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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444521/leprosy-in-children
#1
REVIEW
Josafá Gonçalves Barreto, Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade, Fred Bernardes Filho, Moises Batista da Silva, John Stewart Spencer, Claudio Guedes Salgado
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This manuscript aims to review the cutting-edge developments regarding to the diagnosis, management, and prevention of leprosy in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Leprosy transmission still occurs continuously in some endemic areas in the world. Leprosy in children below 15 years old is a robust indicator of active source of infection in the community where they live. A special focus on children to reduce disabilities and reduce transmission is one of the core areas of interventions of the global leprosy strategy 2016-2020...
June 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442721/near-field-surface-plasmons-on-quasicrystal-metasurfaces
#2
Quanlong Yang, Xueqian Zhang, Shaoxian Li, Quan Xu, Ranjan Singh, Yongmin Liu, Yanfeng Li, Sergey S Kruk, Jianqiang Gu, Jiaguang Han, Weili Zhang
Excitation and manipulation of surface plasmons (SPs) are essential in developing cutting-edge plasmonic devices for medical diagnostics, biochemical spectroscopy and communications. The most common approach involves designing an array of periodic slits or grating apertures that enables coupling of the incident light to the SP modes. In recent years, plasmonic resonances, including extraordinary optical transmission through periodic arrays, quasicrystals and random aperture arrays, have been investigated in the free space...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441495/catalytic-directional-cutting-of-hexagonal-boron-nitride-the-roles-of-interface-and-etching-agent
#3
Liang Ma, Xiao Cheng Zeng
Transition-metal (TM) nanoparticle catalyzed cutting has been proven to be an efficient approach to carve out straight channels in graphene to produce high-quality nanoribbons. However, applicability of such a catalytic approach to hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is still an open question due to binary element compositions. Here, our ab initio study indicates that long/straight channels along either zigzag or armchair direction of the BN sheet can be carved out, driven by the energetically favored TM-zigzag or TM-armchair BN interface, regardless of roughness of TM particle surface...
April 25, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439901/biomimetic-strategies-to-recapitulate-organ-specific-microenvironments-for-studying-breast-cancer-metastasis
#4
REVIEW
Akshay A Narkhede, Lalita A Shevde, Shreyas S Rao
The progression of breast cancer from the primary tumor setting to the metastatic setting is the critical event defining stage IV disease, no longer considered curable. The microenvironment at specific organ sites is known to play a key role in influencing the ultimate fate of metastatic cells; yet microenvironmental mediated-molecular mechanisms underlying organ specific metastasis in breast cancer are not well understood. This review discusses biomimetic strategies employed to recapitulate metastatic organ microenvironments, particularly, bone, liver, lung and brain to elucidate the mechanisms dictating metastatic breast cancer cell homing and colonization...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439160/ranula-decompression-using-stitch-and-stab-method-the-aluko-technique
#5
Bayo Aluko-Olokun, Ademola Abayomi Olaitan
BACKGROUND: A ranula is a cystic lesion in the floor of the mouth, formed either as a retention cyst or pseudocyst as a result of extravasation of mucus in the surrounding tissue. It may be treated by micro-marsupialization, marsupialization or excision of lesion with or without the associated salivary gland. Marsupialization is usually achieved by cutting a slit and thereafter stitching the edges such that the epithelium of the exterior becomes continuous with that of the interior of a cyst...
June 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438248/program-factor-at-10-origins-development-and-future-directions
#6
Pere J Ferrando, Urbano Lorenzo-Seva
BACKGROUND: We aim to provide a conceptual view of the origins, development and future directions of FACTOR, a popular free program for fitting the factor analysis (FA) model. METHOD: The study is organized into three parts. In the first part we discuss FACTOR in its initial period (2006-2012) as a traditional FA program with many new and cutting-edge features. The second part discusses the present period (2013-2016) in which FACTOR has developed into a comprehensive program embedded in the framework of structural equation modelling and item response theory...
