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Cutting edge

Tetsuro Ushio, Hideki Mizu-Uchi, Ken Okazaki, Yuan Ma, Umito Kuwashima, Yukihide Iwamoto
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of cutting surface on the anteroposterior (AP) axis of the proximal tibia using a 3-dimensional (3D) bone model to ensure proper tibial rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: 3D bone models were reconstructed from the preoperative computed tomography data of 93 Japanese osteoarthritis knees with varus deformity. The AP axis was defined as the perpendicular bisector of the medial and lateral condylar centers in a 3D coordinate system...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Lliwen A Jones, Rhys H Thomas
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of mortality in patients with refractory epilepsy, and as such has been a major research focus over the last 25 years. The earliest SUDEP research papers were published in Seizure, as have scores of SUDEP papers since. In this review we discuss the efforts to try and describe the pathophysiological basis of SUDEP, the drive to discover the clinical risk factors that increase the likelihood of SUDEP, and the motivation to increase awareness of SUDEP...
October 14, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Miao Liao, Yu-Qian Zhao, Wei Wang, Ye-Zhan Zeng, Qing Yang, Frank Y Shih, Bei-Ji Zou
Liver segmentation from abdominal computed tomography (CT) volumes is extremely important for computer-aided liver disease diagnosis and surgical planning of liver transplantation. Due to ambiguous edges, tissue adhesion, and variation in liver intensity and shape across patients, accurate liver segmentation is a challenging task. In this paper, we present an efficient semi-automatic method using intensity, local context, and spatial correlation of adjacent slices for the segmentation of healthy liver regions in CT volumes...
October 19, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Lisa J Meltzer
Research in the field of pediatric sleep has grown significantly in the past 25 years. However, because much remains to be learned about the complex and dynamic relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology, this special issue of the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology was created to provide an influx of cutting-edge research on this important topic. This introduction provides an overview of the special issue, with articles focusing on what different measurement approaches tells us about the intersection of sleep and developmental psychopathology; the overlap between interventions for sleep and anxiety; sleep as a potential mechanism for the development of social, emotional, and behavioral problems; and how population-based studies can be used to consider the interaction between sleep, well-being, and symptoms of psychopathology...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Cuijuan Yu, Hai Wang, Aaron Muscarella, Amit Goldstein, Huan-Chang Zeng, Yangjin Bae, Brendan H I Lee, Xiang H-F Zhang
Intra-iliac artery (IIA) injection is an efficient approach to introduce metastatic lesions of various cancer cells in animals. Compared to the widely used intra-cardiac and intra-tibial injections, IIA injection brings several advantages. First, it can deliver a large quantity of cancer cells specifically to hind limb bones, thereby providing spatiotemporally synchronized early-stage colonization events and allowing robust quantification and swift detection of disseminated tumor cells. Second, it injects cancer cells into the circulation without damaging the local tissues, thereby avoiding inflammatory and wound-healing processes that confound the bone colonization process...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
H Huang, W Qiu, M Zhu, Y Zhang, W H Cui, W Xing, X Y Li, T C An, M J Chen, W Guo, X Xu
Objective: To explore the changes in the expressions of key proteins of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway in skin tissue and wound tissue of diabetic rats, and to elucidate the associated mechanisms. Methods: Seventy-eight SD rats aged from 7 to 8 weeks were divided into diabetes group and non-diabetes group according to the random number table, with 39 rats in each group. Rats in diabetes group were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/mL streptozotocin fluid in the dose of 65 mg/kg (dissolved in citrate buffer solution) for once to establish the model of diabetes mellitus...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Simona Gaudino, Matia Martucci, Rosellina Russo, Emiliano Visconti, Emma Gangemi, Francesco D'Argento, Tommaso Verdolotti, Libero Lauriola, Cesare Colosimo
BACKGROUND: Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common pediatric brain glioma and is considered the prototype of benign circumscribed astrocytoma. Despite its low malignancy, the CT and MRI features of brain PA may resemble those of much more aggressive brain tumors. Misdiagnosis of PA is particularly easy when it demonstrates MR morphological and non-morphological findings that are inconsistent with its non-aggressive nature and that overlap with the features of more aggressive brain tumors...
October 18, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Ana I Robles, Karina Standahl Olsen, Dana W T Tsui, Vassilis Georgoulias, Jenette Creaney, Katalin Dobra, Mogens Vyberg, Nagahiro Minato, Robert A Anders, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Jianwei Zhou, Pål Sætrom, Boye Schnack Nielsen, Michaela B Kirschner, Hans E Krokan, Vassiliki Papadimitrakopoulou, Ioannis Tsamardinos, Oluf D Røe
The goal of biomarker research is to identify clinically valid markers. Despite decades of research there has been disappointingly few molecules or techniques that are in use today. The "1st International NTNU Symposium on Current and Future Clinical Biomarkers of Cancer: Innovation and Implementation", was held June 16th and 17th 2016, at the Knowledge Center of the St. Olavs Hospital in Trondheim, Norway, under the auspices of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the HUNT biobank and research center...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Alejandro Ruete, Tord Snäll, Mari Jönsson
Diversity patterns and dynamics at forest edges are not well understood. We disentangle the relative importance of edge-effect variables on spatio-temporal patterns in species richness and occupancy of deadwood-dwelling fungi in fragmented old-growth forests. We related richness and log occupancy by 10 old-growth forest indicator fungi and by two common fungi to log conditions in natural and anthropogenic edge habitats of 31 old-growth Picea abies forest stands in central Sweden. We compared edge-to-interior gradients (100 m) to the forest interior (beyond 100 m), and we analyzed stand-level changes after 10 yr...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Carola Borries, Aaron A Sandel, Andreas Koenig, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque, Jason M Kamilar, Caroline R Amoroso, Robert A Barton, Joel Bray, Anthony Di Fiore, Ian C Gilby, Adam D Gordon, Roger Mundry, Markus Port, Lauren E Powell, Anne E Pusey, Amanda Spriggs, Charles L Nunn
Recent decades have seen rapid development of new analytical methods to investigate patterns of interspecific variation. Yet these cutting-edge statistical analyses often rely on data of questionable origin, varying accuracy, and weak comparability, which seem to have reduced the reproducibility of studies. It is time to improve the transparency of comparative data while also making these improved data more widely available. We, the authors, met to discuss how transparency, usability, and reproducibility of comparative data can best be achieved...
