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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163975/on-the-descent-of-the-epididymo-testicular-unit-cryptorchidism-and-prevention-of-infertility
#1
REVIEW
Faruk Hadziselimovic
This comprehensive review provides in-depth coverage of progress made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cryptorchidism, a frequent pathology first described in about 1786 by John Hunter. The first part focuses on the physiology, embryology, and histology of epididymo-testicular descent. In the last 20 years epididymo-testicular descent has become the victim of schematic drawings with an unjustified rejection of valid histological data. This part also includes discussion on the roles of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, fibroblast growth factors, Müllerian inhibiting substance, androgens, inhibin B, and insulin-like 3 in epididymo-testicular descent...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159991/journey-to-the-centre-of-the-cell-virtual-reality-immersion-into-scientific-data
#2
REVIEW
Angus P R Johnston, James Rae, Nicholas Ariotti, Benjamin Bailey, Andrew Lija, Robyn Webb, Charles Ferguson, Sheryl Maher, Thomas P Davis, Richard I Webb, John McGhee, Robert G Parton
Visualization of scientific data is crucial not only for scientific discovery but also to communicate science and medicine to both experts and a general audience. Until recently, we have been limited to visualizing the three-dimensional (3D) world of biology in 2 dimensions. Renderings of 3D cells are still traditionally displayed using two-dimensional (2D) media, such as on a computer screen or paper. However, the advent of consumer grade virtual reality (VR) headsets such as Oculus Rift and HTC Vive means it is now possible to visualize and interact with scientific data in a 3D virtual world...
November 21, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153850/promises-and-pitfalls-of-metal-imaging-in-biology
#3
REVIEW
Elizabeth J New, Verena C Wimmer, Dominic J Hare
A picture may speak a thousand words, but if those words fail to form a coherent sentence there is little to be learned. As cutting-edge imaging technology now provides us the tools to decipher the multitude of roles played by metals and metalloids in molecular, cellular, and developmental biology, as well as health and disease, it is time to reflect on the advances made in imaging, the limitations discovered, and the future of a burgeoning field. In this Perspective, the current state of the art is discussed from a self-imposed contrarian position, as we not only highlight the major advances made over the years but use them as teachable moments to zoom in on challenges that remain to be overcome...
November 3, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152322/choosing-a-culture-medium-for-scnt-and-iscnt-reconstructed-embryos-from-domestic-to-wildlife-species
#4
REVIEW
A Cordova, W A King, G F Mastromonaco
Over the past decades, in vitro culture media have been developed to successfully support IVF embryo growth in a variety of species. Advanced reproductive technologies, such as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), challenge us with a new type of embryo, with special nutritional requirements and altered physiology under in vitro conditions. Numerous studies have successfully reconstructed cloned embryos of domestic animals for biomedical research and livestock production. However, studies evaluating suitable culture conditions for SCNT embryos in wildlife species are scarce (for both intra- and interspecies SCNT)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148357/cuts-and-the-cutting-edge-british-science-funding-and-the-making-of-animal-biotechnology-in-1980s-edinburgh
#5
Dmitriy Myelnikov
The Animal Breeding Research Organisation in Edinburgh (ABRO, founded in 1945) was a direct ancestor of the Roslin Institute, celebrated for the cloning of Dolly the sheep. After a period of sustained growth as an institute of the Agricultural Research Council (ARC), ABRO was to lose most of its funding in 1981. This decision has been absorbed into the narrative of the Thatcherite attack on science, but in this article I show that the choice to restructure ABRO pre-dated major government cuts to agricultural research, and stemmed from the ARC's wish to prioritize biotechnology in its portfolio...
