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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150610/implications-of-improved-representations-of-plant-respiration-in-a-changing-climate
#1
Chris Huntingford, Owen K Atkin, Alberto Martinez-de la Torre, Lina M Mercado, Mary A Heskel, Anna B Harper, Keith J Bloomfield, Odhran S O'Sullivan, Peter B Reich, Kirk R Wythers, Ethan E Butler, Ming Chen, Kevin L Griffin, Patrick Meir, Mark G Tjoelker, Matthew H Turnbull, Stephen Sitch, Andy Wiltshire, Yadvinder Malhi
Land-atmosphere exchanges influence atmospheric CO2. Emphasis has been on describing photosynthetic CO2 uptake, but less on respiration losses. New global datasets describe upper canopy dark respiration (R d) and temperature dependencies. This allows characterisation of baseline R d, instantaneous temperature responses and longer-term thermal acclimation effects. Here we show the global implications of these parameterisations with a global gridded land model. This model aggregates R d to whole-plant respiration R p, driven with meteorological forcings spanning uncertainty across climate change models...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149208/synergistic-effects-of-the-components-of-global-change-increased-vegetation-dynamics-in-open-forest-steppe-grasslands-driven-by-wildfires-and-year-to-year-precipitation-differences
#2
Miklós Kertész, Réka Aszalós, Attila Lengyel, Gábor Ónodi
Climate change and land use change are two major elements of human-induced global environmental change. In temperate grasslands and woodlands, increasing frequency of extreme weather events like droughts and increasing severity of wildfires has altered the structure and dynamics of vegetation. In this paper, we studied the impact of wildfires and the year-to-year differences in precipitation on species composition changes in semi-arid grasslands of a forest-steppe complex ecosystem which has been partially disturbed by wildfires...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146776/light-signaling-dependent-regulation-of-photoinhibition-and-photoprotection-in-tomato
#3
Feng Wang, Nan Wu, Luyue Zhang, Golam Jalal Ahammed, Xiaoxiao Chen, Xun Xiang, Jie Zhou, Xiaojian Xia, Kai Shi, Jingquan Yu, Christine H Foyer, Yanhong Zhou
Photoreceptor-mediated light signaling plays a critical role in plant growth, development, and stress responses but its contribution to the spatial regulation of photoinhibition and photoprotection within the canopy remains unclear. Here, we show that low red/far-red (L-R/FR) ratio light conditions significantly alleviate PSII and PSI photoinhibition in the shade leaves of tomato plants. This protection is accompanied by a phytochrome A (phyA)-dependent induction of LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5). HY5 binds to the promoter of ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5), triggering RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG1 (RBOH1)-dependent H2O2 production in the apoplast...
November 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146768/adhesive-performance-of-tropical-arboreal-ants-varies-with-substrate-temperature
#4
Alyssa Y Stark, Katherine Arstingstall, Stephen P Yanoviak
The surface temperature of tree branches in the tropical rainforest canopy can reach up to 55°C. Ants and other small cursorial organisms must maintain adequate attachment in this extreme microenvironment to forage effectively and prevent falling. Ant adhesion depends on liquid secretions that should become less viscous at high temperatures, causing ants to slip. However, tropical arboreal ants have high thermal tolerance and actively forage on hot canopy surfaces, suggesting that these ants can maintain adhesion on hot substrates...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146076/short-term-effects-of-prescribed-burning-on-litterfall-biomass-in-mixed-stands-of-pinus-nigra-and-pinus-pinaster-and-pure-stands-of-pinus-nigra-in-the-cuenca-mountains-central-eastern-spain
#5
J Espinosa, J Madrigal, A C De La Cruz, M Guijarro, E Jimenez, C Hernando
Fire severity, defined as the magnitude of fire effects in an ecosystem, is a key factor to consider in planning management strategies for protecting forests against fire. Although prescribed burning has been used as a fuel reduction tool in forest ecosystems, it is quite limited in the Mediterranean region. Furthermore, little is known about how tree crowns are affected by prescribed underburning aimed at reducing fire severity in conifer stands. As part of an ongoing study to assess the effects of prescribed burning on the tree canopy, litterfall is currently being monitored in a network of experimental plots located in mixed (Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster) and pure (P...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142024/a-model-of-leaf-coordination-to-scale-up-leaf-expansion-from-the-organ-to-the-canopy
#6
Pierre Martre, Anaelle Dambreville
Process-based crop growth models are popular tools to analyze and understand the impact of crop management, genotype by environment interactions, or climate change. The ability to predict leaf area development is critical to predict crop growth, particularly under conditions of limited resources. Here, we aimed at deciphering growth coordination rules between wheat plant organs, i.e. between leaves within a stem, between laminae and sheaths, and between the mainstem and axillary tillers, to model the dynamics of canopy development...
