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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437549/poor-utility-of-gonadal-shielding-for-pediatric-pelvic-radiographs
#1
Mark C Lee, Jessica Lloyd, Matthew J Solomito
Plain pelvic radiographs are commonly used for a variety of pediatric orthopedic disorders. Lead shielding is typically placed over the gonads to minimize radiation exposure to these sensitive tissues. However, misplaced shielding can sabotage efforts to protect patients from excessive radiation exposure either by not covering radiosensitive tissues or by obscuring anatomic areas of interest, prompting repeat radiographic examinations. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of misplaced shielding for pelvic radiographs obtained for pediatric orthopedic evaluation...
April 24, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436137/insights-into-in-vitro-spermatogenesis-in-mammals-past-present-future
#2
REVIEW
Amir Fattahi, Zeinab Latifi, Tohid Ghasemnejad, Hamid Reza Nejabati, Mohammad Nouri
Considering the self-renewal and differentiation ability of pluripotent stem cells, some studies have pointed out the possibility of stem cell-derived sperm production. Most studies that test this hypothesis have been conducted on rodents, with some promising results; however, studies on humans are progressing slowly, and have encountered technical and ethical hurdles. Established methods to differentiate stem cells - including embryoid bodies, co-culturing, and various feeder cells - may provide a niche that is similar to in vivo conditions and resolve epigenetic abnormalities, but a gonadal-like three-dimensional structure is still required to produce germ cells with the correct imprinting...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436085/effect-of-triclosan-on-anuran-development-and-growth-in-a-larval-amphibian-growth-and-development-assay
#3
Douglas J Fort, Michael B Mathis, Sascha Pawlowski, Jeffrey C Wolf, Robert Peter, Samantha Champ
A larval amphibian growth and development assay was performed to evaluate the potential effects of environmentally-relevant concentrations of triclosan (TCS) on amphibian development and growth. Xenopus laevis were exposed to TCS 0.0 (control), 6.3, 12.5 and 25.0 μg l(-1) (estimated maximum tolerable concentration) until 10 weeks post-metamorphosis. At median metamorphosis time (Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 62), five larvae per replicate were collected for snout-vent length, hind limb length and body weight measurements, and histopathological examination of thyroid glands...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435083/subchronic-glucocorticoids-glutathione-depletion-and-a-postpartum-model-elevate-monoamine-oxidase-a-activity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-rats
#4
Sofia Raitsin, Junchao Tong, Stephen Kish, Xin Xu, Lilia Magomedova, Carolyn Cummins, Ana C Andreazza, Gustavo Scola, Glen Baker, Jeffrey H Meyer
Recent human brain imaging studies implicate dysregulation of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), in particular in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). This study investigates the influence of four alterations underlying important pathologies of MDD, namely, chronic elevation of glucocorticoid levels, glutathione depletion, changes in female gonadal sex hormones and serotonin concentration fluctuation, on MAO-A and MAO-B activity in rats...
April 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434637/clinical-heterogeneity-in-children-with-gonadal-dysgenesis-associated-with-non-mosaic-46-xy-karyotype
#5
Y S Wong, Y H Tam, K K Y Pang, K F To, S S C Chan, K W Chan, K H Lee
INTRODUCTION: Gonadal dysgenesis is unique in disorders of sex development (DSD), in that it can be associated with 46,XX, 46,XY or mosaic 45,X/46,XY karyotypes. Gonadal dysgenesis can be partial or complete. Gonadal dysgenesis associated with the Y-chromosome has increased risk of gonadal germ cell neoplasms. Most of the literature focus on 45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, while there are scanty data on the condition when the karyotype is non-mosaic 46,XY. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diversity of clinical pictures of children presenting with 46,XY DSD due to gonadal dysgenesis...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434104/mullerian-dysgenesis-a-critical-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Souzana Choussein, Dimitrios Nasioudis, Dimitrios Schizas, Konstantinos P Economopoulos
PURPOSE: To present an update of the genetic, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. METHODS: Studies were considered eligible if they have evaluated patients with MRKH syndrome. Eligible articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE bibliographical database from 1950 to August 2016. A purely descriptive approach was adopted concerning all outcomes examined by the individual studies. RESULTS: MRKH syndrome is defined as congenital aplasia of the upper vagina and impairment of uterine development in normal 46XX females...
