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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431865/refinement-of-mlc-modelling-improves-comercial-qa-dosimetry-system-for-srs-and-sbrt-patient-specific-qa
#1
Yair Hillman, Josh Kim, Indrin Chetty, Ning Wen
PURPOSE: Mobius 3D (M3D) provides a volumetric dose verification of the treatment planning system's calculated dose using an independent beam model and a collapsed cone convolution superposition algorithm. However, there is a lack of investigation into M3D's accuracy and effectiveness for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) quality assurance (QA). Here, we collaborated with the vendor to develop a revised M3D beam model for SRS/SBRT cases treated with a 6X Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beam and high definition multiple leaf collimator (HDMLC) on an Edge linear accelerator...
February 12, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419412/neural-and-neurogenic-tumours-of-the-gastroenteropancreaticobiliary-tract
#2
REVIEW
Aoife J McCarthy, Dipti M Karamchandani, Runjan Chetty
Neural lesions occur uncommonly in the gastroenteropancreaticobiliary tract. However, due to the growing number of screening colonoscopy procedures, polypoid neural lesions of the colon are being recognised increasingly and range from benign tumours to high-grade malignant neoplasms. Morphological variability of neural tumours can be wide, although some entities share pathological features, and, as such, these lesions can be diagnostically challenging. We review the spectrum of pathology of neural tumours in the gastroenteropancreaticobiliary tract, with the goal of providing a practical approach for practising surgical pathologists...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371175/integrated-decentralized-training-for-health-professions-education-at-the-university-of-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-protocol-for-the-i-dect-project
#3
Pragashnie Govender, Verusia Chetty, Deshini Naidoo, Ntsikelelo Pefile
BACKGROUND: The Integrated Decentralized Training (i-DecT) project was created to address the current need for health care in South Africa among resource poor climates in rural and periurban settings. The University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) in South Africa has embarked on a program within the School of Health Sciences (SHS) to decentralize the clinical learning platform in order to address this disparity. Framed in a pragmatic stance, this proposal is geared towards informing the roll out of decentralized clinical training (DCT) within the province of KwaZulu-Natal...
January 25, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358476/tumours-composed-of-fat-are-no-longer-a-simple-diagnosis-an-overview-of-fatty-tumours-with-a-spindle-cell-component
#4
REVIEW
Aoife J McCarthy, Runjan Chetty
This is a review of the morphological spectrum of fatty tumours containing a component of spindle cells, highlighting the immunohistochemical and cytogenetic workup that is now mandatory for accurate diagnosis, with the goal of providing a practical approach for practising surgical pathologists. There have been significant advances in recent years in classifying and understanding the pathogenesis of fatty tumours with spindle cells, based on the correlation of histological, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic/molecular findings...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349606/well-differentiated-liposarcoma-atypical-lipomatous-tumor-presenting-as-an-esophageal-polyp
#5
Aoife J McCarthy, Paul Carroll, Rajkumar Vajpeyi, Gail Darling, Runjan Chetty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316828/hodgkin-s-lymphoma-and-its-association-with-ebv-and-hiv-infection
#6
Ravnit Grewal, Alexandra Irimie, Nasheen Naidoo, Nooroudien Mohamed, Bobe Petrushev, Manogari Chetty, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Emmanuel-Akinola Abayomi
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes a clonal expansion of what appears to be malignant B cells. Viruses are involved in its pathogenesis, such as the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since these viral infections have been shown to play key roles in the pathogenesis of HL, countries with a prevalence of HIV and EBV represent interesting population targets to study the pathogenesis of HL, linking the evolution of the disease with viral infections. Usually, patients present with late stage disease often involving the bone marrow at the time of diagnosis...
