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Gunnar Keppel, Sharolyn Anderson, Craig Williams, Sonia Kleindorfer, Christopher O'Connell
Extreme heat events will become more frequent under anthropogenic climate change, especially in Mediterranean ecosystems. Microhabitats can considerably moderate (buffer) the effects of extreme weather events and hence facilitate the persistence of some components of the biodiversity. We investigate the microclimatic moderation provided by two important microhabitats (cavities formed by the leaves of the grass-tree Xanthorrhoea semiplana F.Muell., Xanthorrhoeaceae; and inside the leaf-litter) during the summer of 2015/16 on the Fleurieu Peninsula of South Australia...
2017: PloS One
Molly A Cavaleri, Adam P Coble, Michael G Ryan, William L Bauerle, Henry W Loescher, Steven F Oberbauer
Changes in tropical forest carbon sink strength during El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events can indicate future behavior under climate change. Previous studies revealed ˜6 Mg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) lower net ecosystem production (NEP) during ENSO year 1998 compared with non-ENSO year 2000 in a Costa Rican tropical rainforest. We explored environmental drivers of this change and examined the contributions of ecosystem respiration (RE) and gross primary production (GPP) to this weakened carbon sink. For 1998-2000, we estimated RE using chamber-based respiration measurements, and we estimated GPP in two ways: using (1) the canopy process model MAESTRA, and (2) combined eddy covariance and chamber respiration data...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
Alexandre Geoffroy, Hervé Sanguin, Antoine Galiana, Amadou Bâ
Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro (Colocasia esculenta) cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Noriyuki Osada, Tsutom Hiura
Coexistence of multiple species is a fundamental aspect of plant and forest ecology. Although spatial arrangement of leaves within crowns is an important determinant of light interception and productivity, shoot structure varies considerably among coexisting canopy species. We investigated the relative importance of structural traits in determining the light availability of leaves (I) and light interception efficiency at the current-year shoot level (LIECS; the total light interception of leaves divided by shoot biomass) at the top of crowns of 11 canopy species in a cool-temperate forest in Japan...
August 11, 2017: Oecologia
Stephen M Decina, Pamela H Templer, Lucy R Hutyra, Conor K Gately, Preeti Rao
Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) is a major input of N to the biosphere and is elevated beyond preindustrial levels throughout many ecosystems. Deposition monitoring networks in the United States generally avoid urban areas in order to capture regional patterns of N deposition, and studies measuring N deposition in cities usually include only one or two urban sites in an urban-rural comparison or as an anchor along an urban-to-rural gradient. Describing patterns and drivers of atmospheric N inputs is crucial for understanding the effects of N deposition; however, little is known about the variability and drivers of atmospheric N inputs or their effects on soil biogeochemistry within urban ecosystems...
August 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jennifer Gonzales, Teresa Tymon, Frithjof C Küpper, Matthew S Edwards, Carl J Carrano
Kelps have a major role in marine and atmospheric iodine cycling in the coastal zone of temperate regions, with potential wide-ranging impacts on ozone destruction in the coastal marine boundary layer. However, little is known about the impact of kelp forests on iodine speciation in coastal sea water. To address this, we examined iodide and iodate concentrations in seawater in and around a giant kelp forest near San Diego, CA, USA, and a nearby site that was not influenced by kelp biology. Our data shows that while both iodide and iodate concentrations remained unchanged during the year at the nearby site, these concentrations changed significantly in and around the kelp forest, and were strongly related to changes in kelp canopy biomass...
2017: PloS One
Holly Boyd, M Colleen Brand, Joseph Hagan
BACKGROUND: Although technological advances have improved devices used to maintain the temperatures of 500- to 1500-g infants, managing the thermal environment remains challenging. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of 2 methods of thermal support provided by a hybrid incubator during routine care in the first week of life. METHODS: This descriptive, comparative study evaluates changes in temperature, humidity, heart rate, and oxygen saturation in the incubator versus radiant warmer (canopy) modes of hybrid warmers using data downloaded from the incubator and the monitor...
