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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334220/effect-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-developed-countries
#1
Zaki K Hassan-Smith, Martin Hewison, Neil J Gittoes
Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide with adverse effects on skeletal health. In recent years, there has been great interest in non-classical actions of vitamin D. Basic research has uncovered actions in a range of non-skeletal tissues, and observational studies have identified inverse relationships with risk of a number of disease states including sarcopenia, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Sources of data: PubMed, Medline and Cochrane Systematic Reviews...
March 9, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330579/vertical-ramus-elongation-and-mandibular-advancement-by-endobuccal-approach-presentation-of-a-new-osteotomy-technique
#2
F Grimaud, H Bertin, F Fauvel, P Corre, J-P Perrin
INTRODUCTION: Several surgical procedures have been proposed for the treatment of hyperdivergent dentoskeletal deformities. We propose a new osteotomy technique allowing for lengthening and advancement of the mandibular ramus by intra-oral approach. SURGICAL PROCEDURE: This technique differs from the conventional sagittal split osteotomyin that which the anterior osteotomy line is not continued until the basilar edge but stopped 5-6mm above it. Cutting of the pterygomasseteric sling is systematically done allowing for the lowering of the mandibular angle...
February 2017: J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329695/cutting-edge-in-ifn-regulation-inflammatory-caspases-cleave-cgas
#3
Simon Heidegger, Tobias Haas, Hendrik Poeck
Caspases have important functions beyond their established role in driving inflammation and apoptosis. In this issue of Immunity, Wang et al. (2017) demonstrate that inflammasome-triggered caspases cleave and inactivate the DNA sensor cGAS, thus restricting the type I interferon response to cytosolic DNA.
March 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324613/analysis-of-protein-kinetics-using-fluorescence-recovery-after-photobleaching-frap
#4
Nickolaos Nikiforos Giakoumakis, Maria Anna Rapsomaniki, Zoi Lygerou
Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is a cutting-edge live-cell functional imaging technique that enables the exploration of protein dynamics in individual cells and thus permits the elucidation of protein mobility, function, and interactions at a single-cell level. During a typical FRAP experiment, fluorescent molecules in a defined region of interest within the cell are bleached by a short and powerful laser pulse, while the recovery of the fluorescence in the region is monitored over time by time-lapse microscopy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303447/editorial-cutting-edge-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#5
David P D'Cruz, Annegret Kuhn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302899/vets-at-the-cutting-edge
#6
Aoife O'Sullivan
Vets Now's Cutting Edge induction programme is a launch pad for vets seeking a career in emergency and critical care medicine. The course leader is Aoife O'Sullivan.
March 18, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301466/genome-editing-bioethics-shows-the-way
#7
Carolyn P Neuhaus, Arthur L Caplan
When some scientists hear the word "bioethics," they break out in intellectual hives. They shouldn't. Good bioethics is about enabling science to move forward. Bioethics pushes scientists to acknowledge that they operate not within a vacuum but within a society in which diverse perspectives and values must be engaged. Bioethicists give voice to those divergent perspectives and provide a framework to facilitate informed and inclusive discussions that spur progress, rather than stall it. The field is needed to advance cutting-edge biomedical research in domains in which the benefits to be had are enormous, such as genome editing, but ethical concerns persist...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296908/atomic-force-microscopy-of-chromatin-arrays-reveal-non-monotonic-salt-dependence-of-array-compaction-in-solution
#8
Katarzyna M Krzemien, Maximilian Beckers, Salina Quack, Jens Michaelis
Compaction of DNA in chromatin is a hallmark of the eukaryotic cell and unravelling its structure is required for an understanding of DNA involving processes. Despite strong experimental efforts, many questions concerning the DNA packing are open. In particular, it is heavily debated whether an ordered structure referred to as the "30 nm fibre" exist in vivo. Scanning probe microscopy has become a cutting edge technology for the high-resolution imaging of DNA- protein complexes. Here, we perform high-resolution atomic force microscopy of non-cross-linked chromatin arrays in liquid, under different salt conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296440/cutting-edge-technologies-that-could-reshape-htm-and-health-it
#9
Jeff Kabachinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295484/who-2016-classification-changes-and-advancements-in-the-diagnosis-of-miscellaneous-primary-cns-tumours
#10
Felix Sahm, David E Reuss, Caterina Giannini
This short review highlights significant changes and recent findings incorporated to varying extent in the WHO 2016 definition of a variety of tumours, including peripheral nerve sheath tumours, meningiomas, mesenchymal non-meningothelial tumours, melanocytic tumours, lymphomas and histiocytic tumours, germ cell tumours and non-neuroendocrine pituitary tumours. Most notable classification changes include: adding "hybrid nerve sheath tumours" to the spectrum of benign nerve sheath tumours; an updated definition of atypical meningioma (WHO grade II), including cases with brain invasion; recognizing dural solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) and haemangiopericytoma (HPC) as a single tumour entity characterized by NAB2 and STAT6 gene fusions for which the term solitary SFT/HPC was chosen; recognizing that pituitary granular cell tumour, spindle cell oncocytoma, and pituicytoma all share nuclear expression of TTF-1, possibly representing a spectrum of a single nosological entity derived from posterior pituitary glial cells...
