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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166160/sex-dependent-phenological-plasticity-in-an-arctic-hibernator
#1
Cory T Williams, C Loren Buck, Michael J Sheriff, Melanie M Richter, Jesse S Krause, Brian M Barnes
Hibernation provides a means of escaping the metabolic challenges associated with seasonality, yet the ability of mammals to prolong or reenter seasonal dormancy in response to extreme weather events is unclear. Here, we show that Arctic ground squirrels in northern Alaska exhibited sex-dependent plasticity in the physiology and phenology of hibernation in response to a series of late spring snowstorms in 2013 that resulted in the latest snowmelt on record. Females and nonreproductive males responded to the >1-month delay in snowmelt by extending heterothermy or reentering hibernation after several days of euthermy, leading to a >2-week delay in reproduction compared to surrounding years...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165613/exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-pm2-5-compromises-spermatogenesis-in-a-mouse-model-role-of-suppression-of-hypothalamus-pituitary-gonads-axis
#2
Lianglin Qiu, Minjie Chen, Xiaoke Wang, Xiaobo Qin, Sufang Chen, Yingyun Qian, Zhenzhen Liu, Qi Cao, Zhekang Ying
Background: Epidemiological studies link ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution to abnormalities in the male reproductive system. However, few toxicological studies have investigated this potentially important adverse effect of PM2.5 pollution. Therefore, in the present study, we analyzed the effects of PM2.5 exposure on spermatogenesis and hypothalamic-pituitary- gonadal (HPG) axis in a murine model. Methods: Fourteen male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a 4-month exposure to filtered air (FA) or concentrated ambient PM2...
November 20, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164638/the-piwi-interacting-rna-molecular-pathway-insights-from-cultured-silkworm-germline-cells
#3
Kazuhiro Sakakibara, Mikiko C Siomi
The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway, one of the major eukaryotic small RNA silencing pathways, is a genome surveillance system that silences selfish genes in animal gonads. piRNAs guide PIWI protein to target genes through Watson-Crick RNA-RNA base-parings. Loss of piRNA function causes genome instability, inducing failure in gametogenesis and infertility. Studies using fruit flies and mice as key experimental models have resulted in tremendous progress in understanding the mechanism underlying the piRNA pathway...
November 22, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164452/identification-of-suh-gene-and-evidence-for-involvement-of-notch-signaling-pathway-on-gonadal-differentiation-of-yellow-river-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#4
Yongfang Jia, Fang Wang, Ruihua Zhang, Tingting Liang, WanWan Zhang, Xiaolin Ji, Qiyan Du, Zhongjie Chang
The suh gene is crucial in Notch pathway and regulates mammalian gonad development. In this study, the sequences of suh1 and suh2 genes in Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio) were verified. The partial 5'-flanking regions of suh1 and suh2 were analyzed and several potential transcription factor-binding sites were identified. Phylogenetic, gene structure, and chromosome synteny analyses revealed that carp suh1 and suh2 were orthologs and homologous to vertebrate suh. Investigation of the expression profiles of suh1 and suh2 with qPCR showed that these genes were abundant in the brain and gonad of carp, with suh1 exhibiting sexual dimorphism expression pattern in gonad...
November 21, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164263/plasma-leptin-and-premenstrual-syndrome-a-review
#5
Zaira Fernanda Martinho Nicolau, Andréia Gomes Bezerra, Daniel Ninello Polesel, Monica Levy Andersen, Sergio Tufik, Helena Hachul
Importance: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by physical and psychological symptoms in the luteal phase. Leptin can influence PMS as it acts on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate data in the literature about the profile of plasma leptin in women with PMS. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a search of databases using both descriptors. Three studies were identified. They included 181 participants...