December 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147871/an-optimized-and-feasible-preparation-technique-for-the-industrial-production-of-hydrogel-patches
#6
Wei-Ze Li, Wen-Xia Han, Xu-Liang Hao, Ning Zhao, Xi-Feng Zhai, Li-Bin Yang, Shu-Miao He, Yu-Chuan Cheng, Han Zhang, Li-Na Fu, Yan Zhang, Ze Liang
For hydrogel patches, the laboratory tests could not fully reveal the existing problems of full scale of industrial production, and there are few studies about the preparation technique for the industrial manufacturing process of hydrogel patches. So, the purpose of this work was to elucidate the effects of mainly technological operation and its parameters on the performance of hydrogel patches at the industrial-scale production. The results revealed the following: (1) the aqueous phase was obtained by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) along with tartaric acid dissolved in purified water, then feeding this into a vacuum mixer as a whole in one batch, thus extended the crosslinking reaction time of hydrogel paste (matrix) and allowed the operation of coating/cutting-off to be carried out easily, and there was no permeation of backing layer; (2) the gel strength of the hydrogel patches increased with the increase of working temperature, however, once the temperature exceeded 35 ± 2 °C, the hydrogel paste would lose water severely and the resultant physical crosslinking structure which has lower gel/cohesive strength would easily bring gelatinization/residues during application; (3) the relative humidity (RH) of the standing-workshop was dynamically controlled (namely at 35 ± 2 °C, keeping the RH at 55 ± 5% for 4 days, then 65 ± 5% for 2 days), which would make patches with satisfactory characteristics such as better flexibility, higher adhesive force, smooth flat matrix surface, and without gelatinization/residues and warped edge during the using process; (4) the aging of the packaged hydrogel patches was very sensitive to storage temperature, higher temperature, higher gel strength and lower adhesiveness...
November 16, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146026/vaccination-of-ferrets-for-rabies-and-distemper
#7
REVIEW
Laura L Wade
Companion ferrets need to be vaccinated against 2 viral diseases that cause neurologic illness: canine distemper and rabies. Although not common in ferrets, both viruses are fatal in ferrets and rabies virus is also fatal in humans. In this article, we provide a basic review of the 2 diseases, highlighting key neurologic concerns. We also review and update current vaccine concerns from a practitioner's perspective, including available vaccines, vaccine schedule recommendations, vaccine reactions, and risk assessment...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142855/single-port-thoracoscopic-treatment-of-thoracic-duct-injury-after-thyroidectomy-with-neck-dissection
#8
Serkan Teksoz, Ezel Ersen, Akif Enes Arikan, Sina Ferahman, Kamil Kaynak, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Yusuf Bukey
Chylous leakage is a complication of thyroidectomy accompanied by bilateral neck dissection with incidence of 0.5-6.2%. A 51-year-old female patient underwent total thyroidectomy, bilateral and central neck dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma. In post-operative 4(th) day, left sided chylous leakage was observed as 1,500 cc/day through neck drain. Leakage did not cease after 1-month conservative treatment so single port thoracoscopic intervention was performed. Under general anesthesia, patient was placed in left lateral decubitus position...
October 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136611/gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#9
Yuichiro Yamashiro
Intestinal regulatory T (Treg) cells are critical to maintaining immune tolerance to dietary antigens and gut microbiota. This paper reviews several papers on this topic that were recently published by Japanese researchers. Specifically, Prof. K. Honda and his group have found that commensal microbiota capable of metabolizing butyrate induces the differentiation of colonic Treg cells. In a separate work, Prof. Y. Yokoyama and his group used a novel, culture-independent analytical method (the Yakult Intestinal Flora-Scan) for detection of bacteria in the bloodstream...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127150/cutting-edge-c-maf-is-required-for-regulatory-t-cells-to-adopt-ror%C3%AE-t-and-follicular-phenotypes
#10
Joshua D Wheaton, Chen-Hao Yeh, Maria Ciofani
