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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342855/regulation-of-reproduction-via-tight-control-of-gonadotropin-hormone-levels
#1
Djurdjica Coss
Mammalian reproduction is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. GnRH from the hypothalamus regulates synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins, LH and FSH, which then control steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. In females, serum LH and FSH levels exhibit rhythmic changes throughout the menstrual or estrous cycle that are correlated with pulse frequency of GnRH. Lack of gonadotropins leads to infertility or amenorrhea. Dysfunctions in the tightly controlled ratio due to levels slightly outside the normal range occur in a larger number of women and are correlated with polycystic ovaries and premature ovarian failure...
March 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339754/expression-of-deep-brain-photoreceptors-in-the-pekin-drake-a-possible-role-in-the-maintenance-of-testicular-function
#2
R Haas, E Alenciks, S Meddle, G S Fraley
Several putative deep brain photoreceptors (DBPs) have been identified, such as melanopsin, opsin 5, and vertebrate ancient opsin. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of DBPs in gonadal regulation in the Pekin drake. As previously reported, we observed opsin-like immunoreactivity (-ir) in the lateral septum (LS), melanopsin-ir in the premammillary nucleus (PMM), and opsin 5-ir in the periventricular organ. To determine the sensitivity of the DBPs to specific wavelengths of light, drakes were given an acute exposure to red, blue, or white light...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339706/differential-proliferation-and-metabolic-activity-of-sertoli-cells-in-the-testes-of-broiler-and-layer-breeder-chickens
#3
Mélanie Faure, Edith Guibert, Sabine Crochet, Pascal Chartrin, Jean-Pierre Brillard, Anne Collin, Pascal Froment
Decades of genetic selection have generated 2 different, highly specialized types of chickens in which 1 type, known as the layer-type chicken, expresses high laying performance while the other type, known as the broiler-type chicken, is dedicated to the production of fast-growing birds. Selected lines for the latter type often express disorders in their reproductive performance including early sexual maturation and accelerated, non-reversible seasonal decline of their semen production and mating behavior. The aim of the present study was to characterize some metabolic markers of the Sertoli cell populations...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339687/extra-gonadal-oocytes-residing-in-the-mouse-ovarian-hilum-contribute-to-fertility1
#4
Xiaofei Sun, Junya Ito, Sarah J Potter, Sudhansu K Dey, Tony DeFalco
The observation of pups born from recipient and donor mice after ovariectomy followed by ovarian transplant poses the interesting possibility of an extra-ovarian source of oocytes. However, whether mammalian adult oocytes reside in extra-gonadal tissues remains elusive. Using transgenic fluorescent reporter mice and transplantation surgeries, we demonstrate the presence of both donor- and recipient-derived corpora lutea and recovery of both donor- and recipient-derived offspring from ovariectomized mice after transplantation of donor ovaries...
February 20, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339602/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-kisspeptin-and-gonadal-steroids-directly-modulate-nucleobindin-2-nesfatin-1-in-murine-hypothalamic-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-and-gonadotropes%C3%A2
#5
A Hatef, S Unniappan
Neuroendocrine regulation of metabolism and reproduction are tightly interlinked. Nesfatin-1 is an 82 amino acid metabolic peptide derived from nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). NUCB2 mRNA and protein significantly increase in the hypothalamus of rats during puberty-to-adult transition. Administration of nesfatin-1 modulates circulating LH and testosterone in male rats. However, whether nesfatin-1 acts directly on neurons and gonadotropes remain unknown. In addition, whether reproductive hormones of the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis modulate NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is unclear...
January 28, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339338/fertility-treatments-among-female-cancer-survivors-giving-birth-a-finnish-register-based-study
#6
Johanna Melin, Laura Madanat-Harjuoja, Sirpa Heinävaara, Nea Malila, Mika Gissler, Aila Tiitinen
BACKGROUND: Long-term survival rates for most types of childhood cancers have improved dramatically over the past decades. However, because of advances in multimodality treatments, cancer survivors nowadays more often face long-term complications, including diminished gonadal and reproductive function. The aim of this study was to identify whether the use of fertility treatments among early onset (0-34 years) cancer survivors giving birth differed from that among siblings giving birth and to identify the subgroups of cancer survivors that were most likely to require fertility treatments...
March 24, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338722/dissecting-the-transcriptional-patterns-of-social-dominance-across-teleosts
#7
Suzy C P Renn, Cynthia F O'Rourke, Nadia Aubin-Horth, Eleanor J Fraser, Hans A Hofmann
In many species, under varying ecological conditions, social interactions among individuals result in the formation of dominance hierarchies. Despite general similarities, there are robust differences among dominance hierarchies across species, populations, environments, life stages, sexes, and individuals. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underlying the variation is an important step toward understanding the evolution of social behavior. However, physiological changes associated with dominance, such as gonadal maturation and somatic growth, often complicate efforts to identify the specific underlying mechanisms...