August 9, 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Ting-Bang Yang, Jie Liu, Long-Yu Yuan, Yang Zhang, Dai-Qin Li, Ingi Agnarsson, Jian Chen
Biological control using predators of key pest species is an attractive option in integrated pest management (IPM). Molecular gut analysis can provide an estimation of predator efficiency on a given prey. Here we use a combination of various experimental approaches, both in field and lab, to identify a potential biological control species of the common pest of commercially grown tea, Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera), in a Chinese plantation. We collected 2655 spiders from plantations and established relative abundances of spider species and their temporal overlap with the pest species in tea canopy...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Charles H Fontanier, Jacqueline A Aitkenhead-Peterson, Benjamin G Wherley, Richard H White, James C Thomas, Phil Dwyer
Proper management of turfgrass systems is critical for reducing the risk of nutrient loss and protecting urban surface waters. In the southern United States, irrigation can be the most significant management practice regulating the biogeochemical and hydrological cycles of turfgrass systems. A turfgrass runoff research facility was used to assess the effects of deficit irrigation and fertilizer applications on turfgrass canopy cover and nitrate-N (NO-N) exports in runoff from St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Amanda R Carlson, Jason S Sibold, Timothy J Assal, Jose F Negrón
Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks are rapidly spreading throughout subalpine forests of the Rocky Mountains, raising concerns that altered fuel structures may increase the ecological severity of wildfires. Although many recent studies have found no conclusive link between beetle outbreaks and increased fire size or canopy mortality, few studies have addressed whether these combined disturbances produce compounded effects on short-term vegetation recovery. We tested for an effect of spruce beetle outbreak severity on vegetation recovery in the West Fork Complex fire in southwestern Colorado, USA, where much of the burn area had been affected by severe spruce beetle outbreaks in the decade prior to the fire...
2017: PloS One
Carlos Jaime-González, Pablo Acebes, Ana Mateos, Eduardo T Mezquida
LiDAR technology has firmly contributed to strengthen the knowledge of habitat structure-wildlife relationships, though there is an evident bias towards flying vertebrates. To bridge this gap, we investigated and compared the performance of LiDAR and field data to model habitat preferences of wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) in a Mediterranean high mountain pine forest (Pinus sylvestris). We recorded nine field and 13 LiDAR variables that were summarized by means of Principal Component Analyses (PCA). We then analyzed wood mouse's habitat preferences using three different models based on: (i) field PCs predictors, (ii) LiDAR PCs predictors; and (iii) both set of predictors in a combined model, including a variance partitioning analysis...
2017: PloS One
Stephen P Yanoviak, Evan M Gora, Jeffrey M Burchfield, Phillip M Bitzer, Matteo Detto
Accurate estimates of tree mortality are essential for the development of mechanistic forest dynamics models, and for estimating carbon storage and cycling. However, identifying agents of tree mortality is difficult and imprecise. Although lightning kills thousands of trees each year and is an important agent of mortality in some forests, the frequency and distribution of lightning-caused tree death remain unknown for most forests. Moreover, because all evidence regarding the effects of lightning on trees is necessarily anecdotal and post hoc, rigorous tests of hypotheses regarding the ecological effects of lightning are impossible...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Yang Gao, Jing Tian, Yue Pang, Jiabin Liu
In arid and semiarid areas, the effects of afforestation on soil organic carbon (SOC) have received considerable attention. In these areas, in fact, soil inorganic carbon (SIC), rather than SOC, is the dominant form of carbon, with a reservoir approximately 2-10 times larger than that of SOC. A subtle fluctuation of SIC pool can strongly alter the regional carbon budget. However, few studies have focused on the variations in SIC, or have used stable soil carbon isotopes to analyze the reason for SIC variations following afforestation in degraded semiarid lands...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Guangli Tian, Limin Gao, Yali Kong, Xiangyu Hu, Kailiu Xie, Ruiqing Zhang, Ning Ling, Qirong Shen, Shiwei Guo
In terms of tillering potential, the aboveground portions of rice are significantly influenced by the nitrogen level (NL) and transplant density (TD). To obtain a suitable combination of NL and TD, five NLs (0, 90, 180, 270 and 360 kg ha-1) and two TDs [high density (HD), 32.5×104 hills ha-1; low density (LD), 25.5×104 hills ha-1] were used in the rice experiments during 2012 to 2014, in Jiangsu, China. The results showed the highest grain yield of rice obtained at HD and LD when N supply was 180 and 270 kg ha-1, respectively...