April 22, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432720/androgen-receptor-dysfunction-as-a-prevalent-manifestation-in-young-male-carriers-of-a-flna-gene-mutation
#7
Laura Carrera-García, Maximiliano Francisco Rivas-Crespo, María Soledad Fernández García
Androgenic actions require the proper signal transmission by the androgen receptor (AR), a nuclear transcription factor. This is initially located in the cell cytoplasm and should translocates to the nucleus to interact with DNA. AR functional impairment causes diverse blockage degrees of androgenic steroid action, known as androgen insensitivity syndromes. Filamin A, a protein coded by the FLNA gene, is a co-activator of various cytoplasmic factors, including AR. The mutational inactivation of the FLNA gene induces insufficiency of translocation and activation of AR...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432332/involvement-of-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-in-pubertal-disorders-induced-by-thyroid-status
#8
Mika Kiyohara, You Lee Son, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
Thyroid disorders cause abnormal puberty, indicating interactions between the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes, which are important in pubertal development. The hypothalamic gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was shown to be decreased in the early prepubertal stage, suggesting the role of GnIH on pubertal onset. Here, we investigated whether thyroid dysfunction affects pubertal onset in female mice via GnIH regulation. Hypothyroidism showed delayed pubertal onset with increased GnIH expression and reduced pituitary-gonadal activity...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431984/thyroid-disrupting-pesticides-impair-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis-of-a-wildlife-bird-amandava-amandava
#9
Banalata Mohanty, Surya Prakash Pandey, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
The effect of two thyroid disrupting pesticides (TDPs) mancozeb (MCZ) and imidacloprid (IMI) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal/testicular (HPG) axis of a seasonally breeding bird, Amandava amandava has been evaluated. Male birds (n=8/group) were exposed to each of the pesticide (0.25% LD50 of respective pesticide) as well as to their two equimixture doses (0.25% of LD50 of each and 0.5% LD50 of each) through food for 30d during pre-breeding stage of the reproductive cycle. Reduction in weight, volume and other histopathological features revealed testicular regression...
April 18, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431326/incidentally-detected-splenogonadal-fusion-in-a-laparoscopic-transabdominal-preperitoneal-hernia-repair-operation-a-case-report
#10
Yuichi Akama, Kimiyoshi Shimanuki, Shuji Asahi, Yohei Watanabe, Kazuhide Ko, Ryotaro Takano, Hodaka Amano, Takanori Kawaguchi, Eiji Uchida
INTRODUCTION: Splenogonadal fusion (SGF) is a rare congenital malformation in which the spleen is connected to the gonad. Few SGF cases have been reported in the English scientific literature, and we are unaware of any previous case reports of SGF with inguinal hernia by laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernia repair (TAPP). Here, we report a case of SGF that was incidentally detected during a TAPP procedure, with an uneventful postoperative course without complications. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 76-year-old male presented with a 10-year history of left inguinal swelling...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431277/endocrine-disruption-by-environmental-gestagens-in-amphibians-a-short-review-supported-by-new-in%C3%A2-vitro-data-using-gonads-of-xenopus-laevis
#11
REVIEW
Andrea Ziková, Claudia Lorenz, Frauke Hoffmann, Wibke Kleiner, Ilka Lutz, Matthias Stöck, Werner Kloas
Endocrine disruption caused by various anthropogenic compounds is of persisting concern, especially for aquatic wildlife, because surface waters are the main sink of these so-called endocrine disruptors (ED). In the past, research focused on (anti)estrogenic, (anti)androgenic, and (anti)thyroidal substances, affecting primarily reproduction and development in vertebrates; however, other endocrine systems might be also targeted by ED. Environmental gestagens, including natural progestogens (e.g. progesterone (P4)) and synthetic progestins used for contraception, are supposed to affect vertebrate reproduction via progesterone receptors...
April 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429716/polyembryoma-of-the-testis-a-report-of-two-cases-dominant-within-mixed-germ-cell-tumors-and-review-of-gonadal-polyembryomas
#12
REVIEW
Jennifer N Stall, Robert H Young
Two testicular mixed germ cell tumors, from men of 21 and 41 years, in which polyembryoma predominated are described. A literature review uncovered an additional five testicular and nine ovarian cases. One tumor occurred in a 60-year-old man, but all others occurred within the typical age range of gonadal germ cell tumors. One male presented with gynecomastia and one female with sexual precocity, but all otherwise had standard clinical manifestations. These tumors are typically large with non-specific gross features, but a few have a prominent hemorrhagic appearance...
