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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525438/slowing-bmi-growth-trajectories-in-elementary-school-aged-children-the-northeast-iowa-food-and-fitness-initiative
#1
Loren L Toussaint, Kristin Housholder, Katelyn Janssen, Ann Mansfield, Brian A Lynch
This project examines the Northeast Iowa Food and Fitness Initiative, a policy-, community-, and school-based effort to slow children's body mass index (BMI) growth over 6 years. Kindergarteners (K) to fifth graders (5) from 10 different school districts participated (N = 4101). Students with 0 to 1 years of initiative exposure showed greater growth in BMI compared with children who had 2 to 6 years of exposure, resulting in K-5 BMI savings of 1.5 points (6 lb) for median-height boys and girls. Results suggest that changes to policies, communities, and schools may provide effective obesity reduction in children...
July 2017: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520816/high-prevalence-of-elevated-blood-lead-levels-in-both-rural-and-urban-iowa-newborns-spatial-patterns-and-area-level-covariates
#2
Margaret Carrel, David Zahrieh, Sean G Young, Jacob Oleson, Kelli K Ryckman, Brian Wels, Donald L Simmons, Audrey Saftlas
Lead in maternal blood can cross the placenta and result in elevated blood lead levels in newborns, potentially producing negative effects on neurocognitive function, particularly if combined with childhood lead exposure. Little research exists, however, into the burden of elevated blood lead levels in newborns, or the places and populations in which elevated lead levels are observed in newborns, particularly in rural settings. Using ~2300 dried bloods spots collected within 1-3 days of birth among Iowa newborns, linked with the area of mother's residence at the time of birth, we examine the spatial patterns of elevated (>5 μg/dL) blood lead levels and the ecological-level predictors of elevated blood lead levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517028/aic-identifies-optimal-representation-of-longitudinal-dietary-variables
#3
John VanBuren, Joseph Cavanaugh, Teresa Marshall, John Warren, Steven M Levy
OBJECTIVES: The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) is a well-known tool for variable selection in multivariable modeling as well as a tool to help identify the optimal representation of explanatory variables. However, it has been discussed infrequently in the dental literature. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of AIC in determining the optimal representation of dietary variables in a longitudinal dental study. METHODS: The Iowa Fluoride Study enrolled children at birth and dental examinations were conducted at ages 5, 9, 13, and 17...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507733/assessment-of-postgraduate-skin-lesion-education-among-iowa-family-physicians
#4
Nicholas J Goetsch, James D Hoehns, John E Sutherland, Matthew E Ulven, Olayinka O Shiyanbola, Monica K Rauch
BACKGROUND: Family medicine physicians play a pivotal role in the prevention and early detection of skin cancer. Our objective was to evaluate how family physicians believe their postgraduate training in skin cancer screening and prevention has prepared them for independent practice and to assess the need for enhanced skin lesion teaching in a family medicine residency setting. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey investigating provider demographics, confidence in providing dermatological care, residency training, current medical practice, and skin cancer prevention beliefs was mailed to all family medicine physicians in the state of Iowa as listed in the Iowa Academy of Family Physicians annual directory in 2006 (N = 1069)...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477174/complete-cryspovirus-genome-sequences-from-cryptosporidium-parvum-isolate-iowa
#5
Minh Vong, Jacob G Ludington, Honorine D Ward, Max L Nibert
Bisegmented dsRNA viruses that infect most or all isolates of apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum are currently assigned to a single species, Cryptosporidium parvum virus 1, in genus Cryspovirus, family Partitiviridae. An analysis of existing sequence data suggested that the complete sequences of both cryspovirus genome segments, dsRNA1 and dsRNA2, had yet to be determined. We therefore set out to accomplish this for the virus strain that infects C. parvum isolate Iowa. The results suggest that several previous cryspovirus sequences are indeed truncated at one or both segment termini and also identify sequences at or near the termini that are conserved in both segments...
May 5, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475942/distinct-cognitive-performance-and-patterns-of-drug-use-among-early-and-late-onset-cocaine-users
#6
Bruna Mayara Lopes, Priscila Dib Gonçalves, Mariella Ometto, Bernardo Dos Santos, Mikael Cavallet, Tiffany Moukbel Chaim-Avancini, Mauricio Henriques Serpa, Sergio Nicastri, André Malbergier, Geraldo F Busatto, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, Paulo Jannuzzi Cunha
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a crucial period for neurodevelopment, but few studies have investigated the impact of early cocaine use on cognitive performance and patterns of substance use. METHODS: We evaluated 103 cocaine dependent inpatients divided in two groups: early-onset users (EOG; n=52), late-onset users (LOG; n=51), and 63 healthy controls. Neuropsychological functioning was evaluated using Digits Forward (DF) and Backward (DB), Trail Making Test (TMT), Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and Iowa Gambling Test (IGT)...
