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Organic chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349297/organic-matter-in-extraterrestrial-water-bearing-salt-crystals
#1
Queenie H S Chan, Michael E Zolensky, Yoko Kebukawa, Marc Fries, Motoo Ito, Andrew Steele, Zia Rahman, Aiko Nakato, A L David Kilcoyne, Hiroki Suga, Yoshio Takahashi, Yasuo Takeichi, Kazuhiko Mase
Direct evidence of complex prebiotic chemistry from a water-rich world in the outer solar system is provided by the 4.5-billion-year-old halite crystals hosted in the Zag and Monahans (1998) meteorites. This study offers the first comprehensive organic analysis of the soluble and insoluble organic compounds found in the millimeter-sized halite crystals containing brine inclusions and sheds light on the nature and activity of aqueous fluids on a primitive parent body. Associated with these trapped brines are organic compounds exhibiting wide chemical variations representing organic precursors, intermediates, and reaction products that make up life's precursor molecules such as amino acids...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348106/report-palladium-glutathione-n-acetylcysteine-d-penicillamine-conjugation-chemistry
#2
Muhammad Mukhtiar, Syed Umer Jan, Muhammad Farid Khan, Naseem Ullah, Abid Hussain, Saifur Rehman, Muhammad Murtaza Qureshi
The metalloelement Palladium has a number of potential Pharmaco-clinical advantages. Palladium compounds have antiviral, antibacterial, neuroprotective and antitumor properties. However studies have also indicated some mild to serious toxic effects of Palladium metalloelements. Biothiols are important antioxidants that provide protection against metals toxicity. The interaction of metalloelements with biothiols can provide valuable information about the level of toxicity of the metalloelements and about the protective role of biothiols thereof...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346729/electronic-interactions-in-iminophosphorane-superbase-complexes-with-carbon-dioxide
#3
Francesca Ingrosso, Manuel F Ruiz-Lopez
Iminophosphoranes or phosphazenes are an important class of compounds with increasing use in synthetic organic chemistry as neutral organic superbases exhibiting low nucleophilicity. Their electronic structure and therefore their properties strongly depend on substitution but there have been very few theoretical studies devoted to this topic, and more specifically to the formation of electron donor-acceptor complexes of iminophosphoranes with electrophiles. In this work, we have investigated the interaction with carbon dioxide at different ab initio levels...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345752/oxidative-mechanochemistry-for-direct-room-temperature-solvent-free-conversion-of-palladium-and-gold-metals-into-soluble-salts-and-coordination-complexes
#4
Jean-Louis Do, Davin Tan, Tomislav Friscic
Noble metals are valued critical elements whose chemical activation or recycling is challenging, traditionally requiring high temperatures, strong acids or bases, or aggressive complexation agents. Using elementary palladium and gold, we demonstrate mechanochemistry for noble metal activation and recycling via mild, clean, solvent-free and room-temperature chemistry, leading to direct, efficient, one-pot conversion of the metals, including spent catalysts, to simple water-soluble salts, or to metal-organic catalysts...
January 18, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342356/the-dark-side-of-total-synthesis-strategies-and-tactics-in-psychoactive-drug-production
#5
Schuyler A Chambers, Jenna M DeSousa, Eric D Huseman, Steven D Townsend
Humankind has used and abused psychoactive drugs for millennia. Formally, a psychoactive drug is any agent that alters cognition and mood. The term "psychotropic drug" is neutral and describes the entire class of substrates, licit and illicit, of interest to governmental drug policy. While these drugs are prescribed for issues ranging from pain management to anxiety, they are also used recreationally. In fact, the current opioid epidemic is the deadliest drug crisis in American history. While the topic is highly politicized with racial, gender, and socioeconomic elements, there's no denying the toll drug mis- and overuse is taking on this country...
January 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341852/emissions-of-organic-compounds-from-produced-water-ponds-ii-evaluation-of-flux-chamber-measurements-with-inverse-modeling-techniques
#6
Huy N Q Tran, Seth N Lyman, Marc L Mansfield, Trevor O'Neil, Richard L Bowers, Ann P Smith, Cara Keslar
In this study, we apply two different dispersion models to evaluate flux chamber measurements of emissions of 58 organic compounds, including C2-C11 hydrocarbons and methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol from oil and gas produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin. Field measurement campaigns using the flux chamber technique were performed at a limited number of produced water ponds in the Basin throughout 2013-2016. Inverse modeling results showed significantly higher emissions than were measured by the flux chamber...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341592/application-of-decafluorobiphenyl-dfbp-moiety-as-a-linker-in-bioconjugation
#7
Fernando Albericio, Saba Alapour, Beatriz G de la Torre, Deresh Ramjugernath, Neil Anthony Koorbanally
Considerable attention has been devoted to fluorinated compounds due to their unique and interesting properties. Many modern pharmaceuticals contain fluorinated substituents, which are commonly synthesized using selective fluorinating reagents. Decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) as a fluorinated linker is susceptible to nucleophilic attack. This nucleophilic reaction has been widely studied using various nucleophiles. Sulfur and nitrogen containing nucleophiles have been of particular interest, especially in bioconjugated reactions...
