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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317123/motion-management-strategies-and-technical-issues-associated-with-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-of-thoracic-and-upper-abdominal-tumors-a-review-from-nrg-oncology
#1
Edward D Brandner, Indrin J Chetty, Tawfik G Giaddui, Ying Xiao, M Saiful Huq
The efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been well demonstrated. However, it presents unique challenges for accurate planning and delivery especially in the lungs and upper abdomen where respiratory motion can be significantly confounding accurate targeting and avoidance of normal tissues. In this paper we review the current literature on SBRT for lung and upper abdominal tumors with particular emphasis on addressing respiratory motion and its affects. We provide recommendations on strategies to manage motion for different, patient specific situations...
March 20, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315695/an-unusual-primary-malignant-tumor-of-the-stomach-fetal-gut-like-gastric-adenocarcinoma-with-blastoma-like-component
#2
Altaf Taher, Nebojsa Denic, Sangeetha N Kalimuthu, Runjan Chetty
An unusual case of a polypoid, malignant gastric tumor in a 62-year man is presented. Endoscopy and subsequent polypectomy revealed an 8.5 x 6.5 x 4.5cm lesion in the body of the stomach. Microscopy showed surface dysplasia with an invasive adenocarcinoma displaying prominent tubulopapillary areas composed of large vacuolated cells, pleomorphic nuclei and occasional cytoplasmic hyaline globules. This component then blended with tubular structures lined by more primitive appearing vacuolated cells embedded within a stroma made up of cellular primitive, high-grade blastema-like areas and, less cellular more pleomorphic foci with spindle and several bizarre, large cells...
March 15, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297332/impact-of-incorporating-visual-biofeedback-in-4d-mri
#3
David T To, Joshua P Kim, Ryan G Price, Indrin J Chetty, Carri K Glide-Hurst
Precise radiation therapy (RT) for abdominal lesions is complicated by respiratory motion and suboptimal soft tissue contrast in 4D CT. 4D MRI offers improved contrast although long scan times and irregular breathing patterns can be limiting. To address this, visual biofeedback (VBF) was introduced into 4D MRI. Ten volunteers were consented to an IRB-approved protocol. Prospective respiratory-triggered, T2-weighted, coronal 4D MRIs were acquired on an open 1.0T MR-SIM. VBF was integrated using an MR-compatible interactive breath-hold control system...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297307/development-and-evaluation-of-a-clinical-model-for-lung-cancer-patients-using-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-sbrt-within-a-knowledge-based-algorithm-for-treatment-planning
#4
Karen Chin Snyder, Jinkoo Kim, Anne Reding, Corey Fraser, James Gordon, Munther Ajlouni, Benjamin Movsas, Indrin J Chetty
The purpose of this study was to describe the development of a clinical model for lung cancer patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) within a knowledge-based algorithm for treatment planning, and to evaluate the model performance and applicability to different planning techniques, tumor locations, and beam arrangements. 105 SBRT plans for lung cancer patients previously treated at our institution were included in the development of the knowledge-based model (KBM). The KBM was trained with a combination of IMRT, VMAT, and 3D CRT techniques...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297285/deriving-detector-specific-correction-factors-for-rectangular-small-fields-using-a-scintillator-detector
#5
Yujiao Qin, Hualiang Zhong, Ning Wen, Karen Snyder, Yimei Huang, Indrin J Chetty
The goal of this study was to investigate small field output factors (OFs) for flattening filter-free (FFF) beams on a dedicated stereotactic linear accelerator-based system. From this data, the collimator exchange effect was quantified, and detector-specific correction factors were generated. Output factors for 16 jaw-collimated small fields (from 0.5 to 2 cm) were measured using five different detectors including an ion chamber (CC01), a stereotactic field diode (SFD), a diode detector (Edge), Gafchromic film (EBT3), and a plastic scintillator detector (PSD, W1)...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296309/characterization-and-evaluation-of-2-5-mv-electronic-portal-imaging-for-accurate-localization-of-intra-and-extracranial-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#6
Kwang Hyun Song, Karen Chin Snyder, Jinkoo Kim, Haisen Li, Wen Ning, Robert Rusnac, Paul Jackson, James Gordon, Salim M Siddiqui, Indrin J Chetty
2.5 MV electronic portal imaging, available on Varian TrueBeam machines, was characterized using various phantoms in this study. Its low-contrast detectability, spatial resolution, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were compared with those of conventional 6 MV and kV planar imaging. Scatter effect in large patient body was simulated by adding solid water slabs along the beam path. The 2.5 MV imaging mode was also evaluated using clinically acquired images from 24 patients for the sites of brain, head and neck, lung, and abdomen...