January 9, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281933/toxicity-evaluation-of-magnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-reveals-neuronal-loss-in-chicken-embryo
#7
Shweta Patel, Sarmita Jana, Rajlakshmi Chetty, Sonal Thakore, Man Singh, Ranjitsinh Devkar
Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) display the ability to cross blood - brain barrier and are envisioned as diagnostic and therapeutic applications, but there are few studies on their potential embryonic toxicity in higher vertebrates. This study investigates interaction of IONs with egg albumen and its subsequent toxicity on chicken embryo. Physicochemical interactions of IONs with egg albumen revealed alterations in friccohesity and secondary structural changes due to weak Vander Waals forces. Toxicity assessment of IONs (10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µg/ml doses) on chicken embryo accounted for 100% mortality at 200 µg/ml dose due to Fe2+ ions overload...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280464/adaptive-radiation-therapy-off-line-on-line-and-in-line
#8
EDITORIAL
Indrin J Chetty, Jonas Fontenot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258292/corrigendum-phylogenetic-ctdna-analysis-depicts-early-stage-lung-cancer-evolution
#9
Christopher Abbosh, Nicolai J Birkbak, Gareth A Wilson, Mariam Jamal-Hanjani, Tudor Constantin, Raheleh Salari, John Le Quesne, David A Moore, Selvaraju Veeriah, Rachel Rosenthal, Teresa Marafioti, Eser Kirkizlar, Thomas B K Watkins, Nicholas McGranahan, Sophia Ward, Luke Martinson, Joan Riley, Francesco Fraioli, Maise Al Bakir, Eva Grönroos, Francisco Zambrana, Raymondo Endozo, Wenya Linda Bi, Fiona M Fennessy, Nicole Sponer, Diana Johnson, Joanne Laycock, Seema Shafi, Justyna Czyzewska-Khan, Andrew Rowan, Tim Chambers, Nik Matthews, Samra Turajlic, Crispin Hiley, Siow Ming Lee, Martin D Forster, Tanya Ahmad, Mary Falzon, Elaine Borg, David Lawrence, Martin Hayward, Shyam Kolvekar, Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos, Sam M Janes, Ricky Thakrar, Asia Ahmed, Fiona Blackhall, Yvonne Summers, Dina Hafez, Ashwini Naik, Apratim Ganguly, Stephanie Kareht, Rajesh Shah, Leena Joseph, Anne Marie Quinn, Phil A Crosbie, Babu Naidu, Gary Middleton, Gerald Langman, Simon Trotter, Marianne Nicolson, Hardy Remmen, Keith Kerr, Mahendran Chetty, Lesley Gomersall, Dean A Fennell, Apostolos Nakas, Sridhar Rathinam, Girija Anand, Sajid Khan, Peter Russell, Veni Ezhil, Babikir Ismail, Melanie Irvin-Sellers, Vineet Prakash, Jason F Lester, Malgorzata Kornaszewska, Richard Attanoos, Haydn Adams, Helen Davies, Dahmane Oukrif, Ayse U Akarca, John A Hartley, Helen L Lowe, Sara Lock, Natasha Iles, Harriet Bell, Yenting Ngai, Greg Elgar, Zoltan Szallasi, Roland F Schwarz, Javier Herrero, Aengus Stewart, Sergio A Quezada, Karl S Peggs, Peter Van Loo, Caroline Dive, C Jimmy Lin, Matthew Rabinowitz, Hugo J W L Aerts, Allan Hackshaw, Jacqui A Shaw, Bernhard G Zimmermann, Charles Swanton
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nature22364.
December 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249335/an-automated-dose-tracking-system-for-adaptive-radiation-therapy
#10
Chang Liu, Jinkoo Kim, Akila Kumarasiri, Essa Mayyas, Stephen L Brown, Ning Wen, Farzan Siddiqui, Indrin J Chetty
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The implementation of adaptive radiation therapy (ART) into routine clinical practice is technically challenging and requires significant resources to perform and validate each process step. The objective of this report is to identify the key components of ART, to illustrate how a specific automated procedure improves efficiency, and to facilitate the routine clinical application of ART. METHODS: Data was used from patient images, exported from a clinical database and converted to an intermediate format for point-wise dose tracking and accumulation...
February 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158450/70-years-of-the-jcp-highly-cited-papers-the-causal-relation-between-human-papillomavirus-and-cervical-cancer
#11
EDITORIAL
Runjan Chetty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157372/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistance-from-bacterial-culture-and-susceptibility-records-from-horse-samples-in-south-africa
#12
John K Chipangura, Thireshni Chetty, Marcia Kgoete, Vinny Naidoo
The continuous increase in prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria presents a significant public health problem and is an indicator that antimicrobial prudent usage guidelines are not being followed, especially in developing countries. Despite trends being available from numerous countries, there is little published for South Africa. This study was aimed at estimating the prevalence and trends of antimicrobial resistance from bacterial isolates from equine clinical samples submitted for culture and susceptibility testing to the veterinary bacteriology laboratory of the University of Pretoria...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121445/viraemia-before-during-and-after-pregnancy-in-hiv-infected-women-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-rural-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-2010-2015
#13
Terusha Chetty, Marie-Louise Newell, Claire Thorne, Anna Coutsoudis
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy and postpartum viral load suppression is critical to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission and ensure maternal health. We measured viraemia risk before, during and after pregnancy in HIV-infected women. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2015, 1425 HIV-infected pregnant women on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least six months pre-pregnancy were enrolled in a cohort study in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Odds ratios were estimated in multilevel logistic regression, with pregnancy period time varying...
