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Jeffrey B Mason, Kate C Parkinson, Tracy L Habermehl
Ovarian transplantation was first conducted at Utah State University in 1963. In more recent work, heterochronic transplantation of mammalian ovaries is being used to investigate the health-protective effects of young ovaries in young females. The current procedures employ an orthotopic transplantation method, where allogenic ovaries are transplanted back to their original position in the ovarian bursa. This is in contrast to the more commonly used heterotopic transplantation of ovaries/ovarian tissue subcutaneously or under the kidney capsule...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Edip Ünal, Ruken Yıldırım, Funda Feryal Taş, Vasfiye Demir, Hüseyin Onay, Yusuf Kenan Haspolat
BACKGROUND: Aromatase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder with an unknown incidence. Aromatase converts androgens into estrogen in the gonadal and extra-gonadal tissues. Aromatase deficiency causes ambiguous genitalia in the female fetus and maternal virilization (hirsutism, acne, cliteromegaly, deep voice) during the pregnancy due to increased concentration of androgens. METHODS AND RESULTS: The-nineteen-month-old girl was assessed due to ambiguous genitalia There were findings of maternal virilization during pregnancy...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Hong-Zhuan Shi, Hong Liu, Qiao-Sheng Guo, Jia Wang, Fei Liu
The reproductive system and gonad development and germ cell occurrence of Whitmania pigra have been studied by using tissue section electron microscope techniques. W. pigra has completely independent male and female reproduction system, which lasts 11 months. The development of spermary started before the development of ovary. When egg cell is only a primordial germ cell, sperm has an initially complete form. Meanwhile, sperm cells and egg cells orderly development and synchronously mature. According to the development of sperm cells and egg cells, the development of cycle of the spermary could be divided into 6 stages: proliferating stage (1-3 months of age), growing stage (4-5 months of age), resting stage (6-8 months of age), maturing stage (9 months of age), spawning stage (10 months of age) and degradation stage (11 months of age)...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Kalyani Raju, Srinivas Murthy Venkataramappa
Hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder resulting in increased intestinal absorption of iron and eventually to iron overload. The onset of symptoms is usually seen around 40 years of age. Iron overload causes tissue damage in liver, pancreas, skin, joints, heart, and gonads. Approximately 50% of patients diagnosed with hemochromatosis will have either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) because of selective beta-cell damage due to iron overload and leads to impaired insulin synthesis, release, and insulin resistance...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Sree Rekha Jinkala, Elancheran Muthalagan, Bhawana Ashok Badhe
Intracranial germinomas are rare and account for <0.5% of primary intracranial tumors. In contrast to the gonadal germinomas, these do not show granulomatous response within the tumor. In rare cases, the granulomatous component may obscure the tumor proper and lead to diagnostic difficulties/dilemmas. We report a case of suprasellar germinoma in a 17-year-old boy which showed granulomatous response. We discuss the differentials to be considered in such a scenario and discuss the utility of squash cytology and immunohistochemistry in these lesions...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Raffaele Nuzzi, Simona Scalabrin, Alice Becco, Giancarlo Panzica
Aim: Gonadal hormones are essential for reproductive function, but can act on neural and other organ systems, and are probably the cause of the large majority of known sex differences in function and disease. The aim of this review is to provide evidence for this hypothesis in relation to eye disorders and to retinopathies in particular. Methods: Epidemiological studies and research articles were reviewed. Results: Analysis of the biological basis for a relationship between eye diseases and hormones showed that estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors are present throughout the eye and that these steroids are locally produced in ocular tissues...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Katya B Rubinow
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, parallel recognition has grown of the importance of both sex steroids and immune activity in metabolic regulation. More recently, these discrete areas have been integrated in studies examining the metabolic effects of sex steroid immunomodulation. Implicit in these studies has been a traditional, endocrine model of sex steroid delivery from the gonads to target cells, including immune cells. Thus, research to date has focused on the metabolic effects of sex steroid receptor signaling in immune cells...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Matthew J Paul, Clemens K Probst, Lauren M Brown, Geert J de Vries
Alongside the development of sexual characteristics and reproductive competence, adolescents undergo marked cognitive, social, and emotional development [1]. A fundamental question is whether these changes are triggered by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at puberty (puberty dependent) or whether they occur independently of HPG activation (puberty independent). Disentangling puberty-dependent from puberty-independent mechanisms is difficult because puberty and adolescence typically proceed concurrently...
