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Bone and mineral disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108441/child-with-multiple-fractures-a-rare-presentation-of-a-common-disease
#1
Filipa Dias Costa, Carla Maia, Susana Almeida, Ricardo Ferreira
Bone fractures are not uncommon in paediatric age. However, when recurrent, an underlying clinical condition must not be excluded. We describe the case of a boy aged 7 years, referred for investigation of recurrent bone fractures. Personal and family histories were unremarkable. Physical examination was normal. Almost all primary bone disorders were excluded. Additional laboratory investigations ruled out the majority of secondary causes of bone fragility. Coeliac disease (CD) serologies, however, were positive, and duodenal biopsies confirmed this diagnosis (Marsh III B)...
January 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105733/vitamin-d-supplementation-for-sickle-cell-disease
#2
REVIEW
Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Adinegara Bl Abas, Nan Nitra Than, Han Ni, Jaspal Singh, Abdul Razzak Bin Mohd Said, Ifeyinwa Osunkwo
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a genetic chronic haemolytic and pro-inflammatory disorder. The clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease result from the presence of mutations on the beta globin genes that generate an abnormal haemoglobin product (called haemoglobin S) within the red blood cell. Sickle cell disease can lead to many complications such as acute chest syndrome, stroke, acute and chronic bone complications (including painful vaso-occlusive crisis, osteomyelitis, osteonecrosis and osteoporosis)...
January 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103859/treatment-with-soluble-activin-type-iib-receptor-improves-bone-mass-and-strength-in-a-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#3
Tero Puolakkainen, Hongqian Ma, Heikki Kainulainen, Arja Pasternack, Timo Rantalainen, Olli Ritvos, Kristiina Heikinheimo, Juha J Hulmi, Riku Kiviranta
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of activin/myostatin pathway has emerged as a novel approach to increase muscle mass and bone strength. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disorder that leads to progressive muscle degeneration and also high incidence of fractures. The aim of our study was to test whether inhibition of activin receptor IIB ligands with or without exercise could improve bone strength in the mdx mouse model for DMD. METHODS: Thirty-two mdx mice were divided to running and non-running groups and to receive either PBS control or soluble activin type IIB-receptor (ActRIIB-Fc) once weekly for 7 weeks...
January 19, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099128/bone-health-assessment-of-food-allergic-children-on-restrictive-diets-a-practical-guide
#4
Artemis E Doulgeraki, Emmanouel M Manousakis, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos
BACKGROUND: Food allergy in childhood is on the rise globally and is managed with avoidance diets; recent case reports of food allergic children with nutritional rickets in the literature highlight the importance of close monitoring of bone health in this population. METHODS: There is no consensus as yet with regard to bone health evaluation in food allergic children; therefore, extensive literature search was performed and the existing evidence is presented, along with a relevant algorithm...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091752/management-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-practice-patterns-and-outcomes-of-cinacalcet-treatment-with-or-without-active-vitamin%C3%A2-d-in-austria-and-switzerland-the-observational-transit-study
#5
Wolfgang Pronai, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Andreas Bock, Renate Klauser-Braun, Christine Jäger, Gunther Pendl, Margit Hemetsberger, Karl Lhotta
Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a complex disorder requiring an individualized multicomponent treatment approach. This study was conducted to identify treatment combinations used in clinical practice in Austria and Switzerland and the potential to control this disorder. A total of 333 adult hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients were analyzed. All patients received conventional care prior to initiation of a cinacalcet-based regimen. During the study, treatment components, e.g. cinacalcet, active vitamin D analogues and phosphate binders, were adapted to individual patient requirements and treatment dynamics were documented...