November 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074148/geometry-and-airflow-dynamics-analysis-in-the-nasal-cavity-during-inhalation
#14
REVIEW
Kiao Inthavong, Jiawei Ma, Yidan Shang, Jingliang Dong, Annicka S R Chetty, Jiyuan Tu, Dennis Frank-Ito
BACKGROUND: A major issue among computational respiratory studies is the wide variety of nasal morphologies being studied, caused by both inter-population and inter-subject variations. METHOD: Six nasal cavity geometries exhibiting diverse geometry variations were subjected to steady inhalation flow rate of 15L/min. to determine if any consistent flow behaviour could be found. FINDINGS: Despite vastly different geometries we were able to identify consistent flow patterns including relatively high velocity in the nasal valve region, followed by flow continuing predominantly in the inferior half of the airway...
October 7, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018044/rnf43
#15
REVIEW
Stefano Serra, Runjan Chetty
RNF43 (E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF43 or RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase RNF43) functions as a tumor suppressor, by exerting a predominant negative feedback mechanism in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. RNF43 inhibits Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by ubiquitinating Frizzled receptor and targeting it to the lysosomal pathway for degradation. Loss of function of RNF43 results in decrease/lack of degradation of Frizzled with enhancement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Mutations of RNF43 have been reported in different cancers...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017451/multiplex-pcr-point-of-care-testing-versus-routine-laboratory-based-testing-in-the-treatment-of-adults-with-respiratory-tract-infections-a-quasi-randomised-study-assessing-impact-on-length-of-stay-and-antimicrobial-use
#16
Denise Andrews, Yumela Chetty, Ben S Cooper, Manjinder Virk, Stephen K Glass, Andrew Letters, Philip A Kelly, Malur Sudhanva, Dakshika Jeyaratnam
BACKGROUND: Laboratory-based respiratory pathogen (RP) results are often available too late to influence clinical decisions such as hospitalisation or antibiotic treatment due to time delay in transport of specimens and testing schedules. Ward-based i.e. point of care (POC) testing providing rapid results may alter the clinical management pathway. METHODS: FilmArray® RP polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems were placed in three in-patient and out-patient medical areas...
October 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976934/restoration-of-dap-kinase-tumor-suppressor-function-a-therapeutic-strategy-to-selectively-induce-apoptosis-in-cancer-cells-using-immunokinase-fusion-proteins
#17
REVIEW
Mehmet Kemal Tur, Adebukola K Daramola, Stefan Gattenlöhner, Marco Herling, Shivan Chetty, Stefan Barth
Targeted cancer immunotherapy is designed to selectively eliminate tumor cells without harming the surrounding healthy tissues. The death-associated protein kinases (DAPk) are a family of proapoptotic proteins that play a vital role in the regulation of cellular process and have been identified as positive mediators of apoptosis via extrinsic and intrinsic death-regulating signaling pathways. Tumor suppressor activities have been shown for DAPk1 and DAPk2 and they are downregulated in e.g., Hodgkin's (HL) and B cell lymphoma (CLL), respectively...
October 4, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899658/knockdown-of-lrp-lr-induces-apoptosis-in-pancreatic-cancer-and-neuroblastoma-cells-through-activation-of-caspases
#18
Carryn J Chetty, Eloise Ferreira, Katarina Jovanovic, Stefan F T Weiss
The 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) serves various physiological and pathological roles such as enhancing tumour-related processes including metastasis, angiogenesis, cellular viability and telomerase activation in cancerous cell lines. The present study investigates the effect of siRNA mediated downregulation of LRP/LR on pancreatic cancer (AsPC-1) and neuroblastoma (IMR-32) cells. MTT and BrdU assays revealed that siRNA mediated downregulation of LRP resulted in a significant reduction in cell viability and cell proliferation...
November 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895912/cd64-an-attractive-immunotherapeutic-target-for-m1-type-macrophage-mediated-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Olusiji A Akinrinmade, Shivan Chetty, Adebukola K Daramola, Mukit-Ul Islam, Theo Thepen, Stefan Barth
To date, no curative therapy is available for the treatment of most chronic inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, or autoimmune disorders. Current treatments require a lifetime supply for patients to alleviate clinical symptoms and are unable to stop the course of disease. In contrast, a new series of immunotherapeutic agents targeting the Fc γ receptor I (CD64) have emerged and demonstrated significant clinical potential to actually resolving chronic inflammation driven by M1-type dysregulated macrophages...
September 12, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811379/geography-of-intergenerational-mobility-and-child-development
#20
Louis Donnelly, Irwin Garfinkel, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Brandon G Wagner, Sarah James, Sara McLanahan
Recent research by Chetty and colleagues finds that children's chances of upward mobility are affected by the communities in which they grow up [Chetty R, Hendren N (2016) Working paper 23002]. However, the developmental pathways through which communities of origin translate into future economic gain are not well understood. In this paper we examine the association between Chetty and Hendren's county-level measure of intergenerational mobility and children's cognitive and behavioral development. Focusing on children from low-income families, we find that growing up in a county with high upward mobility is associated with fewer externalizing behavioral problems by age 3 years and with substantial gains in cognitive test scores between ages 3 and 9 years...
August 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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