March 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294147/criticality-enhanced-magnetocaloric-effect-in-quantum-spin-chain-material-copper-nitrate
#11
Jun-Sen Xiang, Cong Chen, Wei Li, Xian-Lei Sheng, Na Su, Zhao-Hua Cheng, Qiang Chen, Zi-Yu Chen
In this work, a systematic study of Cu(NO3)2·2.5 H2O (copper nitrate hemipentahydrate, CN), an alternating Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain model material, is performed with multi-technique approach including thermal tensor network (TTN) simulations, first-principles calculations, as well as magnetization measurements. Employing a cutting-edge TTN method developed in the present work, we verify the couplings J = 5.13 K, α = 0.23(1) and Landé factors g∥= 2.31, g⊥ = 2.14 in CN, with which the magnetothermal properties have been fitted strikingly well...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293020/untangling-the-relationship-between-diet-and-visceral-fat-mass-through-blood-metabolomics-and-gut-microbiome-profiling
#12
T Pallister, M A Jackson, T C Martin, C A Glastonbury, A Jennings, M Beaumont, R P Mohney, K S Small, A MacGregor, C J Steves, A Cassidy, T D Spector, C Menni, A M Valdes
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Higher visceral fat mass (VFM) is associated with an increased risk for developing cardio-metabolic diseases. The mechanisms by which an unhealthy diet pattern may influence VF development has yet to be examined through cutting-edge multi-omic methods. Therefore, our objective was to examine the dietary influences on VFM and identify gut microbiome and metabolite profiles that link food intakes to VFM. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In 2218 twins with VFM, food intake and metabolomics data available we identified food intakes most strongly associated with VFM in 50% of the sample, then constructed and tested the 'VFM diet score' in the remainder of the sample...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289159/cutting-edge-innate-immune-augmenting-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-expressing-zika-virus-proteins-confers-protective-immunity
#13
Dillon Betancourt, Nina M G P de Queiroz, Tianli Xia, Jeonghyun Ahn, Glen N Barber
Zika virus (ZIKV) has become a serious public health concern because of its link to brain damage in developing human fetuses. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) was shown to be a highly effective and safe vector for the delivery of foreign immunogens for vaccine purposes. In this study, we generated rVSVs (wild-type and attenuated VSV with mutated matrix protein [VSVm] versions) that express either the full length ZIKV envelope protein (ZENV) alone or include the ZENV precursor to the membrane protein upstream of the envelope protein, and our rVSV-ZIKV constructs showed efficient immunogenicity in murine models...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283912/new-structural-insights-into-podocyte-biology
#14
REVIEW
Florian Grahammer
The last 5 years have witnessed tremendous advances in both light- and electron-microscopic techniques in the biomedical sciences. Application of these new cutting-edge methods to glomerular biology has advanced considerably and, in part, completed our endeavor to draw a detailed map of the glomerular tuft. The scope of this review is to illustrate these new insights within both the morphometry of podocyte cells and the architecture of the glomerular filtration barrier and to assess whether these findings have indeed had an impact on our biological understanding of glomerular function...
March 10, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283221/actin-waves-origin-of-cell-polarization-and-migration
#15
REVIEW
Naoyuki Inagaki, Hiroko Katsuno
Actin filaments and associated proteins undergo wave-like movement in various cell types. Recent studies with cutting-edge analyses, including live-cell imaging, biophysical monitoring and manipulation, and mathematical modeling, have highlighted roles of 'actin waves' in cellular protrusion, polarization, and migration. The prevailing models to explain the wave-like dynamics of actin filaments involve an activator-inhibitor mechanism. In addition, axonal actin waves migrate by means of directional assembly and disassembly of membrane-anchored actin filaments, and thus represent a new type of machinery that translocates their component molecules to the cell edge...
