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Rajesh Kumar, Keshav Janakiprasad Kumar, Vivek Benegal
OBJECTIVES: Offspring with family history of alcoholism are considered to be at high risk for alcoholism. The present study sought to expand our understanding of cognitive and behavioural dispositions associated with executive control and self-regulation in alcohol naïve offspring with and without family history of alcoholism. METHODS: Sample comprised of alcohol naive offspring in two groups: (i) at high risk (n = 34) and (ii) at low risk for alcoholism (n = 34)...
May 15, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
L Clifford McDonald, Daniel J Diekema
In 2017, we published a point-counterpoint on laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI). At that time, Drs Ferric Fang, Christopher Polage, and Mark Wilcox discussed the strategies for diagnosing Clostridium difficile colitis in symptomatic patients. Since that manuscript new guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of American and the Society for Health Care Epidemiology have been published (1) and healthcare systems have begun to explore screening asymptomatic patients for C. difficile colonization...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Keith E Schilling, Matthew T Streeter, Martin St Clair, Justin Meissen
Roadside ditches located throughout urban and rural landscapes are integral components of watershed-scale hydrologic processes but their capacity to reduce nutrients in the subsurface environment has not been investigated. In this study, vegetation, soil and groundwater conditions were characterized in six roadside ditches in the 66 km2 Lime Creek watershed in eastern Iowa. Shallow water table wells were installed at 17 locations in six transects and sampled monthly in 2017 to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alexandra M Curtis, John VanBuren, Joseph E Cavanaugh, John J Warren, Teresa A Marshall, Steven M Levy
OBJECTIVES: To assess longitudinal associations between permanent tooth caries increment and both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors, using best subsets model selection. METHODS: The Iowa Fluoride Study has followed a birth cohort with standardized caries exams without radiographs of the permanent dentition conducted at about ages 9, 13, and 17 years. Questionnaires were sent semi-annually to assess fluoride exposures and intakes, select food and beverage intakes, and tooth brushing frequency...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Nathan Mills, Darcy Cashatt, Michael J Weber, Clay L Pierce
Mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems is a concern due to health risks of consuming fish. Fish mercury concentrations are highly variable and influenced by a range of environmental factors. However, seasonal variation in mercury levels are typically overlooked when monitoring fish mercury concentrations, establishing consumption advisories, or creating accumulation models. Temporal variation in sampling could bias mercury concentration estimates of accumulation potential. Thus, the objectives of this study were to first evaluate seasonal variation of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) axial muscle mercury concentration from two Iowa, USA impoundments...
May 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Nouf M AlKusayer, William K Midodzi, Leigh Anne Newhook, Nicole Gill, Beth Halfyard, Laurie K Twells
BACKGROUND: The original 17-item Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has been validated and widely used to assess attitudes toward breastfeeding. A reduced 13-item version of the IIFAS was recently validated in a Canadian setting. However, cutoff scores for categorization of infant feeding attitudes on both scales have not yet been established. Research Aim: The aim of this study was to determine optimal cut-ff scores predicting infant feeding attitudes and outcomes for the original and reduced IIFASs...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
Julie Dechorgnat, Karen L Francis, Kanwarpal S Dhugga, J A Rafalski, Stephen D Tyerman, Brent N Kaiser
Maize ( Zea mays , L.) yield is strongly influenced by external nitrogen inputs and their availability in the soil solution. Overuse of nitrogen-fertilizers can have detrimental ecological consequences through increased nitrogen pollution of water and the release of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide. To improve yield and overall nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), a deeper understanding of nitrogen uptake and utilization is required. This study examines the performance of two contrasting maize inbred lines, B73 and F44...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marisa R Buchakjian, Timothy Ginader, Kendall K Tasche, Nitin A Pagedar, Brian J Smith, Steven M Sperry
Objective To conduct a multivariate analysis of a large cohort of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) cases for independent predictors of local recurrence (LR) and overall survival (OS), with emphasis on the relationship between (1) prognosis and (2) main specimen permanent margins and intraoperative tumor bed frozen margins. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary academic head and neck cancer program. Subjects and Methods This study included 426 patients treated with OCSCC resection between 2005 and 2014 at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics...