January 17, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340393/ferrocenyl-sulfonium-ionic-liquids-synthesis-characterization-and-electrochemistry
#8
Alexander Venker, Tobias Vollgraff, Jörg Sundermeyer
New ferrocenylsulfonium cation based ionic liquids were prepared by direct alkylation of the corresponding ferrocenyl-based thioethers with N-alkylbis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imides (R'TFSI). This convenient direct access to organometallic sulfonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI) salts without the need for ion exchange was chosen in order to obtain highly pure and reversibly redox active room temperature ILs in many cases. In other cases the anion cation interaction in the solid state was studied by XRD analyses...
January 17, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339305/modelling-ros-formation-in-boreal-lakes-from-interactions-between-dissolved-organic-matter-and-absorbed-solar-photon-flux
#9
Raoul Wolf, Jan-Erik Thrane, Dag Olav Hessen, Tom Andersen
Concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are increasing in a large number of lakes across the Northern hemisphere. This browning serves a dual role for biota by protecting against harmful ultraviolet radiation, while also absorbing photosynthetically active radiation. The photochemical activation of DOM and subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a potentially harmful side effect, but can be difficult to measure directly in situ. In this study, we combine a data set of physico-chemical properties from 71 Nordic lakes with in vitro ROS formation quantum yields to predict ROS formations across a representative boreal ecosystem gradient...
January 11, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337878/tetrasubstituted-imidazolium-salts-as-potent-antiparasitic-agents-against-african-and-american-trypanosomiases
#10
Ouldouz Ghashghaei, Nicola Kielland, Marc Revés, Martin C Taylor, John M Kelly, Ornella Di Pietro, Diego Muñoz-Torrero, Belén Pérez, Rodolfo Lavilla
Imidazolium salts are privileged compounds in organic chemistry, and have valuable biological properties. Recent studies show that symmetric imidazolium salts with bulky moieties can display antiparasitic activity against T. cruzi. After developing a facile methodology for the synthesis of tetrasubstituted imidazolium salts from propargylamines and isocyanides, we screened a small library of these adducts against the causative agents of African and American trypanosomiases. These compounds display nanomolar activity against T...
January 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334816/anti-colchicine-fab-fragments-prevent-lethal-colchicine-toxicity-in-a-porcine-model-a-pharmacokinetic-and-clinical-study
#11
Michael Eddleston, Nicolas Fabresse, Adrian Thompson, Ibrahim Al Abdulla, Rachael Gregson, Tim King, Alain Astier, Frederic J Baud, R Eddie Clutton, Jean-Claude Alvarez
BACKGROUND: Colchicine poisoning is commonly lethal. Colchicine-specific Fab fragments increase rat urinary colchicine clearance and have been associated with a good outcome in one patient. We aimed to develop a porcine model of colchicine toxicity to study the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of ovine Fab. METHODS: A Göttingen minipig critical care model was established and serial blood samples taken for colchicine and Fab pharmacokinetics, clinical chemistry, and haematology...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334758/anticancer-thiosemicarbazones-chemical-properties-interaction-with-iron-metabolism-and-resistance-development
#12
Petra Heffeter, Veronika F S Pape, Eva A Enyedy, Bernhard K Keppler, Gergely Szakas, Christian R Kowol
SIGNIFICANCE: During the last decades, thiosemicarbazones have been clinically developed for a variety of diseases including tuberculosis, viral infections, malaria and cancer. With regard to malignant diseases, the class of α-N-heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones, and here especially Triapine, was intensively developed in multiple clinical phase I/II trials. Recent Advances: Very recently two new derivatives, namely COTI-2 and DpC have entered phase I evaluation. Based on the strong metal-chelating/metal-interacting properties of thiosemicarbazones, interference with the cellular iron (and copper) homeostasis is assumed to play an important role in their biological activity...
January 15, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334388/catalytic-de-hydrogenation-promoted-by-non-precious-metals-co-fe-and-mn-recent-advances-in-an-emerging-field
#13
REVIEW
Georgy A Filonenko, Robbert van Putten, Emiel J M Hensen, Evgeny A Pidko
Catalytic hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions form the core of the modern chemical industry. This vast class of reactions is found in any part of chemical synthesis starting from the milligram-scale exploratory organic chemistry to the multi-ton base chemicals production. Noble metal catalysis has long been the key driving force in enabling these transformations with carbonyl substrates and their nitrogen-containing counterparts. This review is aimed at introducing the reader to the remarkable progress made in the last three years in the development of base metal catalysts for hydrogenations and dehydrogenative transformations...
