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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922796/space-emotions-and-the-everyday-the-affective-ecology-of-1980s-london
#1
Stephen Brooke
This article explores the relationship between emotions, space and politics in 1980s London, using the Greater London Council, childcare, and racial harassment as particular foci. It brings together political history, the history of emotions, and geography to offer a new way of thinking about political culture, as well as contributing to the history of the 1980s. It is based upon archival sources.
March 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922513/purpose-processes-partnerships-and-products-4ps-to-advance-participatory-socio-environmental-modeling
#2
Steven Gray, Alexey Voinov, Michael Paolisso, Rebecca Jordan, Todd BenDor, Pierre Bommel, Pierre Glynn, Beatrice Hedelin, Klaus Hubacek, Josh Introne, Nagesh Kolagani, Bethany Laursen, Christina Prell, Laura Schmitt-Olabisi, Alison Singer, Eleanor Sterling, Moira Zellner
Including stakeholders in environmental model building and analysis is an increasingly popular approach to understanding ecological change. This is because stakeholders often hold valuable knowledge about socio-environmental dynamics and collaborative forms of modeling produce important boundary objects used to collectively reason about environmental problems. Although the number of participatory modeling (PM) case studies and the number of researchers adopting these approaches has grown in recent years, the lack of standardized reporting and limited reproducibility have prevented PM's establishment and advancement as a cohesive field of study...
September 18, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922357/analysis-of-nuclear-and-organellar-genomes-of-plasmodium-knowlesi-in-humans-reveals-ancient-population-structure-and-recent-recombination-among-host-specific-subpopulations
#3
Ernest Diez Benavente, Paola Florez de Sessions, Robert W Moon, Anthony A Holder, Michael J Blackman, Cally Roper, Christopher J Drakeley, Arnab Pain, Colin J Sutherland, Martin L Hibberd, Susana Campino, Taane G Clark
The macaque parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant concern in Malaysia where cases of human infection are increasing. Parasites infecting humans originate from genetically distinct subpopulations associated with the long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis (Mf)) or pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina (Mn)). We used a new high-quality reference genome to re-evaluate previously described subpopulations among human and macaque isolates from Malaysian-Borneo and Peninsular-Malaysia. Nuclear genomes were dimorphic, as expected, but new evidence of chromosomal-segment exchanges between subpopulations was found...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921901/structureselector-a-web-based-software-to-select-and-visualize-the-optimal-number-of-clusters-by-using-multiple-methods
#4
Yu-Long Li, Jin-Xian Liu
Inferences of population genetic structure are of great importance to the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology. The program STUCTURE has been widely used to infer population genetic structure. However, previous studies demonstrated that uneven sampling often leads to wrong inferences on hierarchical structure. The most widely used ΔK method tends to identify the uppermost hierarchy of population structure. Recently, four alternative statistics (MedMedK, MedMeaK, MaxMedK, MaxMeaK) were proposed, which appear to be more accurate than the previously used methods for both even and uneven sampling data...
September 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921859/trophic-interaction-modifications-an-empirical-and-theoretical-framework
#5
J Christopher D Terry, Rebecca J Morris, Michael B Bonsall
Consumer-resource interactions are often influenced by other species in the community. At present these 'trophic interaction modifications' are rarely included in ecological models despite demonstrations that they can drive system dynamics. Here, we advocate and extend an approach that has the potential to unite and represent this key group of non-trophic interactions by emphasising the change to trophic interactions induced by modifying species. We highlight the opportunities this approach brings in comparison to frameworks that coerce trophic interaction modifications into pairwise relationships...
October 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921844/functional-traits-determine-tree-growth-and-ecosystem-productivity-of-a-tropical-montane-forest-insights-from-a-long-term-nutrient-manipulation-experiment
#6
Selene Báez, Jürgen Homeier
Trait response-effects are critical to forecast community structure and biomass production in highly diverse tropical forests. Ecological theory and few observation studies indicate that trees with acquisitive functional traits would respond more strongly to higher resource availability than those with conservative traits. We assessed how long-term tree growth in experimental nutrient addition plots (N, P and N+P) varied as a function of morphological traits, tree size and species identity. We also evaluated how trait-based responses affected stand scale biomass production considering the community structure...