December 16, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338057/the-identification-of-%C3%A1-tryptophan-as-a-bioactive-substance-for-postembryonic-ovarian-development-in-the-planarian-dugesia-ryukyuensis
#8
Kazuya Kobayashi, Takanobu Maezawa, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Hiroyuki Onuki, Yurie Horiguchi, Hiroshi Hirota, Tetsuo Ishida, Kihachiro Horiike, Yasutoshi Agata, Manabu Aoki, Motonori Hoshi, Midori Matsumoto
Many metazoans start germ cell development during embryogenesis, while some metazoans possessing pluripotent stem cells undergo postembryonic germ cell development. The latter reproduce asexually but develop germ cells from pluripotent stem cells or dormant primordial germ cells when they reproduce sexually. Sexual induction of the planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis is an important model for postembryonic germ cell development. In this experimental system, hermaphroditic reproductive organs are differentiated in presumptive gonadal regions by the administration of a crude extract from sexual planarians to asexual ones...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334719/meta-analysis-of-paediatric-patients-with-central-precocious-puberty-treated-with-intramuscular-triptorelin-11-25-mg-3-month-prolonged-release-formulation%C3%A2
#9
Adélaïde Durand, Maithé Tauber, Bharat Patel, Pascale Dutailly
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A meta-analysis was undertaken to assess the effect of triptorelin 11.25 mg 3-month prolonged-release formulation in central precocious puberty (CPP). METHODS: All available clinical studies with triptorelin 11.25 mg were included. The primary outcome was the proportion of children with suppressed luteinising hormone (LH) response (peak LH ≤3 IU/L) to the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test 3 months after triptorelin 11.25 mg injection...
March 23, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334158/the-impact-of-pregnancy-on-taste-function
#10
Ezen Choo, Robin Dando
It is common for women to report a change in taste (for instance an increased bitter or decreased sweet response) during pregnancy, however specifics of any variation in taste with pregnancy remain elusive. Here we review studies of taste in pregnancy, and discuss how physiological changes occurring during pregnancy may influence taste signaling. We aim to consolidate studies of human pregnancy and "taste function" (studies of taste thresholds, discrimination, and intensity perception, rather than hedonic response or self-report), discussing differences in methodology and findings...
February 23, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333280/hcg-activates-the-erk1-2-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-pathway-in-human-endometrial-stromal-cells-transiently-increasing-the-progesterone-receptor-and-regulating-genes-associated-with-endometrial-receptivity
#11
Alejandro Tapia-Pizarro, Sebastián Archiles, Felipe Argandoña, Cecilia Valencia, Keyla Zavaleta, María Cecilia Johnson, Reinaldo González-Ramos, Luigi Devoto
STUDY QUESTION: How does hCG signal in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and what is its role in regulating ESC function? SUMMARY ANSWER: CG signaling in ESCs activates the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) pathway through exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) and transiently increases progesterone receptor (PR) transcript and protein expression and its transcriptional function. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: hCG is one of the earliest embryo-derived secreted signals in the endometrium, which abundantly expresses LH/hCG receptors...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333032/ethical-moral-and-other-aspects-related-to-fertility-preservation-in-cancer-patients
#12
Bruno Ramalho de Carvalho, Jhenifer Kliemchen, Teresa K Woodruff
Post-treatment fertility emerges as an important issue in the early counseling of individuals with cancer, since survivors may have their quality of life affected by the occurrence of functional failure of the gonads because of antineoplastic therapies. In the context, oncofertility has been developed as an interdisciplinary field of study that combines expertise in reproductive medicine and oncology, to provide strategies aiming to maintain the possibility of future procreation. Today, we have many options and techniques available for the preservation of gametes in men and women...
February 1, 2017: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330968/examination-of-carnitine-palmitoyl-transferase-1-abundance-in-white-adipose-tissue-implications-in-obesity-research
#13
Jaycob D Warfel, Bolormaa Vandanmagsar, Olga S Dubuisson, Sydney M Hodgeson, Carrie M Elks, Eric Ravussin, Randall L Mynatt
Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) is essential for the transport of long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for oxidation. Recently, it was reported that decreased CPT1b mRNA in adipose tissue was a contributing factor for obesity in rats. We therefore closely examined the expression level of Cpt1 in adipose tissue from mice, rats, and humans. Cpt1a is the predominate isoform in adipose tissue from all three species. Rat white adipose tissue has a moderate amount of Cpt1b mRNA, but it is very minor compared to Cpt1b expression in muscle...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330882/adiponectin-and-resistin-a-role-in-the-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal-axis
#14
Agnieszka Rak, Namya Mellouk, Pascal Froment, Joëlle Dupont
Adipokines, including adiponectin and resistin, are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue. They play a significant role in the metabolic functions that regulate insulin sensitivity and inflammation. Alteration of adiponectin and resistin plasma levels, or their expression in metabolic and gonadal tissue, are observed in some metabolic pathologies, such as obesity. Several studies have shown that these two hormones and the receptors for adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, are present in various reproductive tissues in both sexes of different species...
