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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909293/major-losses-of-nutrients-following-a-severe-drought-in-a-boreal-forest
#1
Daniel Houle, Geneviève Lajoie, Louis Duchesne
Because of global warming, the frequency and severity of droughts are expected to increase, which will have an impact on forest ecosystem health worldwide(1). Although the impact of drought on tree growth and mortality is being increasingly documented(2-4), very little is known about the impact on nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Here, based on long-term monitoring data, we report nutrient fluxes in a boreal forest before, during and following a severe drought in July 2012. During and shortly after the drought, we observed high throughfall (rain collected below the canopy) concentrations of nutrient base cations (potassium, calcium and magnesium), chlorine, phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), differing by one to two orders of magnitude relative to the long-term normal, and resulting in important canopy losses...
November 28, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907257/do-multiple-fires-interact-to-affect-vegetation-structure-in-temperate-eucalypt-forests
#2
Angie Haslem, Steve W J Leonard, Matthew J Bruce, Fiona Christie, Greg J Holland, Luke T Kelly, Josephine MacHunter, Andrew F Bennett, Michael F Clarke, Alan York
Fire plays an important role in structuring vegetation in fire-prone regions worldwide. Progress has been made towards documenting the effects of individual fire events and fire regimes on vegetation structure; less is known of how different fire history attributes (e.g., time since fire, fire frequency) interact to affect vegetation. Using the temperate eucalypt foothill forests of southeastern Australia as a case study system, we examine two hypotheses about such interactions: (1) post-fire vegetation succession (e...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907255/a-hyperspectral-image-can-predict-tropical-tree-growth-rates-in-single-species-stands
#3
T Trevor Caughlin, Sarah J Graves, Gregory P Asner, Michiel van Breugel, Jefferson S Hall, Roberta E Martin, Mark S Ashton, Stephanie A Bohlman
Remote sensing is increasingly needed to meet the critical demand for estimates of forest structure and composition at landscape to continental scales. Hyperspectral images can detect tree canopy properties, including species identity, leaf chemistry and disease. Tree growth rates are related to these measurable canopy properties but whether growth can be directly predicted from hyperspectral data remains unknown. We used a single hyperspectral image and light detection and ranging-derived elevation to predict growth rates for 20 tropical tree species planted in experimental plots...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904457/altering-conidial-dispersal-of-alternaria-solani-by-modifying-microclimate-in-tomato-crop-canopy
#4
Prashant Prakash Jambhulkar, Nitiprasad Jambhulkar, Madanlal Meghwal, Gauri Shankar Ameta
Early blight of tomato caused by Alternaria solani, is responsible for severe yield losses in tomato. The conidia survive on soil surface and old dry lower leaves of the plant and spread when suitable climatic conditions are available. Macroclimatic study reveals that highest inoculum concentration of Alternaria spores appeared in May 2012 to 2013 and lowest concentration during January 2012 to 2013. High night temperature positively correlated and significantly (P < 0.01) involved in conidial spore dispersal and low relative humidity (RH) displayed significant (P < 0...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902795/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-candidate-loci-underlying-agronomic-traits-in-a-middle-american-diversity-panel-of-common-bean
#5
Samira Mafi Moghaddam, Sujan Mamidi, Juan M Osorno, Rian Lee, Mark Brick, James Kelly, Phillip Miklas, Carlos Urrea, Qijian Song, Perry Cregan, Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz, Phillip E McClean
Common bean ( L.) breeding programs aim to improve both agronomic and seed characteristics traits. However, the genetic architecture of the many traits that affect common bean production are not completely understood. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an experimental approach to identify genomic regions where important candidate genes are located. A panel of 280 modern bean genotypes from race Mesoamerica, referred to as the Middle American Diversity Panel (MDP), were grown in four US locations, and a GWAS using >150,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (minor allele frequency [MAF] ≥ 5%) was conducted for six agronomic traits...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901127/gap-shape-classification-using-landscape-indices-and-multivariate-statistics
#6
Chih-Da Wu, Chi-Chuan Cheng, Che-Chang Chang, Chinsu Lin, Kun-Cheng Chang, Yung-Chung Chuang
This study proposed a novel methodology to classify the shape of gaps using landscape indices and multivariate statistics. Patch-level indices were used to collect the qualified shape and spatial configuration characteristics for canopy gaps in the Lienhuachih Experimental Forest in Taiwan in 1998 and 2002. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis was used to assess the optimal number of gap clusters and canonical discriminant analysis was used to generate the discriminant functions for canopy gap classification. The gaps for the two periods were optimally classified into three categories...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898827/identification-of-genomic-loci-associated-with-the-photochemical-reflectance-index-by-genome-wide-association-study-in-soybean
#7
Matthew Herritt, Arun Prabhu Dhanapal, Felix B Fritschi
The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is determined from canopy spectral reflectance measurements and can provide important information about photosynthesis. The PRI can be used to assess the epoxidation state of xanthophyll pigments, which provides information on nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) and the amount of energy used for photosynthesis. Genome-wide association analyses were conducted to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genomic loci associated with PRI using data from a soybean [ (L...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898049/mecs-vine-%C3%A2-a-new-proximal-sensor-for-segmented-mapping-of-vigor-and-yield-parameters-on-vineyard-rows
#8
Matteo Gatti, Paolo Dosso, Marco Maurino, Maria Clara Merli, Fabio Bernizzoni, Facundo José Pirez, Bonfiglio Platè, Gian Carlo Bertuzzi, Stefano Poni
Ground-based proximal sensing of vineyard features is gaining interest due to its ability to serve in even quite small plots with the advantage of being conducted concurrently with normal vineyard practices (i.e., spraying, pruning or soil tilling) with no dependence upon weather conditions, external services or law-imposed limitations. The purpose of the present work was to test performance of the new terrestrial multi-sensor MECS-VINE(®) in terms of reliability and degree of correlation with several canopy growth and yield parameters in the grapevine...