September 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921829/vegetation-demographics-in-earth-system-models-a-review-of-progress-and-priorities
#7
Rosie A Fisher, Charles D Koven, William R L Anderegg, Bradley O Christoffersen, Michael C Dietze, Caroline Farrior, Jennifer A Holm, George Hurtt, Ryan G Knox, Peter J Lawrence, Jeremy W Lichststein, Marcos Longo, Ashley M Matheny, David Medvigy, Helene C Muller-Landau, Thomas L Powell, Shawn P Serbin, Hisashi Sato, Jacquelyn Shuman, Benjamin Smith, Anna T Trugman, Toni Viskari, Hans Verbeeck, Ensheng Weng, Chonggang Xu, Xiangtao Xu, Tao Zhang, Paul Moorcroft
Numerous current efforts seek to improve the representation of ecosystem ecology and vegetation demographic processes within Earth System Models (ESMs). These developments are widely viewed as an important step in developing greater realism in predictions of future ecosystem states and fluxes. Increased realism, however, leads to increased model complexity, with new features raising a suite of ecological questions that require empirical constraints. Here, we review the developments that permit the representation of plant demographics in ESMs, and identify issues raised by these developments that highlight important gaps in ecological understanding...
September 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921808/long-term-agricultural-management-does-not-alter-the-evolution-of-a-soybean-rhizobium-mutualism
#8
Jennifer E Schmidt, Dylan J Weese, Jennifer A Lau
Leguminous crops, like soybeans, often rely on biologically fixed nitrogen via their symbiosis with rhizobia rather than synthetic nitrogen inputs. However, agricultural management practices may influence the effectiveness of biological nitrogen fixation. While the ecological effects of agricultural management on rhizobia have received some attention, the evolutionary effects have been neglected in comparison. Resource mutualism theory predicts that evolutionary effects are likely, however. Both fertilization and tillage are predicted to cause the evolution of rhizobia that provide fewer growth benefits to plant hosts and fix less nitrogen...
September 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921805/cytochrome-p450-diversification-and-hostplant-utilization-patterns-in-specialist-and-generalist-moths-birth-death-and-adaptation
#9
Bernarda Calla, Katherine Noble, Reed M Johnson, Kimberly K O Walden, Mary A Schuler, Hugh M Robertson, May R Berenbaum
Across insect genomes, the size of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) gene superfamily varies widely. CYPome size variation has been attributed to reciprocal adaptive radiations in insect detoxification genes in response to plant biosynthetic gene radiations driven by coevolution between herbivores and their chemically defended hostplants. Alternatively, variation in CYPome size may be due to random "birth and death" processes, whereby exponential increase via gene duplications is limited by random decay via gene death or transition via divergence...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921802/environmental-dna-metabarcoding-transforming-how-we-survey-animal-and-plant-communities
#10
Kristy Deiner, Holly M Bik, Elvira Mächler, Mathew Seymour, Anaïs Lacoursière-Roussel, Florian Altermatt, Simon Creer, Iliana Bista, David M Lodge, Natasha de Vere, Michael E Pfrender, Louis Bernatchez
The genomic revolution has fundamentally changed how we survey biodiversity on earth. High-throughput sequencing ('HTS') platforms now enable the rapid sequencing of DNA from diverse kinds of environmental samples (termed 'environmental DNA' or 'eDNA'). Coupling HTS with our ability to associate sequences from eDNA with a taxonomic name is called 'eDNA metabarcoding' and offers a powerful molecular tool capable of non-invasively surveying species richness from many ecosystems. Here, we review the use of eDNA metabarcoding for surveying animal and plant richness, and the challenges in using eDNA approaches to estimate relative abundance...
