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Bone and mineral disorders

Kelsey Connelly, David Collister, Navdeep Tangri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the development of mineral bone disorder (MBD), osteoporosis, and fragility fractures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent findings in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with CKD. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple observational studies have shown that bone mineral density measurement using DEXA is equally predictive in CKD stages 1-3, as in the general population...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Hai-Tao Hou, Ya-Nan Wang, Shi-Ze Shao, Song Fu, Xiang-Peng Huang, Xiao-Hui Wang
Dietary calcium (Ca) supplementation has beneficial effects on bone health. However, it is not clear whether a high calcium diet (HCD) following 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) is beneficial to bone health. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an HCD on bone metabolism using a chronic kidney disease (CKD) mouse model. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: Sham group, 5/6 Nx group and 5/6 Nx + HCD group. Mice were sacrificed 12 weeks post-surgery. Calcium (Ca) and creatinine (Cr) were measured using standard colorimetric methods and picric acid methods, respectively...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Li-Hua Ni, Ri-Ning Tang, Lin-Li Lv, Min Wu, Bin Wang, Feng Mei Wang, Hai-Feng Ni, Kai-Yun Song, Li-Ting Wang, Meng-Zuo, Qiang Chen, Bi-Cheng Liu
The study of parathyroid hyperplasia with bone disease as a critical manifestation of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBDs) is challenging due to the lack of a suitable research model. Here, we established a rat model with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and bone disease induced by adenine and a high phosphorous diet and analyzed the skeletal characteristics. We performed blood analysis, emission computed tomography (ECT), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), bone histomorphometry, and bone mechanical tests...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Pablo Antonio Ureña-Torres, Mario Cozzolino, Jordi Bover
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is one of the most frequent and deleterious complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). SHPT is also one of the principal components of the now called CKD-mineral and bone disorders (MBD) syndrome. It is usually prevented and treated by vitamin D derivatives. However, the rationale for the prescription of vitamin D sterols in those patients is still a matter of hotly debates, mainly because of unsatisfactory results from numerous observational and not well-controlled studies...
March 12, 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Nicole Schulz, Arne Güssow, Natali Bauer, Andreas Moritz
Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation after potassium. It plays a vital role in almost every metabolic process in the body and is important for bone mineralization, muscle contraction and relaxation, and neuronal signal transduction. Because of its expanding role in intensivecare medicine, there has been a significant increase in knowledge during recent years regarding the functions of magnesium in the body, problems leading to magnesium disorders, and limitations of laboratory testing...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Tao Ye, Dongliang Sun, Tong Mu, Yi Chu, Hui Miao, Mian Zhang, Hongxu Yang, Qian Liu, Lei Lu, Xianghui Xing, Shibin Yu
The striking predilection of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in women, especially during gonad-intact puberty or reproductive years, indicates that oestrogen plays an important role in the progression of TMD, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) was used to create temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA) models in rats, while 17β-estradiol (E2 ) injections were applied to mimic patients with high-physiological levels of oestrogen. Micro-CT scanning, histological staining and real-time PCR assays were preformed to observe the degenerative changes in the mandibular condylar cartilage and subchondral bone...
March 9, 2018: Bone
Wei Ling Lau, Yoshitsugu Obi, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops in CKD due to a combination of vitamin D deficiency, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia, and it exists in nearly all patients at the time of dialysis initiation. There is insufficient data on whether to prefer vitamin D analogs compared with calcimimetics, but the available evidence suggests advantages with combination therapy. Calcium derangements, patient adherence, side effects, and cost limit the use of these agents. When parathyroid hormone level persists >800 pg/ml for >6 months, despite exhaustive medical interventions, monoclonal proliferation with nodular hyperplasia is likely present along with decreased expression of vitamin D and calcium-sensing receptors...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Y Song, D Zhao, X Xu, F Lv, L Li, Y Jiang, O Wang, W Xia, X Xing, M Li
We identified novel compound heterozygous mutations in SERPINH1 in a Chinese boy suffering from recurrent fractures, femoral deformities, and growth retardation, which resulted in extremely rare autosomal recessive OI type X. Long-term treatment of BPs was effective in increasing BMD Z-score, reducing fracture incidence and reshaping vertebrae compression. INTRODUCTION: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable bone disorder characterized by low bone mineral density, recurrent fractures, and progressive bone deformities...
March 9, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Antonio Bellasi, Luigi Morrone, Maria Cristina Mereu, Carlo Massimetti, Elena Pelizzaro, Giuseppe Cianciolo, Marzia Pasquali, Vincenzo Panuccio
We herein report on a nationwide survey conducted in Italy to investigate the use of parathyroidectomy (PTX). In spite of the availability of newer and more effective drugs to control chronic kidney disease mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) biochemical abnormalities, PTX still remains a resource for nephrologists to use. However, observational analyses suggest that in recent years there has been a constant decline in the number of patients undergoing PTX. The reasons are not clear, though the increasing age and number of comorbidities of dialysis patients may partly explain this trend...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
Leila R Zelnick, Ian H de Boer, Bryan R Kestenbaum, Michel Chonchol, Jessica Kendrick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Primploy Greeviroj, Thidarat Kitrungphaiboon, Pisut Katavetin, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa, Somchai Eiam-Ong, Bertrand L Jaber, Paweena Susantitaphong
BACKGROUND: Cinacalcet could decrease serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in previous meta-analyses. However, the effect of cinacalcet on the new biomarkers such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), bone markers, and vascular calcification are still unestablished. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effects of cinacalcet on all laboratory and clinical spectrums of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD). METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Clinical Trials...