March 6, 2018: Current Biology: CB
M McGowan, M K Holland, G Boe-Hansen
This review focuses on current understanding of prenatal, prepubertal and post-pubertal development of the male reproductive system of cattle. The critical developmental events occur during the first 3 to 4 months of gestation and the first ~6 to 9 months after birth. The Wilms Tumor-1 and SRY proteins play critical roles in early development and differentiation of the fetal testis, which in turn drives gestational development of the entire male reproductive system. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis matures earlier in the bovine fetus than other domestic species with descent of the testes into the scrotum occurring around the 4th month of gestation...
March 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Yan Zhang, Ricardo S Hattori, Munti Sarida, Estefany C García, Carlos Augusto Strüssmann, Yoji Yamamoto
To shed light on the mechanisms of and interactions of GSD and TSD in pejerrey, we investigated how the transcriptional profiles of amhy and amha are affected by feminizing (17°C) and masculinizing (29°C) temperatures during the critical period of sex determination/differentiation and their relation with the expression profiles of AMH receptor type II (amhrII), gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a), and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (hsd11b2). Careful consideration of the results of this study and all information currently available for this species, including similar analyzes for an intermediate, mixed-sex promoting temperature (25°C), suggests a model for genotypic/temperature-dependent sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation that involves a) cyp19a1a-dependent, developmentally-programmed ovarian development as the default state that becomes self-sustaining in the absence of a potent and timely masculinizing stimulus, b) early, developmentally-programmed amhy expression and high temperature as masculinization signals that antagonize the putative female pathway by suppressing cyp19a1a expression, c) increasing stress response, cortisol, and the synthesis of the masculinizing androgen 11-keto-testosterone via hsd11b2 with increasing temperature that is important for masculinization in both genotypes but particularly so in XX individuals, and d) an endocrine network with positive/negative feedback mechanisms that ensure fidelity of the male/female pathway once started...
March 14, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Fred Chasalow, Lori Pierce-Cohen
We describe a novel steroid, which we have named "Ionotropin." Its unique features are: [1] it has 23 carbon atoms and [2] it is a phosphocholine ester. There are no other known mammalian steroids with either structural feature. Ionotropin cross reacts with digoxin-specific antibodies and may be the long-sought, endogenous, mammalian digoxin-like material (DLM). Using LC-MS, we identified three other phosphocholine steroids in serum. Two of these steroids also cross-react with digoxin specific antibodies...
March 14, 2018: Steroids
Geoff Hackett, Mike Kirby, Kevan Wylie, Adrian Heald, Nick Ossei-Gerning, David Edwards, Asif Muneer
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the 2008 British Society for Sexual Medicine (BSSM) guidelines. AIM: To provide up-to-date guidance for U.K. (and international) health care professionals managing male sexual dysfunction. METHODS: Source information was obtained from peer-reviewed articles, meetings, and presentations. A search of Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Reviews was performed, covering the search terms "hypogonadism," "eugonadal or hypogonadism or hypogonadal or gonadal," and "low or lower testosterone," starting from 2009 with a cut-off date of September 2017...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Marc Girondot, Jonathan Monsinjon, Jean-Michel Guillon
The sexual phenotype of the gonad is dependent on incubation temperature in many turtles, all crocodilians, and some lepidosaurians. At hatching, identification of sexual phenotype is impossible without sacrificing the neonates. For this reason, a general method to infer sexual phenotype from incubation temperatures is needed. Temperature influences sex determination during a specific period of the embryonic development, starting when the gonad begins to form. At constant incubation temperatures, this thermosensitive period for sex determination (TSP) is located at the middle third of incubation duration (MTID)...
