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Woo Jin Lee, Won Kyung Lee, So Young Sohn
Because of the remarkable developments in robotics in recent years, technological convergence has been active in this area. We focused on finding patterns of convergence within robot technology using network analysis of patents in both the USPTO and KIPO. To identify the variables that affect convergence, we used quadratic assignment procedures (QAP). From our analysis, we observed the patent network ecology related to convergence and found technologies that have great potential to converge with other robotics technologies...
2016: PloS One
Sebastian Sippel, Holger Lange, Miguel D Mahecha, Michael Hauhs, Paul Bodesheim, Thomas Kaminski, Fabian Gans, Osvaldo A Rosso
Data analysis and model-data comparisons in the environmental sciences require diagnostic measures that quantify time series dynamics and structure, and are robust to noise in observational data. This paper investigates the temporal dynamics of environmental time series using measures quantifying their information content and complexity. The measures are used to classify natural processes on one hand, and to compare models with observations on the other. The present analysis focuses on the global carbon cycle as an area of research in which model-data integration and comparisons are key to improving our understanding of natural phenomena...
2016: PloS One
Ben L Gilby, Andrew D Olds, Rod M Connolly, Tim Stevens, Christopher J Henderson, Paul S Maxwell, Ian R Tibbetts, David S Schoeman, David Rissik, Thomas A Schlacher
Management authorities seldom have the capacity to comprehensively address the full suite of anthropogenic stressors, particularly in the coastal zone where numerous threats can act simultaneously to impact reefs and other ecosystems. This situation requires tools to prioritise management interventions that result in optimum ecological outcomes under a set of constraints. Here we develop one such tool, introducing a Bayesian Belief Network to model the ecological condition of inshore coral reefs in Moreton Bay (Australia) under a range of management actions...
2016: PloS One
Amanda Froehlich Chow, Anne Leis, Louise Humbert, Nazeem Muhajarine, Rachel Engler-Stringer
OBJECTIVES: In order to improve healthy behaviours among rural children in their early years, a physical activity and healthy eating intervention (Healthy Start - Départ Santé) was implemented in rural childcare centres throughout Saskatchewan. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a multimodal physical activity and healthy eating intervention on educators' provision of opportunities for children to improve their physical activity levels, fundamental movement skills and healthy eating behaviours...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Emmeline Chuang, Julian Brunner, Jamie Moody, Leticia Ibarra, Helina Hoyt, Thomas L McKenzie, Amy Binggeli-Vallarta, Griselda Cervantes, Tracy L Finlayson, Guadalupe X Ayala
INTRODUCTION: Ecological approaches to health behavior change require effective engagement from and coordination of activities among diverse community stakeholders. We identified facilitators of and barriers to implementation experienced by project leaders and key stakeholders involved in the Imperial County, California, Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multilevel, multisector intervention to prevent and control childhood obesity. METHODS: A total of 74 semistructured interviews were conducted with project leaders (n = 6) and key stakeholders (n = 68) representing multiple levels of influence in the health care, early care and education, and school sectors...
October 20, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
Lorraine D Rodriguez-Rivera, Kevin J Cummings, Isaac McNeely, Jan S Suchodolski, Andrea V Scorza, Michael R Lappin, Brian T Mesenbrink, Bruce R Leland, Michael J Bodenchuk
The population size and geographic range of feral pigs in the United States are rapidly expanding. Nevertheless, the role of this invasive species in the ecology and transmission of zoonotic enteric pathogens is poorly understood. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and diversity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia shedding among feral pigs throughout Texas and to identify risk factors for infection. Fecal samples were collected from feral pigs in Texas from February 2014 through May 2015. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were detected using a direct immunofluorescence assay, and genotyping of positive samples was performed...
October 20, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Stephen Y Chan, Jonathan W Snow
The putative transfer and gene regulatory activities of diet-derived small RNAs (sRNAs) in ingesting animals are still debated. The existence of natural uptake of diet-derived sRNA by invertebrate species could have significant implication for our understanding of ecological relationships and could synergize with efforts to use of RNA interference (RNAi) technology in agriculture. Here, we synthesize information gathered from studies in invertebrates using natural or artificial dietary delivery of sRNA and from studies of sRNA in vertebrate animals and plants to review our current understanding of uptake and impact of natural diet-derived sRNA on invertebrates...
October 20, 2016: RNA Biology
Kun Zhong, Yi-Yong Luo, Zheng-Song Wu, Qiang He, Xue-Bin Hu, Qi-Wu Jie, Yan-Ting Li, Shao-Jie Wang
A vertical flow constructed wetland was combined with a biological aerated filter to develop an ecological filter, and to obtain the optimal operating parameters: The hydraulic loading was 1.55 m(3)/(m(2)·d), carbon-nitrogen ratio was 10, and gas-water ratio was 6. The experimental results demonstrated considerable removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in wastewater by the ecological filter, with average removal rates of 83...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Cherie Walker, Peter Sinclair, Kenneth Graham, Stephen Cobley
Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) may offer an ecologically valid, reliable, and practical method for biomechanical performance analysis. With such potential in mind, Part 1 of this study examined the accuracy of IMUs gyroscopes with an optical system (Cortex 3.3). A calibration formula standardised the IMUs angular velocity output with the optical system. The percentage differences between the two measures = 0.5% (p < 0.05), suggest IMU's efficacy for application. In Part 2, the aim was to examine and understand how dive flight angular velocity time series plots change and increase according to dive degree of difficulty...
