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Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783213/-socioecological-features-of-the-epidemiology-of-sarcoidosis-in-the-poltava-region-ukraine
#1
Dmytro M Boiko, Volodymyr H Pecherytsia, Oksana S Boiko, Svitlana M Kulyk
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Lung sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease that can affect various organs and systems of a person. Due to the lack of a uniform standardized approach to the diagnosis of sarcoidosis, the epidemiological pattern is heterogeneous and depends on many factors. The aim: To investigate the correlation between the number of patients with sarcoidosis among the population of the Poltava region (Ukraine) and the ecological characteristics of the industrial activity of the region in comparison with the data on the availability of subspecialists in respiratory diseases...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783165/preferential-feeding-in-naegleria-fowleri-intracellular-bacteria-isolated-from-amoebae-in-operational-drinking-water-distribution-systems
#2
Haylea C Miller, Matthew J Morgan, Tom Walsh, Jason T Wylie, Anna H Kaksonen, Geoffrey J Puzon
The amoeba Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of the highly fatal disease, primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, and estimated to cause 16 deaths per year in the United States alone. Colonisation of drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) by the N. fowleri is a significant public health issue. Understanding the factors which enable this pathogen to colonise and thrive in DWDSs is critical for proper management. The microbial ecology within DWDSs may influence the ability of N. fowleri to colonise DWDSs by facilitating the availability of an appropriate food source...
May 6, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783164/potential-risks-from-uv-h-2-o-2-oxidation-and-uv-photocatalysis-a-review-of-toxic-assimilable-and-sensory-unpleasant-transformation-products
#3
REVIEW
Wen-Long Wang, Qian-Yuan Wu, Nan Huang, Zi-Bin Xu, Min-Yong Lee, Hong-Ying Hu
UV based advanced oxidation processes (UV-AOPs) that efficiently eliminate organic pollutants during water treatment have been the subject of numerous investigations. Most organic pollutants are not completely mineralized during UV-AOPs but are partially oxidized into transformation products (TPs), thereby adding complexity to the treated water and posing risks to humans, ecological systems, and the environment. While the degradation kinetics and mechanisms of pollutants have been widely documented, there is little information about the risks associated with TPs...
May 15, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783153/microwave-assisted-pyrolysis-of-textile-dyeing-sludge-and-migration-and-distribution-of-heavy-metals
#4
Hedong Zhang, Zuopeng Gao, Yang Liu, Chunmei Ran, Xiao Mao, Qinhao Kang, Wenya Ao, Jie Fu, Jing Li, Guangqing Liu, Jianjun Dai
This study investigated the pyrolysis characteristic of textile dyeing sludge (DS) using an auger pyrolyser under microwave irradiation at different pyrolysis temperature. The migration and distribution characteristic of heavy metals and their potential ecological risks were investigated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques. Temperature and additives (e.g. Ca-bentonite, kaolin and CaO) significantly affected product distribution and yields. Heavy metals showed different enrichment characteristics during pyrolysis and a great percentage of the heavy metals was retained in the sludge char (SC), depending on different temperatures and additives...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783058/memory-retrieval-of-everyday-information-under-stress
#5
Lisa-Marie Stock, Christian J Merz
Psychosocial stress is known to crucially influence learning and memory processes. Several studies have already shown an impairing effect of elevated cortisol concentrations on memory retrieval. These studies mainly used learning material consisting of stimuli with a limited ecological validity. When using material with a social contextual component or with educational relevant material both impairing and enhancing stress effects on memory retrieval could be observed. In line with these latter studies, the present experiment also used material with a higher ecological validity (a coherent text consisting of daily relevant numeric, figural and verbal information)...
May 18, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782923/clinical-applications-of-gut-microbiota-in-cancer-biology
#6
REVIEW
Sunny H Wong, Thomas N Y Kwong, Chun-Ying Wu, Jun Yu
The involvement of microorganisms in cancer has been increasing recognized. Collectively, microorganisms have been estimated to account for ~20% of all cancers worldwide. Recent advances in metagenomics and bioinformatics have provided new insights on the microbial ecology in different tumors, pinpointing the roles of microorganisms in cancer formation, development and response to treatments. Furthermore, studies have emphasized the importance of host-microbial and inter-microbial interactions in the cancer microbiota...
