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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905000/evaluation-and-verification-of-the-qfix-encompass-tm-couch-insert-for-intracranial-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#1
Karen Chin Snyder, Ilma Xhaferllari, Yimei Huang, M Salim Siddiqui, Indrin J Chetty, Ning Wen
The QFix EncompassTM stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) immobilization system consists of a thermoplastic mask that attaches to the couch insert to immobilize patients treated with intracranial SRS. This study evaluates the dosimetric impact and verifies a vendor provided treatment planning system (TPS) model in the Eclipse TPS. A thermoplastic mask was constructed for a Lucy 3D phantom, and was scanned with and without the EncompassTM system. Attenuation measurements were performed in the Lucy phantom with and without the insert using a pinpoint ion chamber for energies of 6xFFF, 10xFFF and 6X, with three field sizes (2 × 2, 4 × 4, and 6 × 6 cm2 )...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893198/utilization-and-clinical-value-of-diagnostic-modalities-for-tuberculosis-in-a-high-hiv-prevalence-setting
#2
Stephanie Gati, Rhoda Chetty, Douglas Wilson, Jacqueline M Achkar
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis (TB), one of the deadliest infectious diseases globally. The high mortality associated with the disease can be reduced by early diagnosis and prompt antituberculous treatment initiation. Facilities in TB-endemic regions are increasing the use of nucleic acid amplification (e.g., GeneXpert), which provides rapid results but may have suboptimal sensitivity in HIV-associated TB. Our objective was to evaluate the current practices for TB diagnosis at Edendale Hospital, a large regional hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa-a TB-endemic region with high HIV prevalence...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872593/retroperitoneal-metastasis-abutting-small-bowel-a-novel-magnetic-resonance-guided-radiation-approach
#3
Ahmed I Ghanem, Carri Glide-Hurst, M Salim Siddiqui, Indrin J Chetty, Benjamin Movsas
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an option for selected patients with metastatic disease. However, sometimes these lesions are located in such close proximity to critical normal structures that the use of safe tumoricidal SBRT doses is not achievable. Here we present a case in which real-time imaging and tracking with a magnetic resonance linear accelerator (MR-LINAC) provided a novel treatment approach and enabled safe treatment of the tumor using SBRT. Our case is a 69-year-old female who presented with localized recurrent small cell lung cancer with a retroperitoneal (FDG-avid) soft tissue lesion measuring 2...
April 2, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861348/using-synthetic-ct-for-partial-brain-radiation-therapy-impact-on-image-guidance
#4
Eric D Morris, Ryan G Price, Joshua Kim, Lonni Schultz, M Salim Siddiqui, Indrin Chetty, Carri Glide-Hurst
PURPOSE: Recent advancements in synthetic computed tomography (synCT) from magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data have made MRI-only treatment planning feasible in the brain, although synCT performance for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is not well understood. This work compares geometric equivalence of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from CTs and synCTs for brain cancer patients and quantifies performance for partial brain IGRT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten brain cancer patients (12 lesions, 7 postsurgical) underwent MR-SIM and CT-SIM...
April 6, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807837/evaluation-of-a-magnetic-resonance-guided-linear-accelerator-for-stereotactic-radiosurgery-treatment
#5
Ning Wen, Joshua Kim, Anthony Doemer, Carri Glide-Hurst, Indrin J Chetty, Chang Liu, Eric Laugeman, Ilma Xhaferllari, Akila Kumarasiri, James Victoria, Maria Bellon, Steve Kalkanis, M Salim Siddiqui, Benjamin Movsas
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate the systematic localization accuracy, treatment planning capability, and delivery accuracy of an integrated magnetic resonance imaging guided Linear Accelerator (MR-Linac) platform for stereotactic radiosurgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The phantom for the end-to-end test comprises three different compartments: a rectangular MR/CT target phantom, a Winston-Lutz cube, and a rectangular MR/CT isocenter phantom...
