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Cutting edge

Rodolpho Martin do Prado, Carla Porto, Estela Nunes, Claudio Lima de Aguiar, Eduardo Jorge Pilau
The importance of Brazil as a producer and exporter of food and feed will continuously increase. Despite the recent economic and political problems in Brazil, the scientific field is expanding. Cutting-edge technology has only recently become available in the country, and we can now also join efforts with the global community to tackle global challenges. Using metabolomics based on mass spectrometry approaches to understand system-wide metabolism and metabolic pathways can have a significant impact in the society...
March 2018: MSystems
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Vincenza Gianfredi, Milena Villarini, Roberto Rosselli, Ahmed Nasr, Amr Hussein, Mariano Martini, Masoud Behzadifar
Vaccines are public health interventions aimed at preventing infections-related mortality, morbidity, and disability. While vaccines have been successfully designed for those infectious diseases preventable by preexisting neutralizing specific antibodies, for other communicable diseases, additional immunological mechanisms should be elicited to achieve a full protection. "New vaccines" are particularly urgent in the nowadays society, in which economic growth, globalization, and immigration are leading to the emergence/reemergence of old and new infectious agents at the animal-human interface...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Angela K Stevens, Brittany E Blanchard, Andrew K Littlefield
Background: Relations between impulsigenic traits and alcohol-related outcomes have been the focus of much research, yet precise relations remain elusive. Historically, research used broadband conceptualizations of impulsivity, which yielded inconclusive findings. Attempts to ameliorate this problem led to more work on narrowband assessments of impulsivity. Despite that several narrowband self-report measures exist, few demonstrate adequate psychometric properties. Given the limits of self-report, researchers have also utilized laboratory-based measures of impulsive dispositions; however, this seems to have contributed more uncertainty to the literature...
2018: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Zhaobin Tang, Jingjing Gu, Ping Sun, Jing Zhao, Yonggang Zhao
Bare-metal stents (BMS) and paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) are frequently used in medicine for the treatment of coronary heart disease, with millions of patients treated worldwide. The protein-protein interactions (PPI) were adopted to construct the networks. The M-module algorithm was used to identify multiple differential modules. Gene Ontology enrichment and pathway enrichment analysis were performed to analyze characteristics of modules. With the PPI and microarray data, two differential co-expressed networks were constructed, module 1 indicating PES and module 2 indicating BMS, with the same genes but different edges...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jacob D Estes, Roger LeGrand, Constantinos Petrovas
Immunological inductive tissues, such as secondary lymphoid organs, are composed of distinct anatomical microenvironments for the generation of immune responses to pathogens and immunogens. These microenvironments are characterized by the compartmentalization of highly specialized immune and stromal cell populations, as well as the presence of a complex network of soluble factors and chemokines that direct the intra-tissue trafficking of naïve and effector cell populations. Imaging platforms have provided critical contextual information regarding the molecular and cellular interactions that orchestrate the spatial microanatomy of relevant cells and the development of immune responses against pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mohammad Zahidul Hasan, Md Safiur Rahman Mahdi, Md Nazmus Sadat, Noman Mohammed
Human genomic information can yield more effective healthcare by guiding medical decisions. Therefore, genomics research is gaining popularity as it can identify potential correlations between a disease and a certain gene, which improves the safety and efficacy of drug treatment and can also develop more effective prevention strategies [1]. To reduce the sampling error and to increase the statistical accuracy of this type of research projects, data from different sources need to be brought together since a single organization does not necessarily possess required amount of data...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Ilhwan Yeo, Dmitriy N Feldman, Luke K Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a non-iatrogenic and non-traumatic separation of the coronary arterial wall. While SCAD represents an important cause of myocardial infarction, optimal diagnostic and therapeutic options remain challenging. We sought to review recent studies and provide an update on diagnosis and management of SCAD. RECENT FINDINGS: Coronary angiography is the first-line diagnostic modality for SCAD, with three angiographic features commonly observed in SCAD: type 1 (pathognomonic angiographic appearance with contrast staining of the arterial wall), type 2 (long coronary stenosis), and type 3 (focal tubular stenosis)...
March 17, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Anne C Conibear, Markus Muttenthaler
The 7th Chemical Protein Synthesis Meeting took place in September 2017 in Haifa, Israel, bringing together 100 scientists from 11 countries. The cutting-edge scientific program included new synthetic strategies and ligation auxiliaries, novel insights into protein signaling and post-translational modifications, and a range of promising therapeutic applications.
March 15, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
Jinkwon Jun, Soyoung Yoo
Neuroscientific imaging evidence (NIE) has become an integral part of the criminal justice system in the United States. However, in most legal cases, NIE is submitted and used only to mitigate penalties because the court does not recognize it as substantial evidence, considering its lack of reliability. Nevertheless, we here discuss how neuroscience is expected to improve the use of NIE in the legal system. For this purpose, we classified the efforts of neuroscientists into three research strategies: cognitive subtraction, the data-driven approach, and the brain-manipulation approach...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ruike Zhao, Shaoting Lin, Hyunwoo Yuk, Xuanhe Zhao
Structures of thin films bonded on substrates have been used in technologies as diverse as flexible electronics, soft robotics, bio-inspired adhesives, thermal-barrier coatings, medical bandages, wearable devices and living devices. The current paradigm for maintaining adhesion of films on substrates is to make the films thinner, and more compliant and adhesive, but these requirements can compromise the function or fabrication of film-substrate structures. For example, there are limits on how thin, compliant and adhesive epidermal electronic devices can be fabricated and still function reliably...
