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Sjaan Koppel, Lyndal Bugeja, Daisy Smith, Ashne Lamb, Jeremy Dwyer, Michael Fitzharris, Stuart Newstead, Angelo D'Elia, Judith Charlton
OBJECTIVE: This study used medicolegal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to four key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. METHODS: The Coroners Court of Victoria's Surveillance Database was searched to identify coronial records with at least one deceased ORU in the state of Victoria, Australia, for 2013-2014...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Abda Mahmood, Ian Roberts, Haleema Shakur
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid prevents blood clots from breaking down and reduces bleeding. However, it is uncertain whether tranexamic acid is effective in traumatic brain injury. The CRASH-3 trial is a randomised controlled trial that will examine the effect of tranexamic acid (versus placebo) on death and disability in 13,000 patients with traumatic brain injury. The CRASH-3 trial hypothesizes that tranexamic acid will reduce intracranial haemorrhage, which will reduce the risk of death...
July 17, 2017: Trials
Promod Pillai, Rohit Sharma, Larami MacKenzie, Eugene F Reilly, Paul R Beery, Thomas J Papadimos, Stanislaw Peter A Stawicki
Although traumatic pneumocephalus is not uncommon, it rarely evolves into tension pneumocephalus (TP). Characterized by the presence of increasing amounts of intracranial air and concurrent appearance or worsening neurological symptoms, TP can be devastating if not recognized and treated promptly. We present two cases of traumatic TP and a concise review of literature on this topic. Two cases of traumatic TP are presented. In addition, a literature search revealed 20 additional cases, of which 18 had sufficient information for inclusion...
January 2017: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
Kelechi Emmanuel Okonta
BACKGROUND: This study was to determine the extent and outcome of childhood chest injury in Nigeria, and to compare results with that of other literatures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A Prospective study of all children under 18 years of age with chest trauma in two tertiary hospitals in Southern Nigeria from January 2012 to December 2014 was reviewed. The aetiology, type, associated injury, mechanism, treatment and outcome were evaluated. The patients were followed up in the clinic...
July 2015: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
Tiefang Zou, Lin Hu, Pingfan Li, Hequan Wu
In order to analyzing the uncertainty in accident reconstruction, based on the theory of extreme value and the convex model theory, the uncertainty analysis problem is turn to an extreme value problem. In order to calculate the range of the dependent variable, the extreme value in the definition domain and on the boundary of the definition domain are calculated independently, and then the upper and lower bound of the dependent variable can be given by these obtained extreme values. Based on such idea and through analyzing five numerical cases, a simple algorithm for calculating the range of an accident reconstruction result was given; appropriate results can be obtained through the proposed algorithm in these cases...
December 2015: Forensic Science International
Alain Chichom-Mefire, Julius Atashili, Jean G Tsiagadigui, Clovis Fon-Awah, Marcelin Ngowe-Ngowe
BACKGROUND: Low and middle-income countries carry over ninety per cent of the burden of injury related mortality and disability. Motorcycles are gradually becoming a major mode of transportation in Cameroon and other African countries in the absence of an organized public transport. Consequently, the contribution of motorcycle crash to injury-related deaths seems to be on the rise. Currently, data addressing motorcycle crash characteristics, pattern, and severity of motorcycle-related injuries in Cameroon are scarce...
September 18, 2015: BMC Public Health
Allison E Curry, Melissa R Pfeiffer, Michael R Elliott
OBJECTIVE: Young driver studies have applied quasi-induced exposure (QIE) methods to assess relationships between demographic and behavioral factors and at-fault crash involvement, but QIE's primary assumption of representativeness has not yet been validated among young drivers. Determining whether nonresponsible young drivers in clean (i.e., only one driver is responsible) 2-vehicle crashes are reasonably representative of the general young driving population is an important step toward ensuring valid QIE use in young driver studies...