November 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163367/a-testis-specific-long-non-coding-rna-lncrna-tcam1-regulates-immune-related-genes-in-mouse-male-germ-cells
#6
Misuzu Kurihara, Kai Otsuka, Shin Matsubara, Akira Shiraishi, Honoo Satake, Atsushi P Kimura
Spermatogenesis is precisely controlled by hormones from the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and testis-specific genes, but the regulatory mechanism is not fully understood. Recently, a large number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are found to be transcribed at each stage of meiosis of male germ cells, and their functions in spermatogenesis have yet to be fully investigated. lncRNA-testicular cell adhesion molecule 1 (lncRNA-Tcam1) is a nuclear lncRNA which is specifically expressed in mouse male germ cells and presumed to play a role in gene regulation during meiosis...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163358/reactive-oxygen-species-link-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-signaling-cascades-in-the-gonadotrope
#7
Tomohiro Terasaka, Mary E Adakama, Song Li, Taeshin Kim, Eri Terasaka, Danmei Li, Mark A Lawson
Biological rhythms lie at the center of regulatory schemes that control many aspects of living systems. At the cellular level, meaningful responses to external stimuli depend on propagation and quenching of a signal to maintain vigilance for subsequent stimulation or changes that serve to shape and modulate the response. The hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad endocrine axis that controls reproductive development and function relies on control through rhythmic stimulation. Central to this axis is the pulsatile stimulation of the gonadotropes by hypothalamic neurons through episodic release of the neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163357/a-journey-through-the-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-system-of-fish
#8
REVIEW
José A Muñoz-Cueto, José A Paullada-Salmerón, María Aliaga-Guerrero, Mairi E Cowan, Ishwar S Parhar, Takayoshi Ubuka
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that belongs to the RFamide peptide family and was first identified in the quail brain. From the discovery of avian GnIH, orthologous GnIH peptides have been reported in a variety of vertebrates, including mammals, amphibians, teleosts and agnathans, but also in protochordates. It has been clearly established that GnIH suppresses reproduction in avian and mammalian species through its inhibitory actions on brain GnRH and pituitary gonadotropins...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163355/regulation-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-1-5-signaling-genes-by-estradiol-is-age-dependent
#9
Bradly M Bauman, Weiling Yin, Andrea C Gore, T John Wu
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulatory molecule of the hypothalamus-pituitary (PIT)-gonadal (HPG) axis that ultimately leads to the downstream release of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P). These gonadal steroids feed back to the hypothalamus and PIT to regulate reproductive function and behavior. While GnRH is thought to be the master regulator of reproduction, its metabolic product GnRH-(1-5) is also biologically active. Thimet oligopeptidase 1 (also known as EP24.15) cleaves GnRH to form GnRH-(1-5)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163186/a-high-fat-diet-during-adolescence-in-male-rats-negatively-programs-reproductive-and-metabolic-function-which-is-partially-ameliorated-by-exercise
#10
Carlos A Ibáñez, Rafaela P Erthal, Fernanda M Ogo, Maria N C Peres, Henrique R Vieira, Camila Conejo, Laize P Tófolo, Flávio A Francisco, Sandra da Silva Silveira, Ananda Malta, Audrei Pavanello, Isabela P Martins, Paulo H O da Silva, Lucas Paulo Jacinto Saavedra, Gessica D Gonçalves, Veridiana M Moreira, Vander S Alves, Claudinéia C da Silva Franco, Carina Previate, Rodrigo M Gomes, Renan de Oliveira Venci, Francielle R S Dias, James A Armitage, Elena Zambrano, Paulo C F Mathias, Glaura S A Fernandes, Kesia Palma-Rigo
An interaction between obesity, impaired glucose metabolism and sperm function in adults has been observed but it is not known whether exposure to a diet high in fat during the peri-pubertal period can have longstanding programmed effects on reproductive function and gonadal structure. This study examined metabolic and reproductive function in obese rats programmed by exposure to a high fat (HF) diet during adolescence. The effect of physical training (Ex) in ameliorating this phenotype was also assessed. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were fed a HF diet (35% lard w/w) for 30 days then subsequently fed a normal fat diet (NF) for a 40-day recovery period...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162857/temporal-expression-pattern-of-genes-during-the-period-of-sex-differentiation-in-human-embryonic-gonads
#11
Linn S Mamsen, Emil H Ernst, Rehannah Borup, Agnete Larsen, Rasmus H Olesen, Erik Ernst, Richard A Anderson, Stine G Kristensen, Claus Y Andersen
The precise timing and sequence of changes in expression of key genes and proteins during human sex-differentiation and onset of steroidogenesis was evaluated by whole-genome expression in 67 first trimester human embryonic and fetal ovaries and testis and confirmed by qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). SRY/SOX9 expression initiated in testis around day 40 pc, followed by initiation of AMH and steroidogenic genes required for androgen production at day 53 pc. In ovaries, gene expression of RSPO1, LIN28, FOXL2, WNT2B, and ETV5, were significantly higher than in testis, whereas GLI1 was significantly higher in testis than ovaries...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162649/effects-of-sympathectomy-on-ovarian-follicular-development-and-steroid-secretion
#12
Maritza Paola Garrido, Daniela Fernandois, Mauricio Venegas, Alfonso Paredes
Recently, the influence of adrenergic activity over ovarian function, and thus fertility, has begun to gain importance. Previous studies have shown that adrenergic activity through norepinephrine (NE) participates in the control of follicular development and steroidal secretion from the ovary, among other functions. To examine this phenomenon, the denervation of the gonad has been widely used to observe changes in the ovary's performance. Nevertheless, the effect of the absence of adrenergic nerves in the ovary has only been studied in short times periods...
