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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912582/evolution-of-gag-and-gp41-in-patients-receiving-ritonavir-boosted-protease-inhibitors
#1
Justen Manasa, Vici Varghese, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Soo-Yon Rhee, Philip L Tzou, W Jeffrey Fessel, Karen S Jang, Elizabeth White, Thorsteinn Rögnvaldsson, David A Katzenstein, Robert W Shafer
Several groups have proposed that genotypic determinants in gag and the gp41 cytoplasmic domain (gp41-CD) reduce protease inhibitor (PI) susceptibility without PI-resistance mutations in protease. However, no gag and gp41-CD mutations definitively responsible for reduced PI susceptibility have been identified in individuals with virological failure (VF) while receiving a boosted PI (PI/r)-containing regimen. To identify gag and gp41 mutations under selective PI pressure, we sequenced gag and/or gp41 in 61 individuals with VF on a PI/r (n = 40) or NNRTI (n = 20) containing regimen...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911991/a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-outcomes-of-cataract-surgery-in-nanophthalmos-with-and-without-prophylactic-sclerostomy
#2
Sharmila Rajendrababu, Naresh Babu, Sapna Sinha, Vijayakumar Balakrishnan, Ashok Vardhan, George Varghese Puthuran, Pradeep Y Ramulu
PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate visual outcomes and complications during and after cataract surgery with or without prophylactic sclerostomy in nanophthalmic eyes with visually significant cataract. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial METHODS: Sixty nanophthalmic eyes of 60 patients with visually significant cataract were randomly assigned to cataract surgery alone (control group, n=31) or cataract surgery with concomitant prophylactic sclerostomy (sclerostomy group, n=29)...
September 11, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885191/radiation-dose-and-risk-in-children-undergoing-cardiac-interventions-performed-using-flat-detector-angiography-systems
#3
Anna Varghese, A Devi, Paul V George, Roshan Samuel Livingstone
The purpose of the study was to measure radiation doses and estimate risk from various beam projections in children undergoing cardiac interventions. The dose area product (DAP) was measured for 11 patent ductus arteriosus device closure, PDA; 4 atrial septal defect device closure, ASD and 3 balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty, BPV interventions performed using flat detector system. Total mean DAP for PDA, ASD and BPV were 1.9 Gycm2, 9.8 Gycm2 and 6.2 Gycm2 respectively. The fluoroscopic kerma dose rates increased by 10%, 33% and 92% when changing projection from posterior-anterior to lateral projection for PDA interventions among infants, <5yrs and > 5yrs respectively...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879868/mycobacterium-chelonae-infection-complicating-traumatic-and-surgical-wounds-a-case-series
#4
Soumya Jagadeesan, V Anilkumar, Vinitha Varghese Panicker, Gopikrishnan Anjaneyan, Jacob Thomas
Mycobacterium chelonae is a rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium. The skin and soft tissue infections due to this organism are steadily on the rise and need to be delineated specifically as most of these are not responsive to routine antituberculosis treatment. Here, we report 3 different presentations caused by Mycobacterium chelonae in traumatic and surgical wounds. Mycobacterium chelonae can complicate surgical or traumatic wounds.This infection may also present as injection site abscesses. Diabetics on insulin injections are especially at risk...
September 6, 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871305/skeletal-muscle-on-a-chip-an-in-vitro-model-to-evaluate-tissue-formation-and-injury
#5
Gaurav Agrawal, Aereas Aung, Shyni Varghese
Engineered skeletal muscle tissues can be used for in vitro studies that require physiologically relevant models of native tissues. Herein, we describe the development of a three-dimensional (3D) skeletal muscle tissue that recapitulates the architectural and structural complexities of muscle within a microfluidic device. Using a 3D photo-patterning approach, we spatially confined a cell-laden gelatin network around two bio-inert hydrogel pillars, which induce uniaxial alignment of the cells and serve as anchoring sites for the encapsulated cells and muscle tissues as they form and mature...
September 5, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869585/brca1-regulation-on-%C3%AE-hcg-a-mechanism-for-tumorigenicity-in-brca1-defective-breast-cancer
#6
S K Sengodan, R Nadhan, R S Nair, S K Hemalatha, V Somasundaram, R R Sushama, A Rajan, N R Latha, G R Varghese, R K Thankappan, J M Kumar, A Chil, T V Anilkumar, P Srinivas
Human chorionic gonadotropin β (β-hCG) has been implicated in breast tumorigenesis. However, the role of this hormone is highly controversial as certain studies suggest it has anti-tumor properties while others have found it to be pro-tumorigenic. To unveil the truth, we have analyzed the expression of β-hCG in breast cancer. We identified for the first time that β-hCG expression is linked to BRCA1 status and its overexpression is seen in BRCA1 mutated breast cancer cells, BRCA1 conditional knockout mouse breast cancer tissues and BRCA1 floxed basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tissues...
