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Eftychios Hadjittofis, Mark Antonin Isbell, Vikram Karde, Sophia Varghese, Chinmay Ghoroi, Jerry Y Y Heng
Crystalline materials are of crucial importance to the pharmaceutical industry, as a large number of APIs are formulated in crystalline form, occasionally in the presence of crystalline excipients. Owing to their multifaceted character, crystals were found to have strongly anisotropic properties. In fact, anisotropic properties were found to be quite important for a number of processes including milling, granulation and tableting. An understanding of crystal anisotropy and an ability to control and predict crystal anisotropy are mostly subjects of interest for researchers...
March 19, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Rekha Seshadri, Sinead C Leahy, Graeme T Attwood, Koon Hoong Teh, Suzanne C Lambie, Adrian L Cookson, Emiley A Eloe-Fadrosh, Georgios A Pavlopoulos, Michalis Hadjithomas, Neha J Varghese, David Paez-Espino, Rechelle Perry, Gemma Henderson, Christopher J Creevey, Nicolas Terrapon, Pascal Lapebie, Elodie Drula, Vincent Lombard, Edward Rubin, Nikos C Kyrpides, Bernard Henrissat, Tanja Woyke, Natalia N Ivanova, William J Kelly
Productivity of ruminant livestock depends on the rumen microbiota, which ferment indigestible plant polysaccharides into nutrients used for growth. Understanding the functions carried out by the rumen microbiota is important for reducing greenhouse gas production by ruminants and for developing biofuels from lignocellulose. We present 410 cultured bacteria and archaea, together with their reference genomes, representing every cultivated rumen-associated archaeal and bacterial family. We evaluate polysaccharide degradation, short-chain fatty acid production and methanogenesis pathways, and assign specific taxa to functions...
March 19, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
Hak-Jae Kim, Chun-Geon Park, Rakesh Varghese, Ji Yeon Lee, YoungOck Kim, Gi-Ho Sung
The leaf of Aurea helianthus ( A. helianthus Jinhuakui) is popularly used in China traditional medicine, however, scientific evidence on its antioxidant properties rarely studied. In this study, biological activities of A. helianthus leave's 80% ethanol extract (AHL) were investigated. The measured total polyphenol and flavonoid content of AHL was 184.24 ± 5.01 mg GAE/g and 102.53 ± 0.98 mg NAR/g. AHL showed the highest α, α -diphenyl- β -picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities of 98...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Prabha S Chandra, Soumya Parameshwaran, Veena A Satyanarayana, Meiya Varghese, Lauren Liberti, Mona Duggal, Pushpendra Singh, Sangchoon Jeon, Nancy R Reynolds
This qualitative study assessed psychosocial concerns that rural women with HIV who had multiple psychosocial vulnerabilities were able to express and communicate during a mobile phone intervention delivered by nurses. The study is part of a pilot randomised controlled trial of an mHealth self-care intervention by nurses for women living with HIV in rural India. For the trial, 60 women were randomised to receive the mHealth intervention. All calls were recorded and call logs were maintained. Call logs of 59 women based on 1186 calls were scanned for psychosocial themes...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Cristina Di Poto, Shisi He, Rency S Varghese, Yi Zhao, Alessia Ferrarini, Shan Su, Abdullah Karabala, Mesfin Redi, Hassen Mamo, Amol S Rangnekar, Thomas M Fishbein, Alexander H Kroemer, Mahlet G Tadesse, Rabindra Roy, Zaki A Sherif, Deepak Kumar, Habtom W Ressom
Disparities in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence and survival have been observed between ethnic groups including African-Americans (AA) and European-Americans (EA). The evaluation of the changes in the levels of metabolites in samples stratified by race could provide a snapshot of ethnically diverse disease related pathways and identify reliable biomarkers. In this study, we considered AA and EA to investigate metabolites that may be associated with HCC in a race-specific manner. The levels of 46 metabolites in plasma samples, collected from patients recruited at MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, were analyzed by Agilent GC-qMS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode...
2018: PloS One
Mathew Varghese, Ajit Bhalchandra Dahale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Lei Zhao, Z Varghese, J F Moorhead, Yaxi Chen, Xiong Z Ruan
Background: CD36 is a multi-functional class B scavenger receptor, which acts as an important modulator of lipid homeostasis and immune responses. Sources of data: This review uses academic articles. Areas of agreement: CD36 is closely related to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Areas of controversy: Both persistent up-regulation of CD36 and deficiency of CD36 increase the risk for atherosclerosis...
March 9, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Shiva Shanker Reddy Mukku, P T Sivakumar, Mathew Varghese
Clozapine is the first second generation antipsychotic with different receptor profile of action. Clozapine is the most efficacious drug for the treatment of psychotic disorder and is the drug of choice in treatment resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine is used in elderly patients infrequently owing to its adverse effects profile and tolerability. There is paucity of literature with respect to clozapine use in late life. In this narrative review, we discuss clozapine use in elderly and challenges associated with its use...