September 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
Jianjian Wang, Pingfa Feng, Jianfu Zhang, Wanchong Cai, Hao Shen
Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) is a well-known and efficient method for manufacturing holes in brittle materials. RUM is characterized by improved material removal rates, reduced cutting forces and reduced edge chipping sizes at the hole exit. The aim of this study is to investigate the critical feed rate to guarantee the effectiveness of RUM. Experimental results on quartz glass and sapphire specimens show that when the feed rate exceeds a critical value, the cutting force increases abruptly, accompanied by a significant decrease of ultrasonic amplitude...
October 6, 2016: Ultrasonics
David Hamilton, Vinidh Paleri
Morbidity and mortality associated with increasingly radical doses of chemoradiotherapy have led many to question the current standard of care in head and neck cancer. Recently, surgeons have developed minimally invasive, transoral techniques which have demonstrated excellent survival and favourable functional outcomes. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is the most recent, cutting edge in the evolution of transoral techniques; TORS allows surgeons unprecedented access to and visualisation of the upper aerodigestive tract...
October 11, 2016: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
Rivka R Colen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Máire A Duggan, William F Anderson, Sean Altekruse, Lynne Penberthy, Mark E Sherman
The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute collects data on cancer diagnoses, treatment, and survival for approximately 30% of the United States (US) population. To reflect advances in research and oncology practice, approaches to cancer control are evolving from simply enumerating the development of cancers by organ site in populations to including monitoring of cancer occurrence by histopathologic and molecular subtype, as defined by driver mutations and other alterations...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Melissa L Knothe Tate, Peter W Gunning, Vittorio Sansalone
Stem cell "mechanomics" refers to the effect of mechanical cues on stem cell and matrix biology, where cell shape and fate are intrinsic manifestations of form and function. Before specialization, the stem cell itself serves as a sensor and actuator; its structure emerges from its local mechanical milieu as the cell adapts over time. Coupling of novel spatiotemporal imaging and computational methods allows for linking of the energy of adaptation to the structure, biology and mechanical function of the cell...
October 14, 2016: Bioarchitecture
Michael Parker, Patricia Kingori
There has been a dramatic rise in the scale and scope of collaborative global health research. A number of structural and scientific factors explain this growth and there has been much discussion of these in the literature. Little, if any, attention has been paid, however, to the factors identified by scientists and other research actors as important to successful research collaboration. This is surprising given that their decisions are likely to play a key role in the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research initiatives...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin J Schoville, Kyle S Brown, Jacob A Harris, Jayne Wilkins
The Middle Stone Age (MSA) is associated with early evidence for symbolic material culture and complex technological innovations. However, one of the most visible aspects of MSA technologies are unretouched triangular stone points that appear in the archaeological record as early as 500,000 years ago in Africa and persist throughout the MSA. How these tools were being used and discarded across a changing Pleistocene landscape can provide insight into how MSA populations prioritized technological and foraging decisions...
2016: PloS One
Takeshi Oshima, Junsuke Nakase, Hitoaki Numata, Yasushi Takata, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
BACKGROUND: The looped side of the semitendinosus tendon (ST) graft (i.e., the side inserted into the femoral tunnel during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction) appears to be oval rather than round. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross section of the fourfold semitendinosus tendon graft and, more specifically, the differences in pressure exerted by a rounded rectangular tunnel versus a round femoral tunnel. METHODS: Seven STs were harvested from cadaveric knees and a fourfold ST graft was made...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Candela R González, Mariano Ar Amer, Alfredo D Vitullo, Silvia I González-Calvar, María I Vacas
Saliva is the first barrier to entry of bacteria and viruses into the body. The submandibular glands (SMG) contribute to the maintenance of oral health and regulation of immune/ inflam matory responses. Previous studies suggest that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) may contribute to salivary gland fibrosis but the expression of the TGFB1 system in the SMG has not been elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze in rat SMG the immunolocalization of TGFB1 and its specific receptors ALK5 (profibrotic) and ALK1 (proproliferative) and the coreceptor endoglin (EDG) in a bilateral experimental periodontitis (EP) model (cotton thread ligature around the neck of the first lower molars) for 1 and 6 weeks...
September 2016: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
John M Heddleston, Teng-Leong Chew
Capturing dynamic processes in live samples is a nontrivial task in biological imaging. Although fluorescence provides high specificity and contrast compared to other light microscopy techniques, the photophysical principles of this method can have a harmful effect on the sample. Current advances in light sheet microscopy have created a novel imaging toolbox that allows for rapid acquisition of high-resolution fluorescent images with minimal perturbation of the processes of interest. Each unique design has its own advantages and limitations...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
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