March 22, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329024/toward-developing-recombinant-gonadotropin-based-hormone-therapies-for-increasing-fertility-in-the-flatfish-senegalese-sole
#15
François Chauvigné, Judith Ollé, Wendy González, Neil Duncan, Ignacio Giménez, Joan Cerdà
Captive flatfishes, such as the Senegalese sole, typically produce very low volumes of sperm. This situation is particularly prevalent in the first generation (F1) of reared sole males, which limits the development of artificial fertilization methods and the implementation of selective breeding programs. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatments with homologous recombinant follicle-stimulating (rFsh) and luteinizing (rLh) hormones, produced in a mammalian host system, could stimulate spermatogenesis and enhance sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326509/the-steroid-response-to-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-hcg-stimulation-in-men-with-klinefelter-syndrome-does-not-change-using-immunoassay-or-mass-spectrometry
#16
L Roli, D Santi, S Belli, S Tagliavini, S Cavalieri, M C De Santis, E Baraldi, F Fanelli, M Mezzullo, A R Granata, U Pagotto, R Pasquali, V Rochira, C Carani, M Simoni, T Trenti
PURPOSE: Liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed in parallel to Immunoassays (IAs) and today is proposed as the "gold standard" for steroid assays. Leydig cells of men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) are able to respond to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation, even if testosterone (T) production was impaired. The aim was to evaluate how results obtained by IAs and LC-MS/MS can differently impact on the outcome of a clinical research on gonadal steroidogenesis after hCG stimulation...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326217/a-rare-adrenal-mass-in-a-3-month-old-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
Ashish Garg, Elza Pollak-Christian, Navneetha Unnikrishnan
A three-month-old female infant presented with abdominal distention for 2 months. A large palpable mass in right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a large heterogeneous mass with multiple cystic components. Mass was surgically excised and pathology was consistent with mature adrenal teratoma. Teratoma is a germ cell tumor mainly found in gonadal tissues. Occurrence of adrenal gland teratoma in children is very rare with less than 10 pediatric case reports in English literature...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326187/a-novel-c-terminal-truncating-nr5a1-mutation-in-dizygotic-twins
#18
Atsushi Hattori, Hiroaki Zukeran, Maki Igarashi, Suzuka Toguchi, Yuji Toubaru, Takanobu Inoue, Yuko Katoh-Fukui, Maki Fukami
Nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 1 (NR5A1) is a nuclear receptor involved in gonadal and adrenal development. We identified a novel C-terminally truncating NR5A1 mutation, p.Leu423Trpfs*7, in dizygotic twins with 46,XY disorders of sex development. Our results highlight the functional importance of C-terminal region of NR5A1 and indicate that NR5A1 mutations can be associated with intrafamilial phenotypic variations, progressive testicular dysfunction, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and borderline adrenal dysfunction...
2017: Human Genome Variation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325592/intersexuality-in-aquatic-invertebrates-prevalence-and-causes
#19
REVIEW
Tiago F Grilo, Rui Rosa
This review is the first assembling information on intersexuality in aquatic invertebrates, from freshwater to estuarine and marine environments. Intersex is a condition whereby an individual of a gonochorist (separate sexes) species has oocytes or distinct stages of spermatogonia, at varying degrees of development, within the normal gonad of the opposite gender (i.e. spermatocytes in the ovary or oocytes in the testis), often involving alterations in the gonadal structure, reproductive tract or external genitalia...
March 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324816/sex-differences-and-hormonal-modulation-of-ethanol-enhanced-risk-taking-in-rats
#20
Kathryn G Wallin-Miller, Jordyn Chesley, Juliana Castrillon, Ruth I Wood
BACKGROUND: Ethanol (EtOH) intake correlates with increased risk-taking, and sex differences exist in both EtOH use and risk-taking in humans and rats. However, the interaction of sex and gonadal hormones to affect risk-taking under the influence of EtOH has not been determined. This was the focus of the current study. METHODS: Adult Long-Evans rats (n=18 males and females) were gonadectomized and received hormone replacement at physiologic levels or blank implants (n=7-9/group)...
March 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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