September 4, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866957/nanocarriers-for-brain-specific-delivery-of-anti-retro-viral-drugs-challenges-and-achievements
#7
Nila Mary Varghese, Senthil Venkatachalam, Shailendra K Saxena
HIV/AIDS is a global pandemic and the deleterious effects of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the brain cannot be overlooked. Though the current Anti-Retro Viral therapy is able to reduce the virus load in the peripheral tissues of the body, the inability of the anti-retro viral drugs to cross the Blood Brain Barrier, as such, limits its therapeutic effect in the brain. The development of newer, successful nanoparticulate drug delivery systems to enhance the feasibility of the anti-retro viral drugs to the brain, offers a novel strategy to treat the AIDS related neuronal degradation...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862812/performance-of-individually-measured-vs-population-based-c-peptide-kinetics-to-assess-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-presence-and-absence-of-acute-insulin-resistance
#8
Ron T Varghese, Chiara Dalla Man, Marcello C Laurenti, Francesca Piccinini, Anu Sharma, Meera Shah, Kent R Bailey, Robert A Rizza, Claudio Cobelli, Adrian Vella
AIMS: Standardized, population-based kinetics of C-peptide distribution and clearance are used to estimate insulin secretion from plasma C-peptide concentrations without direct measurement of C-peptide kinetics. We then compared the performance of population-based kinetics to directly measured C-peptide kinetics when used to calculate β-cell responsivity indices. To ensure that population-based kinetics apply to all conditions where β-cell function is measured, subjects were studied in the presence and absence of acute insulin resistance...
September 1, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862190/seroprevalence-of-cytomegalovirus-in-donors-opportunistic-viral-infections-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#9
Joy Varghese, S Subramanian, Mettu Srinivas Reddy, Naresh Shanmugam, G Balajee, Vijaya Srinivasan, Jayanthi Venkataraman, Rela Mohamed
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Opportunistic virus infections are common in liver transplant (LT) recipients. There is a risk of developing infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes-related viruses such as herpes simplex virus-1 and 2 (HSV-1 & 2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Varicella Zoster virus (VZV), reactivation of infection and recurrent infection. This study was conducted to determine CMV seropositivity in donors and its influence on LT recipients and seropositivity of CMV, HSV-1 and 2, EB viral capsid antigen (EBVCA) and VZV in LT recipients and their reactivation...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860390/contemporary-acetabular-fracture-surgery-treading-water-or-swimming-upstream
#10
REVIEW
M Rickman, V D Varghese
In the time since Letournel popularised the surgical treatment of acetabular fractures, more than 25 years ago, there have been many changes within the field, related to patients, surgical technique, implants and post-operative care. However, the long-term outcomes appear largely unchanged. Does this represent stasis or have the advances been mitigated by other negative factors? In this article we have attempted to document the recent changes within the surgery of patients with a fracture involving the acetabulum, outline contemporary management, and identify the major problem areas where further research is most needed...
September 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859436/prevalence-of-drug-resistant-minority-variants-in-untreated-hiv-1-infected-individuals-with-and-those-without-transmitted-drug-resistance-detected-by-sanger-sequencing
#11
Dana S Clutter, Shuntai Zhou, Vici Varghese, Soo-Yon Rhee, Benjamin A Pinsky, W Jeffrey Fessel, Daniel B Klein, Ean Spielvogel, Susan P Holmes, Leo B Hurley, Michael J Silverberg, Ronald Swanstrom, Robert W Shafer
Minority variant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutations are associated with an increased risk of virological failure during treatment with NNRTI-containing regimens. To determine whether individuals to whom variants with isolated NNRTI-associated drug resistance were transmitted are at increased risk of virological failure during treatment with a non-NNRTI-containing regimen, we identified minority variant resistance mutations in 33 individuals with isolated NNRTI-associated transmitted drug resistance and 49 matched controls...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846803/comprehensive-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-women
#12
REVIEW
Suegene K Lee, Jay Khambhati, Tina Varghese, Eric P Stahl, Sonali Kumar, Pratik B Sandesara, Nanette K Wenger, Laurence S Sperling
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains the leading cause of mortality in women. Historically, medical research has focused on male patients, and subsequently, there has been decreased awareness of the burden of ASCVD in females until recent years. The biological differences between sexes and differences in societal expectations defined by gender roles contribute to gender differences in ASCVD risk factors. With these differing risk profiles, risk assessment, risk stratification, and primary preventive measures of ASCVD are different in women and men...
August 28, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838910/assessment-of-iron-deposition-in-the-brain-in-frontotemporal-dementia-and-its-correlation-with-behavioral-traits
#13
R Sheelakumari, C Kesavadas, T Varghese, R M Sreedharan, B Thomas, J Verghese, P S Mathuranath
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain iron deposition has been implicated as a major culprit in the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration. However, the quantitative assessment of iron in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia brains has not been performed, to our knowledge. The aim of our study was to investigate the characteristic iron levels in the frontotemporal dementia subtypes using susceptibility-weighted imaging and report its association with behavioral profiles...