March 3, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Luke N Allen, Jessica Pullar, Kremlin Khamarj Wickramasinghe, Julianne Williams, Nia Roberts, Bente Mikkelsen, Cherian Varghese, Nick Townsend
Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with low-income and middle-income countries experiencing a disproportionately high burden. Since 2010 WHO has promoted 24 highly cost-effective interventions for NCDs, dubbed 'best buys'. It is unclear whether these interventions have been evaluated in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs). Aim: To systematically review research on interventions aligned to WHO 'best buys' for NCDs in LLMICs...
2018: BMJ Global Health
William H Palmer, Finny S Varghese, Ronald P van Rij
The power and ease of Drosophila genetics and the medical relevance of mosquito-transmitted viruses have made dipterans important model organisms in antiviral immunology. Studies of virus-host interactions at the molecular and population levels have illuminated determinants of resistance to virus infection. Here, we review the sources and nature of variation in antiviral immunity and virus susceptibility in model dipteran insects, specifically the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and vector mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex ...
March 9, 2018: Viruses
Kathleen M Scott, John Williams, Cody M B Porter, Sydney Russel, Tara L Harmer, John H Paul, Kirsten M Antonen, Megan K Bridges, Gary J Camper, Christie K Campla, Leila G Casella, Eva Chase, James W Conrad, Mercedez C Cruz, Darren S Dunlap, Laura Duran, Elizabeth M Fahsbender, Dawn B Goldsmith, Ryan F Keeley, Matthew R Kondoff, Breanna I Kussy, Marannda K Lane, Stephanie Lawler, Brittany A Leigh, Courtney Lewis, Lygia M Lostal, Devon Marking, Paola A Mancera, Evan C McClenthan, Emily A McIntyre, Jessica A Mine, Swapnil Modi, Brittney D Moore, William A Morgan, Kaleigh M Nelson, Kimmy N Nguyen, Nicholas Ogburn, David G Parrino, Anangamanjari D Pedapudi, Rebecca P Pelham, Amanda M Preece, Elizabeth A Rampersad, Jason C Richardson, Christina M Rodgers, Brent L Schaffer, Nancy E Sheridan, Michael R Solone, Zachery R Staley, Maki Tabuchi, Ramond J Waide, Pauline W Wanjugi, Suzanne Young, Alicia Clum, Chris Daum, Marcel Huntemann, Natalia Ivanova, Nikos Kyrpides, Natalia Mikhailova, Krishnaveni Palaniappan, Manoj Pillay, T B K Reddy, Nicole Shapiro, Dimitrios Stamatis, Neha Varghese, Tanja Woyke, Rich Boden, Sharyn K Freyermuth, Cheryl A Kerfeld
Chemolithoautotrophic bacteria from the genera Hydrogenovibrio, Thiomicrorhabdus, and Thiomicrospira are common, sometimes dominant, isolates from sulfidic habitats including hydrothermal vents, soda and salt lakes, and marine sediments. Their genome sequences confirm their membership in a deeply branching clade of the Gammaproteobacteria. Several adaptations to heterogeneous habitats are apparent. Their genomes include large numbers of genes for sensing and responding to their environment (EAL- and GGDEF-domain proteins, and methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins) despite their small sizes (2...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Polyxeni Bozatzi, Kevin S Dingwell, Kevin Zl Wu, Fay Cooper, Timothy D Cummins, Luke D Hutchinson, Janis Vogt, Nicola T Wood, Thomas J Macartney, Joby Varghese, Robert Gourlay, David G Campbell, James C Smith, Gopal P Sapkota
The BMP and Wnt signalling pathways determine axis specification during embryonic development. Our previous work has shown that PAWS1 (also known as FAM83G) interacts with SMAD1 and modulates BMP signalling. Here, surprisingly, we show that overexpression of PAWS1 in Xenopus embryos activates Wnt signalling and causes complete axis duplication. Consistent with these observations in Xenopus , Wnt signalling is diminished in U2OS osteosarcoma cells lacking PAWS1, while BMP signalling is unaffected. We show that PAWS1 interacts and co-localises with the α isoform of casein kinase 1 (CK1), and that PAWS1 mutations incapable of binding CK1 fail both to activate Wnt signalling and to elicit axis duplication in Xenopus embryos...
March 7, 2018: EMBO Reports
Jobin Varghese, Tuomo Siponkoski, Maciej Sobocinski, Timo Vahera, Heli Jantunen
This paper reports the first ultralow sintering temperature (450 oC) co-fired multifunctional ceramic substrate based on a commercial lead zirconium titanate (PZ29)-glass composite and fabricated by tape casting, isostatic lamination, and sintering. This substrate was prepared from a novel tape casting slurry composition suitable for co-firing at this low temperature with commercial Ag electrodes at 450 oC. The green cast tape and sintered substrate showed a surface roughness of 146 nm and 355 nm, respectively, suitable for device level fabrication by post-processing...