September 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921589/susceptibility-behaviour-and-retention-of-the-parasitic-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-differ-with-atlantic-salmon-population-origin
#11
S Bui, S Dalvin, T Dempster, O F Skulstad, R B Edvardsen, A Wargelius, F Oppedal
Atlantic salmon populations across the world have diverse ecological and evolutionary histories, from wild anadromous or landlocked, to domestication and genetic modification. The natural host behaviours confer protection from infestation by ectoparasitic salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis, yet whether genetic origin results in different behaviours and thus susceptibility to infestation is unknown. In common garden experiments, we tested antiparasite behaviours, susceptibility and retention of salmon lice in wild anadromous, wild landlocked, domesticated and genetically modified domesticated strains...
September 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921508/selection-on-skewed-characters-and-the-paradox-of-stasis
#12
Suzanne Bonamour, Céline Teplitsky, Anne Charmantier, Pierre-André Crochet, Luis-Miguel Chevin
Observed phenotypic responses to selection in the wild often differ from predictions based on measurements of selection and genetic variance. An overlooked hypothesis to explain this paradox of stasis is that a skewed phenotypic distribution affects natural selection and evolution. We show through mathematical modelling that, when a trait selected for an optimum phenotype has a skewed distribution, directional selection is detected even at evolutionary equilibrium, where it causes no change in the mean phenotype...
September 18, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921162/a-bionanohybrid-znal-nads-ecological-pesticide-as-a-treatment-for-soft-rot-disease-in-potato-solanum-tuberosum-l
#13
Erika Elizabeth Morales-Irigoyen, Yolanda de Las Mercedes Gómez-Y-Gómez, Jorge Luis Flores-Moreno, Marina Olivia Franco-Hernández
Pectobacterium carotovorum (Pc) is a phytopathogenic strain that causes soft rot disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), resulting in postharvest losses. Chemical control is effective for managing this disease, but overdoses cause adverse effects. Because farmers insist on using chemical agents for crop protection, it is necessary to develop more effective pesticides in which the active compound released can be regulated. In this context, we proposed the synthesis of ZnAl-NADS, in which nalidixic acid sodium salt (NADS) is linked to a ZnAl-NO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) host as a nanocarrier...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920165/distinctive-patterns-in-the-taxonomical-resolution-of-bacterioplankton-in-the-sediment-and-pore-waters-of-contrasted-freshwater-lakes
#14
J Keshri, A S Pradeep Ram, T Sime-Ngando
Bacteria assemblages in lake sediments play a key role in various biogeochemical processes, yet their association with interstitial pore waters has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we utilized Illumina next-generation amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the seasonal bacterial communities in the sediments and pore waters of three contrasted temperate freshwater lakes, namely Pavin, Aydat, and Grangent (French Massif Central). Despite occupying seemingly similar habitats, bacterial communities differed substantially between sediments and pore waters at all seasons with low sharing of operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 6...