May 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Barbara Baquero, Christine M Kava, Sato Ashida, Jason Daniel-Ulloa, Helena H Laroche, Heidi Haines, Rebecca Bucklin, Adriana Maldonado, Mayra Coronado Garcia, Sandy Berto, Dan Sewell, Nicole Novak, Kathleen Janz, Claudia Gates, Edith A Parker
Background : Evidence-based interventions have been developed and tested to promote physical activity, but fewer studies have focused on identifying effective intervention strategies for mid-size rural communities, especially new immigrant destinations. We report here on the design and implementation of Active Ottumwa, a community-wide intervention using a lay health advisor approach to increase physical activity in a micropolitan new destination community in the rural state of Iowa. Methods : The Active Ottumwa study is part of a community-academic partnership in Ottumwa, IA...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Nele Lensing, Birgit Elsner
Although middle childhood is an important period for the development of hot and cool executive functions (EFs), longitudinal studies investigating trajectories of childhood EF development are still limited and little is known about predictors for individual developmental trajectories. The current study examined the development of two typical facets of cool and hot EFs over a 3-year period during middle childhood, comparing younger (6- and 7-year-olds at the first wave [T1]; n = 621) and older (8- and 9-year-olds at T1; n = 975) cohort of children...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Catherine A Fiala, Linda I Abbott, Cheryl D Carter, Stephen L Hillis, Jessica S Wolf, Meghan Schuster, Rachel Dulski, Elizabeth A Grice, Barbara A Rakel, Sue E Gardner
AIM: The aim of this study is to: 1) develop and evaluate a model to predict severe pain during wound care procedures so that high-risk patients can be targeted for specialised dressings and preventive pain control; and 2) identify biological factors associated with severe pain during wound care procedures so that novel pain control strategies can be developed. BACKGROUND: Wound care procedures such as dressing changes can cause moderate to severe pain in 74% of patients, with nearly half (36%) of all patients experiencing severe pain (rated as 8-10 on a 10-point numeric rating scale) during dressing change...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Jérôme R Lechien, Serge Blecic, Yves Ghosez, Kathy Huet, Bernard Harmegnies, Sven Saussez
INTRODUCTION: Sixty to 90% of patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) developed early dysphonia and subtle speech impairment, which is usually related to orofacial muscular dysfunctions. The aim of this preliminary study is to assess the usefulness of voice quality and orofacial strength (involved in speech) as outcome of levodopa challenge test used for the IPD diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 20 patients with early IPD were recruited and evaluated for clinical findings (Hoehn and Yahr scale), voice handicap index, maximal phonation time, phonation quotient, percent jitter, percent shimmer, noise-to-harmonic ratio, and orofacial muscular strength (Iowa Oral Performance Instrument) at baseline, throughout the levodopa challenge test and after therapeutic stabilization...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
S G Selvik, B Hummelen, U Romild, D R Langbehn, G Pedersen
Personality disorder (PD) is common among psychiatric patients, and diagnosing such disorders is of great importance for the choice of treatment. Diagnosing PD is a demanding and time-consuming process. The utilities of several PD screening instruments have been studied in different populations, but not in a population who receives long-term group psychotherapy. In the current study, we investigate the predictive properties of the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen (IPDS) in a sample of 694 psychiatric outpatients with and without PD who were admitted for psychodynamic long-term group therapy from 2012 to 2014...
May 3, 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Karol L Kumpfer, Lawrence M Scheier, Jaynie Brown
Research has found disturbing long-term effects of poor parenting on children's behavioral health including addiction, delinquency, depression/anxiety, and poorer health as adults. Poor parenting practices thus contribute substantially to the health crisis in America. However, skilled, nurturing parents, or caretakers can help youth avoid these developmental problems. A number of family and parenting evidence-based interventions (EBIs) that teach parenting skills are now available for dissemination. Unfortunately, replications of EBIs do not always produce the original positive results...
January 1, 2018: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Julia W Biars, Nicole L Johnson, Michelle Nespeca, Robyn M Busch, Cynthia S Kubu, Darlene P Floden
Objective: A subgroup of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) develops impulse control disorders (ICD) associated with their dopamine replacement therapy. Patients and their families may be reluctant to report ICD symptoms or unaware these symptoms are related to PD medication, which can make detecting an ICD difficult for clinicians. Ideally, a behavioral measure that is sensitive to ICD could be employed to ensure that patients with these behaviors are identified and treated. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a standardized decision-making task, has proven sensitive in other populations with impulse control problems...
April 27, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Jacqueline L Green, Alice K Jacobs, DaJuanicia Holmes, Karen Chiswell, Rosalia Blanco, Eric R Bates, William French, Douglas F Kupas, Greg Mears, Matthew Roe, Brahmajee K Nallamothu
BACKGROUND: Early success with regionalization of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) care has led many states to adopt statewide prehospital STEMI hospital destination policies, allowing emergency medical services to bypass non-percutaneous coronary intervention-capable hospitals. The association between adoption of these policies and patterns of care among STEMI patients is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2014, from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry and Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry, 6 states with bypass policies (cases included Delaware, Iowa, Maryland, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts) were matched to 6 states without bypass policies (controls included South Carolina, Minnesota, Virginia, Texas, New York, and Connecticut) a priori on region, hospital density, and percent state participation in the registry...
May 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Lewis E Zionts, Edward Ebramzadeh, Rebecca D Morgan, Sophia N Sangiorgio
BACKGROUND: Developed at the University of Iowa in 1950, the Ponseti method to manage idiopathic clubfoot deformity was slow to gain wide acceptance until the mid-1990s. There is a paucity of intermediate and long-term outcome studies involving this technique, with nearly all such studies coming from a single institution. The purpose of this study is to report the contemporary outcome of patients with clubfoot deformity whose feet were managed with the Ponseti method and who were followed to ≥5 years old, to provide outcome expectations for parents and for clinicians managing patients with idiopathic clubfoot...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Laila A Puntel, John E Sawyer, Daniel W Barker, Peter J Thorburn, Michael J Castellano, Kenneth J Moore, Andrew VanLoocke, Emily A Heaton, Sotirios V Archontoulis
Historically crop models have been used to evaluate crop yield responses to nitrogen (N) rates after harvest when it is too late for the farmers to make in-season adjustments. We hypothesize that the use of a crop model as an in-season forecast tool will improve current N decision-making. To explore this, we used the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) calibrated with long-term experimental data for central Iowa, USA (16-years in continuous corn and 15-years in soybean-corn rotation) combined with actual weather data up to a specific crop stage and historical weather data thereafter...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Clodagh M Murphy, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current paper is to provide the first comparison of computational mechanisms and neurofunctional substrates in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during decision making under ambiguity. METHODS: Sixteen boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD, and 20 matched control subjects (12-18 years of age) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of the Iowa Gambling Task...
March 24, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
J-P Jacus, M-C Gély-Nargeot, S Bayard
BACKGROUND: In spite of their extensive use, the ecological relevance of tasks dedicated to assessing real-world decision-making in a laboratory setting remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to evaluate the relationship between decision-making and behavioral competency and awareness of limitations. METHODS: A total of 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 20 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 20 healthy controls (HC) were assessed for decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT)...
April 26, 2018: Revue Neurologique
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