May 18, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782816/a-new-microsporidium-apotaspora-heleios-n-g-n-sp-from-the-riverine-grass-shrimp-palaemonetes-paludosus-decapoda-caridea-palaemonidae
#7
Yuliya Y Sokolova, Robin M Overstreet
We report a new microsporidium from a key species of the estuarine communities of the Gulf States, the Riverine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes paludosus. A milky-white shrimp was found in the Mobile Bay Delta, a large, oligohaline-freshwater wetland in Alabama, USA. Light microscopy of smears and thick sections of the abdominal tissues demonstrated infection with microsporidian spores enclosed in sporophorous vesicles (SVs) in sets of eight. Broadly oval spores measured 2.9 ± 0.06 x 1.7 ± 0.03 µm (2.5-3.3 x 1...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782705/wild-gwas-association-mapping-in-natural-populations
#8
Anna W Santure, Dany Garant
The increasing affordability of sequencing and genotyping technologies has transformed the field of molecular ecology in recent decades. By correlating marker variants with trait variation using association analysis, large-scale genotyping and phenotyping of individuals from wild populations has enabled the identification of genomic regions that contribute to phenotypic differences among individuals. Such 'gene mapping' studies are enabling us to better predict evolutionary potential and the ability of populations to adapt to challenges, such as changing environment...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782644/on-the-relationship-between-phylogenetic-diversity-and-trait-diversity
#9
Caroline M Tucker, T Jonathan Davies, Marc W Cadotte, William D Pearse
Niche differences are key to understanding the distribution and structure of biodiversity. To examine niche differences, we must first characterize how species occupy niche space, and two approaches are commonly used in the ecological literature. The first uses species traits to estimate multivariate trait space (so-called functional trait diversity, FD); the second quantifies the amount of time or evolutionary history captured by a group of species (phylogenetic diversity, PD). It is often-but controversially-assumed that these putative measures of niche space are at a minimum correlated and perhaps redundant, since more evolutionary time allows for greater accumulation of trait changes...
May 21, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782506/assessment-of-the-national-park-network-of-mainland-spain-by-the-insecurity-index-of-vertebrate-species
#10
Alba Estrada, Raimundo Real
The evaluation of protected area networks on their capacity to preserve species distributions is a key topic in conservation biology. There are different types of protected areas, with National Parks those with highest level of protection. National Parks can be declared attending to many ecological features that include the presence of certain animal species. Here, we selected 37 vertebrate species that were highlighted as having relevant natural value for at least one of the 10 National Parks of mainland Spain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782493/dissecting-the-phyloepidemiology-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-i-tci-in-brazil-by-the-use-of-high-resolution-genetic-markers
#11
Fabiola Roman, Samanta das Chagas Xavier, Louisa A Messenger, Márcio G Pavan, Michael A Miles, Ana María Jansen, Matthew Yeo
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease, is monophyletic but genetically heterogeneous. It is currently represented by six genetic lineages (Discrete Typing Units, DTUs) designated TcI-TcVI. TcI is the most geographically widespread and genetically heterogeneous lineage, this as is evidenced by a wide range of genetic markers applied to isolates spanning a vast geographic range in Latin America. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In total, 78 TcI isolated from hosts and vectors distributed in 5 different biomes of Brazil, were analyzed using 6 nuclear housekeeping genes, 25 microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial marker...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782316/from-subjective-cognitive-decline-to-alzheimer-s-disease-the-predictive-role-of-neuropsychological-assessment-personality-traits-and-cognitive-reserve-a-7-year-follow-up-study
#12
Valentina Bessi, Salvatore Mazzeo, Sonia Padiglioni, Carolina Piccini, Benedetta Nacmias, Sandro Sorbi, Laura Bracco
The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of neuropsychological assessment in predicting conversion from subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the effect of personality traits and cognitive reserve in progression from SCD to MCI. As part of a longitudinal, clinical-neuropsychological-genetic survey on SCD and MCI, 284 patients referred to our hospital between 1990 and 2017 were included. All patients underwent clinical-extensive neuropsychological evaluation and Apolipoprotein E genotyping; personality traits were assessed in a subgroup...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782182/a-specifically-designed-multispecies-probiotic-supplement-relieves-seasonal-allergic-rhinitis-symptoms
#13
Annabelle M Watts, Amanda J Cox, Peter K Smith, Isolde Besseling-van der Vaart, Allan W Cripps, Nicholas P West
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are purported to reduce symptoms of allergic rhinitis. This study sought to determine the proportion of participants with an improvement in the mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (mRQLQ) in response to a multispecies probiotic supplement with a Simon Two-Stage design. METHODS: This study was based on a Simon Two-Stage Design for p1 -p0  = 0.18 to account for seasonal variation in symptoms. Under this design, ≥10 patients are required to exhibit an improvement in quality-of-life scores to determine that there was sufficient activity for the supplement to be considered effective...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781969/an-ecological-approach-toward-prevention-and-care-of-victims-of-domestic-minor-sex-trafficking
#14
Rosario V Sanchez, Dula F Pacquiao
Sex trafficking is a widespread form of human trafficking that exists globally. The forced sexual exploitation of young women for profit at the hands of traffickers is a human rights violation. Sex trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery where youths are sold as a commodity. It is difficult to determine the wide range of negative health outcomes associated with domestic minor sex trafficking due to the hidden nature of the crime and its lack of statistical data to determine prevalence. Viewing domestic minor sex trafficking through an ecological lens assists in the understanding of the multiple complex interactions between victims, their relationships, and environments that influence their health...