September 17, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920075/of-mice-and-men-empirical-support-for-the-population-based-social-epistasis-amplification-model-a-comment-on
#15
Matthew Alexandar Sarraf, Michael Anthony Woodley Of Menie
This commentary article offers new perspective on recent research investigating the behavioral and social ecological effects of a mutation related to autism spectrum disorders in mice. The authors explain the consistency of this research on mice with predictions advanced by a theory of the role of mutations in altering interorganismal gene-gene interactions (social epistasis) in social species including humans, known as the social epistasis amplification model. The potential significance of the mouse research for understanding contemporary human behavioral trends is explored...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919968/a-new-species-of-melitaea-from-israel-with-notes-on-taxonomy-cytogenetics-phylogeography-and-interspecific-hybridization-in-the-melitaea-persea-complex-lepidoptera-nymphalidae
#16
Vladimir A Lukhtanov
Specimens with intermediate morphology are often considered to be the result of ongoing interspecific hybridization; however, this conclusion is difficult to prove without analysis of chromosomal and/or molecular markers. In the butterfly genus Melitaea, such an intermediacy can be detected in male genitalia, and is more or less regularly observed in localities where two closely related, presumably parental species are found in sympatry. Here I analyze a high altitude Melitaea population from Mt. Hermon in north Israel and show that its male genitalia are clearly differentiated from those found in phenotypically similar M...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919954/immunocytological-analysis-of-meiotic-recombination-in-two-anole-lizards-squamata-dactyloidae
#17
Artem P Lisachov, Vladimir A Trifonov, Massimo Giovannotti, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Pavel M Borodin
Although the evolutionary importance of meiotic recombination is not disputed, the significance of interspecies differences in the recombination rates and recombination landscapes remains under-appreciated. Recombination rates and distribution of chiasmata have been examined cytologically in many mammalian species, whereas data on other vertebrates are scarce. Immunolocalization of the protein of the synaptonemal complex (SYCP3), centromere proteins and the mismatch-repair protein MLH1 was used, which is associated with the most common type of recombination nodules, to analyze the pattern of meiotic recombination in the male of two species of iguanian lizards, Anolis carolinensis Voigt, 1832 and Deiroptyx coelestinus (Cope, 1862)...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919865/coping-with-salt-water-habitats-metabolic-and-oxidative-responses-to-salt-intake-in-the-rufous-collared-sparrow
#18
Pablo Sabat, Cristóbal Narváez, Isaac Peña-Villalobos, Carolina Contreras, Karin Maldonado, Juan C Sanchez-Hernandez, Seth D Newsome, Roberto Nespolo, Francisco Bozinovic
Many physiological adjustments occur in response to salt intake in several marine taxa, which manifest at different scales from changes in the concentration of individual molecules to physical traits of whole organisms. Little is known about the influence of salinity on the distribution, physiological performance, and ecology of passerines; specifically, the impact of drinking water salinity on the oxidative status of birds has been largely ignored. In this study, we evaluated whether experimental variations in the salt intake of a widely-distributed passerine (Zontotrichia capensis) could generate differences in basal (BMR) and maximum metabolic rates (Msum), as well as affect metabolic enzyme activity and oxidative status...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919836/increase-in-density-of-genetically-diverse-invasive-asian-shore-crab-hemigrapsus-sanguineus-populations-in-the-gulf-of-maine
#19
Joshua P Lord, Larissa M Williams
Hemigrapsus sanguineus, the Asian shore crab, has rapidly replaced Carcinus maenas, the green crab, as the most abundant crab on rocky shores in the northwest Atlantic since its introduction to the United States (USA) in 1988. The northern edge of this progressing invasion is the Gulf of Maine, where Asian shore crabs are only abundant in the south. We compared H. sanguineus population densities to those from published 2005 surveys and quantified genetic variation using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene...
April 2017: Biological Invasions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919651/land-use-change-impacts-on-floods-at-the-catchment-scale-challenges-and-opportunities-for-future-research
#20
M Rogger, M Agnoletti, A Alaoui, J C Bathurst, G Bodner, M Borga, V Chaplot, F Gallart, G Glatzel, J Hall, J Holden, L Holko, R Horn, A Kiss, S Kohnová, G Leitinger, B Lennartz, J Parajka, R Perdigão, S Peth, L Plavcová, J N Quinton, M Robinson, J L Salinas, A Santoro, J Szolgay, S Tron, J J H van den Akker, A Viglione, G Blöschl
Research gaps in understanding flood changes at the catchment scale caused by changes in forest management, agricultural practices, artificial drainage, and terracing are identified. Potential strategies in addressing these gaps are proposed, such as complex systems approaches to link processes across time scales, long-term experiments on physical-chemical-biological process interactions, and a focus on connectivity and patterns across spatial scales. It is suggested that these strategies will stimulate new research that coherently addresses the issues across hydrology, soil and agricultural sciences, forest engineering, forest ecology, and geomorphology...
July 2017: Water Resources Research
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