November 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140990/cultivar-architecture-modulates-spore-dispersal-by-rain-splash-a-new-perspective-to-reduce-disease-progression-in-cultivar-mixtures
#7
Tiphaine Vidal, Pauline Lusley, Marc Leconte, Claude de Vallavieille-Pope, Laurent Huber, Sébastien Saint-Jean
Cultivar mixtures can be used to improve the sustainability of disease management within farming systems by growing cultivars that differ in their disease resistance level in the same field. The impact of canopy aerial architecture on rain-splash dispersal could amplify disease reduction within mixtures. We designed a controlled conditions experiment to study single splash-dispersal events and their consequences for disease. We quantified this impact through the spore interception capacities of the component cultivars of a mixture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136323/increasing-canopy-photosynthesis-in-rice-can-be-achieved-without-a-large-increase-in-water-use-a-model-based-on-free-air-co2-enrichment
#8
Hiroki Ikawa, Charles P Chen, Martin Sikma, Mayumi Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu Sakai, Takeshi Tokida, Yasuhiro Usui, Hirofumi Nakamura, Keisuke Ono, Atsushi Maruyama, Tsutomu Watanabe, Tsuneo Kuwagata, Toshihiro Hasegawa
Achieving higher canopy photosynthesis rates is one of the keys to increasing future crop production; however, this typically requires additional water inputs because of increased water loss through the stomata. Lowland rice canopies presently consume a large amount of water, and any further increase in water usage may significantly impact local water resources. This situation is further complicated by changing environmental conditions such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]). Here we modeled and compared evapotranspiration of fully developed rice canopies of a high-yielding rice cultivar (Oryza sativa L...
November 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135454/expression-of-a-novel-cnpy2-isoform-in-colorectal-cancer-and-its-association-with-oncologic-prognosis
#9
Jianhong Peng, Qingjian Ou, Jian Guo, Zhizhong Pan, Rongxin Zhang, Xiaojun Wu, Yujie Zhao, Yuxiang Deng, Caixia Li, Fulong Wang, Liren Li, Gong Chen, Zhenhai Lu, Peirong Ding, Desen Wan, Yujing Fang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Recently, we identified a novel biomarker, canopy fibroblast growth factor signaling regulator 2 (CNPY2) isoform2, and subsequently investigated its expression and prognostic value in CRC patients. We initially generated CNPY2 isoform2 monoclonal antibodies and examined CNPY2 isoform2 expression in CRC cell lines and tissues using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses. We found that CNPY2 isoform2 expression significantly increased in tumor cell lines and tissues compared with that in normal colon epithelial cells and tumor-adjacent normal tissues...
November 13, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134399/influence-of-soil-pathogens-on-early-regeneration-success-of-tropical-trees-varies-between-forest-edge-and-interior
#10
Meghna Krishnadas, Liza S Comita
Soil fungi are key mediators of negative density-dependent mortality in seeds and seedlings, and the ability to withstand pathogens in the shaded understory of closed-canopy forests could reinforce light gradient partitioning by tree species. For four species of tropical rainforest trees-two shade-tolerant and two shade-intolerant-we conducted a field experiment to examine the interactive effects of fungal pathogens, light, and seed density on germination and early seedling establishment. In a fully factorial design, seeds were sown into 1 m(2) plots containing soil collected from underneath conspecific adult trees, with plots assigned to forest edge (high light) or shaded understory, high or low density, and fungicide or no fungicide application...