May 25, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781909/pain-management-in-athletes-with-impairment-a-narrative-review-of-management-strategies
#6
Lara Grobler, Wayne Derman, Cheri A Blauwet, Sean Chetty, Nick Webborn, Babette Pluim
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature related to different treatment strategies for the general population of individuals with amputation, spinal cord injury, and cerebral palsy, as well as how this may impact pain management in a correlated athlete population. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive literature search was performed linking pain with terms related to different impairment types. MAIN RESULTS: There is a paucity in the literature relating to treatment of pain in athletes with impairment; however, it is possible that the treatment strategies used in the general population of individuals with impairment may be translated to the athlete population...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739952/translational-study-identifies-xpf-and-mus81-as-predictive-biomarkers-for-oxaliplatin-based-peri-operative-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#7
T P MacGregor, R Carter, R S Gillies, J M Findlay, C Kartsonaki, F Castro-Giner, N Sahgal, L M Wang, R Chetty, N D Maynard, J B Cazier, F Buffa, P J McHugh, I Tomlinson, M R Middleton, R A Sharma
Oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is used to treat patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), but no biomarkers are currently available for patient selection. We performed a prospective, clinical trial to identify potential biomarkers associated with clinical outcomes. Tumor tissue was obtained from 38 patients with resectable EAC before and after 2 cycles of oxaliplatin-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Pre-treatment mRNA expression of 280 DNA repair (DNAR) genes was tested for association with histopathological regression at surgery, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS)...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720405/-smad4-dpc4
#8
REVIEW
Aoife J McCarthy, Runjan Chetty
Smad4 or DPC4 belongs to a family of signal transduction proteins that are phosphorylated and activated by transmembrane serine-threonine receptor kinases in response to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling via several pathways. The gene acts as a tumour suppressor gene and inactivation of smad4/DPC4 is best recognised in pancreatic cancer. However, smad4/DPC4 is also mutated in other conditions and cancers such as juvenile polyposis syndrome with and without hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, colorectal and prostate cancers...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703758/immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-induced-gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-injury-pathologists-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Dipti M Karamchandani, Runjan Chetty
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) are a relatively new class of 'miracle' dugs that have revolutionised the treatment and prognosis of some advanced-stage malignancies, and have increased the survival rates significantly. This class of drugs includes cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 inhibitors such as ipilimumab; programmed cell death protein-1 inhibitors such as nivolumab, pembrolizumab and avelumab; and programmed cell death protein ligand-1 inhibitors such as atezolizumab. These drugs stimulate the immune system by blocking the coinhibitory receptors on the T cells and lead to antitumoural response...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693233/management-of-optic-neuritis-in-ireland-a-survey-comparing-the-management-practices-of-acute-demyelinating-optic-neuritis-amongst-ophthalmologists-and-neurologists-in-ireland
#10
Lina Kobayter, Shivona Chetty
BACKGROUND: Acute optic neuritis (ON) is often the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis which is particularly common in Ireland. Despite the specific clinical details regarding investigations and management of ON provided by the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial (ONTT), international surveys have shown that there are still notable differences in the management of ON between neurologists and ophthalmologists. AIM: To compare the investigation and treatment of acute optic neuritis between ophthalmologists and neurologists in Ireland METHOD: A survey consisting of a case scenario and questions regarding treatment and investigations of a patient with ON was emailed to ophthalmology consultants, trainees and medical ophthalmologists registered with the Irish College of Ophthalmologists and to neurology consultants and registrars registered with the Irish Institute of Clinical Neuroscience...
April 24, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657893/targeting-accuracy-at-couch-kick-for-a-frameless-image-guided-radiosurgery-system
#11
Yimei Huang, Bo Zhao, Joshua Kim, Ning Wen, Indrin J Chetty, Salim Siddiqui
Purpose/Objectives: Targeting accuracy at all possible couch angles needs to be carefully evaluated prior to initiating a frameless image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery program on a Linac for treating functional disorders such as trigeminal neuralgia. In this study, we report positioning accuracy with stereoscopic x-ray imaging over the complete range of couch rotation using anthropomorphic head phantoms. Materials/Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with three 5 mm tungsten BBs as hidden targets was CT simulated...