April 29, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474981/pediatric-meningiomas-65-year-experience-at-a-single-institution
#7
Andrew J Grossbach, Kelly B Mahaney, Arnold H Menezes
OBJECTIVE Meningiomas are relatively common, typically benign neoplasms in adults; however, they are relatively rare in the pediatric population. Pediatric meningiomas behave very differently from their adult counterparts, tending to have more malignant histological subtypes and recur more frequently. The authors of this paper investigate the risk factors, pathological subtypes, and recurrence rates of pediatric meningiomas. METHODS A retrospective chart review was conducted at the University of Iowa to identify patients 20 years old and younger with meningiomas in the period from 1948 to 2015...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461345/iowa-s-medicaid-expansion-promoted-healthy-behaviors-but-was-challenging-to-implement-and-attracted-few-participants
#8
Natoshia M Askelson, Brad Wright, Suzanne Bentler, Elizabeth T Momany, Peter Damiano
As part of Iowa's Medicaid expansion, the Healthy Behaviors Program was designed to provide members with incentives to complete specified healthy activities in return for waiving monthly premiums. We used claims data and interviews to document the first year (2014) of the program's implementation. Healthy activities completion rates did not exceed 17 percent. Interviews with members and clinic managers revealed low levels of awareness of the program's existence, deficits in knowledge about how the program works, and a variety of barriers to activity completion...
May 1, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457942/identification-and-characterization-of-simple-sequence-repeats-ssrs-for-population-studies-of-puccinia-novopanici
#9
Gabriela K Orquera-Tornakian, Patricia Garrido, Brent Kronmiller, Robert Hunger, Brett M Tyler, Carla D Garzon, Stephen M Marek
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) can be severely affected by rust disease. Recently switchgrass rust caused by P. emaculata (now confirmed to be Puccinia novopanici) has received most of the attention by the research community because this pathogen is responsible for reducing the biomass production and biofuel feedstock quality of switchgrass. Microsatellite markers found in the literature were either not informative (no allele frequency) or showed few polymorphisms in the target populations, therefore additional markers are needed for future studies of the genetic variation and population structure of P...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453197/peers-increase-late-adolescents-exploratory-behavior-and-sensitivity-to-positive-and-negative-feedback
#10
Karol Silva, Elizabeth P Shulman, Jason Chein, Laurence Steinberg
Adolescents take more risks with peers than when alone. It is not clear how peer presence affects adolescents' risky decision making, however. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT)-a game used to assess decision making involving risk and reward-to examine how peers affect late adolescents' exploration of relevant environmental cues, ability to learn from the outcomes (positive and negative) of that exploration, and ability to integrate feedback to adjust behavior toward optimal long-term outcomes. One hundred and one 18- to 22-year old males (M = 19...
December 2016: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448858/the-development-and-piloting-of-an-ehealth-breastfeeding-resource-targeting-fathers-and-partners-as-co-parents
#11
Jennifer Abbass-Dick, Fangli Xie, Jaymie Koroluk, Shelley Alcock Brillinger, Joanne Huizinga, Amber Newport, William M Goodman, Cindy-Lee Dennis
OBJECTIVE: Traditionally breastfeeding education programs target mothers solely. The objective of this study was to design and pilot test an interactive eHealth breastfeeding co-parenting resource developed to target both mothers and fathers. eHealth resources provide an accessible and engaging format on which to educate parents and assist them in meeting their breastfeeding goals. Best practices to design such resources are not currently known. DESIGN: A three phase pilot study was conducted...
April 18, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445581/definition-of-close-margin-in-oral-cancer-surgery-and-association-of-margin-distance-with-local-recurrence-rate
#12
Kendall K Tasche, Marisa R Buchakjian, Nitin A Pagedar, Steven M Sperry
Importance: There is a lack of consistency in the literature regarding the definition of "close" resection margins in the surgical treatment of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC), and the relationship between local recurrence (LR) rates and different distances of invasive tumor from surgical margin is not well characterized. Objective: To analyze the association between specific distances from invasive tumor to surgical margin and LR in patients with OCSCC...
April 26, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445566/variation-in-outcomes-at-bariatric-surgery-centers-of-excellence
#13
Andrew M Ibrahim, Amir A Ghaferi, Jyothi R Thumma, Justin B Dimick
Importance: In the United States, reports about perioperative complications associated with bariatric surgery led to the establishment of accreditation criteria for bariatric centers of excellence and many bariatric centers obtaining accreditation. Currently, most bariatric procedures occur at these centers, but to what extent they uniformly provide high-quality care remains unknown. Objective: To describe the variation in surgical outcomes across bariatric centers of excellence and the geographic availability of high-quality centers...