July 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295534/mucin-rich-variant-of-traditional-serrated-adenoma-mrtsa-a-distinct-morphological-variant
#7
Sangeetha N Kalimuthu, Stefano Serra, Sara Hafezi-Bakhtiari, Richard Colling, Lai Mun Wang, Runjan Chetty
Traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) account for 5% of serrated polyps, have villiform architecture, eosinophilic cells with a brush border and indented, flat-topped luminal serrations. However, some are composed of mucin-filled goblet cells (GC): a mucin-rich variant (MrTSA). The aim of this study was to determine if this variant has unique features compared to classic TSA (cTSA). 156 TSAs were retrieved from 2010-2016. Patient demographics, site of polyps, and 16 microscopic variables, were evaluated. TSAs containing 50% or more GCs were classified as MrTSAs...
March 13, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294570/how-does-obesity-affect-the-endocrine-system-a-narrative-review
#8
REVIEW
M Poddar, Y Chetty, V T Chetty
Obesity is a chronic, relapsing medical condition that results from an imbalance of energy expenditure and consumption. It is a leading cause of preventable illness, disability and premature death. The causes of obesity are multifactorial and include behavioural, socioeconomic, genetic, environmental and psychosocial factors. Rarely are endocrine diseases, e.g., hypothyroidism or Cushing's syndrome, the cause of obesity. What is less understood is how obesity affects the endocrine system. In this review, we will discuss the impact of obesity on multiple endocrine systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, changes in vitamin D homeostasis, gender steroids and thyroid hormones...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279709/vegf-signaling-promotes-vascular-endothelial-differentiation-by-modulating-etv2-expression
#9
Satish Casie Chetty, Megan S Rost, Jacob Ryan Enriquez, Jennifer A Schumacher, Kristina Baltrunaite, Andrea Rossi, Didier Y R Stainier, Saulius Sumanas
Vasculogenesis involves the differentiation of vascular endothelial progenitors de novo from undifferentiated mesoderm, their migration and coalescence to form the major embryonic vessels and the acquisition of arterial or venous identity. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (Vegf) signaling plays multiple roles during vascular development. However, its function during embryonic vasculogenesis has been controversial. Previous studies have implicated Vegf signaling in either regulating arteriovenous specification or overall vascular endothelial differentiation...
March 7, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278572/-knowing-i-can-be-helpful-makes-me-feel-good-inside-it-makes-me-feel-essential-community-health-care-workers-experiences-of-conducting-a-home-based-rehabilitation-intervention-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#10
Saul Cobbing, Verusia Chetty, Jill Hanass-Hancock, Hellen Myezwa
People living with HIV (PLHIV) are living longer lives on antiretroviral therapy and are prone to a wide range of disabilities. Innovative strategies are required to meet the rehabilitation needs of PLHIV, particularly in resource-poor communities where HIV is endemic and access to institution-based rehabilitation is limited. Home-based rehabilitation (HBR) is one such approach, but there is a paucity of research related to HBR programmes for PLHIV or the experiences of community care workers (CCWs) involved in these programmes...
February 9, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272856/macromastia-and-gigantomastia-efficacy-of-the-superomedial-pedicle-pattern-for-breast-reduction-surgery
#11
V Chetty, E Ndobe
BACKGROUND: Reduction mammoplasty procedures in patients with macromastia and gigantomastia can prove a major challenge to the plastic surgeon. Although several techniques have been described to reduce very large breasts, they can often result in vascular compromise to the nipple-areola complex (NAC) and skin flaps, decrease in NAC sensation and inability to breast-feed. The superomedial pedicle (SMP) procedure is often used in patients with moderate to large breast reductions. For extremely large breast reductions, macromastia and gigantomastia breast amputation with a free nipple graft is often recommended...
November 2016: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261818/on-the-impact-of-smoothing-and-noise-on-robustness-of-ct-and-cbct-radiomics-features-for-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancers
#12
Hassan Bagher-Ebadian, Farzan Siddiqui, Liu Chang, Benjamin Movsas, Indrin J Chetty
PURPOSE: We investigated the characteristics of radiomics features extracted from planning CT (pCT) and cone beam CT (CBCT) image datasets acquired for 18 oropharyngeal cancer patients treated with fractionated radiation therapy. Images were subjected to smoothing, sharpening, and noise to evaluate changes in features relative to baseline datasets. METHODS: Textural features were extracted from tumor volumes, contoured on pCT and CBCT images, according to the following 8 different classes: Intensity Based Histogram Features (IBHF), Gray Level Run Length (GLRL), Law's Textural information (LAWS), Discrete Orthonormal Stockwell Transform (DOST), Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Two-Dimensional Wavelet Transform (2DWT), Two Dimensional Gabor Filter (2DGF), and Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM)...
March 6, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235415/a-systematic-review-of-health-economic-models-of-opioid-agonist-therapies-in-maintenance-treatment-of-non-prescription-opioid-dependence
#13
Mersha Chetty, James J Kenworthy, Sue Langham, Andrew Walker, William C N Dunlop
BACKGROUND: Opioid dependence is a chronic condition with substantial health, economic and social costs. The study objective was to conduct a systematic review of published health-economic models of opioid agonist therapy for non-prescription opioid dependence, to review the different modelling approaches identified, and to inform future modelling studies. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in March 2015 in eight electronic databases, supplemented by hand-searching reference lists and searches on six National Health Technology Assessment Agency websites...