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) adopt specialized phenotypes defined by coexpression of lineage-defining transcription factors, such as RORγt, Bcl-6, or PPARγ, alongside Foxp3. These Treg subsets have unique tissue distributions and diverse roles in maintaining organismal homeostasis. However, despite extensive functional characterization, the factors driving Treg specialization are largely unknown. In this article, we show that c-Maf is a critical transcription factor regulating this process in mice, essential for generation of both RORγt(+) Tregs and T follicular regulatory cells, but not for adipose-resident Tregs...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127146/cutting-edge-processing-of-oxidized-peptides-in-macrophages-regulates-t-cell-activation-and-development-of-autoimmune-arthritis
#11
Min Yang, Claus Haase, Johan Viljanen, Bingze Xu, Changrong Ge, Jan Kihlberg, Rikard Holmdahl
APCs are known to produce NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2-derived reactive oxygen species; however, whether and how NOX2-mediated oxidation affects redox-sensitive immunogenic peptides remains elusive. In this study, we investigated a major immunogenic peptide in glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI), a potential autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis, which can form internal disulfide bonds. Ag presentation assays showed that presentation of this G6PI peptide was more efficient in NOX2-deficient (Ncf1(m1J/m1J) mutant) mice, compared with wild-type controls...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124979/mesoporous-carbon-nanomaterials-in-drug-delivery-and-biomedical-application
#12
Qinfu Zhao, Yuanzhe Lin, Ning Han, Xian Li, Hongjian Geng, Xiudan Wang, Yu Cui, Siling Wang
Recent development of nano-technology provides highly efficient and versatile treatment methods to achieve better therapeutic efficacy and lower side effects of malignant cancer. The exploration of drug delivery systems (DDSs) based on nano-material shows great promise in translating nano-technology to clinical use to benefit patients. As an emerging inorganic nanomaterial, mesoporous carbon nanomaterials (MCNs) possess both the mesoporous structure and the carbonaceous composition, endowing them with superior nature compared with mesoporous silica nanomaterials and other carbon-based materials, such as carbon nanotube, graphene and fullerene...
2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121194/cost-effectiveness-of-colchicine-treatment-on-post-operative-atrial-fibrillation-poaf-events-in-patients-of-major-cardiac-surgery
#13
M Barman, Mahmoud Tantawy, Mark Sopher, Carsten Lennerz
Background: Post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) occurs in 20-50% of patients amid post-operative stay after Cardiac Surgery. We intend to determine whether colchicine therapy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery is a cost-effective strategy for prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation. To undertake cost utility analysis and calculate ICUR for colchicine therapy in these subgroup of patients. Design: Decision tree model to calculate the incremental cost utility ratio comparing two treatment strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery...
November 7, 2017: European Heart Journal. Quality of Care & Clinical Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118281/a-comparison-of-efficiency-and-material-wear-of-diamond-plated-versus-ceramic-sharpening-stones
#14
Heather M Hessheimer, Jeffrey B Payne, Laura E Shaw, Erica M Spanyers, Mark W Beatty
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare sharpening efficiency and metal (carbon steel) removal from scalers using two types of synthetic sharpening stones: ceramic and diamond-plated. Previous research used scanning electron microscopy alone to measure instrument sharpness. Additionally, no research has been reported on the use of diamond-plated sharpening stones.Methods: Fifteen threaded, double-ended H6/H7 scalers were randomly divided into three groups of ten: control, ceramic stone, and diamond-plated stone...
October 2017: Journal of Dental Hygiene: JDH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117001/book-review-dupuytren-disease-and-related-diseases-the-cutting-edge
#15
Parneet Gill, Kayvan Shokrollahi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114665/small-biomolecule-sensors-based-on-an-innovative-mos2-rgo-heterostructure-modified-electrode-platform-a-binder-free-approach
#16
Mohit Saraf, Kaushik Natarajan, Anoop Kumar Saini, Shaikh M Mobin
The requirement of sensitive diagnostic chips for small biomolecules has triggered the urgent development of versatile nanomaterial based platforms. Therefore, numerous materials have been designed with fascinating properties. Herein, we report a facile one-pot synthesis of MoS2-rGO nanoflowers grown by the hydrothermal method and their applicability in the simultaneous sensing of AA, DA and UA. The structure and morphology of nanoflowers have been probed by various physico-chemical techniques such as XRD, SEM/TEM, AFM, Raman and XPS...