April 26, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437190/consuming-a-ketogenic-diet-while-receiving-radiation-and-chemotherapy-for-locally-advanced-lung-cancer-and-pancreatic-cancer-the-university-of-iowa-experience-of-two-phase-1-clinical-trials
#14
Amir Zahra, Melissa A Fath, Emyleigh Opat, Kranti A Mapuskar, Sudershan K Bhatia, Daniel C Ma, Samuel N Rodman Iii, Travis P Snyders, Catherine A Chenard, Julie M Eichenberger-Gilmore, Kellie L Bodeker, Logan Ahmann, Brian J Smith, Sandy A Vollstedt, Heather A Brown, Taher Abu Hejleh, Gerald H Clamon, Daniel J Berg, Luke I Szweda, Douglas R Spitz, John M Buatti, Bryan G Allen
Ketogenic diets are low in carbohydrates and high in fat, which forces cells to rely more heavily upon mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids for energy. Relative to normal cells, cancer cells are believed to exist under a condition of chronic mitochondrial oxidative stress that is compensated for by increases in glucose metabolism to generate reducing equivalents. In this study we tested the hypothesis that a ketogenic diet concurrent with radiation and chemotherapy would be clinically tolerable in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic cancer and could potentially exploit cancer cell oxidative metabolism to improve therapeutic outcomes...
April 24, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434623/does-unilateral-insular-resection-disturb-personality-a-study-with-epileptic-patients
#15
Benjamin Hébert-Seropian, Olivier Boucher, Carole Sénéchal, Isabelle Rouleau, Alain Bouthillier, Franco Lepore, Dang Khoa Nguyen
The insula is now regarded as a potential site of epileptogenesis in drug-resistant epilepsy, and the advent of microsurgical techniques has allowed insular cortectomy to become a treatment of choice when the insular cortex is involved in the seizure focus. However, considering the evidence of an insular role in socio-emotional processing, it remains unknown whether these cortical resections disturb personality and social behavior as experienced in daily life. We examined such changes in a group of patients (n=19) who underwent epilepsy surgery involving partial or complete resection of the insula, and compared them to a group of patients who underwent standard temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery (n=19) as a lesion-control group...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432874/delayed-changes-in-auditory-status-in-cochlear-implant-users-with-preserved-acoustic-hearing
#16
Rachel A Scheperle, Viral D Tejani, Julia K Omtvedt, Carolyn J Brown, Paul J Abbas, Marlan R Hansen, Bruce J Gantz, Jacob J Oleson, Marie V Ozanne
This retrospective review explores delayed-onset hearing loss in 85 individuals receiving cochlear implants designed to preserve acoustic hearing at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics between 2001 and 2015. Repeated measures of unaided behavioral audiometric thresholds, electrode impedance, and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) amplitude growth functions were used to characterize longitudinal changes in auditory status. Participants were grouped into two primary categories according to changes in unaided behavioral thresholds: (1) stable hearing or symmetrical hearing loss and (2) delayed loss of hearing in the implanted ear...
April 12, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430836/test-retest-reliability-of-common-behavioral-decision-making-tasks
#17
Melissa T Buelow, Wesley R Barnhart
Objective: To examine test-retest reliability of common behavioral decision making tasks. Method: A total of 98 undergraduate students completed two administrations of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), Columbia Card Task (CCT), and Game of Dice Task (GDT), three weeks apart. Results: The BART, CCT, and GDT showed moderately strong correlations across time. On the IGT, no correlations were seen between Time 1 Trials 1-40 and Time 2 performance; however, weak correlations were observed between Time 1 Trials 41-100 and Time 2 performance...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429468/decision-making-in-obesity-without-eating-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-iowa-gambling-task-performances
#18
REVIEW
J-Y Rotge, C Poitou, P Fossati, J Aron-Wisnewsky, J-M Oppert
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that obesity is associated with impairments in executive functions, such as deficits in decision-making, planning or problem solving, which might interfere with weight loss in obese individuals. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of decision-making abilities, as measured with the Iowa gambling task (IGT), in obesity without eating disorders. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to identify studies comparing IGT performances between groups of obese patients without eating disorders and groups of healthy control groups...
April 21, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427371/inside-the-nation-s-largest-mental-health-institution-a-prevalence-study-in-a-state-prison-system
#19
Tala Al-Rousan, Linda Rubenstein, Bruce Sieleni, Harbans Deol, Robert B Wallace
BACKGROUND: The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world which has created a public health crisis. Correctional facilities have become a front line for mental health care. Public health research in this setting could inform criminal justice reform. We determined prevalence rates for mental illnesses and related comorbidities among all inmates in a state prison system. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using the Iowa Corrections Offender Network which contains health records of all inmates in Iowa...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425298/understanding-self-reported-difficulties-in-decision-making-by-people-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#20
Lydia Vella, Howard A Ring, Mike Rf Aitken, Peter C Watson, Alexander Presland, Isabel Ch Clare
Autobiographical accounts and a limited research literature suggest that adults with autism spectrum disorders can experience difficulties with decision-making. We examined whether some of the difficulties they describe correspond to quantifiable differences in decision-making when compared to adults in the general population. The participants (38 intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorders and 40 neurotypical adults) were assessed on three tasks of decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task, Cambridge Gamble Task and Information Sampling Task), which quantified, respectively, decision-making performance and relative attention to negative and positive outcomes, speed and flexibility, and information sampling...
April 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
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