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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634342/natural-canopy-bridges-effectively-mitigate-tropical-forest-fragmentation-for-arboreal-mammals
#1
Tremaine Gregory, Farah Carrasco-Rueda, Alfonso Alonso, Joseph Kolowski, Jessica L Deichmann
Linear infrastructure development and resulting habitat fragmentation are expanding in Neotropical forests, and arboreal mammals may be disproportionately impacted by these linear habitat clearings. Maintaining canopy connectivity through preservation of connecting branches (i.e. natural canopy bridges) may help mitigate that impact. Using camera traps, we evaluated crossing rates of a pipeline right-of-way in a control area with no bridges and in a test area where 13 bridges were left by the pipeline construction company...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633110/emerging-contaminants-related-to-the-occurrence-of-forest-fires-in-the-spanish-mediterranean
#2
Julian Campo, María Lorenzo, Erik L H Cammeraat, Yolanda Picó, Vicente Andreu
Forest fires can be a source of contamination because, among others, of the use of chemicals to their extinction (flame retardants, FRs), or by the production of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from high temperature alteration of organic matter. Up to our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the direct (PAHs 16 on the USA EPA's priority list), and indirect [tri- to hepta- brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)] contamination related to forest fires...
June 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629159/intercomparison-of-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-and-ground-based-narrow-band-spectrometers-applied-to-crop-trait-monitoring-in-organic-potato-production
#3
Marston Héracles Domingues Franceschini, Harm Bartholomeus, Dirk van Apeldoorn, Juha Suomalainen, Lammert Kooistra
Vegetation properties can be estimated using optical sensors, acquiring data on board of different platforms. For instance, ground-based and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne spectrometers can measure reflectance in narrow spectral bands, while different modelling approaches, like regressions fitted to vegetation indices, can relate spectra with crop traits. Although monitoring frameworks using multiple sensors can be more flexible, they may result in higher inaccuracy due to differences related to the sensors characteristics, which can affect information sampling...
June 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628992/estimating-linkages-between-forest-structural-variables-and-rainfall-interception-parameters-in-semi-arid-deciduous-oak-forest-stands
#4
O Fathizadeh, S M Hosseini, A Zimmermann, R F Keim, A Darvishi Boloorani
An understanding of the relationship between canopy structure and the water balance is needed for predicting how forest structure changes affect rainfall partitioning and, consequently, water resources. The objective of this study was to predict rainfall interception (I) and canopy storage capacity (S) using canopy structure variables and to investigate how seasonal changes influence their relationship. The study was conducted in twelve 50m×50m plots in the Zagros forest in the western Iranian state of Ilam, protected forests of Dalab region...
June 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628670/combining-ability-heritability-and-genotypic-relations-of-different-physiological-traits-in-cacao-hybrids
#5
Allan Silva Pereira, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Márcia Christina da Silva Branco, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso Costa, Dario Ahnert
Selecting parents and evaluating progenies is a very important step in breeding programs and involves approaches such as understanding the initial stages of growth and characterizing the variability among genotypes for different parameters, such as physiological, growth, biomass partitioning and nutrient translocation to the aerial part. In these cases, facilitating tools can be used to understand the involved gene dynamics, such as diallel crosses and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Our main hypothesis is that the contrasting phenotypes of these parental genotypes of cocoa used are due to genetic factors, and progenies derived from crosses of these parental genotypes are useful for breeding programs related to plant architecture, physiological parameters and translocation of mineral nutrients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620915/gas-exchange-recovery-following-natural-drought-is-rapid-unless-limited-by-loss-of-leaf-hydraulic-conductance-evidence-from-an-evergreen-woodland
#6
Robert P Skelton, Timothy J Brodribb, Scott A M McAdam, Patrick J Mitchell
Drought can cause major damage to plant communities, but species damage thresholds and postdrought recovery of forest productivity are not yet predictable. We used an El Niño drought event as a natural experiment to test whether postdrought recovery of gas exchange could be predicted by properties of the water transport system, or if metabolism, primarily high abscisic acid concentration, might delay recovery. We monitored detailed physiological responses, including shoot sapflow, leaf gas exchange, leaf water potential and foliar abscisic acid (ABA), during drought and through the subsequent rehydration period for a sample of eight canopy and understory species...
