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Raj Chetty, David Cutler, Michael Stepner
Earlier this year, the three of us, along with several colleagues, published new research on the relationship between income and life expectancy in the United States, drawing on population-level data drawn from tax and Social Security records.(1) As part of that research, we created new, publicly available data sets with estimates of (1) life expectancy at age 40 years by gender, area (county and commuting zone), income level, and year (2001-2014); and (2) estimates of mortality rates by age (≥ 40 years), gender, area, income level, and year...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
O Perovic, E Britz, V Chetty, A Singh-Moodley
Molecular confirmation of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) was introduced in South Africa (SA) at the end of 2011. We report on the detection of these resistance genes based on referral isolates. Enterobacteriaceae with non-susceptibility to any of the carbapenems according to defined criteria for antimicrobial susceptibility testing results were sent to a reference laboratory. A proportion of isolates had limited demographic, epidemiological and clinical data available. Organism identification was reconfirmed using reference laboratory methods, and the presence of carbapenemases was confirmed with a real-time polymerase chain reaction...
September 6, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Ning Wen, Siming Lu, Jinkoo Kim, Yujiao Qin, Yimei Huang, Bo Zhao, Chang Liu, Indrin J Chetty
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric uncertainty associated with Gafchromic™ (EBT3) films and establish a practical and efficient film dosimetry protocol for Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT). METHOD AND MATERIALS: EBT3 films were irradiated at each of seven different dose levels between 1 and 15 Gy with open fields and standard deviations of dose maps were calculated at each color channel for evaluation...
October 4, 2016: Radiation Oncology
Qixue Wu, Karen Chin Snyder, Chang Liu, Yimei Huang, Bo Zhao, Indrin J Chetty, Ning Wen
Treatment of patients with multiple brain metastases using a single-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has been shown to decrease treatment time with the tradeoff of larger low dose to the normal brain tissue. We have developed an efficient Projection Summing Optimization Algorithm to optimize the treatment geometry in order to reduce dose to normal brain tissue for radiosurgery of multiple metastases with single-isocenter VMAT. The algorithm: (a) measures coordinates of outer boundary points of each lesion to be treated using the Eclipse Scripting Application Programming Interface, (b) determines the rotations of couch, collimator, and gantry using three matrices about the cardinal axes, (c) projects the outer boundary points of the lesion on to Beam Eye View projection plane, (d) optimizes couch and collimator angles by selecting the least total unblocked area for each specific treatment arc, and (e) generates a treatment plan with the optimized angles...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sangeetha N Kalimuthu, Stefano Serra, Neesha Dhani, Sara Hafezi-Bakhtiari, Eva Szentgyorgyi, Rajkumar Vajpeyi, Runjan Chetty
AIM: Several regression grading systems have been proposed for neoadjuvant chemoradiation-treated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This study aimed to examine the utility, reproducibility and level of concordance of three most frequently used grading systems. METHODS: Four gastrointestinal pathologists used the College of American Pathologists (CAP), Evans, MD Anderson Cancer Centre (MDA) regression grading systems to grade 14 selected cases (7-20 slides from each case) of neoadjuvant chemoradiation-treated PDAC...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
H Bagher-Ebadian, F Siddiqui, C Liu, B Movsas, I J Chetty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Q Wu, N Wen, K C Snyder, C Liu, Y Huang, B Zhao, I J Chetty, M M Shah, B Movsas, S Siddiqui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
N Wen, H Bagher-Ebadian, M Pantelic, D Hearshen, M A Elshaikh, I J Chetty, B Movsas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
S L Brown, R Elmghirbi, T Nagaraja, K A Keenan, K Lapanowski, S Panda, P Inder, G Cabral, L Liu, J H Kim, B Movsas, I J Chetty, J R Ewing, R Parry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
S Vance, K A Al Feghali, A Taylor, M Kaur, C Neslund-Dudas, I J Chetty, M Simoff, M Ajlouni, B Movsas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Erika Britz, Olga Perovic, Claire von Mollendorf, Anne von Gottberg, Samantha Iyaloo, Vanessa Quan, Verushka Chetty, Charlotte Sriruttan, Nazir A Ismail, Ananta Nanoo, Alfred Musekiwa, Carl Reddy, Karien Viljoen, Cheryl Cohen, Nelesh P Govender
INTRODUCTION: Meningitis is a major cause of mortality in southern Africa. We aimed to describe the aetiologies and frequencies of laboratory-confirmed fungal and bacterial meningitis among adults in a South African province with an 11% HIV prevalence, over 4 years. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study of secondary laboratory data, extracted on all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens submitted to public-sector laboratories in Gauteng province from 2009 through 2012...
