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Justin M Valliere, Irina C Irvine, Louis Santiago, Edith B Allen
Hotter, longer, and more frequent global change-type drought events may profoundly impact terrestrial ecosystems by triggering widespread vegetation mortality. However, severe drought is only one component of global change, and ecological effects of drought may be compounded by other drivers, such as anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition and nonnative plant invasion. Elevated N deposition, for example, may reduce drought tolerance through increased plant productivity, thereby contributing to drought-induced mortality...
March 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
Ohad Zivan, Yardena Bohbot-Raviv, Yael Dubowski
Atmospheric drift is considered a major loss path of pesticide from target areas, but there is still a large gap of knowledge regarding this complex phenomenon. Pesticide drift may occur during application (Primary drift) and after it (Secondary drift). The present study focuses on primary and secondary drift from ground applications in peach orchard (tree height of 3 m), under Mediterranean climate. Detailed and prolonged vertical drift profiles at close proximity to orchard are presented, together with detailed measurements of key meteorological parameters...
March 6, 2017: Chemosphere
Johan Lidman, Micael Jonsson, Ryan M Burrows, Mirco Bundschuh, Ryan A Sponseller
Although the importance of stream condition for leaf litter decomposition has been extensively studied, little is known about how processing rates change in response to altered riparian vegetation community composition. We investigated patterns of plant litter input and decomposition across 20 boreal headwater streams that varied in proportions of riparian deciduous and coniferous trees. We measured a suite of in-stream physical and chemical characteristics, as well as the amount and type of litter inputs from riparian vegetation, and related these to decomposition rates of native (alder, birch, and spruce) and introduced (lodgepole pine) litter species incubated in coarse- and fine-mesh bags...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Bryan D Murray, Jeffrey D Holland, Keith S Summerville, John B Dunning, Michael R Saunders, Michael A Jenkins
Contemporary forest management offers a trade-off between the potential positive effects of habitat heterogeneity on biodiversity, and the potential harm to mature-forest communities caused by habitat loss and perforation of the forest canopy. While the response of taxonomic diversity to forest management has received a great deal of scrutiny, the response of functional diversity is largely unexplored. However, functional diversity may represent a more direct link between biodiversity and ecosystem function...
March 15, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Halley Caixeta Oliveira, Ligia Maria Inocêncio da Silva, Letícia Dias de Freitas, Tatiane Viegas Debiasi, Nidia Mara Marchiori, Marcos Pereira Marinho Aidar, Edmilson Bianchini, José Antonio Pimenta, Renata Stolf-Moreira
Few studies have analyzed the strategies of neotropical tree seedlings for absorbing, translocating and assimilating the nitrogen. Here, we compared the nitrogen use strategies of seedlings from six tree species that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and that belong to different successional groups: Trema micrantha, Heliocarpus popayanensis and Cecropia pachystachya (pioneers), Cariniana estrellensis, Eugenia brasiliensis and Guarea kunthiana (non-pioneers). The effects of cultivating seedlings with nitrate or ammonium on the growth, physiology and nitrogen metabolism were analyzed...
March 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Luca Carena, Davide Vione
The APEX (Aqueous Photochemistry of Environmentally-occurring Xenobiotics) software previously developed by one of us was used to model the photochemistry of As(III) in paddy-field water, allowing a comparison with biotic processes. The model included key paddy-water variables, such as the shielding effect of the rice canopy on incident sunlight and its monthly variations, water pH, and the photochemical parameters of the chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) occurring in paddy fields. The half-life times (t1/2) of As(III) photooxidation to As(V) would be ~20-30 days in May...