January 13, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089422/low-magnitude-mechanical-signals-and-the-spine-a-review-of-current-and-future-applications
#6
REVIEW
Martin H Pham, Zorica Buser, Jeffrey C Wang, Frank L Acosta
Animal and human studies demonstrate the anabolic properties of low-magnitude mechanical stimulation (LMMS) in its ability to improve bone formation by enhancing the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells and their subsequent commitment down an osteoblastic lineage. Response to mechanical strains as low as 10μɛ have been seen, illustrating the sensitivity of mechanosensory cells to mechanotransduction pathways. Applications to the spine include treatment of osteoporosis in preparation for instrumented fusion, fracture reduction in spinal cord injury patients to slow bone mineral density loss, and bone tissue engineering and enhancement of bone-implant osseointegration for pseudarthrosis and hardware failure...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089368/the-transition-from-pediatric-to-adult-care-for-youth-with-epilepsy-basic-biological-sociological-and-psychological-issues
#7
REVIEW
Peter Camfield, Carol Camfield, Kanetee Busiah, David Cohen, Alison Pack, Rima Nabbout
Transition from pediatric to adult health care for adolescents with epilepsy is challenging for the patient, family, and health care workers. This paper is the first of three that summarize the main findings from the 2nd Symposium on Transition in Epilepsies, held in Paris from June 14-25, 2016. In this paper we describe five basic themes that have an important effect on transition. First, there are important brain changes in adolescence that leave an imbalance between risk taking and pleasure seeking behaviors and frontal executive function compared with adults...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088646/bone-microarchitecture-in-adolescent-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Ann M Neumeyer, Natalia Cano Sokoloff, Erin McDonnell, Eric A Macklin, Christopher J McDougle, Madhusmita Misra
BACKGROUND: Boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD) than typically developing controls (TDC). Studies of volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone microarchitecture provide information about fracture risk beyond that provided by aBMD but are currently lacking in ASD. OBJECTIVES: To assess ultradistal radius and distal tibia vBMD, bone microarchitecture and strength estimates in adolescent boys with ASD compared to TDC. DESIGN/METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 34 boys (16 ASD, 18 TDC) that assessed (i) aBMD at the whole body (WB), WB less head (WBLH), hip and spine using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), (ii) vBMD and bone microarchitecture at the ultradistal radius and distal tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HRpQCT), and (iii) bone strength estimates (stiffness and failure load) using micro-finite element analysis (FEA)...
January 11, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087266/assessment-of-sex-differences-in-body-composition-among-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa
#9
Jason M Nagata, Neville H Golden, Rebecka Peebles, Jin Long, Stuart B Murray, Mary B Leonard, Jennifer L Carlson
PURPOSE: To compare deficits in fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LM) among male and female adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) and to identify other covariates associated with body composition. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records of all subjects aged 9-20 years with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition diagnosis of AN and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans after initial evaluation at Stanford between March 1997 and February 2011...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077779/embryonic-exposure-to-tcdd-impacts-osteogenesis-of-the-axial-skeleton-in-japanese-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#10
AtLee T D Watson, Antonio Planchart, Carolyn J Mattingly, Christoph Winkler, David M Reif, Seth W Kullman
Recent studies from mammalian, fish, and in vitro models have identified bone and cartilage development as sensitive targets for dioxins and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. In this study, we assess how embryonic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorochlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure impacts axial osteogenesis in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), a vertebrate model of human bone development. Embryos from inbred wild-type Orange-red Hd-dR and 3 transgenic medaka lines (twist:EGFP, osx/sp7:mCherry, col10a1:nlGFP) were exposed to 0...
November 15, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072448/identification-of-altered-brain-metabolites-associated-with-tnap-activity-in-a-mouse-model-of-hypophosphatasia-using-untargeted-nmr-based-metabolomics-analysis
#11
Thomas Cruz, Marie Gleizes, Stéphane Balayssac, Etienne Mornet, Grégory Marsal, José Luis Millán, Myriam Malet-Martino, Lionel G Nowak, Véronique Gilard, Caroline Fonta
Tissue Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase (TNAP) is a key player of bone mineralization and TNAP gene (ALPL) mutations in human are responsible for hypophosphatasia (HPP), a rare heritable disease affecting the mineralization of bones and teeth. Moreover, TNAP is also expressed by brain cells and the severe forms of HPP are associated with neurological disorders, including epilepsy and brain morphological anomalies. However TNAP's role in the nervous system remains poorly understood. In order to investigate its neuronal functions, we aimed to identify without any a priori the metabolites regulated by TNAP in the nervous tissue...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062938/mineral-metabolism-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-ckd
#12
REVIEW
Hideki Fujii, Nobuhiko Joki
The mineral bone disorder of CKD, called Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD), has a major role in the etiology and progression of cardiovascular disease in CKD patients. Since the main emphasis in CKD-MBD is on three categories (bone abnormalities, laboratory abnormalities, and vascular calcifications), we have routinely accepted ectopic cardiovascular calcifications as a central risk factor in the pathophysiology of CKD-MBD for cardiac events. However, recent compelling evidence suggests that some CKD-MBD-specific factors other than vascular calcification might contribute to the onset of cardiovascular disease...
January 6, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052525/daily-variability-in-serum-levels-of-calciprotein-particles-and-their-association-with-mineral-metabolism-parameters-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study
#13
Hodaka Yamada, Makoto Kuro-O, San-E Ishikawa, Shunsuke Funazaki, Ikuyo Kusaka, Masafumi Kakei, Kazuo Hara
BACKGROUND: Calciprotein particles (CPPs), colloidal protein-mineral nanoparticles composed of solid-phase calcium phosphate and serum protein fetuin-A found in blood, are emerging as a novel component of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). In this study, we examined daily variations in CPPs as well as their association with mineral metabolism parameters in normal individuals and early-stage CKD patients. METHODS: Twenty subjects (10 healthy adults, 10 diabetic patients) were enrolled...