November 27, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898028/estimating-leaf-area-index-lai-in-vineyards-using-the-pocketlai-smart-app
#9
Francesca Orlando, Ermes Movedi, Davide Coduto, Simone Parisi, Lucio Brancadoro, Valentina Pagani, Tommaso Guarneri, Roberto Confalonieri
Estimating leaf area index (LAI) of Vitis vinifera using indirect methods involves some critical issues, related to its discontinuous and non-homogeneous canopy. This study evaluates the smart app PocketLAI and hemispherical photography in vineyards against destructive LAI measurements. Data were collected during six surveys in an experimental site characterized by a high level of heterogeneity among plants, allowing us to explore a wide range of LAI values. During the last survey, the possibility to combine remote sensing data and in-situ PocketLAI estimates (smart scouting) was evaluated...
November 26, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896478/soil-microbial-communities-buffer-physiological-responses-to-drought-stress-in-three-hardwood-species
#10
Steven A Kannenberg, Richard P Phillips
Trees possess myriad adaptations for coping with drought stress, but the extent to which their drought responses are influenced by interactions with soil microbes is poorly understood. To explore the role of microbes in mediating tree responses to drought stress, we exposed saplings of three species (Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus alba) to a four week experimental drought in mesocosms. Half of the pots were inoculated with a live soil slurry (i.e., a microbial inoculum derived from soils beneath the canopies of mature A...
November 28, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896464/a-hypergravity-environment-increases-chloroplast-size-photosynthesis-and-plant-growth-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#11
Kaori Takemura, Hiroyuki Kamachi, Atsushi Kume, Tomomichi Fujita, Ichirou Karahara, Yuko T Hanba
The physiological and anatomical responses of bryophytes to altered gravity conditions will provide crucial information for estimating how plant physiological traits have evolved to adapt to significant increases in the effects of gravity in land plant history. We quantified changes in plant growth and photosynthesis in the model plant of mosses, Physcomitrella patens, grown under a hypergravity environment for 25 days or 8 weeks using a custom-built centrifuge equipped with a lighting system. This is the first study to examine the response of bryophytes to hypergravity conditions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895648/grape-ripening-is-regulated-by-deficit-irrigation-elevated-temperatures-according-to-cluster-position-in-the-canopy
#12
Olfa Zarrouk, Cecilia Brunetti, Ricardo Egipto, Carla Pinheiro, Tânia Genebra, Antonella Gori, Carlos M Lopes, Massimiliano Tattini, M Manuela Chaves
The impact of water deficit on berry quality has been extensively investigated during the last decades. Nonetheless, there is a scarcity of knowledge on the performance of varieties exposed to a combination of high temperatures/water stress during the growing season and under vineyard conditions. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of two irrigation regimes, sustained deficit irrigation (SDI, 30% ETc) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI, 15% ETc) and of two cluster positions within the canopy (east- and west-exposed sides) on berry ripening in red Aragonez (Tempranillo) grapevines...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895208/diurnal-solar-energy-conversion-and-photoprotection-in-rice-canopies
#13
Katherine Georgina Meacham, Xavier Sirault, W Paul Quick, Susanne von Caemmerer, Robert T Furbank
Genetic improvement of photosynthetic performance of cereal crops and increasing the efficiency with which solar radiation is converted into biomass has recently become a major focus for crop physiologists and breeders. The pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence technique (PAM) allows quantitative leaf level monitoring of the utilization of energy for photochemical light conversion and photo-protection in natural environments, potentially over the entire crop lifecycle. Here the diurnal relationship between electron transport rate (ETR) and irradiance was measured in five cultivars of Oryza sativa in canopy conditions with PAM fluorescence under natural solar radiation...