August 24, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835340/quantification-of-bladder-wall-biomechanics-during-urodynamics-a-methodologic-investigation-using-ultrasound
#14
Anna S Nagle, Adam P Klausner, Jary Varghese, Rachel J Bernardo, Andrew F Colhoun, Robert W Barbee, Laura R Carucci, John E Speich
Overactive bladder is often characterized by biomechanical changes in the bladder wall, but there is no established method to measure these changes in vivo. The goal of this study was to develop a novel method to determine detrusor wall biomechanical parameters during urodynamics through the incorporation of transabdominal ultrasound imaging. Individuals with overactive bladder (OAB) underwent ultrasound imaging during filling. The fill rate was 10% of the cystometric capacity per minute as determined by an initial fill...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832897/reliability-of-an-online-geriatric-assessment-procedure-using-the-interrai-acute-care-assessment-system
#15
Melinda G Martin-Khan, Helen Edwards, Richard Wootton, Steven R Counsell, Paul Varghese, Wen Kwang Lim, Peteris Darzins, Lucy Dakin, Kerenaftali Klein, Leonard C Gray
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether geriatric triage decisions made using a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) performed online are less reliable than face-to-face (FTF) decisions. DESIGN: Multisite noninferiority prospective cohort study. Two specialist geriatricians assessed individuals sequentially referred for an acute care geriatric consultation. Participants were allocated to one FTF assessment and an additional assessment (FTF or online (OL)), creating two groups-two FTF (FTF-FTF, n = 81) or online and FTF (OL-FTF, n = 85)...
August 21, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827965/ameliorative-effect-of-curcumin-on-olanzapine-induced-obesity-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#16
Subramani Parasuraman, Khor Ming Zhen, Urmila Banik, Parayil Varghese Christapher
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of curcumin on olanzapine-induced obesity in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used for experiments. The animals were divided into six groups, namely, normal control, olanzapine control, betahistine (10 mg/kg), and curcumin 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg treated groups. Except the normal control group, all other animals were administered with olanzapine 4 mg/kg intraperitoneally to induce obesity. The drugs were administered once daily, per oral for 28 days...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827860/psychiatric-morbidity-in-the-community-a-population-based-study-from-kerala
#17
K S Shaji, D Raju, V Sathesh, P Krishnakumar, Varghese P Punnoose, P S Kiran, B S Mini, Shibu Kumar, P K Anish, Ganga G Kaimal, Lekshmy Gupthan, T P Sumesh, U G Nikhil, Nisha Cyriac, M D Vinod, R Prasad Kumar, Ramesh Chandran, P P Rejani, R Amrutha, Mahesh, T N Anand
BACKGROUND: Estimates of psychiatric morbidity in the community will help service development. Participation of trained nonspecialist health-care providers will facilitate scaling up of services in resource-limited settings. AIMS: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of priority mental health problems in populations served by the District Mental Health Program (DMHP). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This is a population-based cross-sectional survey...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816867/peripheral-refraction-and-aberration-profiles-with-multifocal-lenses
#18
Cathleen Fedtke, Klaus Ehrmann, Varghese Thomas, Ravi C Bakaraju
SIGNIFICANCE: The amount of central or peripheral myopic shift, as induced by different multifocal contact lenses when viewing objects at distance or near, may provide insights on the potential efficacy for slowing eye growth. PURPOSE: The present study aims to compare peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles of four multifocal contact lenses with a single vision control lens. METHODS: Thirty-five myopes (age 21.2 ± 2.1 years) completed the trial, of whom 16 wore Air Optix Aqua and Proclear Multifocal Distance and Near (Group 1, spherical equivalent: -2...
September 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814531/patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-have-a-low-response-rate-to-vitamin-d-supplementation
#19
Jaividhya Dasarathy, Rony Varghese, Abram Feldman, Amer Khiyami, Arthur J McCullough, Srinivasan Dasarathy
Background: Hypovitaminosis D is associated with an increased severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but reports on the response to cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation are conflicting.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if standard vitamin D3 supplementation is effective in NAFLD with hypovitaminosis D.Methods: Sixty-five well-characterized adults [age (mean ± SD): 51.6 ± 12.3 y] with biopsy-proven NAFLD were screened. Forty-two patients (the ratio of men to women was 13:29) had hypovitaminosis D (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <30 ng/mL)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801335/hypercapnia-induced-cerebral-oedema-in-a-patient-with-copd-exacerbation-a-rare-and-under-recognised-entity
#20
Siddique Chaudhary, Ahsan Wahab, Shiny Varghese, Susan Jane Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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