May 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438010/study-on-crystallographic-orientation-effect-on-surface-generation-of-aluminum-in-nano-cutting
#7
Feifei Xu, Fengzhou Fang, Yuanqing Zhu, Xiaodong Zhang
The material characteristics such as size effect are one of the most important factors that could not be neglected in cutting the material at nanoscale. The effects of anisotropic nature of single crystal materials in nano-cutting are investigated employing the molecular dynamics simulation. Results show that the size effect of the plastic deformation is based on different plastic carriers, such as the twin, stacking faults, and dislocations. The minimum uncut chip thickness is dependent on cutting direction, where even a negative value is obtained when the cutting direction is {110}<001>...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436500/black-phosphorus-nanostructures-recent-advances-in-hybridization-doping-and-functionalization
#8
Wanying Lei, Gang Liu, Jin Zhang, Minghua Liu
Owing to its high charge-carrier mobility, tunable direct-bandgap and unique in-plane anisotropic structure, black phosphorus (BP), a rising star of post-graphene two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, has been intensively investigated since early 2014. To explore its full potential and push the limits, research into BP-based novel functional nanostructures (i.e., nanomaterials and nanodevices) by means of hybridization, doping, and functionalization is rapidly expanding. Indeed, the cutting-edge developments and applications of BP nanostructures have had a significant impact on a wide range of research areas, including field effect transistors, diodes, photodetectors, biomedicine, sodium-ion batteries, photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, memory devices, and more...
April 24, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435946/faraday-discussions-meeting-catalysis-for-fuels
#9
Nico Fischer, Simon A Kondrat, Mzamo Shozi
Welcome to Africa was the motto when after more than 100 years the flag ship conference series of the Royal Society of Chemistry, the Faraday Discussions was hosted for the first time on the African Continent. Under the fitting topic 'Catalysis for Fuels' over 120 delegates followed the invitation by the conference chair Prof. Graham Hutchings FRS (Cardiff Catalysis Institute), his organizing committee and the co-organizing DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Catalysis c*change (). In the presentations of 21 invited speakers and 59 posters, cutting edge research in the field of catalysis for fuels, designing new catalysts for synthetic fuels, hydrocarbon conversion in the production of synthetic fuels and novel photocatalysis was presented over the two-day meeting...
April 24, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434797/patterns-of-care-survey-radiotherapy-for-women-with-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer
#10
Peter de Boer, Ina M Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Henrike Westerveld, Astrid A C de Leeuw, Raquel Dávila-Fajardo, Coen R N Rasch, Bradley R Pieters, Lukas J A Stalpers
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Regarding latest developments, the need of a radiotherapy 'Patterns of Care' survey was expressed by the Dutch National Platform Radiotherapy for Gynaecological Cancer (LPRGT). Therefore, this study investigated current practice for cervical cancer in all 16 radiation oncology centres in the Netherlands specialised in gynaecological oncology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A structured 'patterns of care' questionnaire was completed and followed by an in-depth interview with radiation oncologists from all radiotherapy centres specialised in gynaecological oncology...
April 20, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434147/increasing-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Hua Li, Yangbing Zhao
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a promising cancer treatment that has recently been undergoing rapid development. However, there are still some major challenges, including precise tumor targeting to avoid off-target or "on-target/off-tumor" toxicity, adequate T cell infiltration and migration to solid tumors and T cell proliferation and persistence across the physical and biochemical barriers of solid tumors. In this review, we focus on the primary challenges and strategies to design safe and effective CAR T cells, including using novel cutting-edge technologies for CAR and vector designs to increase both the safety and efficacy, further T cell modification to overcome the tumor-associated immune suppression, and using gene editing technologies to generate universal CAR T cells...
April 22, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432571/cell-therapy-for-type-1-diabetes-current-and-future-strategies
#12
REVIEW
Yasaman Aghazadeh, Maria Cristina Nostro
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is defined by an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing β-cells located in the endocrine part of the pancreas, the islets of Langerhans. As exogenous insulin administration fails at preventing severe complications associated with this disease, cell replacement therapies are being considered as a means to treat T1D. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the challenges associated with current strategies and discuss the potential of stem cell therapy for the treatment of T1D...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432147/cutting-edge-a-dual-tlr2-and-tlr7-ligand-induces-highly-potent-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses
#13
Alice Gutjahr, Laura Papagno, Francesco Nicoli, Alain Lamoureux, Fabienne Vernejoul, Thierry Lioux, Emma Gostick, David A Price, Gérard Tiraby, Eric Perouzel, Victor Appay, Bernard Verrier, Stéphane Paul
TLR agonists are currently being developed and tested as adjuvants in various formulations to optimize the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory properties of a novel compound incorporating covalently linked moieties designed to stimulate both TLR2 and TLR7. This dual TLR2/TLR7 agonist induced the maturation of dendritic cells and primed substantial populations of cytolytic and highly polyfunctional effector CD8(+) T cells in vitro, and safely potentiated the immunogenic properties of a nanoparticulate Ag in vivo, eliciting humoral responses with a balanced TH1/TH2 profile in mice...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431482/nanozyme-applications-in-biology-and-medicine-an-overview
#14
Jafar Golchin, Kazem Golchin, Neda Alidadian, Shahrooz Ghaderi, Sajjad Eslamkhah, Masoud Eslamkhah, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh
Nanozymes, in nature, are artificial enzymes. Innovated by Ronald Breslow to mimic enzymes. Nanozymes have widespread applications including targeted cancer therapy, diagnostic medicine and bio-sensing even environmental toxicology. However, these applications are a novel research field in biomedicine, but are growing fast. Enzyme-based applications such as immune-absorbent assay (ELIZA) are expensive because of the complexity of producing enzymes and antibodies. Not only, some nanoparticles can mimic these enzymes such as superoxides, but also they can manipulate biological pathways directly like autophagy...
