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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106819/modeling-aboveground-biomass-in-hulunber-grassland-ecosystem-by-using-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-discrete-lidar
#1
Dongliang Wang, Xiaoping Xin, Quanqin Shao, Matthew Brolly, Zhiliang Zhu, Jin Chen
Accurate canopy structure datasets, including canopy height and fractional cover, are required to monitor aboveground biomass as well as to provide validation data for satellite remote sensing products. In this study, the ability of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) discrete light detection and ranging (lidar) was investigated for modeling both the canopy height and fractional cover in Hulunber grassland ecosystem. The extracted mean canopy height, maximum canopy height, and fractional cover were used to estimate the aboveground biomass...
January 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105715/gigantopithecus-blacki-a-giant-ape-from-the-pleistocene-of-asia-revisited
#2
Yingqi Zhang, Terry Harrison
Gigantopithecus blacki is the largest hominoid that ever lived. The consensus view is that it is a specialized pongine and late-surviving member of the Sivapithecus-Indopithecus lineage. It is known primarily from Early and Middle Pleistocene cave sites in southern China, dating from 2.0 Ma to almost 300 ka. The cause of its extinction in the late Middle Pleistocene is unknown, but ecological change or the arrival of Homo erectus may have been contributing factors. Gigantopithecus is highly specialized in its dentognathic anatomy, with a unique combination of features that distinguish it from all other hominoids...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105489/whisker-touch-guides-canopy-exploration-in-a-nocturnal-arboreal-rodent-the-hazel-dormouse-muscardinus-avellanarius
#3
Kendra Arkley, Guuske P Tiktak, Vicki Breakell, Tony J Prescott, Robyn A Grant
Dormouse numbers are declining in the UK due to habitat loss and fragmentation. We know that dormice are nocturnal, arboreal, and avoid crossing open spaces between habitats, yet how they navigate around their canopy is unknown. As other rodents use whisker touch sensing to navigate and explore their environment, this study investigates whether Hazel dormice (Muscardinus avellanarius) employ their whiskers to cross between habitats. We analysed high-speed video footage of dormice exploring freely in flat and climbing arenas in near darkness and using infrared light illumination...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102581/molecular-mechanisms-and-ecological-function-of-far-red-light-signalling
#4
REVIEW
David J Sheerin, Andreas Hiltbrunner
Land plants possess the ability to sense and respond to far-red light (700-760 nm), which serves as an important environmental cue. Due to the nature of far-red light, it is not absorbed by chlorophyll and thus is enriched in canopy shade, and will also penetrate deeper into soil than other visible wavelengths. Far-red light responses include regulation of seed germination, suppression of hypocotyl growth, induction of flowering, and accumulation of anthocyanins, which depend on one member of the phytochrome photoreceptor family, phytochrome A (phyA)...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101636/a-slow-opportunist-physiological-and-growth-responses-of-an-obligate-understory-plant-to-patch-cut-harvesting
#5
Jennifer L Chandler
Understory light environments change rapidly following timber harvest, and while many understory species utilize and benefit from the additional light, this response is not ubiquitous in shade-obligate species. I examined the effects of patch cut timber harvest on the physiology and growth of an obligate forest understory species to determine if disturbances via timber harvest are physiological stressors or whether such disturbances provide physiological benefits and growth increases in understory species. Forest canopy structure, along with photosynthesis, respiration, water use efficiency, stomatal conductance, and growth rates of American ginseng were quantified one summer before and two summers after patch cut timber harvest...
January 19, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100711/effects-of-structural-complexity-on-within-canopy-light-environments-and-leaf-traits-in-a-northern-mixed-deciduous-forest
#6
Alexander T Fotis, Peter S Curtis
Canopy structure influences forest productivity through its effects on the distribution of radiation and the light-induced changes in leaf physiological traits. Due to the difficulty of accessing and measuring forest canopies, few field-based studies have quantitatively linked these divergent scales of canopy functioning. The objective of our study was to investigate how canopy structure affects light profiles within a forest canopy and whether leaves of mature trees adjust morphologically and biochemically to the light environments characteristic of canopies with different structural complexity...