November 21, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111097/lipid-nanocarriers-as-skin-drug-delivery-systems-properties-mechanisms-of-skin-interactions-and-medical-applications
#17
REVIEW
M Sala, R Diab, A Elaissari, H Fessi
During the past decades, lipid nanocarriers are gaining momentum with their multiple advantages for the management of skin diseases. Lipid nanocarriers enable to target the therapeutic payload to deep skin layers or even to reach the blood circulation making them a promising cutting-edge technology. Lipid nanocarriers refer to a large panel of drug delivery systems. Lipid vesicles are the most conventional, known to be able to carry lipophilic and hydrophilic active agents. A variety of lipid vesicles with high flexibility and deformability could be obtained by adjusting their composition; namely ethosomes, transfersomes and penetration enhancer lipid vesicles which achieve the best results in term of skin permeation...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110697/exutr-a-novel-pipeline-for-large-scale-prediction-of-3-utr-sequences-from-ngs-data
#18
Zixia Huang, Emma C Teeling
BACKGROUND: The three prime untranslated region (3'-UTR) is known to play a pivotal role in modulating gene expression by determining the fate of mRNA. Many crucial developmental events, such as mammalian spermatogenesis, tissue patterning, sex determination and neurogenesis, rely heavily on post-transcriptional regulation by the 3'-UTR. However, 3'-UTR biology seems to be a relatively untapped field, with only limited tools and 3'-UTR resources available. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of the 3'-UTR on gene expression, firstly the 3'-UTR sequences must be identified...
November 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109687/low-intensity-ultrasound-induced-anti-inflammatory-effects-are-mediated-by-several-new-mechanisms-including-gene-induction-immunosuppressor-cell-promotion-and-enhancement-of-exosome-biogenesis-and-docking
#19
Qian Yang, Gayani K Nanayakkara, Charles Drummer, Yu Sun, Candice Johnson, Ramon Cueto, Hangfei Fu, Ying Shao, Luqiao Wang, William Y Yang, Peng Tang, Li-Wen Liu, Shuping Ge, Xiao-Dong Zhou, Mohsin Khan, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
Background: Low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS) was shown to be beneficial in mitigating inflammation and facilitating tissue repair in various pathologies. Determination of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of LIUS allows to optimize this technique as a therapy for the treatment of malignancies and aseptic inflammatory disorders. Methods: We conducted cutting-edge database mining approaches to determine the anti-inflammatory mechanisms exerted by LIUS. Results: Our data revealed following interesting findings: (1) LIUS anti-inflammatory effects are mediated by upregulating anti-inflammatory gene expression; (2) LIUS induces the upregulation of the markers and master regulators of immunosuppressor cells including MDSCs (myeloid-derived suppressor cells), MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells), B1-B cells and Treg (regulatory T cells); (3) LIUS not only can be used as a therapeutic approach to deliver drugs packed in various structures such as nanobeads, nanospheres, polymer microspheres, and lipidosomes, but also can make use of natural membrane vesicles as small as exosomes derived from immunosuppressor cells as a novel mechanism to fulfill its anti-inflammatory effects; (4) LIUS upregulates the expression of extracellular vesicle/exosome biogenesis mediators and docking mediators; (5) Exosome-carried anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory microRNAs inhibit inflammation of target cells via multiple shared and specific pathways, suggesting exosome-mediated anti-inflammatory effect of LIUS feasible; and (6) LIUS-mediated physical effects on tissues may activate specific cellular sensors that activate downstream transcription factors and signaling pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100944/regulatory-dendritic-cells-for-promotion-of-liver-transplant-operational-tolerance-rationale-for-a-clinical-trial-and-accompanying-mechanistic-studies
#20
REVIEW
Angus W Thomson, Abhinav Humar, Fadi G Lakkis, Diana M Metes
Dendritic cells (DC) are rare, bone marrow (BM)-derived innate immune cells that critically maintain self-tolerance in the healthy steady-state. Regulatory DC (DCreg) with capacity to suppress allograft rejection and promote transplant tolerance in pre-clinical models can readily be generated from BM precursors or circulating blood monocytes. These DCreg enhance allograft survival via various mechanisms, including promotion of regulatory T cells. In non-human primates receiving minimal immunosuppressive drug therapy (IS), infusion of DCreg of donor origin, one week before transplant, safely prolongs renal allograft survival and selectively attenuates anti-donor CD8(+) memory T cell responses in the early post-transplant period...
October 31, 2017: Human Immunology
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