April 21, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428364/role-of-oestrogen-receptor-signaling-in-skeletal-response-to-leptin-in-female-ob-ob-mice
#13
Russell T Turner, Kenneth A Philbrick, Amida Kuah, Adam J Branscum, Urszula T Iwaniec
Leptin, critical in regulation of energy metabolism, is also important for normal bone growth, maturation and turnover. Compared to wild type (WT) mice, bone mass is lower in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice; osteopenia in growing ob/ob mice is due to decreased bone accrual, and is associated with reduced longitudinal bone growth, impaired cancellous bone maturation and increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT). However, leptin deficiency also results in gonadal dysfunction, disrupting production of gonadal hormones which regulate bone growth and turnover...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426816/ex-vivo-cultures-combined-with-vivo-morpholino-induced-gene-knockdown-provide-a-system-to-assess-the-role-of-wt1-and-gata4-during-gonad-differentiation
#14
Lucas J Rudigier, Christof Dame, Holger Scholz, Karin M Kirschner
Gonad morphogenesis relies on the correct spatiotemporal expression of a number of genes that together fulfill the differentiation of the bipotential gonad into testes or ovaries. As such, the transcription factors WT1 and GATA4 are pivotal for proper gonadal development. Here we address the contributions of GATA4 and WT1 to the sex differentiation phase in testes and ovaries. We applied an ex vivo technique for cultivating gonads in hanging droplets of media that were supplemented with vivo-morpholinos to knockdown WT1 and GATA4 either alone or in combination at the same developmental stage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426423/the-discovery-of-acanthocephalans-parasitizing-chaetognaths
#15
Horacio Lozano-Cobo, Jaime Gómez-Gutiérrez, Carmen Franco-Gordo, María Del Carmen Gómez Del Prado-Rosas
A comprehensive literature review shows that 12 types of pathogens, micropredators and parasites are reported to interact with chaetognaths, mostly digenean trematodes, cestodes and nematodes larval stages. Through analysis of 78,152 chaetognaths from a monthly zooplankton time series (Jan 1996-Dec 1998) collected in the Mexican Central Pacific twelve acanthocephalan larvae parasitizing chaetognaths were discovered. This is the first record of an acanthocephalan parasitizing chaetognaths, raising to 13 the types of symbionts known to interact with them (excluding predators)...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426421/redescription-of-philometra-margolisi-moravec-vidal-mart%C3%A3-nez-et-aguirre-macedo-1995-nematoda-philometridae-a-gonad-infecting-parasite-of-the-red-grouper-epinephelus-morio-serranidae-in-the-gulf-of-mexico
#16
František Moravec, Micah D Bakenhaster, Erin H Leone
The insufficiently known nematode species Philometra margolisi Moravec, Vidal-Martínez et Aguirre-Macedo, 1995 (Philometridae) is redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) examinations of specimens collected from the gonad of the type host, the red grouper Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes) (Serranidae, Perciformes), in the northern Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA. Also, new prevalence data for females of P. margolisi were derived from 188 fish, and a subset of these (n = 38) were used to determine prevalence and intensity of male nematodes...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424661/gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-plays-roles-in-stress-induced-reproductive-dysfunction
#17
REVIEW
Takeshi Iwasa, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Kiyohito Yano, Minoru Irahara
Physical and psychological stressors suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis activity and sexual behavior and consequently induce reproductive dysfunction. Recently, it has been shown that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), also called RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP) in mammals, which is a potent inhibitory regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin, is involved in stress-induced reproductive dysfunction. GnIH/Rfrp (the gene coding RFRP-3) expression and activity are increased by psychological and immune stress, and this alteration suppresses GnRH and gonadotropin secretion...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424461/a-lack-of-coordination-between-sister-chromatids-segregation-and-cytokinesis-in-the-oocytes-of-b6-y-tir-xy-sex-reversed-female-mice
#18
Jia-Qiao Zhu, Seang Lin Tan, Teruko Taketo
The B6.Y(TIR) (XY) mouse develops bilateral ovaries despite the expression of the testis-determining gene Sry during gonadal differentiation. We reported that the oocytes of the XY female are defective in their cytoplasm, resulting in a failure in the second meiotic division after activation or fertilization in vitro. However, the mechanism of meiotic failure or the cause of infertility remained to be clarified. In the present study, we obtained mature oocytes from XY females by superovulation and confirmed that these oocytes also fail in zygotic development...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422355/new-insights-into-the-morphogenesis-of-the-gubernaculum-testis-and-the-inguinal-canal
#19
Jose Bouzada, Teresa Vázquez, Manuel Duran, Vincent Delmas, Theresa Larkin, Miguel A Cuesta, Jose SañUDO
There is no consensus about the role of the gubernaculum testis (GT). Nineteen human embryos (Carnegie stages 15-23), 36 fetuses (9 weeks to term), and eight neonates were examined. All the embryos and 25 fetuses (from weeks 9-16) were processed for paraffin wax histology and serially sectioned at 10 µm thickness. The remaining 11 fetuses and the eight neonates were fresh specimens that were dissected under a surgical microscope. The GT appeared during the embryonic period (stages 17-23) with a horseshoe-shaped mesenchyme condensation of the superior concavity, which was observed in four different topographical regions sequentially through development...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422147/construction-of-a-high-density-linkage-map-and-fine-mapping-of-qtls-for-growth-and-gonad-related-traits-in-blunt-snout-bream
#20
Shi-Ming Wan, Hong Liu, Bo-Wen Zhao, Chun-Hong Nie, Wei-Min Wang, Ze-Xia Gao
High-density genetic maps based on SNPs are essential for fine mapping loci controlling specific traits for fish species. Using restriction-site associated DNA tag sequencing (RAD-Seq) technology, we identified 42,784 SNPs evenly distributed across the Megalobrama amblycephala genome. Based on 2 parents and 187 intra-specific hybridization progenies, a total of 14,648 high-confidence SNPs were assigned to 24 consensus linkage groups (LGs) of maternal and paternal map. The total length of the integrated map was 3,258...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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