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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211583/in%C3%A2-situ-temperature-response-of-photosynthesis-of-42-tree-and-liana-species-in-the-canopy-of-two-panamanian-lowland-tropical-forests-with-contrasting-rainfall-regimes
#1
Martijn Slot, Klaus Winter
Tropical forests contribute significantly to the global carbon cycle, but little is known about the temperature response of photosynthetic carbon uptake in tropical species, and how this varies within and across forests. We determined in situ photosynthetic temperature-response curves for upper canopy leaves of 42 tree and liana species from two tropical forests in Panama with contrasting rainfall regimes. On the basis of seedling studies, we hypothesized that species with high photosynthetic capacity - light-demanding, fast-growing species - would have a higher temperature optimum of photosynthesis (TOpt ) than species with low photosynthetic capacity - shade-tolerant, slow-growing species - and that, therefore, TOpt would scale with the position of a species on the slow-fast continuum of plant functional traits...
February 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203646/light-exclusion-influence-on-grape-anthocyanin
#2
Jungmin Lee
This study contrasted the anthocyanins of investigational grape clusters that developed without light incidence (light-excluded), to those of control clusters that were shaded naturally beneath the vine canopy (control-shaded). Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque white polypropylene enclosures; temperature, vapor pressure deficit, and light intensity were measured continually. All 15 'Merlot' grape anthocyanins accrued in both groups, indicating no accumulations were terminated from light-exclusion during ripening...
February 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203243/foliar-nutrition-biostimulants-and-prime-like-dynamics-in-fruit-tree-physiology-new-insights-on-an-old-topic
#3
REVIEW
Georgia Tanou, Vasileios Ziogas, Athanassios Molassiotis
Despite the fact that the usage of foliar nutrients has long history, many aspects of fertilization through leaves are still unknown. Herein, we review the current knowledge regarding the canopy fertilization putting special emphasis on Fe nutrition and briefly provide insights into the nanofertilizer technology of the foliar feeding of fruit crops. In addition, this paper discusses the main aspects of the foliar application of biostimulants regarding crucial factors of fruit cropping systems, such as fruit yield/size, tolerance to environmental stresses, and nutrient availability...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199861/the-vato-project-development-and-validation-of-a-dynamic-transfer-model-of-tritium-in-grassland-ecosystem
#4
S Le Dizès, C Aulagnier, D Maro, M Rozet, F Vermorel, D Hébert, C Voiseux, L Solier, C Godinot, B Fievet, P Laguionie, O Connan, O Cazimajou, M Morillon
In this paper, a dynamic compartment model with a high temporal resolution has been investigated to describe tritium transfer in grassland ecosystems exposed to atmospheric (3)H releases from nuclear facilities under normal operating or accidental conditions. TOCATTA-χ model belongs to the larger framework of the SYMBIOSE modelling and simulation platform that aims to assess the fate and transport of a wide range of radionuclides in various environmental systems. In this context, the conceptual and mathematical models of TOCATTA-χ have been designed to be relatively simple, minimizing the number of compartments and input parameters required...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199416/restoring-and-managing-low-severity-fire-in-dry-forest-landscapes-of-the-western-usa
#5
William L Baker
Low-severity fires that killed few canopy trees played a significant historical role in dry forests of the western USA and warrant restoration and management, but historical rates of burning remain uncertain. Past reconstructions focused on on dating fire years, not measuring historical rates of burning. Past statistics, including mean composite fire interval (mean CFI) and individual-tree fire interval (mean ITFI) have biases and inaccuracies if used as estimators of rates. In this study, I used regression, with a calibration dataset of 96 cases, to test whether these statistics could accurately predict two equivalent historical rates, population mean fire interval (PMFI) and fire rotation (FR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199323/a-large-scale-biorational-approach-using-bacillus-thuringiensis-israeliensis-strain-am65-52-for-managing-aedes-aegypti-populations-to-prevent-dengue-chikungunya-and-zika-transmission
#6
Catherine A Pruszynski, Lawrence J Hribar, Robert Mickle, Andrea L Leal
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is a container-inhabiting mosquito and a vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. In 2009 several cases of autochthonous dengue transmission were reported in Key West, Florida, USA prompting a comprehensive response to control A. aegypti. In Key West, larvae of this mosquito develop in containers around human habitations which can be numerous and labor intensive to find and treat. Aerial applications of larvicide covering large areas in a short time can be an efficient and economical method to control A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198917/environmental-drivers-on-leaf-phenology-of-ironstone-outcrops-species-under-seasonal-climate
#7
Letícia C Garcia, Fernanda V Barros, José P Lemos-Filho
Banded iron formations (BIF) have a particular vegetation type and provide a good model system for testing theories related to leaf phenology, due to unique stressful environmental conditions. As a consequence of the stressful conditions of BIF environment, we hypothesize that most species would retain at least some significant canopy cover, even at the end of the dry season, independently of growth form - trees, shrubs, and sub-shrubs. Considering the strong seasonality, we also hypothesize that photoperiod and rainfall act as triggers for leaf fall and leaf flushing in these environments...