May 18, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Seyed Taghi Heydari, Kamran B Lankarani, Mehrdad Vossoughi, Kazem Javanmardi, Yaser Sarikhani, Kourosh Mahjoor, Mojtaba Mahmoodi, Mohammad Khabaz Shirazi, Maryam Akbari
BACKGROUND: Crash helmet plays an important role in protecting the deriver's head during crashes and reduces the rate of severe injuries and fatalities. Although it has been proved that wearing the crash helmet can save the deriver's life by around 42%; previous studies showed that the rate of wearing crash helmet has not been acceptable in Iran. Due to the huge number of motorcyclists on the roads in Iran, the use of crash helmet is an important area of research. The aim of this study was to assess the factors that could possibly relate to or affect the use of crash helmet by the motorcyclists...
January 2016: Journal of Injury & Violence Research
Andrew J Young, Luke Wolfe, Glenn Tinkoff, Therese M Duane
Despite the potentially devastating impact of missed cervical spine injuries (CI), there continues to be a large disparity in how institutions attempt to make the diagnosis. To better streamline the approach among institutions, understanding incidence and risk factors across the country is paramount. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of CI using the National Trauma Databank for 2008 and 2009. We performed a retrospective review of the National Trauma Databank for 2008 and 2009 comparing patients with and without CI...
September 2015: American Surgeon
Hareeshan Nandakoban, Ananthakrishnapuram Aravindan, Tim Spicer, Govind Narayanan, Noemir Gonzalez, Michael Suranyi, Jeffrey K W Wong
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the presence of tunnelled vascular catheter (TVC) on physician referral and surgeon review and operating patterns and ultimately time of creation of permanent haemodialysis (HD) access. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of TVC and arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) databases in 2010. Physician referral time and surgical time to operation were compared between patients commencing HD with TVC and a control group who commenced HD with AVF...
January 2016: Journal of Vascular Access
Rocío Palmera-Suárez, Teresa López-Cuadrado, Javier Almazán-Isla, Rafael Fernández-Cuenca, Enrique Alcalde-Cabero, Iñaki Galán
BACKGROUND: Road traffic accidents cause substantial morbidity and disease burden; few studies have examined their impact on disability. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the magnitude and distribution of disability due to road traffic accidents according to socio-demographic variables, and its main socioeconomic and health determinants. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in community-dwelling participants in the "2008 Spanish National Disability Survey", a representative sample of 91,846 households with 20,425 disabled persons older than 15 years; 443 had disability due to road traffic accidents...
September 2015: Gaceta Sanitaria
Marta Olabarria, Elena Santamariña-Rubio, Marc Marí-Dell'Olmo, Mercè Gotsens, Ana M Novoa, Carme Borrell, Katherine Pérez
OBJECTIVE: To describe the magnitude and characteristics of crashes and drivers involved in head-on crashes on two-way interurban roads in Spain between 2007 and 2012, and to identify the factors associated with the likelihood of head-on crashes on these roads compared with other types of crash. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using the National Crash Register. The dependent variables were head-on crashes with injury (yes/no) and drivers involved in head-on crashes (yes/no)...
September 2015: Gaceta Sanitaria
Matthew S Thiese, Gary Moffitt, Richard J Hanowski, Stefanos N Kales, Richard J Porter, Kurt T Hegmann
OBJECTIVE: To assess relationships and trends over time in individual conditions and multiple conditions among a large sample of independent, nonoverlapping truck drivers using a repeated cross-sectional study design. METHODS: Commercial driver medical examinations were conducted on 95,567 commercial drivers between January 1, 2005, and October 31, 2012. Specific medical conditions that have been identified by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's Medical Review Board as possibly increasing crash risk were examined...