2017: PloS One
A Dávila-Lara, M Affenzeller, A Tribsch, V Díaz, H P Comes
The Central American seasonally dry tropical (SDT) forest biome is one of the worlds' most endangered ecosystems, yet little is known about the genetic consequences of its recent fragmentation. A prominent constituent of this biome is Calycophyllum candidissimum, an insect-pollinated and wind-dispersed canopy tree of high socio-economic importance, particularly in Nicaragua. Here, we surveyed amplified fragment length polymorphisms across 13 populations of this species in Nicaragua to elucidate the relative roles of contemporary vs historical factors in shaping its genetic variation...
August 2, 2017: Heredity
Justin Olnes, Knut Kielland, Glenn P Juday, Daniel H Mann, Hélène Genet, Roger W Ruess
Treelines in Alaska are advancing in elevation and latitude because of climate warming, which is expanding the habitat available for boreal wildlife species, including snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). Snowshoe hares are already present in tall shrub communities beyond treeline and are the main browser of white spruce (Picea glauca), the dominant tree species at treeline in Alaska. We investigated the processes involved in a 'snowshoe hare filter' to white spruce establishment near treeline in Denali National Park...
August 2, 2017: Ecology
Hiroki Itô
BACKGROUND: Abandonment of broadleaved secondary forests that have been used for various purposes may cause the loss of biodiversity. Some of these forests suffer from diseases such as Japanese oak wilt. An increasing number of deer also impact some of them. Monitoring and recording the status of such forests is important for their proper management. NEW INFORMATION: This data set provides a concrete example of temporal changes in a temperate broadleaved secondary forest...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
Qing-Hai Song, Yun Deng, Yi -Ping Zhang, Xiao-Bao Deng, You-Xing Lin, Li-Guo Zhou, Xue-Hai Fei, Li-Qing Sha, Yun-Tong Liu, Wen-Jun Zhou, Jin-Bo Gao
Canopy temperature is a result of the canopy energy balance and is driven by climate conditions, plant architecture, and plant-controlled transpiration. Here, we evaluated canopy temperature in a rubber plantation (RP) and tropical rainforest (TR) in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. An infrared temperature sensor was installed at each site to measure canopy temperature. In the dry season, the maximum differences (Tc - Ta) between canopy temperature (Tc) and air temperature (Ta) in the RP and TR were 2.6 and 0...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
Venkadasamy Govindasamy, Priya George, Lalitkumar Aher, Shunmugiah V Ramesh, Arunachalam Thangasamy, Sivalingam Anandan, Susheel Kumar Raina, Mahesh Kumar, Jagadish Rane, Kannepalli Annapurna, Paramjit Singh Minhas
Symbiotic effectiveness of rhizobitoxine (Rtx)-producing strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. in soybean (cultivar NRC-37/Ahilya-4) under limited soil moisture conditions was evaluated using phenomics tools such as infrared(IR) thermal and visible imaging. Red, green and blue (RGB) colour pixels were standardized to analyse a total of 1017 IR thermal and 692 visible images. Plants inoculated with the Rtx-producing strains B. elkanii USDA-61 and USDA-94 and successive inoculation by B. diazoefficiens USDA-110 resulted in cooler canopy temperatures and increased canopy greenness...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rafael R Sola-Guirado, Francisco J Castillo-Ruiz, Francisco Jiménez-Jiménez, Gregorio L Blanco-Roldan, Sergio Castro-Garcia, Jesus A Gil-Ribes
Olive has a notable importance in countries of Mediterranean basin and its profitability depends on several factors such as actual yield, production cost or product price. Actual "on year" Yield (AY) is production (kg tree(-1)) in "on years", and this research attempts to relate it with geometrical parameters of the tree canopy. Regression equation to forecast AY based on manual canopy volume was determined based on data acquired from different orchard categories and cultivars during different harvesting seasons in southern Spain...
July 30, 2017: Sensors
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