January 15, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334220/computational-design-synthesis-and-structure-property-evaluation-of-1-3-thiazole-based-colour-tunable-multiheterocyclic-small-organic-fluorophores-as-multifunctional-molecular-materials
#14
Rakesh Radhakrishnan, Kumaran G Sreejalekshmi
Probing chemical space of luminescent organic materials built on novel cores is highly imperative for its potential to expand the horizons of advanced functional materials. Small organic fluorophores possessing therapeutic traits can contribute to theranostics. We coupled computational and classical synthetic chemistry strategies for the rational design of 5-(hetero-2-yl)-1,3-thiazoles as colour tunable fluorophore core. With the aid of DFT and TD-DFT, we prove multiheterocyclic system built on thiazole-het core with three inherent tunable sites on thiazole (C2, C4 and C5) capable of accommodating panoply of substituents, as a multifunctional molecular materials' platform...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334098/how-a-tertiary-diamine-molecule-chelates-the-silicon-dimers-of-the-si-001-surface-a-real-time-scanning-tunneling-microscopy-study
#15
Ahmed Naitabdi, François Rochet, Fabrice Bournel, Marco Bonato, Jean-Jacques Gallet, Federica Bondino, Elena Magnano
The patterning of silicon surfaces by organic molecules emerges as an original way to fabricate innovative nanoelectronic devices. In this regard, we have studied how a diamine, N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA, (CH3)2N-[CH2]2-N(CH3)2), chelates the silicon dimers of the Si(001)-2 × 1 surface. Starting from very low coverage to surface saturation (at 300 K), we used real-time scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in a scanning-while-dosing approach. The images show that the molecules can adopt two bonding configurations: the cross-trench (CT) configuration by bridging two adjacent dimer rows, and the end-bridge (EB) configuration by chelating two adjacent dimers in the same row...
January 15, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331797/application-of-polyacrylamide-gel-as-a-new-membrane-in-electromembrane-extraction-for-the-quantification-of-basic-drugs-in-breast-milk-and-wastewater-samples
#16
Sakine Asadi, Hadi Tabani, Saeed Nojavan
Introducing new membranes with green chemistry approach seems to be a great challenge for the development of a practical method in separation science. In this regard, for the first time, polyacrylamide gel as a new membrane in electromembrane extraction (EME) was used for the extraction of three model basic drugs (pseudoephedrine (PSE), lidocaine (LID), and propranolol (PRO)), followed by HPLC-UV. In comparison with conventional EME, in this method neither organic solvent nor carrier agents were used for extraction of mentioned drugs...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330538/flux-of-the-biogenic-volatiles-isoprene-and-dimethyl-sulfide-from-an-oligotrophic-lake
#17
Michael Steinke, Bettina Hodapp, Rameez Subhan, Thomas G Bell, Dominik Martin-Creuzburg
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) affect atmospheric chemistry, climate and regional air quality in terrestrial and marine atmospheres. Although isoprene is a major BVOC produced in vascular plants, and marine phototrophs release dimethyl sulfide (DMS), lakes have been widely ignored for their production. Here we demonstrate that oligotrophic Lake Constance, a model for north temperate deep lakes, emits both volatiles to the atmosphere. Depth profiles indicated that highest concentrations of isoprene and DMS were associated with the chlorophyll maximum, suggesting that their production is closely linked to phototrophic processes...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330495/large-unexplained-suite-of-chemically-reactive-compounds-present-in-ambient-air-due-to-biomass-fires
#18
V Kumar, B P Chandra, V Sinha
Biomass fires impact global atmospheric chemistry. The reactive compounds emitted and formed due to biomass fires drive ozone and organic aerosol formation, affecting both air quality and climate. Direct hydroxyl (OH) Reactivity measurements quantify total gaseous reactive pollutant loadings and comparison with measured compounds yields the fraction of unmeasured compounds. Here, we quantified the magnitude and composition of total OH reactivity in the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plain. More than 120% increase occurred in total OH reactivity (28 s-1 to 64 s-1) and from no missing OH reactivity in the normal summertime air, the missing OH reactivity fraction increased to ~40 % in the post-harvest summertime period influenced by large scale biomass fires highlighting presence of unmeasured compounds...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328784/dna-encoded-chemical-libraries-a-selection-system-based-on-endowing-organic-compounds-with-amplifiable-information
#19
Dario Neri, Richard A Lerner
The discovery of organic ligands that bind specifically to proteins is a central problem in chemistry, biology, and the biomedical sciences. The encoding of individual organic molecules with distinctive DNA tags, serving as amplifiable identification bar codes, allows the construction and screening of combinatorial libraries of unprecedented size, thus facilitating the discovery of ligands to many different protein targets. Fundamentally, one links powers of genetics and chemical synthesis. After the initial description of DNA-encoded chemical libraries in 1992, several experimental embodiments of the technology have been reduced to practice...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327654/delayed-reaction-the-tardy-embrace-of-physical-organic-chemistry-by-the-german-chemical-community
#20
Stephen J Weininger
The emergence of physical organic chemistry, which focuses on the mechanisms and structures of organic reactions and molecules using the tools of physical chemistry, was a major development in twentieth-century chemistry. It first flourished in the interwar period, in the UK and then in the US. Germany, by contrast, did not embrace the field until almost a half century later. The great success of classical organic chemistry, especially in synthesis, encouraged indifference to the new field among German chemists, as did their inductivist research philosophy, as enunciated by Walter Hückel's ground-breaking textbook (1931)...
January 12, 2018: Ambix
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