February 9, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194619/how-herbivore-browsing-strategy-affects-whole-plant-photosynthetic-capacity
#8
E Penelope Holland, Julie Mugford, Rachelle N Binny, Alex James
If a browse damage index indicates that a tree has been 50% browsed by herbivores, does this mean half the leaves are entirely eaten or are all the leaves half eaten? Were the affected leaves old or young? Large or small? In sunshine or shade? Understanding what effect browsing will have on the photosynthetic capacity and the plant's survival ability clearly requires a greater understanding of browsing strategy across the canopy than can be given by a single index value. We developed stochastic models of leaf production, growth and consumption using data from kamahi (Weinmannia racemosa) trees in New Zealand which have been browsed by possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), to ascertain which of six feasible browsing strategies possums are most likely to be employing...
February 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188423/photosynthetic-antenna-engineering-to-improve-crop-yields
#9
Henning Kirst, Stéphane T Gabilly, Krishna K Niyogi, Peggy G Lemaux, Anastasios Melis
Evidence shows that decreasing the light-harvesting antenna size of the photosystems in tobacco helps to increase the photosynthetic productivity and plant canopy biomass accumulation under high-density cultivation conditions. Decreasing, or truncating, the chlorophyll antenna size of the photosystems can theoretically improve photosynthetic solar energy conversion efficiency and productivity in mass cultures of algae or plants by up to threefold. A Truncated Light-harvesting chlorophyll Antenna size (TLA), in all classes of photosynthetic organisms, would help to alleviate excess absorption of sunlight and the ensuing wasteful non-photochemical dissipation of excitation energy...
February 10, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188416/keystone-species-forest-and-landscape-a-model-to-select-protected-areas
#10
Daniela Barbosa da Silva Lins, Fernando Ravanini Gardon, João Frederico da Costa Azevedo Meyer, Rozely Ferreira Dos Santos
The selection of forest fragments for conservation is usually based on spatial parameters as forest size and canopy integrity. This strategy assumes that chosen fragments present high conservation status, ensuring biodiversity and ecological functions. We argue that a well-preserved forest fragment that remains connected by the landscape structure, does not necessarily hold attributes that ensure the presence of keystone species. We also discuss that the presence of keystone species does not always mean that it has the best conditions for its occurrence and maintenance...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187140/diel-periodicity-of-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae-under-field-conditions
#11
Richard K Evans, Michael D Toews, Ashfaq A Sial
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an economically important pest of blueberry and other thin-skinned fruits, persists and prolifically reproduces under seemingly lethal climatic conditions in the field. However, behavioral and physiological mechanisms employed by D. suzukii to tolerate such extreme climatic conditions in the field are unknown. The primary objective of this project was to investigate diel periodicity of D. suzukii and their reproductive success under field conditions as related by climatic factors such as temperature and relative humidity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182314/exotic-weeds-and-fluctuating-microclimate-can-constrain-native-plant-regeneration-in-urban-forest-restoration
#12
K J Wallace, Daniel C Laughlin, Bruce D Clarkson
Restoring forest structure and composition is an important component of urban land management, but we lack clear understanding of the mechanisms driving restoration success. Here we studied two indicators of restoration success in temperate rainforests: native tree regeneration and epiphyte colonization. We hypothesized that ecosystem properties such as forest canopy openness, abundance of exotic herbaceous weeds, and the microclimate directly affect the density and diversity of native tree seedlings and epiphytes...
February 9, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181244/plant-functional-traits-and-canopy-structure-control-the-relationship-between-photosynthetic-co2-uptake-and-far-red-sun-induced-fluorescence-in-a-mediterranean-grassland-under-different-nutrient-availability
#13
Mirco Migliavacca, Oscar Perez-Priego, Micol Rossini, Tarek S El-Madany, Gerardo Moreno, Christiaan van der Tol, Uwe Rascher, Anna Berninger, Verena Bessenbacher, Andreas Burkart, Arnaud Carrara, Francesco Fava, Jin-Hong Guan, Tiana W Hammer, Kathrin Henkel, Enrique Juarez-Alcalde, Tommaso Julitta, Olaf Kolle, M Pilar Martín, Talie Musavi, Javier Pacheco-Labrador, Andrea Pérez-Burgueño, Thomas Wutzler, Sönke Zaehle, Markus Reichstein
Sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) in the far-red region provides a new noninvasive measurement approach that has the potential to quantify dynamic changes in light-use efficiency and gross primary production (GPP). However, the mechanistic link between GPP and SIF is not completely understood. We analyzed the structural and functional factors controlling the emission of SIF at 760 nm (F760 ) in a Mediterranean grassland manipulated with nutrient addition of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) or nitrogen-phosphorous (NP)...