October 20, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Wenjing Chen, Xiaohu Dai, Dawen Cao, Sha Wang, Xiaona Hu, Wenru Liu, Dianhai Yang
The partial nitrification (PN) performance and the microbial community variations were evaluated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for 172 days, with the stepwise elevation of ammonium concentration. Free ammonia (FA) and low dissolved oxygen inhibition of nitrite-oxidized bacteria (NOB) were used to achieve nitritation in the SBR. During the 172 days operation, the nitrogen loading rate of the SBR was finally raised to 3.6 kg N/m(3)/d corresponding the influent ammonium of 1500 mg/L, with the ammonium removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation rate were 94...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yaning Chen, Weihong Li, Haijun Deng, Gonghuan Fang, Zhi Li
The Tienshan Mountains, with its status as "water tower", is the main water source and ecological barrier in Central Asia. The rapid warming affected precipitation amounts and fraction as well as the original glacier/snowmelt water processes, thereby affecting the runoff and water storage. The ratio of snowfall to precipitation (S/P) experienced a downward trend, along with a shift from snow to rain. Spatially, the snow cover area in Middle Tienshan Mountains decreased significantly, while that in West Tienshan Mountains increased slightly...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rebecca E Young, Andrew D C Maccoll
Patterns in parasite community structure are often observed in natural systems and an important question in parasite ecology is whether such patterns are repeatable across time and space. Field studies commonly look at spatial or temporal repeatability of patterns, but they are rarely investigated in conjunction. We use a large dataset on the macroparasites of the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L., collected from 14 locations on North Uist, Scotland over an 8-year period to investigate: (1) repeatability of patterns in parasite communities among populations and whether variation is consistent across years, (2) whether variation between years can be explained by climatic variation and progression of the season and (3) whether variation in habitat characteristics explain population differences...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology
Tad Dallas, Andrew W Park, John M Drake
Host-parasite associations are complex interactions dependent on aspects of hosts (e.g. traits, phylogeny or coevolutionary history), parasites (e.g. traits and parasite interactions) and geography (e.g. latitude). Predicting the permissive host set or the subset of the host community that a parasite can infect is a central goal of parasite ecology. Here we develop models that accurately predict the permissive host set of 562 helminth parasites in five different parasite taxonomic groups. We developed predictive models using host traits, host taxonomy, geographic covariates, and parasite community composition, finding that models trained on parasite community variables were more accurate than any other covariate group, even though parasite community covariates only captured a quarter of the variance in parasite community composition...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology
Siavash Isazadeh, Shameem Jauffur, Dominic Frigon
Effect of ecological variables on community assembly of heterotrophic bacteria at eight full-scale and two pilot-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (AS-WWTPs) were explored by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. In total, 39 samples covering a range of abiotic factors spread over space and time were analyzed. A core bacterial community of 24 families detected in at least six of the eight AS-WWTPs was defined. In addition to the core families, plant-specific families (observed at <50% AS-WWTPs) were found to be also important in the community structure...
October 19, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Katherine R Amato
Research examining the gut microbiota is currently exploding, and results are providing new perspectives on human biology. Factors such as host diet and physiology influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota, which in turn affects human nutrition, health, and behavior via interactions with metabolism, the immune system, and the brain. These findings represent an exciting new twist on familiar topics, and as a result, gut microbiome research is likely to provide insight into unresolved biological mechanisms driving human health...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Hassan Rahnama, Shayan Rajabpour
The environment is increasingly turning to a vital and very important issue for all people. By increasing environmental concerns as well as legislating and regulating rules on the protection of the environment and the emergence of green consumers, implementing green marketing approach for organizations seems to be more crucial and essential. As a result, the need for ecological products and green business activities compels companies to combine environmental issues with marketing strategies. The first step in the success of companies and organizations is to identify consumers and their consumption behaviors correctly and accurately...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Liyuan Chai, Huan Li, Zhihui Yang, Xiaobo Min, Qi Liao, Yi Liu, Shuhui Men, Yanan Yan, Jixin Xu
Here, we aim to determine the distribution, ecological risk and sources of heavy metals and metalloids in the surface sediments of the Xiangjiang River, Hunan Province, China. Sixty-four surface sediment samples were collected in 16 sites of the Xiangjiang River, and the concentrations of ten heavy metals and metalloids (Mn, Zn, Cr, V, Pb, Cu, As, Ni, Co, and Cd) in the sediment samples were investigated using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and an atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (AFS), respectively...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Maria Stefania Latrofa, Alessio Giannelli, Maria Flaminia Persichetti, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Laia Solano-Gallego, Emanuele Brianti, Antonio Parisi, Richard Wall, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Domenico Otranto
Despite their medical and veterinary importance, some tick species are so poorly studied, that their role within pathogen vector transmission cycles is difficult to assess. The tick Ixodes ventalloi is one such species, and its biology and phylogenetic status remain an issue of debate. In the present study, specimens of adult I. ventalloi (n = 65 females; n = 31 males) infesting cats in the Lipari Island (Aeolian archipelago, Sicily, southern Italy) were characterized morphologically and molecularly, the latter based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology Research
Asad Mohammadzadeh, Adel Spotin, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Ali Haghighi, Nozhat Zebardast, Kobra Kohansal
In the microevolutionary scales of Entamoeba isolates, the gene migration shows how Entamoeba spp. has epidemiologically drifted among border countries. Five hundred fecal samples were taken from patients suffering gastrointestinal disorders, abdominal pain, and diarrhea at Saggez, northwest Iran located within the border Iraq country. Following parasitological techniques, DNA samples were extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 18S rRNA region to identify Entamoeba infections. To distinguish the Entamoeba spp...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology Research
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October 19, 2016: EcoHealth
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