April 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781933/repeated-exposure-to-taekwondo-combat-modulates-the-physiological-and-hormonal-responses-to-subsequent-bouts-and-recovery-periods
#15
Craig A Bridge, Andy S Sparks, Lars R McNaughton, Graeme L Close, Matheus Hausen, Jonas Gurgel, Barry Drust
Bridge, CA, Sparks, SA, McNaughton, LR, Close, GL, Hausen, M, Gurgel, J, and Drust, B. Repeated exposure to taekwondo combat modulates the physiological and hormonal responses to subsequent bouts and recovery periods. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study examined the physiological and hormonal responses to successive taekwondo combats using an ecologically valid competition time structure. Ten elite male international taekwondo competitors (age 19 ± 3 years) took part in a simulated championship event...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781797/from-plants-to-nematodes-serratia-grimesii-bxf1-genome-reveals-an-adaptation-to-the-modulation-of-multi-species-interactions
#16
Francisco Nascimento, Cláudia Vicente, Peter Cock, Maria Tavares, Márcio Rossi, Koichi Hasegawa, Manuel Mota
Serratia grimesii BXF1 is a bacterium with the ability to modulate the development of several eukaryotic hosts. Strain BXF1 was isolated from the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causative agent of pine wilt disease affecting pine forests worldwide. This bacterium potentiates Bursaphelenchus xylophilus reproduction, acts as a beneficial pine endophyte, and possesses fungal and bacterial antagonistic activities, further indicating a complex role in a wide range of trophic relationships. In this work, we describe and analyse the genome sequence of strain BXF1, and discuss several important aspects of its ecological role...
May 21, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781750/the-use-of-technology-to-promote-vaccination-a-social-ecological-model-based-framework
#17
Chelsea A Kolff, Vanessa P Scott, Melissa S Stockwell
Vaccinations are an important and effective cornerstone of preventive medical care. Growing technologic capabilities and use by both patients and providers present critical opportunities to leverage these tools to improve vaccination rates and public health. We propose the Social Ecological Model as a useful theoretical framework to identify areas in which technology has been or may be leveraged to target undervaccination across the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and society levels and the ways in which these levels interact...
May 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781679/exploring-the-socio-ecological-levels-for-prevention-of-sexual-risk-behaviours-of-the-youth-in-umgungundlovu-district-municipality-kwazulu-natal
#18
Nelisiwe Khuzwayo, Myra Taylor
BACKGROUND: Prevention of youth sexual risk behaviour among the youth in uMgungundlovu District Municipality continues to be a primary challenge for public health and health promotion. Current prevention interventions are targeted at an individual level, whilst youth behaviour is influenced by many social and environmental factors. AIM: The aim of the study was to explore the factors influencing sexual risk behaviours of the youth at different socio-ecological levels in uMgungundlovu District Municipality...
March 7, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781673/rabies-of-canid-biotype-in-wild-dog-lycaon-pictus-and-spotted-hyaena-crocuta-crocuta-in-madikwe-game-reserve-south-africa-in-2014-2015-diagnosis-possible-origins-and-implications-for-control
#19
Claude T Sabeta, Drienie Janse van Rensburg, Baby Phahladira, Debra Mohale, Robert F Harrison-White, Carlien Esterhuyzen, June H Williams
Both domestic and wild carnivore species are commonly diagnosed with rabies virus (RABV) infection in South Africa. Although the majority of confirmed rabies cases in wild carnivore species are reported from the yellow mongoose (Cynictis penicillata), the rest are from other wild carnivores including the highly endangered wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Lyssavirus infection was confirmed in two wild dogs and a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Madikwe Game Reserve, North West province in South Africa, in 2014 and 2015, using a direct fluorescent antibody test and immunohistochemistry...
April 26, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781662/development-and-validation-of-the-narcissistic-vulnerability-scale-an-adjective-rating-scale
#20
Michael L Crowe, Elizabeth A Edershile, Aidan G C Wright, W Keith Campbell, Donald R Lynam, Joshua D Miller
There is an ongoing debate regarding the nature of narcissism such that some argue that narcissistic individuals oscillate between grandiose and vulnerable states, whereas others argue these dimensions are stable traits (e.g., grandiose individuals remain in grandiose states). Scales sensitive to fluctuations in narcissistic states are necessary to address this question. The current study (N = 1,613 across three samples) validates the newly developed Narcissistic Vulnerability Scale (NVS), a brief (11-item) adjective-based measure of vulnerable narcissism...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
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