March 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lucia Landi, Rita M De Miccolis Angelini, Stefania Pollastro, Erica Feliziani, Franco Faretra, Gianfranco Romanazzi
The use of resistance inducers is a novel strategy to elicit defense responses in strawberry fruit to protect against preharvest and postharvest decay. However, the mechanisms behind the specific resistance inducers are not completely understood. Here, global transcriptional changes in strawberry fruit were investigated using RNA-Seq technology. Preharvest, benzothiadiazole (BTH) and chitosan were applied to the plant canopy, and the fruit were harvested at 6, 12, and 24 h post-treatment. Overall, 5,062 and 5,210 differentially expressed genes (fold change ≥ 2) were identified in these fruits under the BTH and chitosan treatments, respectively, as compared to the control expression...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Emeline Lequy, Nicolas P A Saby, Ilia Ilyin, Aude Bourin, Stéphane Sauvage, Sébastien Leblond
Air pollution in trace elements (TE) remains a concern for public health in Europe. For this reasons, networks of air pollution concentrations or exposure are deployed, including a moss bio-monitoring programme in Europe. Spatial determinants of TE concentrations in mosses remain unclear. In this study, the French dataset of TE in mosses is analyzed by spatial autoregressive model to account for spatial structure of the data and several variables proven or suspected to affect TE concentrations in mosses. Such variables include source (atmospheric deposition and soil concentrations), protocol (sampling month, collector, and moss species), and environment (forest type and canopy density, distance to the coast or the highway, and elevation)...
March 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Nirmali Bordoloi, Kushal Kumar Baruah
Agricultural soils are the major source of global nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, and more than two thirds of N2O emission originate from soil. Recent studies have identified that green plants contribute to transport of N2O to the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of foliar application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and growth stimulating chemicals on N2O emission and wheat grain yield for 2 years. The PGRs' abscisic acid (ABA) and cytozyme (20 mg L(-1)), kinetin (10 and 20 mg L(-1)) and wet tea extract (1:20 w/w) along with distilled water as control were sprayed on wheat canopy at the tillering and panicle initiation stages...
March 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Daniele Cornara, Maria Saponari, Adam R Zeilinger, Angelo de Stradis, Donato Boscia, Giuliana Loconsole, Domenico Bosco, Giovanni P Martelli, Rodrigo P P Almeida, Francesco Porcelli
The recent introduction of Xylella fastidiosa in Europe and its involvement in the Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) in Apulia (Salento, Lecce district, South Italy) led us to investigate the biology and transmission ability of the meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius, which was recently demonstrated to transmit X. fastidiosa to periwinkle plants. Four xylem-sap-feeding insect species were found within and bordering olive orchards across Salento during a survey carried out from October 2013 to December 2014: P...
2017: Journal of Pest Science
Crystal Morales, Zihai Li
Drosophila gp93 was identified as the ortholog of the mammalian ER-resident chaperone gp96. gp93 was found capable of rescuing gp96 client proteins, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and integrins, in a gp96-deficient murine cell line. Mammalian gp96 was further found to require the cochaperone CNPY3 for proper folding and expression of TLRs, but not integrins. In Drosophila, two CNPY family members have been identified based on sequence homology, but their function have not yet been characterized. Therefore, we sought to determine the role of Drosophila CNPYa and CNPYb in gp93 biology...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jun Ni, Lili Yao, Jingchao Zhang, Weixing Cao, Yan Zhu, Xiuxiang Tai
In view of the demand for a low-cost, high-throughput method for the continuous acquisition of crop growth information, this study describes a crop-growth monitoring system which uses an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as an operating platform. The system is capable of real-time online acquisition of various major indexes, e.g., the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the crop canopy, ratio vegetation index (RVI), leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA), leaf area index (LAI), and leaf dry weight (LDW)...
March 3, 2017: Sensors
Livia Paleari, Ermes Movedi, Giovanni Cappelli, Lloyd T Wilson, Roberto Confalonieri
Growing food crops to meet global demand and the search for more sustainable cropping systems are increasing the need for new cultivars in key production areas. This study presents the identification of rice traits putatively producing the largest yield benefits in five areas that markedly differ in terms of environmental conditions in the Philippines, India, China, Japan and Italy. The ecophysiological model WARM and sensitivity analysis techniques were used to evaluate phenotypic traits involved with light interception, photosynthetic efficiency, tolerance to abiotic stressors, resistance to fungal pathogens and grain quality...