January 18, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100710/tree-diversity-affects-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence-and-other-leaf-traits-of-tree-species-in-a-boreal-forest
#7
Martina Pollastrini, Ana Garcia Nogales, Raquel Benavides, Damien Bonal, Leena Finer, Mariangela Fotelli, Arthur Gessler, Charlotte Grossiord, Kalliopi Radoglou, Reto J Strasser, Filippo Bussotti
An assemblage of tree species with different crown properties creates heterogeneous environments at the canopy level. Changes of functional leaf traits are expected, especially those related to light interception and photosynthesis. Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) properties in dark-adapted leaves, specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen content (N) and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) were measured on Picea abies (L.) H.Karst., Pinus sylvestris L. and Betula pendula Roth. in monospecific and mixed boreal forests in Europe, in order to test whether they were affected by stand species richness and composition...
January 18, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099483/reading-the-leaves-palm-leaf-traits-and-herbivory-along-the-microclimatic-gradient-of-forest-layers
#8
Stephanie Stiegel, Martin H Entling, Jasmin Mantilla-Contreras
Microclimate in different positions on a host plant has strong direct effects on herbivores. But little is known about indirect effects due to changes of leaf traits. We hypothesized that herbivory increases from upper canopy to lower canopy and understory due to a combination of direct and indirect pathways. Furthermore, we hypothesized that herbivory in the understory differs between tree species in accordance with their leaf traits. We investigated herbivory by leaf chewing insects along the vertical gradient of mixed deciduous forest stands on the broad-leaved tree species Fagus sylvatica L...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098631/after-the-fall-the-tapestry-of-disturbance-and-recovery
#9
Nalini M Nadkarni
On July 3, 2015, Nalini Nadkarni, a world-renowned ecologist who had been studying the biologic processes of ecosystem disturbance and recovery, sustained a catastrophic 50-foot free-fall from the top of the rainforest canopy to the forest floor at her remote field research site. She lost consciousness in shock and sustained life-threatening injuries. Her accompanying students hiked out, radio-called 911, and the Harborview Medical Center (Seattle) Medivac team arrived 4 hours later to rescue her. Her prognosis was extremely grim; her family gathered in anticipation of her death as she underwent four operations during her 10 days in the ICU...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098350/endogenous-circadian-rhythms-in-pigment-composition-induce-changes-in-photochemical-efficiency-in-plant-canopies
#10
José Ignacio García-Plazaola, Beatriz Fernández-Marín, Juan Pedro Ferrio, Josu G Alday, Günter Hoch, Damien Landais, Alexandru Milcu, David T Tissue, Jordi Voltas, Arthur Gessler, Jacques Roy, Víctor Resco de Dios
There is increasing evidence that the circadian clock is a significant driver of photosynthesis that becomes apparent when environmental cues are experimentally held constant. We studied whether the composition of photosynthetic pigments is under circadian regulation, and whether pigment oscillations lead to rhythmic changes in photochemical efficiency. To address these questions, canopies of bean and cotton were maintained, after an entrainment phase, under constant (light or darkness) conditions for 30-48 h...