June 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620409/real-time-determination-of-photosynthesis-transpiration-water-use-efficiency-and-gene-expression-of-two-sorghum-bicolor-moench-genotypes-subjected-to-dry-down
#7
Alessandra Fracasso, Eugenio Magnanini, Adriano Marocco, Stefano Amaducci
Plant growth and productivity are strongly affected by limited water availability in drought prone environments. The current climate change scenario, characterized by long periods without precipitations followed by short but intense rainfall, forces plants to implement different strategies to cope with drought stress. Understanding how plants use water during periods of limited water availability is of primary importance to identify and select the best adapted genotypes to a certain environment. Two sorghum genotypes IS22330 and IS20351, previously characterized as drought tolerant and drought sensitive genotypes, were subjected to progressive drought stress through a dry-down experiment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620400/comparing-pixel-and-object-based-approaches-to-map-an-understorey-invasive-shrub-in-tropical-mixed-forests
#8
Madhura Niphadkar, Harini Nagendra, Cristina Tarantino, Maria Adamo, Palma Blonda
The establishment of invasive alien species in varied habitats across the world is now recognized as a genuine threat to the preservation of biodiversity. Specifically, plant invasions in understory tropical forests are detrimental to the persistence of healthy ecosystems. Monitoring such invasions using Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite remote sensing has been shown to be valuable in designing management interventions for conservation of native habitats. Object-based classification methods are very helpful in identifying invasive plants in various habitats, by their inherent nature of imitating the ability of the human brain in pattern recognition...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620399/timing-is-important-unmanned-aircraft-vs-satellite-imagery-in-plant-invasion-monitoring
#9
Jana Müllerová, Josef Brůna, Tomáš Bartaloš, Petr Dvořák, Michaela Vítková, Petr Pyšek
The rapid spread of invasive plants makes their management increasingly difficult. Remote sensing offers a means of fast and efficient monitoring, but still the optimal methodologies remain to be defined. The seasonal dynamics and spectral characteristics of the target invasive species are important factors, since, at certain time of the vegetation season (e.g., at flowering or senescing), plants are often more distinct (or more visible beneath the canopy). Our aim was to establish fast, repeatable and a cost-efficient, computer-assisted method applicable over larger areas, to reduce the costs of extensive field campaigns...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620124/a-high-throughput-field-based-phenotyping-technology-for-tall-biomass-crops
#10
Maria G Salas Fernandez, Yin Bao, Lie Tang, Patrick S Schnable
Recent advances in "omics" technologies have not been accompanied by equally efficient, cost-effective and accurate phenotyping methods required to dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. Even though high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed for controlled environments, field-based aerial and ground technologies have only been designed and deployed for short stature crops. Therefore, we developed and tested Phenobot 1.0, an auto-steered and self-propelled field-based high-throughput phenotyping platform for tall dense canopy crops, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L...
June 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619595/eutrophication-affects-the-resistance-of-fucoids-to-an-introduced-alga-spread
#11
Piazzi Luigi, Ceccherelli Giulia
This study investigates whether eutrophication can affect the capacity of the canopy alga Cystoseira brachycarpa to impede or limit the spread of the introduced species Caulerpa cylindracea. By means of a manipulative field study (16 months long), the effects of nutrient enrichment and C. cylindracea removal were tested on the canopy-alga and the associated macroalgal community. Results highlighted deep changes through time due to nutrient enrichment, as C. brachycarpa decreased and Halopteris scoparia increased in cover...
June 6, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618146/green-alder-alnus-viridis-encroachment-shapes-microbial-communities-in-subalpine-soils-and-impacts-its-bacterial-or-fungal-symbionts-differently
#12
G Schwob, M Roy, S Manzi, T Pommier, M P Fernandez
Since the mid twentieth-century, subalpine grasslands undergo a progressive encroachment by Alnus viridis shrubs. Thanks to its rapid vegetative reproduction, its nitrogen fixing symbiosis with Frankia and its ectomycorrhizal cohorts, green alders are vigorous colonizers that quickly form mosaic of alder patches that evolves into a close canopy shrub community. To better understand how alder encroachment might influence microbial communities in this successional sequence, symbiont distribution, microbial richness and community structure in both soils and nodules were analyzed at three successional stages: grassland, mosaic and forest...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615620/understanding-saturation-of-radar-signals-over-forests
#13
Neha Joshi, Edward T A Mitchard, Matthew Brolly, Johannes Schumacher, Alfredo Fernández-Landa, Vivian Kvist Johannsen, Miguel Marchamalo, Rasmus Fensholt
There is an urgent need to quantify anthropogenic influence on forest carbon stocks. Using satellite-based radar imagery for such purposes has been challenged by the apparent loss of signal sensitivity to changes in forest aboveground volume (AGV) above a certain 'saturation' point. The causes of saturation are debated and often inadequately addressed, posing a major limitation to mapping AGV with the latest radar satellites. Using ground- and lidar-measurements across La Rioja province (Spain) and Denmark, we investigate how various properties of forest structure (average stem height, size and number density; proportion of canopy and understory cover) simultaneously influence radar backscatter...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613883/identifying-land-use-and-land-use-changes-luluc-a-global-luluc-matrix
#14
Michele De Rosa, Mette Vestergaard Odgaard, Jan K Staunstrup, Marie Trydeman Knudsen, John Erik Hermansen
Land Use and Land-use Changes (LULUC) information is essential to determine the environmental impacts of anthropogenic land-use and conversion. However, existing datasets are either local-scale or they quantify land occupation per land-use type rather than providing information on land-use changes. Here we combined the strengths of the remotely-sensed MODIS land cover dataset and FAOSTAT land-use data to obtain a database including a collection of 231 country-specific LULUC matrixes, as suggested by the IPCC...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610184/-i-indopamphantus-i-i-makutaensis-i-a-new-genus-and-species-and-indopamphantini-a-new-tribe-of-pamphantinae-hemiptera-heteroptera-geocoridae-as-the-first-representative-of-the-subfamily-from-the-oriental-region
#15
M B Malipatil
Indopamphantini trib. nov., a new tribe of subfamily Pamphantinae of family Geocoridae, is erected for Indopamphantus gen. nov., containing one species, I. makutaensis sp. nov., as the first member of this subfamily from the Oriental Region. The strikingly myrmecomorphic I. makutaensis, collected only from Makuta range area within Coorg [Kodagu] district at altitudes of up to 909 metres in the canopy of Vateria indica L. (Dipterocarpaceae), a tree indigenous to the Western Ghats in south India, is described and illustrated...