November 28, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894802/variation-in-the-urban-vegetation-surface-temperature-air-temperature-nexus
#14
Sheri A Shiflett, Liyin L Liang, Steven M Crum, Gudina L Feyisa, Jun Wang, G Darrel Jenerette
Our study examines the urban vegetation - air temperature (Ta) - land surface temperature (LST) nexus at micro- and regional-scales to better understand urban climate dynamics and the uncertainty in using satellite-based LST for characterizing Ta. While vegetated cooling has been repeatedly linked to reductions in urban LST, the effects of vegetation on Ta, the quantity often used to characterize urban heat islands and global warming, and on the interactions between LST and Ta are less well characterized. To address this need we quantified summer temporal and spatial variation in Ta through a network of 300 air temperature sensors in three sub-regions of greater Los Angeles, CA, which spans a coastal to desert climate gradient...
November 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893828/a-novel-large-scale-temperature-dominated-model-for-predicting-the-end-of-the-growing-season
#15
Yang Fu, Zeyu Zheng, Haibo Shi, Rui Xiao
Vegetation phenology regulates many ecosystem processes and is an indicator of the biological responses to climate change. It is important to model the timing of leaf senescence accurately, since the canopy duration and carbon assimilation are strongly determined by the timings of leaf senescence. However, the existing phenology models are unlikely to accurately predict the end of the growing season (EGS) on large scales, resulting in the misrepresentation of the seasonality and interannual variability of biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks and interactions in coupled global climate models...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891647/a-roadmap-for-improving-the-representation-of-photosynthesis-in-earth-system-models
#16
Alistair Rogers, Belinda E Medlyn, Jeffrey S Dukes, Gordon Bonan, Susanne von Caemmerer, Michael C Dietze, Jens Kattge, Andrew D B Leakey, Lina M Mercado, Ülo Niinemets, I Colin Prentice, Shawn P Serbin, Stephen Sitch, Danielle A Way, Sönke Zaehle
Accurate representation of photosynthesis in terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) is essential for robust projections of global change. However, current representations vary markedly between TBMs, contributing uncertainty to projections of global carbon fluxes. Here we compared the representation of photosynthesis in seven TBMs by examining leaf and canopy level responses of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) to key environmental variables: light, temperature, CO2 concentration, vapor pressure deficit and soil water content...
January 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881766/bridging-the-gap-parkour-athletes-provide-new-insights-into-locomotion-energetics-of-arboreal-apes
#17
Lewis G Halsey, Samuel R L Coward, Susannah K S Thorpe
The tree canopy is an energetically challenging environment to traverse. Along with compliant vegetation, gaps in the canopy can prove energetically costly if they force a route-extending detour. Arboreal apes exhibit diverse locomotion strategies, including for gap crossing. Which one they employ in any given scenario may be influenced by the energy costs to do so, which are affected by the details of the immediate environment in combination with their body size. Measuring energetics of arboreal apes is not tractable; thus our knowledge in this area is limited...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879661/bamboo-classification-using-worldview-2-imagery-of-giant-panda-habitat-in-a-large-shaded-area-in-wolong-sichuan-province-china
#18
Yunwei Tang, Linhai Jing, Hui Li, Qingjie Liu, Qi Yan, Xiuxia Li
This study explores the ability of WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery for bamboo mapping in a mountainous region in Sichuan Province, China. A large area of this place is covered by shadows in the image, and only a few sampled points derived were useful. In order to identify bamboos based on sparse training data, the sample size was expanded according to the reflectance of multispectral bands selected using the principal component analysis (PCA). Then, class separability based on the training data was calculated using a feature space optimization method to select the features for classification...
November 22, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878078/cool-habitats-support-darker-and-bigger-butterflies-in-australian-tropical-forests
#19
Shuang Xing, Timothy C Bonebrake, Chin Cheung Tang, Evan J Pickett, Wenda Cheng, Sasha E Greenspan, Stephen E Williams, Brett R Scheffers
Morphology mediates the relationship between an organism's body temperature and its environment. Dark organisms, for example, tend to absorb heat more quickly than lighter individuals, which could influence their responses to temperature. Therefore, temperature-related traits such as morphology may affect patterns of species abundance, richness, and community assembly across a broad range of spatial scales. In this study, we examined variation in color lightness and body size within butterfly communities across hot and cool habitats in the tropical woodland-rainforest ecosystems of northeast Queensland, Australia...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877180/heat-stress-is-more-damaging-to-superior-spikelets-than-inferiors-of-rice-oryza-sativa-l-due-to-their-different-organ-temperatures
#20
Guanfu Fu, Baohua Feng, Caixia Zhang, Yongjie Yang, Xueqin Yang, Tingting Chen, Xia Zhao, Xiufu Zhang, Qianyu Jin, Longxing Tao
In general, the fertility and kernel weight of inferior spikelets of rice (Oryza Sativa L.) are obviously lower than those of superior spikelets, especially under abiotic stress. However, different responses to heat stress are seemed to show between the superior and inferior spikelet, and this response is scarcely documented that the intrinsic factors remain elusive. In order to reveal the mechanism underlying, two rice plants with different heat tolerance were subjected to heat stress of 40°C at anthesis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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