March 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
Jiaoping Zhang, Hsiang Sing Naik, Teshale Assefa, Soumik Sarkar, R V Chowda Reddy, Arti Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Asheesh K Singh
Traditional evaluation of crop biotic and abiotic stresses are time-consuming and labor-intensive limiting the ability to dissect the genetic basis of quantitative traits. A machine learning (ML)-enabled image-phenotyping pipeline for the genetic studies of abiotic stress iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) of soybean is reported. IDC classification and severity for an association panel of 461 diverse plant-introduction accessions was evaluated using an end-to-end phenotyping workflow. The workflow consisted of a multi-stage procedure including: (1) optimized protocols for consistent image capture across plant canopies, (2) canopy identification and registration from cluttered backgrounds, (3) extraction of domain expert informed features from the processed images to accurately represent IDC expression, and (4) supervised ML-based classifiers that linked the automatically extracted features with expert-rating equivalent IDC scores...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Álvaro Sanz-Sáez, Robert P Koester, David M Rosenthal, Christopher M Montes, Donald R Ort, Elizabeth A Ainsworth
The atmospheric [CO2 ] in which crops grow today is greater than at any point in their domestication history, and represents an opportunity for positive effects on seed yield that can counteract the negative effects of greater heat and drought this century. In order to maximize yields under future atmospheric [CO2 ], we need to identify and study crop cultivars that respond most favorably to elevated [CO2 ] and understand the mechanisms contributing to their responsiveness. Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is a widely grown oilseed crop and shows genetic variation in response to elevated [CO2 ]...
March 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
Sushil Thapa, Bob A Stewart, Qingwu Xue, Yuanquan Chen
Cultivar selection, planting geometry, and plant population are the key factors determining grain sorghum yields in water deficit areas. The objective of this study was to investigate whether clump geometry (three plants clustered) improves microclimate within crop canopy when plants are grown under varying water levels. In a 2-yr sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) greenhouse study, plants were grown at two geometries (clump and conventional evenly spaced planting, ESP), two water levels (high and low, representing well-watered and water-limited condition, respectively), and three soil surface treatments (lid covered, straw-mulched, and bare)...
2017: PloS One
Yudi M Lozano, Cristina Armas, Sara Hortal, Fernando Casanoves, Francisco I Pugnaire
Nurse plants promote establishment of other plant species by buffering climate extremes and improving soil properties. Soil biota plays an important role, but an analysis to disentangle the effects of soil microorganisms, soil properties and microclimate on facilitation is lacking. In three microhabitats (gaps, small and large Retama shrubs), we placed six microcosms with sterilized soil, two per soil origin (i.e. from each microhabitat). One in every pair received an alive, and the other a sterile, inoculum from its own soil...
March 6, 2017: New Phytologist
Weibin Li, Zhen Bai, Changjie Jin, Xinzhong Zhang, Dexin Guan, Anzhi Wang, Fenghui Yuan, Jiabing Wu
Soil respiration is the largest terrestrial carbon flux into the atmosphere, and different tree species could directly influence root derived respiration and indirectly regulate soil respiration rates by altering soil chemical and microbial properties. In this study, we assessed the small scale spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration and the microbial community below the canopy of three dominant tree species (Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis), Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica), and Manchuria ash (Fraxinus mandshurica)) in a temperate mixed forest in Northeast China...
March 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Pavel Kratina, Jana S Petermann, Nicholas A C Marino, Andrew A M MacDonald, Diane S Srivastava
Ecological communities hosted within phytotelmata (plant compartments filled with water) provide an excellent opportunity to test ecological theory and to advance our understanding of how local and global environmental changes affect ecosystems. However, insights from bromeliad phytotelmata communities are currently limited by scarce accounts of microfauna assemblages, even though these assemblages are critical in transferring, recycling, and releasing nutrients in these model ecosystems. Here, we analyzed natural microfaunal communities in leaf compartments of 43 bromeliads to identify the key environmental filters underlying their community structures...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Christopher Lyndon Davey, Laurence Edmund Jones, Michael Squance, Sarah Jane Purdy, Anne Louise Maddison, Jennifer Cunniff, Iain Donnison, John Clifton-Brown
Miscanthus is a rhizomatous C4 grass of great interest as a biofuel crop because it has the potential to produce high yields over a wide geographical area with low agricultural inputs on marginal land less suitable for food production. At the moment, a clonal interspecific hybrid Miscanthus × giganteus is the most widely cultivated and studied in Europe and the United States, but breeding programmes are developing newer more productive varieties. Here, we quantified the physiological processes relating to whole season yield in a replicated plot trial in Wales, UK...
February 2017: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
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