosis...
July 2017: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643737/changes-in-pharyngeal-constrictor-volumes-during-head-and-neck-radiation-therapy-implications-for-dose-delivery
#16
Akila Kumarasiri, Chang Liu, Mona Kamal, Correen Fraser, Stephen Brown, Indrin J Chetty, Jinkoo Kim, Farzan Siddiqui
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical changes and associated dosimetric consequences to pharyngeal constrictor muscles (PCMs) that occur during head and neck (H and N) radiotherapy (RT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 13 oropharyngeal cancer patients with daily cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was retrospectively studied. On every 5th CBCT image, PCM was manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. The anterior-posterior PCM thickness was measured at the midline level of C3 vertebral body...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627499/first-principles-studies-of-chromium-line-ordered-alloys-in-a-molybdenum-disulfide-monolayer
#17
N F Andriambelaza, R E Mapasha, N Chetty
Density functional theory calculations have been performed to study the thermodynamic stability, structural and electronic properties of various chromium (Cr) line-ordered alloy configurations in a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) hexagonal monolayer for band gap engineering. Only the molybdenum (Mo) sites were substituted at each concentration in this study. For comparison purposes, different Cr line-ordered alloy and random alloy configurations were studied and the most thermodynamically stable ones at each concentration were identified...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626580/hernias-is-it-a-primary-defect-or-a-systemic-disorder-role-of-collagen-iii-in-all-hernias-a-case-control-study
#18
Sam Koruth, Y V Narayanaswamy Chetty
INTRODUCTION: The need of this study is to assess the role of collagen III in all hernias which include primary inguinal hernias ventral and recurrent abdominal hernias. Collagen type III represents the mechanically instable, less cross-linked collagen synthesized during the early days of wound healing. Quantitative assessment of collagen III in scar tissue on transversalis fascia as tissue obtained from cases operated for various hernias and compared to that of patients operated for abdominal surgeries for indications other than hernia was compared...
July 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623706/primary-inferior-vena-cava-smooth-muscle-tumor-with-diffuse-bizarre-giant-nuclei-and-low-mitotic-rate-a-nomenclatural-conundrum
#19
Runjan Chetty, Sangeetha N Kalimuthu, Hanna-Riikka Heinonen
A male patient with obstructive jaundice was found to have an incidental nodule within the inferior vena cava (IVC), below the level of the renal vein, on abdominal imaging. At the time of the Whipple's procedure for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, the IVC mass measuring 3.4×2.7×2.2 cm was also removed. Histologically, the lesion was well circumscribed, composed focally of spindle-shaped cells with cigar-shaped nuclei reminiscent of smooth muscle and a dominant pervasive, pleomorphic, bizarre giant cell component...
September 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587050/application-of-critical-volume-dose-constraints-for-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-in-nrg-radiation-therapy-trials
#20
EDITORIAL
Timothy A Ritter, Martha Matuszak, Indrin J Chetty, Charles S Mayo, Jackie Wu, Puneeth Iyengar, Michael Weldon, Clifford Robinson, Ying Xiao, Robert D Timmerman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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