April 21, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428637/surgery-metabolic-surgery-the-cutting-edge-of-diabetes-care
#15
Francesco Rubino, Spyros Panagiotopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427971/extent-of-resection-in-glioma-a-review-of-the-cutting-edge
#16
REVIEW
Randy S D'Amico, Zachary K Englander, Peter Canoll, Jeffrey N Bruce
Modern glioma surgery has evolved from the principle belief that safe, maximal tumor resection improves symptom management, quality of life, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) in both low- and high-grade glioma (LGG and HGG, respectively). However, in the absence of level I data, the overwhelming support for this idea is derived largely from retrospective series. As a result, the influence of increasing extent of resection (EOR) and reducing tumor burden on the efficacy of postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and ultimately survival, remains inadequately defined...
April 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427281/the-servier-oncology-pipeline-in-2017
#17
Patrick Therasse, Beatrice Perron, Sarah A Novack, Jean-Pierre Abastado
Cancer is a complex, multifactorial disease that for years has been the focus of intensive research efforts to explore both the molecular and biological mechanisms involved and the development of novel agents to target these pathways. Servier is an independent French pharmaceutical company with a focus on oncology. Currently, Servier's commercial portfolio includes agents used to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and metastatic colorectal cancer; Servier's oncology pipeline involves agents for the treatment of both solid and hematological tumors...
April 21, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422037/ureteral-meatotomy-as-an-option-in-the-management-of-primary-obstructive-megaureter-in-neonates-and-infants
#18
Priscila Cardoso Braz, Fernanda Ghilardi Leão, Jovelino Quintino de Souza Leão, Luciano Silveira Onofre, Giselle Machado Campos de Oliveira, José Carnevale, Carlos Miguélez Lago
Differentiating between the cases of megaureter that require surgery and the ones in whom treatment can be delayed is challenging. A large number of surgical techniques for the treatment of POM been proposed aiming mainly to reduce renal damage by relieving the affected ureter. Resection of the affected ureteral segment followed by vesicoureteral reimplantation either with or without reduction ureteroplasty is the classic treatment, however posing a high rate of complications when performed in patients aged less than one year...
April 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416938/combined-systemic-and-hysteroscopic-intra-amniotic-injection-of-methotrexate-associated-with-hysteroscopic-resection-for-cervical-pregnancy-a-cutting-edge-approach-for-an-uncommon-condition
#19
Attilio Di Spiezio Sardo, Mariana da Cunha Vieira, Antonio Simone Laganà, Benito Chiofalo, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Mariamaddalena Scala, Marianna De Falco, Carmine Nappi, Ursula Catena, Giuseppe Bifulco
This case report of a 36-year-old woman with a diagnosis of cervical pregnancy describes a novel approach to this rare form of ectopic pregnancy, which was successfully treated with systemic and local methotrexate (MTX) therapy combined with hysteroscopic resection. After local and systemic administration of MTX, the patient underwent hysteroscopic resection of the cervical pregnancy using a 27 bipolar resectoscope with a 4-mm loop. The cervical pregnancy was completely treated, and satisfactory hemostasis was achieved with electrocoagulation...
February 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416719/correction-cutting-edge-integrin-%C3%AE-4-is-required-for-regulatory-b-cell-control-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#20
Simon Glatigny, Catriona A Wagner, Estelle Bettelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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