2016: PloS One
Joshua Kim, Qixue Wu, Bo Zhao, Ning Wen, Munther Ajlouni, Benjamin Movsas, Indrin J Chetty
BACKGROUND: To compare retrospectively generated gated plans to conventional internal target volume (ITV)-based plans and to evaluate whether gated radiotherapy provides clinically relevant dosimetric improvements to organs-at-risk (OARs). METHODS: Evaluation was performed of 150 stereotactic ablative radiotherapy treatment plans delivered to 128 early-stage (T1-T3 (<5 cm)) NSCLC patients. To generate gated plans, original ITV-based plans were re-optimized and re-calculated on the end-exhale phase and using gated planning target volumes (PTV)...
2016: Radiation Oncology
Leila Vania, Carryn J Chetty, Eloise Ferreira, Stefan F T Weiss
Cancer is a highly complex disease that has become one of the leading causes of death globally. Metastasis, a major cause of cancer deaths, requires two crucial events known as adhesion and invasion. The 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor [laminin receptor precursor/high-affinity laminin receptor (LRP/LR)] enhances these two steps, consequently aiding in cancer progression. In this study, the role of LRP/LR in adhesion and invasion of early (SW-480 & HT-29) and late (DLD-1) stage colorectal cancer cells has been investigated...
September 8, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Matthew Ritchie, Matthew Ash, Qingchao Chen, Kevin Chetty
The ability to detect the presence as well as classify the activities of individuals behind visually obscuring structures is of significant benefit to police, security and emergency services in many situations. This paper presents the analysis from a series of experimental results generated using a through-the-wall (TTW) Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) C-Band radar system named Soprano. The objective of this analysis was to classify whether an individual was carrying an item in both hands or not using micro-Doppler information from a FMCW sensor...
2016: Sensors
Hao Xu, Stephen Brown, Indrin J Chetty, Ning Wen
PURPOSE: To determine the localization uncertainties associated with 2-dimensional/3-dimensional image registration in comparison to 3-dimensional/3-dimensional image registration in 6 dimensions on a Varian Edge Linac under various imaging conditions. METHODS: The systematic errors in 6 dimensions were assessed by comparing automatic 2-dimensional/3-dimensional (kV/MV vs computed tomography) with 3-dimensional/3-dimensional (cone beam computed tomography vs computed tomography) image registrations under various conditions encountered in clinical applications...
August 31, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Raj Chetty, Michael Stepner, David Cutler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Ula Jan Chetty, Patrick O'Donnell, David Blane, Sara Willems
The WONCA Special Interest Group on Health Equity was established in 2014 to provide a focus of support, education, research and policy on issues relating to promotion of health equity in primary care settings. In keeping with this remit, the group hosted a workshop at the WONCA Europe conference held in Istanbul in October 2015. The aim of the session was to engage practitioners from across Europe in discussion of the barriers and facilitators to addressing the social determinants of health at practice level and in the training of doctors...
2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Mohammad Ali Armin, Girija Chetty, Hans De Visser, Cedric Dumas, Florian Grimpen, Olivier Salvado
PURPOSE: Optical colonoscopy is a prominent procedure by which clinicians examine the surface of the colon for cancerous polyps using a flexible colonoscope. One of the main concerns regarding the quality of the colonoscopy is to ensure that the whole colonic surface has been inspected for abnormalities. In this paper, we aim at estimating areas that have not been covered thoroughly by providing a map from the internal colon surface. METHODS: Camera parameters were estimated using optical flow between consecutive colonoscopy frames...
September 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
David J Gladstone, Stephen F Kry, Ying Xiao, Indrin J Chetty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Andrew P Santoso, Kwang H Song, Yujiao Qin, Stephen J Gardner, Chang Liu, Indrin J Chetty, Benjamin Movsas, Munther Ajlouni, Ning Wen
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the effect of gantry speed on 4DCBCT image quality and dose for the Varian On-Board Imager®. METHODS: A thoracic 4DCBCT protocol was designed using a 125 kVp spectrum. Image quality parameters were evaluated for 4DCBCT acquisition using Catphan® phantom with real-time position management™ system for gantry speeds varying between 1.0 to 6.0°/s. Superior-inferior motion of the phantom was executed using a sinusoidal waveform with five second period...
2016: Radiation Oncology
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