January 4, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049234/chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-bone-disorder-in-korean-patients-a-report-from-the-korean-cohort-study-for-outcomes-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-know-ckd
#14
Chang Seong Kim, Eun Hui Bae, Seong Kwon Ma, Seung Hyeok Han, Kyu Beck Lee, Joongyub Lee, Kook Hwan Oh, Dong Wan Chae, Soo Wan Kim
This study examined the characteristics of biochemical parameters, bone diseases, and vascular calcification in Korean patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not yet on dialysis. Serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D); lumbar spine, total hip, and femur neck bone mineral densities; and brachial-to-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) representing vascular calcification were measured at baseline for 2,238 CKD patients in the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With CKD (KNOW-CKD)...
February 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045985/association-of-ckd-mbd-markers-with-all-cause-mortality-in-prevalent-hemodialysis-patients-a-cohort-study-in-beijing
#15
Duo Li, Ling Zhang, Li Zuo, Cheng Gang Jin, Wen Ge Li, Jin-Bor Chen
The relationships between all-cause mortality and serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium, and phosphate are fairly diverse in patients on maintenance hemodialysis according to prior studies. This study evaluated the association of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) markers with all-cause mortality in prevalent hemodialysis patients from 2007 to 2012 in Beijing, China. A cohort, involving 8530 prevalent hemodialysis patients who had undergone a 6-70 months follow-up program (with median as 40 months) was formed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039519/adipokines-a-possible-contribution-to-vascular-and-bone-remodeling-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#16
Evgenia A Kochetkova, Ludmila G Ugai, Yuliya V Maistrovskaia, Vera A Nevzorova
Osteoporosis is a major comorbidity of cardio-respiratory diseases, but the mechanistic links between pulmonary arterial hypertension and bone remain elusive. The purpose of the stud was to evaluate serum adipokines and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in the patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) NYHA class III-IV and to determine its associations with bone mineral density (BMD). Pulmonary and hemodynamic parameters, BMD Z-scores at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), serum leptin, adiponectin, visfatin and endothelin-1 (ET-1), were evaluated in 32 patients with IPAH NYHA class III-IV and 30 healthy volunteers...
December 30, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039046/bone-quality-assessment-as-measured-by-trabecular-bone-score-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-on-dialysis
#17
Maria P Yavropoulou, Vasilios Vaios, Maria Pikilidou, Ioannis Chryssogonidis, Melina Sachinidou, Symeon Tournis, Konstantinos Makris, Kalliopi Kotsa, Michalis Daniilidis, Afroditi Haritanti, Vassilios Liakopoulos
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) exhibit osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan measurements and calculation of fracture risk assessment toll score underestimate fracture risk in these patients and do not estimate bone quality. Trabecular bone score (TBS) has been recently proposed as an indirect measure of bone microarchitecture. In this study, we investigated alterations of bone quality in patients with ESRD on HD, using TBS...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035992/osteogenic-differentiation-in-healthy-and-pathological-conditions
#18
REVIEW
Maria Teresa Valenti, Luca Dalle Carbonare, Monica Mottes
This review focuses on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), bone formation and turn-over in good and ill skeletal fates. The interacting molecular pathways which control bone remodeling in physiological conditions during a lifelong process are described. Then, alterations of the molecular pathways regulating osteogenesis are addressed. In the aging process, as well as in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, bone loss is caused not only by an unbalanced bone resorption activity, but also by an impairment of MSCs' commitment towards the osteogenic lineage, in favour of adipogenesis...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034591/women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-have-comparable-hip-bone-geometry-to-age-matched-control-women
#19
Laura E McBreairty, Gordon A Zello, Julianne J Gordon, Shani B Serrao, Roger A Pierson, Donna R Chizen, Philip D Chilibeck
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age manifesting with polycystic ovaries, menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, and insulin resistance. The oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea characteristic to PCOS are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD); conversely, the hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia may elicit a protective effect on BMD. As bone geometric properties provide additional information about bone strength, the objective of this study was to compare measures of hip geometry in women with PCOS to a healthy female population...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033511/vitamin-d-and-alcohol-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#20
REVIEW
Vitor Soares Tardelli, Mariana Pimentel Pádua do Lago, Dartiu Xavier da Silveira, Thiago Marques Fidalgo
Vitamin D is associated with bone mineral density, and its deficiency is a global health problem. In psychiatry, low vitamin D levels have been associated with schizophrenia, depression, psychotic symptoms, and, more recently, alcohol use disorders. Alcohol use disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders worldwide. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the association between alcohol use and vitamin D serum levels. The PubMed, SCIELO, and Lilacs databases were searched for this systematic review. We assessed all articles published from 1976 to December 2015, and we examined the associated reference lists to retrieve articles that appeared to fulfill our criteria...
February 2017: Psychiatry Research
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