March 10, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609157/prediction-of-short-distance-aerial-transport-of-phakopsora-pachyrhizi-urediniospores-using-machine-learning
#16
Liwei Wen, Charles Bowen, Glen Hartman
Dispersal of urediniospores by wind is the primary means of spread for Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the cause of soybean rust. Our research focused on the short distance transport of urediniospores from movement within and out of the canopy up to 61 m from a source. Environmental variables were used to develop and compare lasso regression, random forest, and neural network models to describe deposition of urediniospores collected in passive and active traps. A random sample consisting of 80% of the data was used for training (referred to as a training dataset) and validating (validation dataset) the models from both types of traps...
June 13, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608474/association-between-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae-and-the-vine-mealybug-hemiptera-pseudococcidae-in-table-grape-vineyards-in-eastern-spain
#17
Aleixandre Beltrà, Cristina Navarro-Campos, Altea Calabuig, Luis Estopà, Felix L Wäckers, Apostolos Pekas, Antonia Soto
BACKGROUND: The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a key pest of grapevine in the Mediterranean Basin. Some honeydew collecting ant species are known to increase mealybug populations in other grape-growing regions. However, there is scarce information on either the ant species present in Mediterranean vineyards or their impact on mealybugs. We conducted a study in four commercial vineyards in Eastern Spain in order to i) identify the ant species foraging on the vine canopies, ii) study the association among ant activity, vine mealybug abundance and fruit damage, and iii) test a novel method for ant management, distracting ants from guarding vine mealybugs by providing artificial sugars...
June 12, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607358/temperature-gradients-assist-carbohydrate-allocation-within-trees
#18
Or Sperling, Lucas C R Silva, Aude Tixier, Guillaume Théroux-Rancourt, Maciej A Zwieniecki
Trees experience two distinct environments: thermally-variable air and thermally-buffered soil. This generates intra-tree temperature gradients, which can affect carbon metabolism and water transport. In this study, we investigated whether carbohydrate allocation within trees is assisted by temperature gradients. We studied pistachio (Pistacia integerrima) to determine: (1) temperature-induced variation in xylem sugar concentration in excised branches; (2) changes in carbon allocation in young trees under simulated spring and fall conditions; and (3) seasonal variability of starch levels in mature orchard trees under field conditions...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605868/different-responses-of-asymbiotic-nitrogen-fixation-to-nitrogen-addition-between-disturbed-and-rehabilitated-subtropical-forests
#19
Mianhai Zheng, Wei Zhang, Yiqi Luo, Taiki Mori, Qinggong Mao, Senhao Wang, Juan Huang, Xiankai Lu, Jiangming Mo
Asymbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation is an important source of new N in ecosystems, and is sensitive to atmospheric N deposition. However, there is limited understanding of asymbiotic N fixation and its response to N deposition in the context of forest rehabilitation. In this study, we measured N fixation rates (acetylene reduction) in different ecosystem compartments (i.e. soil, forest floor, moss Syrrhopodon armatus, and canopy leaves) in a disturbed and a rehabilitated subtropical forest in southern China, under 12years of N treatments: control, low N addition (50kgNha(-1)yr(-1)), and medium N addition (100kgNha(-1)yr(-1))...
June 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605033/the-befuddling-nature-of-mouse-lemur-hands-and-feet-at-bez%C3%A3-mahafaly-sw-madagascar
#20
Gina Agostini, Emilienne Rasoazanabary, Laurie R Godfrey
The reddish-gray mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus) possesses striking phenotypic and behavioral variation. This project investigates differences in autopod proportions in neighboring populations of M. griseorufus from the Special Reserve at Bezà Mahafaly in southwest Madagascar. One population resides in an environment generally preferred by M. griseorufus-a spiny forest with large-trunked trees, vertically-oriented supports, and more open ground, while the other resides in a gallery forest with abundant small, often horizontal peripheral branches in high canopy...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
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