January 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094794/diversity-and-carbon-storage-across-the-tropical-forest-biome
#11
Martin J P Sullivan, Joey Talbot, Simon L Lewis, Oliver L Phillips, Lan Qie, Serge K Begne, Jerôme Chave, Aida Cuni-Sanchez, Wannes Hubau, Gabriela Lopez-Gonzalez, Lera Miles, Abel Monteagudo-Mendoza, Bonaventure Sonké, Terry Sunderland, Hans Ter Steege, Lee J T White, Kofi Affum-Baffoe, Shin-Ichiro Aiba, Everton Cristo de Almeida, Edmar Almeida de Oliveira, Patricia Alvarez-Loayza, Esteban Álvarez Dávila, Ana Andrade, Luiz E O C Aragão, Peter Ashton, Gerardo A Aymard C, Timothy R Baker, Michael Balinga, Lindsay F Banin, Christopher Baraloto, Jean-Francois Bastin, Nicholas Berry, Jan Bogaert, Damien Bonal, Frans Bongers, Roel Brienen, José Luís C Camargo, Carlos Cerón, Victor Chama Moscoso, Eric Chezeaux, Connie J Clark, Álvaro Cogollo Pacheco, James A Comiskey, Fernando Cornejo Valverde, Eurídice N Honorio Coronado, Greta Dargie, Stuart J Davies, Charles De Canniere, Marie Noel Djuikouo K, Jean-Louis Doucet, Terry L Erwin, Javier Silva Espejo, Corneille E N Ewango, Sophie Fauset, Ted R Feldpausch, Rafael Herrera, Martin Gilpin, Emanuel Gloor, Jefferson S Hall, David J Harris, Terese B Hart, Kuswata Kartawinata, Lip Khoon Kho, Kanehiro Kitayama, Susan G W Laurance, William F Laurance, Miguel E Leal, Thomas Lovejoy, Jon C Lovett, Faustin Mpanya Lukasu, Jean-Remy Makana, Yadvinder Malhi, Leandro Maracahipes, Beatriz S Marimon, Ben Hur Marimon Junior, Andrew R Marshall, Paulo S Morandi, John Tshibamba Mukendi, Jaques Mukinzi, Reuben Nilus, Percy Núñez Vargas, Nadir C Pallqui Camacho, Guido Pardo, Marielos Peña-Claros, Pascal Pétronelli, Georgia C Pickavance, Axel Dalberg Poulsen, John R Poulsen, Richard B Primack, Hari Priyadi, Carlos A Quesada, Jan Reitsma, Maxime Réjou-Méchain, Zorayda Restrepo, Ervan Rutishauser, Kamariah Abu Salim, Rafael P Salomão, Ismayadi Samsoedin, Douglas Sheil, Rodrigo Sierra, Marcos Silveira, J W Ferry Slik, Lisa Steel, Hermann Taedoumg, Sylvester Tan, John W Terborgh, Sean C Thomas, Marisol Toledo, Peter M Umunay, Luis Valenzuela Gamarra, Ima Célia Guimarães Vieira, Vincent A Vos, Ophelia Wang, Simon Willcock, Lise Zemagho
Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Assessing this relationship is challenging due to the scarcity of inventories where carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and species identifications have been simultaneously and robustly quantified...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093097/present-day-central-african-forest-is-a-legacy-of-the-19th-century-human-history
#12
Julie Morin-Rivat, Adeline Fayolle, Charly Favier, Laurent Bremond, Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury, Nicolas Bayol, Philippe Lejeune, Hans Beeckman, Jean-Louis Doucet
The populations of light-demanding trees that dominate the canopy of central African forests are now aging. Here, we show that the lack of regeneration of these populations began ca. 165 ya (around 1850) after major anthropogenic disturbances ceased. Since 1885, less itinerancy and disturbance in the forest has occurred because the colonial administrations concentrated people and villages along the primary communication axes. Local populations formerly gardened the forest by creating scattered openings, which were sufficiently large for the establishment of light-demanding trees...
January 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088724/the-effect-of-urban-growth-on-landscape-scale-restoration-for-a-fire-dependent%C3%A2-songbird
#13
Bradley A Pickens, Jeffrey F Marcus, John P Carpenter, Scott Anderson, Paul J Taillie, Jaime A Collazo
A landscape-scale perspective on restoration ecology has been advocated, but few studies have informed restoration with landscape metrics or addressed broad-scale threats. Threats such as urban growth may affect restoration effectiveness in a landscape context. Here, we studied longleaf pine savanna in the rapidly urbanizing southeastern United States where a habitat-specialist bird, Bachman's sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis), is closely associated with savanna vegetation structure and frequent fire. Our objectives were to construct a species distribution model for Bachman's sparrow, determine the relationship between fire and urbanization, quantify the urban growth effect (2010-2090), identify potential restoration areas, and determine the interaction between restoration potential and urban growth by 2050...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080984/modelling-coffee-leaf-rust-risk-in-colombia-with-climate-reanalysis-data
#14
Daniel P Bebber, Ángela Delgado Castillo, Sarah J Gurr
Many fungal plant diseases are strongly controlled by weather, and global climate change is thus likely to have affected fungal pathogen distributions and impacts. Modelling the response of plant diseases to climate change is hampered by the difficulty of estimating pathogen-relevant microclimatic variables from standard meteorological data. The availability of increasingly sophisticated high-resolution climate reanalyses may help overcome this challenge. We illustrate the use of climate reanalyses by testing the hypothesis that climate change increased the likelihood of the 2008-2011 outbreak of Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR, Hemileia vastatrix) in Colombia...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079941/changes-to-cretaceous-surface-fire-behaviour-influenced-the-spread-of-the-early-angiosperms
#15
Claire M Belcher, Victoria A Hudspith
Angiosperms evolved and diversified during the Cretaceous period. Early angiosperms were short-stature weedy plants thought to have increased fire frequency and mortality in gymnosperm forest, aiding their own expansion. However, no explorations have considered whether the range of novel fuel types that diversified throughout the Cretaceous also altered fire behaviour, which should link more strongly to mortality than fire frequency alone. We measured ignitability and heat of combustion in analogue Cretaceous understorey fuels (conifer litter, ferns, weedy and shrubby angiosperms) and used these data to model palaeofire behaviour...