September 2015: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Saeed Mahmood, Hassan Al-Thani, Ayman El-Menyar, Mushrek Alani, Ammar Al-Hassani, Saji Mathrdikkal, Ruben Peralta, Rifat Latifi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tramadol is commonly used to treat moderate to moderately-severe pain in adults. We aimed to analyze the clinical relevance of tramadol use during weaning and extubation in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted and included all the intubated TBI patients at the level I trauma center between 2011 and 2012. Data included patient's demographics, mechanism of injury (MOI), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), injury severity score, length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay length of stay (LOS), agitation scale, analgesics, failure of extubation and tracheostomy...
July 2015: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Jing-Yang Liou, Mei-Yung Tsou, Chien-Kun Ting
Drug interaction is fundamental in performing anesthesia. A response surface model (RSM) is a very useful tool for investigating drug interactions. The methodology appeared many decades ago, but did not receive attention in the field of anesthesia until the 1990s. Drug investigations typically start with pharmacokinetics, but it is the effects on the body clinical anesthesiologists really care about. Typically, drug interactions are divided into additive, synergistic, or infra-additive. Traditional isobolographic analysis or concentration-effect curve shifts are limited to a single endpoint...
December 2015: Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica: Official Journal of the Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists
Letitia Campbell, Justin Kenardy, Tonny Andersen, Leanne McGregor, Annick Maujean, Michele Sterling
INTRODUCTION: As a consequence of a road traffic crash, persistent pain and disability following whiplash injury are common and incur substantial personal and economic costs. Up to 50% of people who experience a whiplash injury will never fully recover and up to 30% will remain moderately to severely disabled by the condition. The reason as to why symptoms persist past the acute to sub-acute stage and become chronic is unclear, but likely results from complex interactions between structural injury, physical impairments, and psychological and psychosocial factors...
October 2015: Journal of Physiotherapy
Sarthak Nepal, Shailvi Gupta, Evan G Wong, Susant Gurung, Mamta Swaroop, Adam L Kushner, Benedict C Nwomeh
BACKGROUND: Road traffic injury has emerged as a leading cause of mortality, contributing to 2·1% of deaths globally and is predicted to be the third highest contributor to the global burden of mortality by 2020. This major public health problem disproportionately affects low-income and middle-income countries, where such incidents are too often underreported. Our study aims to explore the epidemiology of road traffic injurys in Nepal at a population level via a countrywide study. METHODS: The Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) tool, a cluster randomised, cross-sectional nationwide survey, was conducted in Nepal between May 25, and June 12, 2014...
April 27, 2015: Lancet
Pamela Ross, Jennie L Ponsford, Marilyn Di Stefano, Judith Charlton, Gershon Spitz
PURPOSE: To examine pre- and post-injury self-reported driver behaviour and safety in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who returned to driving after occupational therapy driver assessment and on-road rehabilitation. METHOD: A self-report questionnaire, administered at an average of 4.5 years after completing an on-road driver assessment, documenting pre- and post-injury crash rates, near-crashes, frequency of driving, distances driven, driving conditions avoided and navigation skills, was completed by 106 participants, who had either passed the initial driver assessment (pass group n = 74), or required driver rehabilitation, prior to subsequent assessments (rehabilitation group n = 32)...
2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Lois K Lee, Caitlin A Farrell, Rebekah Mannix
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in child passenger safety legislation and equipment, motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) continue to be the leading cause of death in children younger than 10 years. The objective of this study was to describe factors associated with restraint use in fatal MVC in children 0 year to 9 years old. METHODS: The Fatality Analysis Reporting System, maintained by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, was used to obtain data on MVC fatalities from 2001 to 2010 in children 0 year to 9 years old...
September 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Amber M Kroeker, Amy J Teddy, Michelle L Macy
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of unintentional death and disability among children 4 years to 12 years of age in the United States. Despite the high risk of injury from motor vehicle crashes in this age group, parental awareness and child passenger safety programs in particular may lack focus on this age group. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of child passenger safety seat checklist forms from two Safe Kids coalitions in Michigan (2013) to identify restraint type upon arrival to car seat inspections...
September 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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