2018: Journal of Radiosurgery and SBRT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650086/influenza-pneumococcal-hepatitis-b-and-herpes-zoster-vaccinations
#12
Nadira Husein, Ashen Chetty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629676/a-proposed-management-algorithm-for-late-onset-efavirenz-neurotoxicity
#13
H M Cross, S Chetty, M T Asukile, H S Hussey, E B Lee Pan, L M Tucker
A high proportion of HIV-positive patients in South Africa receive concomitant efavirenz (EFV) and isoniazid (INH) therapy. EFV is metabolised in the liver via CYP2B6, and genetic polymorphism of CYP2B6 is known to result in slowed metabolism of the drug. INH is also metabolised in the liver, causing inhibition of a pathway that plays an important role in slow EFV metabolisers. Concomitant INH use therefore affects plasma levels of EFV. EFV is well known to cause neuropsychiatric side-effects on initiation, and a recent adult case series described late-onset neurotoxicity in the form of subacute ataxia and encephalopathy in patients treated with EFV for a median of 2 years, in association with toxic plasma levels of the drug...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555972/tio-2-nanoparticles-induce-omphalocele-in-chicken-embryo-by-disrupting-wnt-signaling-pathway
#14
Shweta Patel, Sarmita Jana, Rajlakshmi Chetty, Sonal Thakore, Man Singh, Ranjitsinh Devkar
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are among abundantly used metal oxide NPs but their interactions with biomolecules and subsequent embryonic toxicity in higher vertebrates is not extensively reported. Physicochemical interactions of TiO2 NPs with egg albumen reveals that lower doses of TiO2 NPs (10 and 25 µg/ml) accounted for higher friccohesity and activation energy but an increment in molecular radii was recorded at higher doses (50 and 100 µg/ml). FTIR analysis revealed conformational changes in secondary structure of egg albumen as a result of electrostratic interactions between egg albumen and TiO2 NPs...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512239/the-changing-vista-of-pleural-effusion-management-indwelling-pleural-catheters-ipc
#15
Sarah Jane Messeder, Mahendran Chetty, Megan C Thomson, Graeme P Currie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510557/updates-in-the-development-of-immunornases-for-the-selective-killing-of-tumor-cells
#16
REVIEW
Sandra Jordaan, Olusiji A Akinrinmade, Thomas Nachreiner, Christian Cremer, Krupa Naran, Shivan Chetty, Stefan Barth
Targeted cancer therapy includes, amongst others, antibody-based delivery of toxic payloads to selectively eliminate tumor cells. This payload can be either a synthetic small molecule drug composing an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) or a cytotoxic protein composing an immunotoxin (IT). Non-human cytotoxic proteins, while potent, have limited clinical efficacy due to their immunogenicity and potential off-target toxicity. Humanization of the cytotoxic payload is essential and requires harnessing of potent apoptosis-inducing human proteins with conditional activity, which rely on targeted delivery to contact their substrate...
March 5, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508370/aflibercept-in-diabetic-macular-oedema-previously-refractory-to-standard-intravitreal-therapy-an-irish-retrospective-study
#17
Clare F McCloskey, Ann-Marie Mongan, Shivona Chetty, Darren M J McAteer, Shauna M Quinn
INTRODUCTION: To determine visual and anatomical outcomes of diabetic macular oedema (DMO) patients in a tertiary centre following conversion to aflibercept having been refractory to previous treatment with bevacizumab/ranibizumab. METHODS: A retrospective case series of patients with a diagnosis of DMO undergoing aflibercept intravitreal therapy for at least 6 months who had previous treatment with three consecutive bevacizumab/ranibizumab injections pre-switch...
March 5, 2018: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480158/utilization-of-a-hybrid-finite-element-based-registration-method-to-quantify-heterogeneous-tumor-response-for-adaptive-treatment-for-lung-cancer-patients
#18
Hoda Sharifi, Hong Zhang, Hassan Bagher-Ebadian, Wei Lu, Munther I Ajlouni, Jian-Yue Jin, Feng-Ming Spring Kong, Indrin J Chetty, Hualiang Zhong
Tumor response to radiation treatment (RT) can be evaluated from changes in metabolic activity between two positron emission tomography (PET) images. Activity changes at individual voxels in pre-treatment PET images (PET1), however, cannot be derived until their associated PET-CT (CT1) images are appropriately registered to during-treatment PET-CT (CT2) images. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using deformable image registration (DIR) techniques to quantify radiation-induced metabolic changes on PET images...
March 21, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470508/preterm-delivery-and-small-for-gestation-outcomes-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-rural-south-africa-results-from-a-cohort-study-2010-2015
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Terusha Chetty, Claire Thorne, Anna Coutsoudis
OBJECTIVES: Increasingly more women conceive on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase-based regimens. This study assessed the effect of preconception tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-lamivudine (3TC)/emtricitabine (FTC)-efavirenz (EFV) and post-conception TDF-(3TC/FTC)-EFV (versus other regimens) on preterm delivery (PTD) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) births. METHODS: We analysed data of 2549 HIV-infected women attending antenatal clinics in KwaZulu-Natal from 2010 through 2015 in this retrospective cohort study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431865/refinement-of-mlc-modeling-improves-commercial-qa-dosimetry-system-for-srs-and-sbrt-patient-specific-qa
#20
Yair Hillman, Josh Kim, Indrin Chetty, Ning Wen
PURPOSE: Mobius 3D (M3D) provides a volumetric dose verification of the treatment planning system's calculated dose using an independent beam model and a collapsed cone convolution superposition algorithm. However, there is a lack of investigation into M3D's accuracy and effectiveness for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) quality assurance (QA). Here, we collaborated with the vendor to develop a revised M3D beam model for SRS/SBRT cases treated with a 6X flattening filter-free (FFF) beam and high-definition multiple leaf collimator (HDMLC) on an Edge linear accelerator...
April 2018: Medical Physics
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