November 21, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161770/twin-models-of-environmental-and-genetic-influences-on-pubertal-development-salivary-testosterone-and-estradiol-in-adolescence
#13
Andrew D Grotzinger, Frank D Mann, Megan W Patterson, Kathrin Herzhoff, Jennifer L Tackett, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, K Paige Harden
OBJECTIVE: Research on sources of variation in adolescent's gonadal hormone levels is limited. We sought to decompose individual differences in adolescent testosterone, estradiol and pubertal status, into genetic and environmental components. DESIGN: A sample of male and female adolescent twins from the greater Austin and Houston areas provided salivary samples, with a subset of participants providing longitudinal data at two waves. PARTICIPANTS: The sample included 902 adolescent twins, 49% female, ages 13-20 years (M = 15...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161599/perfluorinated-alkyl-acids-and-fecundity-assessment-in-striped-mullet-mugil-cephalus-at-merritt-island-national-wildlife-refuge
#14
Jacqueline T Bangma, Jessica L Reiner, Russell H Lowers, Theresa M Cantu, Jacob Scott, Jeffrey E Korte, Doug M Scheidt, Chris McDonough, Jonathan Tucker, Brenton Back, Douglas H Adams, John A Bowden
This study investigated wild caught striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) for levels of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) in tandem with individual fecundity measurements (Oocyte sub-stage 2 late, n=42) and oocyte reproductive stages (Stages 1-5, n=128). PFAA measurements were quantified in striped mullet liver (n=128), muscle (n=49), and gonad (n=10). No significant negative impacts of liver PFAA burden on wild-caught, mullet fecundity endpoints were observed in this study; however, changes in PFAA were observed in the liver as mullet progressed through different sub-stages of oocyte development...
November 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161577/histological-characteristics-of-the-gonads-of-pig-fetuses-and-their-relationship-with-fetal-anatomical-measurements
#15
Thais Preisser Pontelo, José Rafael Miranda, Matheus Augusto Rodrigues Felix, Barbara Azevedo Pereira, William Eduardo da Silva, Gleide Fernandes Avelar, Flávia Cristina Martins Queiroz Mariano, Gregório Corrêa Guimarães, Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo
The objective was to evaluate the histomorphometric characteristics of the testis and ovaries of pig fetuses at different gestational ages, as well as their correlation with some fetus measurements. Forty-four fetuses were separated for gender (male and female) and gestational age (50, 80 and 106days of gestation). After slaughter, fetuses had their body length, head and thoracic perimeters measured and their gonads submitted to histomorphometric analyses. The gonadal characteristics at different gestational ages were statistically compared, correlations with the fetal measurements were performed and equations to predict the gonadal characteristics from the fetal measurements were obtained...