February 24, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209558/readiness-for-delivering-digital-health-at-scale-lessons-from-a-longitudinal-qualitative-evaluation-of-a-national-digital-health-innovation-program-in-the-united-kingdom
#14
Marilyn R Lennon, Matt-Mouley Bouamrane, Alison M Devlin, Siobhan O'Connor, Catherine O'Donnell, Ula Chetty, Ruth Agbakoba, Annemieke Bikker, Eleanor Grieve, Tracy Finch, Nicholas Watson, Sally Wyke, Frances S Mair
BACKGROUND: Digital health has the potential to support care delivery for chronic illness. Despite positive evidence from localized implementations, new technologies have proven slow to become accepted, integrated, and routinized at scale. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to examine barriers and facilitators to implementation of digital health at scale through the evaluation of a £37m national digital health program: ‟Delivering Assisted Living Lifestyles at Scale" (dallas) from 2012-2015...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207935/false-negative-fetal-cell-free-dna-screening-for-microdeletion-syndromes-in-the-presence-of-an-unbalanced-translocation-involving-monosomy-4p
#15
Zhongxia Qi, Shreshtha Madaan, Shilpa Chetty, Jingwei Yu, Arun P Wiita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195664/an-adaptive-model-for-rapid-and-direct-estimation-of-extravascular-extracellular-space-in-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-studies
#16
Azimeh N V Dehkordi, Alireza Kamali-Asl, James R Ewing, Ning Wen, Indrin J Chetty, Hassan Bagher-Ebadian
Extravascular extracellular space (ve ) is a key parameter to characterize the tissue of cerebral tumors. This study introduces an artificial neural network (ANN) as a fast, direct, and accurate estimator of ve from a time trace of the longitudinal relaxation rate, ΔR1 (R1  = 1/T1 ), in DCE-MRI studies. Using the extended Tofts equation, a set of ΔR1 profiles was simulated in the presence of eight different signal to noise ratios. A set of gain- and noise-insensitive features was generated from the simulated ΔR1 profiles and used as the ANN training set...
February 14, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119348/a-pragmatic-approach-to-vasculitis-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#17
REVIEW
Runjan Chetty, Stefano Serra
Although vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an uncommon occurrence, occasionally vasculitis can present as haemorrhagic infarction or ischaemia for which a length of bowel is removed. Invariably, the appropriate clinical history is not forthcoming, or vasculitis is not clinically suspected. The purpose of this overview is to provide the practising gastrointestinal (GI) pathologist with a framework to recognise and diagnose vasculitides within the GIT. The classification may be approached by aetiological agent or size of vessel involved; an international consensus group now favours the latter approach...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096372/helical-structure-stability-and-dynamics-in-human-apolipoprotein-e3-and-e4-by-hydrogen-exchange-and-mass-spectrometry
#18
Palaniappan S Chetty, Leland Mayne, Sissel Lund-Katz, S Walter Englander, Michael C Phillips
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays a critical role in cholesterol transport in both peripheral circulation and brain. Human apoE is a polymorphic 299-residue protein in which the less common E4 isoform differs from the major E3 isoform only by a C112R substitution. ApoE4 interacts with lipoprotein particles and with the amyloid-β peptide, and it is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease. To understand the structural basis for the differences between apoE3 and E4 functionality, we used hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled with a fragment separation method and mass spectrometric analysis to compare their secondary structures at near amino acid resolution...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072395/evaluation-of-adaptive-treatment-planning-for-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Hualiang Zhong, Salim Siddiqui, Benjamin Movsas, Indrin Chetty
The purpose of this study was to develop metrics to evaluate uncertainties in deformable dose accumulation (DDA) for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Initial treatment plans (primary) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) images were retrospectively processed for seven NSCLC patients, who showed significant tumor regression during the course of treatment. Each plan was developed with IMRT for 2 Gy��33 fractions. A B-spline-based DIR algorithm was used to register weekly CBCT images to a reference image acquired at fraction 21 and the resultant displacement vector fields (DVFs) were then modified using a finite element method (FEM)...
January 10, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068232/analysis-of-the-factors-contributing-to-vertebral-compression-fractures-after-spine-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#20
David Boyce-Fappiano, Erinma Elibe, Lonni Schultz, Samuel Ryu, M Salim Siddiqui, Indrin Chetty, Ian Lee, Jack Rock, Benjamin Movsas, Farzan Siddiqui
PURPOSE: To determine our institutional vertebral compression fracture (VCF) rate after spine stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and determine contributory factors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Retrospective analysis from 2001 to 2013 at a single institution was performed. With institutional review board approval, electronic medical records of 1905 vertebral bodies from 791 patients who were treated with SRS for the management of primary or metastatic spinal lesions were reviewed...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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