February 9, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181238/tree-species-diversity-affects-decomposition-through-modified-micro-environmental-conditions-across-european-forests
#14
François-Xavier Joly, Alexandru Milcu, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Loreline-Katia Jean, Filippo Bussotti, Seid Muhie Dawud, Sandra Müller, Martina Pollastrini, Karsten Raulund-Rasmussen, Lars Vesterdal, Stephan Hättenschwiler
Different tree species influence litter decomposition directly through species-specific litter traits, and indirectly through distinct modifications of the local decomposition environment. Whether these indirect effects on decomposition are influenced by tree species diversity is presently not clear. We addressed this question by studying the decomposition of two common substrates, cellulose paper and wood sticks, in a total of 209 forest stands of varying tree species diversity across six major forest types at the scale of Europe...
February 9, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166907/practice-makes-perfect-performance-optimisation-in-arboreal-parkour-athletes-illuminates-the-evolutionary-ecology-of-great-ape-anatomy
#15
Lewis G Halsey, Samuel R L Coward, Robin H Crompton, Susannah K S Thorpe
An animal's size is central to its ecology, yet remarkably little is known about the selective pressures that drive this trait. A particularly compelling example is how ancestral apes evolved large body mass in such a physically and energetically challenging environment as the forest canopy, where weight-bearing branches and lianas are flexible, irregular and discontinuous, and the majority of preferred foods are situated on the most flexible branches at the periphery of tree crowns. To date the issue has been intractable due to a lack of relevant fossil material, the limited capacity of the fossil record to reconstruct an animal's behavioural ecology and the inability to measure energy consumption in freely moving apes...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163771/a-high-throughput-stereo-imaging-system-for-quantifying-rape-leaf-traits-during-the-seedling-stage
#16
Xiong Xiong, Lejun Yu, Wanneng Yang, Meng Liu, Ni Jiang, Di Wu, Guoxing Chen, Lizhong Xiong, Kede Liu, Qian Liu
BACKGROUND: The fitness of the rape leaf is closely related to its biomass and photosynthesis. The study of leaf traits is significant for improving rape leaf production and optimizing crop management. Canopy structure and individual leaf traits are the major indicators of quality during the rape seedling stage. Differences in canopy structure reflect the influence of environmental factors such as water, sunlight and nutrient supply. The traits of individual rape leaves traits indicate the growth period of the rape as well as its canopy shape...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162800/photosynthetic-responses-to-ozone-of-upper-and-lower-canopy-leaves-of-fagus-crenata-blume-seedlings-grown-under-different-soil-nutrient-conditions
#17
Yoshiyuki Kinose, Yoshinobu Fukamachi, Shigeaki Okabe, Hiroka Hiroshima, Makoto Watanabe, Takeshi Izuta
We aimed to clarify the effects of ozone (O3) on photosynthetic ability of upper and lower canopy leaves of Fagus crenata Blume seedlings grown under different soil nutrient conditions. To accomplish this objective, we analyzed the response of photosynthetic parameters such as maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) to cumulative stomatal O3 uptake (ΣFst) and reduction rate of Vcmax per unit ΣFst as an index of detoxification capacity for O3. The seedlings of Fagus crenata were grown for two growing seasons (2014-2015) in nine treatments comprised of a combination of three levels of gas treatments (charcoal-filtered air or 1...
February 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161043/utilising-green-and-bluespace-to-mitigate-urban-heat-island-intensity
#18
K R Gunawardena, M J Wells, T Kershaw
It has long been recognised that cities exhibit their own microclimate and are typically warmer than the surrounding rural areas. This 'mesoscale' influence is known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect and results largely from modification of surface properties leading to greater absorption of solar radiation, reduced convective cooling and lower water evaporation rates. Cities typically contain less vegetation and bodies of water than rural areas, and existing green and bluespace is often under threat from increasing population densities...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158204/atmospheric-co2-concentration-effects-on-rice-water-use-and-biomass-production
#19
Uttam Kumar, William Paul Quick, Marilou Barrios, Pompe C Sta Cruz, Michael Dingkuhn
Numerous studies have addressed effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration on rice biomass production and yield but effects on crop water use are less well understood. Irrigated rice evapotranspiration (ET) is composed of floodwater evaporation and canopy transpiration. Crop coefficient Kc (ET over potential ET, or ETo) is crop specific according to FAO, but may decrease as CO2 concentration rises. A sunlit growth chamber experiment was conducted in the Philippines, exposing 1.44-m2 canopies of IR72 rice to four constant CO2 levels (195, 390, 780 and 1560 ppmv)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153399/changes-in-surface-water-chemistry-caused-by-natural-forest-dieback-in-an-unmanaged-mountain-catchment
#20
J Kopáček, H Fluksová, J Hejzlar, J Kaňa, P Porcal, J Turek
Ionic and nutrient compositions of throughfall, tributaries and lake outlet were analysed in the Plešné catchment-lake system (an unmanaged mountain forest in Central Europe) from 1997 to 2016. The aim was to evaluate changes in surface water chemistry after natural forest dieback. In the 2004-2008, 93% of the Norway spruce trees were killed by bark beetle outbreak, and all dead biomass remained in the catchment. Forest dieback changed the chemistry of all water fluxes, and the magnitude, timing, and duration of these changes differed for individual water constituents...
January 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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