March 7, 2018: Nephron
Kristen L Nowak, Michel Chonchol
Chronic, low-grade inflammation is a common comorbid condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and particularly in chronic dialysis patients. In this review, we consider the question of whether inflammation affects outcomes in dialysis patients. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as C-reactive protein, are elevated in chronic dialysis patients. Multiple factors likely contribute to chronic inflammatory activation in kidney disease patients including the uremic milieu, lifestyle and epigenetic influences, infectious and thrombotic events, the dialysis process, and dysbiosis...
March 7, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Tomoki Nakashima
Recent studies of mouse genetics and human gene mutations has greatly contributed to clarifying the molecular mechanism of bone metabolism. Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication among bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes and endothelial cells...
2018: Clinical Calcium
Aynur Amanzholkyzy, Rose E Nurgalieva, Arystan Zh Dosimov, Edgaras Stankevicius, Ayman T Kaldybaeva
BACKGROUND (OBJECTIVES): The objective of the article is studying the connection of VDR gene polymorphisms with bone tissue mineral density and biochemical marker of 25-PO vitamin D in adolescents of both ethnic groups, living in Western Kazakhstan Region. METHODS: The study included 110 relatively healthy children aged 13-18 years of Aktobe, the representatives of Kazakh ethnic group e 66 (Kazakh children) and Slavonic e 44 (Russian children). The groups were formed according to BTMD data, ethnic affiliation and according to content of vitamin D and gene polymorphism of vitamin D (VDR)...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Radosław Słopień, Piotr Rynio, Elżbieta Kubala, Ewa Milewska, Blazej Meczekalski
Osteoporosis is a chronic, systemic skeletal disorder characterised by decreased bone density. It leads to an increased risk of bone fractures - one of the major causes of disability in modern societies. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly used medications in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Denosumab, a new approach to fracture prevention, is a fully human monoclonal antibody that targets nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), an important cytokine regulating formation and function of osteoclasts...
September 2017: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
Peter J Simm, Andrew Biggin, Margaret R Zacharin, Christine P Rodda, Elaine Tham, Aris Siafarikas, Craig Jefferies, Paul L Hofman, Diane E Jensen, Helen Woodhead, Justin Brown, Benjamin J Wheeler, Denise Brookes, Antony Lafferty, Craig F Munns
Bisphosphonate therapy is the mainstay of pharmacological intervention in young people with skeletal fragility. The evidence of its use in a variety of conditions remains limited despite over three decades of clinical experience. On behalf of the Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, this evidence-based consensus guideline presents recommendations and discusses the graded evidence (using the GRADE system) for these recommendations. Primary bone fragility disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta are considered separately from osteoporosis secondary to other clinical conditions (such as cerebral palsy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy)...
March 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Etienne Cavalier, Margot Salsé, Anne-Marie Dupuy, Anne-Sophie Bargnoux, Florence Watar, Jean-Claude Souberbielle, Pierre Delanaye, Jean-Paul Cristol
BACKGROUND: 3rd generation PTH assays only detect the bioactive 1-84 fragment. Since standardization is still lacking, each new PTH assay requires to establish reference values and to assess the impact in the medical care of the mineral and bone disorders in hemodialyzed patients. METHODS: Using Fujirebio Lumipulse G wPTH assay, serum PTH levels were measured in a population of 439 healthy subjects from France and Belgium PTH levels were also determined in 119 hemodialyzed patients...
February 28, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Ana Paula Vanz, Juliana van de Sande Lee, Bruna Pinheiro, Marina Zambrano, Evelise Brizola, Neusa Sicca da Rocha, Ida Vanessa D Schwartz, Maria Marlene de Souza Pires, Têmis Maria Félix
BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a disorder of bone formation leading to low mineral density and fractures. Children and adolescents with OI require periodic medical follow up, corrective surgery, drug therapy and physical therapy, as well as specific daily care practices. In addition, they have an increased incidence of fractures, which require immobilization and cause severe discomfort and short-term disability. This study evaluated the health-related quality of life of children and adolescents with OI in two reference centers for OI treatment in southern Brazil...
March 2, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
John M McCarthy, Bonnie M McCann-Crosby, Megan E Rech, Jiani Yin, Chun-An Chen, May A Ali, HaiThuy N Nguyen, Jennifer L Miller, Christian P Schaaf
BACKGROUND: Nonsense and frameshift mutations in the maternally imprinted, paternally expressed gene MAGEL2, located in the Prader-Willi critical region 15q11-15q13, have been reported to cause Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS), a genetic disorder that manifests as developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia, feeding difficulties and autism spectrum disorder. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder characterised by severe infantile hypotonia, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, early childhood onset obesity/hyperphagia, developmental delay/intellectual disability and short stature...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Kumpal Madrasi, Fang Li, Myong-Jin Kim, Snehal Samant, Stephen Voss, Theresa Kehoe, E Dennis Bashaw, Hae Young Ahn, Yaning Wang, Jeffy Florian, Stephan Schmidt, Lawrence J Lesko, Li Li
Osteoporosis is a disorder of the bones in which they are weakened to the extent that they become more prone to fracture. There are various forms of osteoporosis: some of them are induced by drugs, and others occur as a chronic progressive disorder as an individual gets older. As the median age of the population rises across the world, the chronic form of the bone disease is drawing attention as an important worldwide health issue. Developing new treatments for osteoporosis and comparing them with existing treatments are complicated processes due to current acceptance by regulatory authorities of bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk as clinical end points, which require clinical trials to be large, prolonged, and expensive to determine clinically significant impacts in BMD and fracture risk...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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