November 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158290/a-comparative-proteome-profile-of-female-mouse-gonads-suggests-a-tight-link-between-the-electron-transport-chain-and-meiosis-initiation
#16
Cong Shen, Mingrui Li, Pan Zhang, Yueshuai Guo, Hao Zhang, Bo Zheng, Hui Teng, Tao Zhou, Xuejiang Guo, Ran Huo
Generation of haploid gametes by meiosis is a unique property of germ cells and is critical for sexual reproduction. Leaving mitosis and entering meiosis is a key step in germ cell development. Several inducers or intrinsic genes are known to be important for meiotic initiation, but the regulation of meiotic initiation, especially at the protein level, is still not well understood. We constructed a comparative proteome profile of female mouse fetal gonads at specific time points (11.5, 12.5, and 13.5 days post coitum), spanning a critical window for initiation of meiosis in female germ cells...
November 20, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158199/male-rat-exposure-to-low-dose-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-during-pre-pubertal-pubertal-and-post-pubertal-periods-impact-on-sperm-count-gonad-histology-and-testosterone-secretion
#17
Malha Oudir, Henni Chader, Bachir Bouzid, Kheira Bendisari, Batoul Latreche, Sofiane Boudalia, Mokrane Iguer-Ouada
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most ubiquitous endocrine disruptor in the environment. The present study aimed to investigate the low dose effects of DEHP on the male reproductive system of rats exposed during the pre-pubertal, pubertal and post-pubertal periods. Male Wistar rats were daily gavaged by DEHP from postnatal day (PND) 21 to PND 120 with 0.5, 50 and 5000μg/kg BW/d. A decrease in sperm count of 41%, 24% and 46% was observed at 0.5, 50 and 5000μg/kg BW/d respectively. A decrease of Sertoli cells number was observed at 50 and 5000μg/kg BW/d (22% and 42%, respectively)...
November 17, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157942/expression-of-two-glycoprotein-hormone-receptors-in-larval-parasitic-phase-and-adult-sea-lampreys
#18
Krist N Hausken, Timothy J Marquis, Stacia A Sower
All jawed vertebrates have three canonical glycoprotein hormones (GpHs: luteinizing hormone, LH; follicle stimulating hormone, FSH; and thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH) with three corresponding GpH receptors (GpH-Rs: LH-R, FSH-R and TSH-R). In contrast, we propose that the jawless vertebrate, sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), only has two pituitary glycoprotein hormones, lamprey (l)GpH and l-thyrostimulin, and two functional glycoprotein receptors, lGpH-R I and II. It is not known at this time whether there is a specific receptor for lGpH and l-thyrostimulin, or if both GpHs can differentially activate the lGpH-Rs...
November 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157487/contr%C3%A3-le-de-l%C3%A2-axe-gonadotrope-nouveaux-aspects-physiologiques-et-th%C3%A3-rapeutiques-control-of-the-gonadotrope-axis-new-physiologic-and-therapeutic-aspects
#19
L Maione, S Christin-Maître, P Chanson, J Young
The endocrine and exocrine functions of the gonads are controlled by the gonadotrope axis, whose master regulator is the hypothalamic decapeptide GnRH. The Kisspeptin/Neurokinin B (Kp/NkB) neuronendocrine system is the main physiologic regulator of GnRH neurons. The Kp/NkB system is currently considered the key mediator for the hypothalamic negative feedback exerted by sex steroids and prolactin, as well as by various metabolic signals. Intrinsic alterations or regulatory abnormalities of Kp/NkB system lead to various gonadotrope axis puberty and fertility dysfunctions...
October 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156776/uchl1-expression-and-localization-on-testicular-development-and-spermatogenesis-of-chinese-giant-salamanders
#20
Yuanxian Wang, Liqing Wang, Huihui Gao, Yao Gao, Changming Yang, Hong Ji, Wuzi Dong
Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), which is extensively expressed in vertebrates, is a deubiquitinating enzymes that inhibits the degradation of proteins by reversing ubiquitination modification. Herein, a 1087-bp sequence encoding UCHL1 was identified from the Chinese giant salamander (CGS; Andrias davidianus). The coding sequences (CDS) of UCHL1 encoded a putative poly peptide of 222 amino acids. The CGS UCHL1 isoforms were more related to their human and mouse counterparts. The phylogenic tree of vertebrate UCHL1 indicated that CGS UCHL1 has the closest relationship with human UCHL1 (up to 73...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
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