March 14, 2018: Soft Matter
Xiang-Tian Yu, Lu Wang, Tao Zeng
Generally, machine learning includes many in silico methods to transform the principles underlying natural phenomenon to human understanding information, which aim to save human labor, to assist human judge, and to create human knowledge. It should have wide application potential in biological and biomedical studies, especially in the era of big biological data. To look through the application of machine learning along with biological development, this review provides wide cases to introduce the selection of machine learning methods in different practice scenarios involved in the whole biological and biomedical study cycle and further discusses the machine learning strategies for analyzing omics data in some cutting-edge biological studies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jun Li, Renzhong Liu, Cuihong Huang, Shifu Chen, Mingyan Xu
Cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a kind of potential tumor biomarkers originated from cancer lesion in the circulating liquids. Liquid biopsy, as a minimally invasive or noninvasive manner, is a cutting-edge technology to detect ctDNA and other circulating biomarkers in the blood or other body fluids. ctDNA is mostly used for cancer patients to select targeted drugs in clinical application. In addition, ctDNA could also be applied to monitor tumor progression and recurrence. In conclusion, ctDNA is a very promising tumor biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring, which would increasingly become a routine clinical application in recent years...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Deling Wang, Jia-Rui Li, Yu-Hang Zhang, Lei Chen, Tao Huang, Yu-Dong Cai
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) model is a cutting-edge approach for drug research on breast cancer. However, PDX still exhibits differences from original human tumors, thereby challenging the molecular understanding of tumorigenesis. In particular, gene expression changes after tissues are transplanted from human to mouse model. In this study, we propose a novel computational method by incorporating several machine learning algorithms, including Monte Carlo feature selection (MCFS), random forest (RF), and rough set-based rule learning, to identify genes with significant expression differences between PDX and original human tumors...
March 12, 2018: Genes
Z Jia, C J Zhang, C G Xi, Y Q Gong, K W Yang, D Peng, L B Liu, J Li, X S Li, Z S He, L Q Zhou
Objective: To study the clinical characteristics, image findings, therapeutic method and prognosis of metanephric adenoma. Method: The clinical characteristic, image findings, operation methods and prognosis of 16 metanephric adenoma patients treated at Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital from January 2004 to March 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: There were 6 male and 10 female patients in the study. The mean age of patients was 33.7 years (ranging from 14 to 83 years). Two patients came to the hospital because of fever, while other 14 patients had no symptoms and found renal tumor by medical examination...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Hannes Petersen, Alexandra Gliese, Yannick Stober, Stephanie Maier, Nils-Owe Hansen, Sebastian Kruber, Dennis Eggert, Miklós Tóth, Tobias Gosau, Hartmut Schlüter, Klaus Püschel, Udo Schumacher, Robert John Dwayne Miller, Adrian Münscher, Carsten Dalchow
OBJECTIVE: Using a contact-free laser technique for stapedotomy reduces the risk of mechanical damage of the stapes footplate. However, the risk of inner ear dysfunction due to thermal, acoustic, or direct damage has still not been solved. The objective of this study was to describe the first experiences in footplate perforation in cadaver tissue performed by the novel Picosecond-Infrared-Laser (PIRL), allowing a tissue preserving ablation. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: Three human cadaver stapes were perforated using a fiber-coupled PIRL...
April 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Massimiliano Magro, Mattia Zaccarin, Giovanni Miotto, Laura Da Dalt, Davide Baratella, Piero Fariselli, Gianfranco Gabai, Fabio Vianello
Surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs) are able to recognize and bind selected proteins in complex biological systems, forming a hard protein corona. Upon a 5-min incubation in bovine whey from mastitis-affected cows, a significant enrichment of a single peptide characterized by a molecular weight at 4338 Da originated from the proteolysis of aS1 -casein was observed. Notably, among the large number of macromolecules in bovine milk, the detection of this specific peptide can hardly be accomplished by conventional analytical techniques...
March 12, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Angelina J Mosley, E Rachel Roberts, Hazel Partington, Katharina Gaertner, Peter Fisher, A L B Lex Rutten, Robert T Mathie, Steven J Cartwright, Alison Fixsen, Maria Olga Kokornaczyk, Anezka Marie Sokol, Alexander L Tournier
The third international conference on "Cutting Edge Research in Homeopathy" organised by the Homeopathy Research Institute (HRI) was held on the inspiring and historic island of Malta from 9th to 11th of June, 2017. One hundred and two abstracts underwent peer review by the HRI Scientific Advisory Committee and external experts to produce the programme of 36 oral presentations and 37 posters, presented by researchers from 19 countries. The 2.5-day programme covered a diverse range of topics, including quantitative and qualitative clinical research, basic research, veterinary research, and provings...
February 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
Shiro Nakamura, Nobuyuki Hida, Kenji Watanabe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
Jingcong Li, Zhu Liang Yu, Zhenghui Gu, Wei Wu, Yuanqing Li, Lianwen Jin
Detecting and Please provide the correct one analyzing the event-related potential (ERP) remains an important problem in neuroscience. Due to the low signal-to-noise ratio and complex spatio-temporal patterns of ERP signals, conventional methods usually rely on ensemble averaging technique for reliable detection, which may obliterate subtle but important information in each trial of ERP signals. Inspired by deep learning methods, we propose a novel hybrid network termed ERP-NET. With hybrid deep structure, the proposed network is able to learn complex spatial and temporal patterns from single-trial ERP signals...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
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