March 7, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283000/characterization-and-evaluation-of-a-self-microemulsifying-drug-delivery-system-containing-tectorigenin-an-isoflavone-with-low-aqueous-solubility-and-poor-permeability
#16
Yunrong Zhang, Li He, Shanlan Yue, Qingting Huang, Yuhong Zhang, Junyi Yang
The purpose of this study was to characterize and evaluate tectorigenin-loaded self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (TG-SMEDDS), a previously studied preparation, and further confirm the improvement of TG in solubility and bioavailability. The appearance of TG-SMEDDS was clear and transparent, with good mobility. The microemulsion formed by TG-SMEDDS was globular, edge smooth, clear-cut, and distribution homogeneous under transmission electron microscope. The stability studies revealed that TG-SMEDDS remained stable at room temperature for at least 3 months...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281711/the-structural-diversity-of-halogen-centered-secondary-building-units-two-new-mixed-metal-borate-halides-with-deep-ultraviolet-cut-off-edges
#17
Miriding Mutailipu, Min Zhang, Yanna Chen, Xiaoquan Lu, Shilie Pan
Two new mixed-metal borate halides, namely, NaMg2Ba7B14O28F5 (I) and NaBa4B10O18BrF2 (II), were synthesized using the high-temperature flux method. Both structures were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and their structures are shown to feature complicated three dimensional (3D) networks with different types of halogen-centered secondary building units (SBUs). Specifically, compound I contains three spatial fluorine-centered SBUs F(1)Ba4Mg2, F(2)Ba(Na)Ba3Mg, and F(3)Ba(Na)Ba2Mg, while compound II exhibits spatial FBa3Na and planar BrBa4 fluorine- or bromine-centered SBUs...
March 10, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281112/performance-of-kymerax%C3%A2-precision-drive-articulating-surgical-system-compared-to-conventional-laparoscopic-instruments-in-a-pelvitrainer-model
#18
Marco Alain Sieber, Bernhard Fellmann-Fischer, Michael Mueller
BACKGROUND: The Kymerax© Precision-Drive Articulating Surgical System by Terumo© is a handheld laparoscopic robot which permits motion in two additional degrees of freedom (deflection and rotation in the instrument tip). In a pelvitrainer model, we compared the performance of participants with different laparoscopic experiences and compared Kymerax© to conventional laparoscopic instruments. METHODS: 20 expert surgeons, performing more than 50 laparoscopic procedures per year, and 25 medical students without any experience in surgery at all were selected...
March 9, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277658/ring-walking-of-zerovalent-nickel-on-aryl-halides
#19
Jenna A Bilbrey, Andrea N Bootsma, Marcus A Bartlett, Jason Locklin, Steven E Wheeler, Wesley D Allen
While ring-walking is a critical step in transition metal catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, the associated metastable intermediates are often difficult to isolate and characterize. In this work, theoretical structures and energetics for ring-walking and oxidative addition of zerovalent nickel with 1-bromo-2-methylbenzene, 2-bromopyridine, 2-bromo-3-methyl-thiophene, and 2-bromopyrrole were computed at the B3LYP-D3/TZ2P-LANL2TZ(f)-LANL08d level. The mechanisms vary qualitatively with substrate ring size and type-the catalyst weaves along the edges of the benzene and pyridine rings, cuts through the interior of the thiophene ring, and arcs along the bond opposite the nitrogen atom in the pyrrole ring...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275141/cutting-edge-targeting-epithelial-ormdl3-increases-rather-than-reduces-airway-responsiveness-and-is-associated-with-increased-sphingosine-1-phosphate
#20
Marina Miller, Arvin B Tam, James L Mueller, Peter Rosenthal, Andrew Beppu, Ruth Gordillo, Matthew D McGeough, Christine Vuong, Taylor A Doherty, Hal M Hoffman, Maho Niwa, David H Broide
In this study, we used cre-lox techniques to generate mice selectively deficient in ORMDL3 in airway epithelium (Ormdl3(Δ2-3/Δ2-3)/CC10) to simulate an inhaled therapy that effectively inhibited ORMDL3 expression in the airway. In contrast to the anticipated reduction in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), OVA allergen-challenged Ormdl3(Δ2-3/Δ2-3)/CC10 mice had a significant increase in AHR compared with wild-type mice. Levels of airway inflammation, mucus, fibrosis, and airway smooth muscle were no different in Ormdl3(Δ2-3/Δ2-3)/CC10 and wild-type mice...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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