March 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
M Brønstad, M Varghese, E W Nielsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Heemin Kang, Yu-Ru V Shih, Shyni Varghese
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which exhibit unlimited self-renewal ability and can differentiate into all cell types in the human body, are a promising cell source for cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine. Small molecules hold great potential in the derivation of tissue-specific cells from hPSCs owing to their cost-effectiveness and scalability. Here, we describe a protocol for deriving osteoblasts from hPSCs by using a single, natural small molecule: adenosine. This simple and effective experimental protocol allows one to obtain large numbers of osteoblasts or osteoprogenitor cells, with the ability to form functional bone tissues, from hPSCs, including human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells...
February 28, 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Alana Hansen, Dino Pisaniello, Blesson Varghese, Shelley Rowett, Scott Hanson-Easey, Peng Bi, Monika Nitschke
Heat exposure can be a health hazard for many Australian workers in both outdoor and indoor situations. With many heat-related incidents left unreported, it is often difficult to determine the underlying causal factors. This study aims to provide insights into perceptions of potentially unsafe or uncomfortably hot working conditions that can affect occupational health and safety using information provided by the public and workers to the safety regulator in South Australia (SafeWork SA). Details of complaints regarding heat exposure to the regulator's "Help Centre" were assembled in a dataset and the textual data analysed thematically...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Maeve A Lowery, Winston Wong, Emmet J Jordan, Jonathan W Lee, Yelena Kemel, Joseph Vijai, Diana Mandelker, Ahmet Zehir, Marinela Capanu, Erin Salo-Mullen, Angela G Arnold, Kenneth H Yu, Anna M Varghese, David P Kelsen, Robin Brenner, Erica Kaufmann, Vignesh Ravichandran, Semanti Mukherjee, Michael F Berger, David M Hyman, David S Klimstra, Ghassan K Abou-Alfa, Catherine Tjan, Christina Covington, Hannah Maynard, Peter J Allen, Gokce Askan, Steven D Leach, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Mark E Robson, Kenneth Offit, Zsofia K Stadler, Eileen M O'Reilly
Background: Identification of pathogenic germline alterations (PGAs) has important clinical and therapeutic implications in pancreas cancer. We performed comprehensive germline testing (GT) in an unselected prospective cohort of patients with exocrine pancreatic neoplasms with genotype and phenotype association to facilitate identification of prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers and examine potential therapeutic implications. Methods: Six hundred fifteen unselected patients with exocrine pancreatic neoplasms were prospectively consented for somatic tumor and matched sample profiling for 410-468 genes...
February 28, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Mariam Abotaleb, Peter Kubatka, Martin Caprnda, Elizabeth Varghese, Barbora Zolakova, Pavol Zubor, Radka Opatrilova, Peter Kruzliak, Patrik Stefanicka, Dietrich Büsselberg
Breast cancer is the second greatest cause of death among women worldwide; it comprises a group of heterogeneous diseases that evolves due to uncontrolled cellular growth and differentiation and the loss of normal programmed cell death. There are different molecular sub-types of breast cancer; therefore, various options are selected for treatment of different forms of metastatic breast cancer. However, the use of chemotherapeutic drugs is usually accompanied by deleterious side effects and the development of drug resistance when applied for a longer period...
March 1, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Chirom Aarti, Ameer Khusro, Rakesh Varghese, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Paul Agastian, Naïf Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Soundharrajan Ilavenil, Ki Choon Choi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the probiotic characteristics, anti-Candida activity, and antibiofilm attributes of Hentak derived Lactobacillus pentosus strain LAP1. DESIGN: The probiotic properties of strain LAP1 was depicted by adapting standard protocols. The anti-Candida and antibiofilm properties of isolate were determined using agar well diffusion assay and ELISA reader test, respectively. The time-kill assay was performed using viable colony count assay. Further, the co-aggregation property of strain LAP1 was determined based on standard methodology...
February 23, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Saripalli V Raghava, Bhartendu K Srivastava, Kalluruttimmal Ramshad, Sudhadevi Antharjanam, Babu Varghese, Kannoth M Muraleedharan
While supramolecular organisation is central to both crystallization and gelation, the latter is more complex considering its dynamic nature and multifactorial dependence. This makes the rational design of gelators an extremely difficult task. In this report, the assembly preference of a group of peptide-based sulfamides was modulated by making them part of an acid-amine two-component system to drive the tendency from crystallization to gelation. Here, the peptide core directed the assembly while the long-chain amines, introduced through salt-bridges, promoted layering and anisotropic development of primary aggregates...
March 2, 2018: Soft Matter
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