April 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Ana Molina, Nieves Abril, Noelia Morales-Prieto, José Monterde, Nahúm Ayala, Antonio Lora, Rosario Moyano
Thousands of safety-related studies have been published on bisphenol A (BPA), an ubiquitous environmental pollutant with estrogenic activity and many other potential biological effects. In recent years, BPA exposure has been shown to cause anovulation and infertility through irreversible alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in several organisms, including fish and mammals. Recently, the European Chemical Agency classified BPA as a "substance of very high concern" because of its endocrine-disrupting properties, which have serious effects on human health...
March 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jeremy T Smith, Antonia Roseweir, Michael Millar, Iain Clarke, Robert P Millar
Kisspeptin signalling is indispensable for fertility, stimulating gonadotropin- releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and mediating gonadal steroid feedback on GnRH neurons. Moreover, kisspeptin neurons have been implicated in other non-reproductive neuroendocrine roles. Kisspeptin appears to also regulate growth hormone secretion but much of the data appear contradictory. We sought to clarify a potential role of kisspeptin in GH regulation by examining the effect of kisspeptin antagonists on growth hormone (GH) secretion in ewes under various physiological conditions...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Seyed Ali Mirshahvalad, Paria Alinia, Pooya Hekmati, Nahid Nafisi, Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh
Hermaphroditism is known as ovotesticular disorder of sex development. A 14-year-old boy was admitted with right acute scrotum. Exploration revealed tunica rupture and hematoma, with no viable tissue. After one month, he was admitted again with left hemiscrotal pain. Microscopic examination of the left gonad demonstrated foci of hemorrhagic cysts, primordial follicles, and regions of seminiferous tubules. We preserved testicular tissue and the ovarian part was extracted completely. Long-term follow-up with his hormonal profile are reported...
March 13, 2018: Urology
Yu Shi, Wenguang Liu, Maoxian He
Bivalve mollusks exhibit hermaphroditism and sex reversal/differentiation. Studies generally focus on transcriptional profiling and specific genes related to sex determination and differentiation. Few studies on sex reversal/differentiation have been reported. A combination analysis of gonad proteomics and transcriptomics was conducted on Chlamys nobilis to provide a systematic understanding of sex reversal/differentiation in bivalves. We obtained 4258 unique peptides and 93,731 unigenes with good correlation between messenger RNA and protein levels...
March 15, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Julia Fernandez Puñal de Araújo, Priscila Lang Podratz, Eduardo Merlo, Isabela Valim Sarmento, Charles Santos da Costa, Oscar Mauricio Santamaria Niño, Rodrigo Alves Faria, Leandro Ceotto Freitas Lima, Jones Bernardes Graceli
Organotin (OTs) compounds are organometallic compounds that are widely used in industry, such as in the manufacture of plastics, pesticides, paints, and others. OTs are released into the environment by anthropogenic actions, leading to contact with aquatic and terrestrial organisms that occur in animal feeding. Although OTs are degraded environmentally, reports have shown the effects of this contamination over the years because it can affect organisms of different trophic levels. OTs act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which can lead to several abnormalities in organisms...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Immacolata Castellano, Oriana Migliaccio, Giarita Ferraro, Elisa Maffioli, Daniela Marasco, Antonello Merlino, Adriana Zingone, Gabriella Tedeschi, Anna Palumbo
The major yolk protein toposome plays crucial roles during gametogenesis and development of sea urchins. We previously found that nitration of toposome increases in the gonads of a Paracentrotus lividus population living in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata, compared to control populations. This modification is associated with ovatoxin accumulation, high levels of nitric oxide in the gonads, and a remarkable impairment of progeny development. However, nothing is known about the environmental-mediated-regulation of the structure and biological function of toposome...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tian-Xing Chen, Xiao-Ying Cheng, Yun Wang, Wu Yin
Toosendanin (TSN), a triterpenoid extracted from Melia toosendan, has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-arthritic activities. However, its anti-adipogenic effect remains unknown. Here, we found that TSN dose-dependently attenuated lipid accumulation in preadipocytes 3T3-L1 as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. TSN also significantly downregulated mRNA and protein levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in adipocytes...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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