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078389/responses-of-a-federally-endangered-songbird-to-understory-thinning-in-oak-juniper-woodlands
#16
Ashley M Long, Mike E Marshall, Michael L Morrison, K Brian Hays, Shannon L Farrell
Wildlife conservation and management on military lands must be accomplished in the context of military readiness, which often includes ground-based training that is perceived to conflict with wildlife needs and environmental regulations. From 2008‒2012, we examined territory density, pairing success, and fledging success of the federally endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter warbler) in relation to removal of small-diameter trees from the understory of mature oak-juniper (Quercus-Juniperus) woodland at the 87,890 ha Fort Hood Military Reservation in central Texas...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071794/irrigation-and-fruit-canopy-position-modify-oil-quality-of-olive-trees-cv-frantoio
#17
Giovanni Caruso, Riccardo Gucci, Maria Isabella Sifola, Roberto Selvaggini, Stefania Urbani, Sonia Esposto, Agnese Taticchi, Maurizio Servili
BACKGROUND: Fruit development and oil quality in Olea europaea L. are strongly influenced by both light and water availability. In this study the simultaneous effects of light environment and irrigation on fruit characteristics and oil quality were studied in a high-density orchard over two consecutive years. Olive fruits were harvested from three canopy positions (intercepting about 64%, 42% and 30% of above canopy radiation) of fully-productive trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070700/clouds-homogenize-shoot-temperatures-transpiration-and-photosynthesis-within-crowns-of-abies-fraseri-pursh-poiret
#18
J Melissa Hernandez-Moreno, Nicole M Bayeur, Harold D Coley, Nicole M Hughes
Multiple studies have examined the effects of clouds on shoot and canopy-level microclimate and physiological processes; none have yet done so on the scale of individual plant crowns. We compared incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), leaf temperatures, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic gas exchange of shoots in three different spatial locations of Abies fraseri crowns on sunny (clear to partly cloudy) versus overcast days. The field site was a Fraser fir farm (1038 m elevation) in the Appalachian mountains, USA...
January 10, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070281/multiscale-habitat-relationships-of-snowshoe-hares-lepus-americanus-in-the-mixed-conifer-landscape-of-the-northern-rockies-usa-cross-scale-effects-of-horizontal-cover-with-implications-for-forest-management
#19
Joseph D Holbrook, John R Squires, Lucretia E Olson, Rick L Lawrence, Shannon L Savage
Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are an ecologically important herbivore because they modify vegetation through browsing and serve as a prey resource for multiple predators. We implemented a multiscale approach to characterize habitat relationships for snowshoe hares across the mixed conifer landscape of the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Our objectives were to (1) assess the relationship between horizontal cover and snowshoe hares, (2) estimate how forest metrics vary across the gradient of snowshoe hare use and horizontal cover, and (3) model and map snowshoe hare occupancy and intensity of use...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068166/risk-factors-for-injuries-during-military-static-line-airborne-operations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Joseph Knapik, Ryan Steelman
OBJECTIVE:  To identify and analyze articles in which the authors examined risk factors for soldiers during military static-line airborne operations. DATA SOURCES:  We searched for articles in PubMed, the Defense Technical Information Center, reference lists, and other sources using the key words airborne, parachuting, parachutes, paratrooper, injuries, wounds, trauma, and musculoskeletal. STUDY SELECTION:  The search identified 17 684 potential studies...
November 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
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