November 13, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126242/differential-manipulation-of-leaf-angle-throughout-the-canopy-current-status-and-prospects
#11
Maria Betsabe Mantilla-Perez, Maria G Salas Fernandez
Leaf angle is defined as the inclination between the midrib of the leaf blade and the vertical stem of a plant. This trait has been identified as a key component in the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal species, particularly maize, rice, wheat, and sorghum. The effect of leaf angle on light interception efficiency, photosynthetic rate, and yield has been investigated since the 1960s, yet, significant knowledge gaps remain in understanding the genetic control of this complex trait. Recent advances in physiology and modeling have proposed a plant ideotype with varying leaf angles throughout the canopy...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126184/bark-and-ambrosia-beetle-curculionidae-scolytinae-diversity-found-in-agricultural-and-fragmented-forests-in-piracicaba-sp-brazil
#12
Carla Sandoval Rodríguez, Anthony I Cognato, Ciro Abbud Righi
Land use changes and forest fragmentation result in biodiversity loss and displacement, with insects among the most affected groups. Among these, bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) occupy a prominent position due to their close ties to food resources, i.e., trees, and importance as primary decomposers in forest ecosystems. Therefore, our study aimed to document scolytine biodiversity associated with landscape components that vary based on their physical or botanical composition. Bark beetle diversity was sampled monthly for 12 mo in an Atlantic forest remnant and five adjacent vegetation plots (mixed Agroforestry System-AFS, of native trees and fruit species; AFS of rubber trees and coffee plants; coffee monoculture; rubber monoculture; and pasture)...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125662/how-do-mediterranean-shrub-species-cope-with-shade-ecophysiological-response-to-different-light-intensities
#13
M C Díaz-Barradas, M Zunzunegui, L Alvarez-Cansino, M P Esquivias, J Valera, H Rodríguez
Under natural conditions, light exposition for Mediterranean shrubs can be highly variable, especially during cloudy days or under a canopy, and can interfere with other environmental factors such as temperature and water availability. With the aim of decoupling the effect of radiation and temperature from water availability, we conducted an experiment where 2 perennial and 3 summer semi-deciduous shrub species were subjected to different levels of irradiation. In order to follow plant responses to light exposure, we measured gas exchange, photosystem II photochemical efficiency, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf mass area in spring and summer...
November 10, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125247/forest-canopy-water-level-and-biopesticide-interact-to-determine-oviposition-habitat-selection-in-aedes-albopictus
#14
Christopher A Binckley
Understanding how interacting abiotic and biotic factors influence colonization rates into different habitat types is critical for both conserving and controlling species. For example, the rapid global spread of Asian tiger mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus, has reduced native species abundances and produced disease outbreaks. Fortunately, bacterial endospores of two Bacillus species (biospesticide) are highly lethal to Ae. albopictus larvae and have been commercially developed to reduce populations. Oviposition habitat selection is the first defense Ae...
December 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125181/acclimation-of-photosynthesis-to-lightflecks-in-tomato-leaves-interaction-with-progressive-shading-in-a-growing-canopy
#15
Elias Kaiser, Shizue Matsubara, Jeremy Harbinson, Ep Heuvelink, Leo F M Marcelis
Plants in natural environments are often exposed to fluctuations in light intensity, and leaf-level acclimation to light may be affected by those fluctuations. Concurrently, leaves acclimated to a given light climate can become progressively shaded as new leaves emerge and grow above them. Acclimation to shade alters characteristics such as photosynthetic capacity. To investigate the interaction of fluctuating light and progressive shading, we exposed three-week old tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants to either lightflecks or constant light intensities...
November 10, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124879/hydrogenotrophic-methanogenesis-is-the-dominant-methanogenic-pathway-in-neotropical-tank-bromeliad-wetlands
#16
Guntars O Martinson, Bianca Pommerenke, Franziska B Brandt, Jürgen Homeier, Juan Ignacio Burneo, Ralf Conrad
Several thousands of tank bromeliads per hectare of neotropical forest create a unique wetland ecosystem that emits substantial amounts of CH4 . Tank bromeliads growing in the forest canopy (functional type-II tank bromeliads) were found to emit more CH4 than tank bromeliads growing on the forest floor (functional type-I tank bromeliads) but the reasons for this difference and the underlying microbial CH4-cycling processes have not been studied. Therefore, we characterized archaeal communities in bromeliad tanks of the two different functional types in a neotropical montane forest of southern Ecuador using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and performed tank-slurry incubations to measure CH4 production potential, stable carbon isotope fractionation and pathway of CH4 formation...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118358/spatial-distribution-of-carbon-stored-in-forests-of-the%C3%A2-democratic-republic-of-congo
#17
Liang Xu, Sassan S Saatchi, Aurélie Shapiro, Victoria Meyer, Antonio Ferraz, Yan Yang, Jean-Francois Bastin, Norman Banks, Pascal Boeckx, Hans Verbeeck, Simon L Lewis, Elvis Tshibasu Muanza, Eddy Bongwele, Francois Kayembe, Daudet Mbenza, Laurent Kalau, Franck Mukendi, Francis Ilunga, Daniel Ebuta
National forest inventories in tropical regions are sparse and have large uncertainty in capturing the physiographical variations of forest carbon across landscapes. Here, we produce for the first time the spatial patterns of carbon stored in forests of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) by using airborne LiDAR inventory of more than 432,000 ha of forests based on a designed probability sampling methodology. The LiDAR mean top canopy height measurements were trained to develop an unbiased carbon estimator by using 92 1-ha ground plots distributed across key forest types in DRC...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116216/juvenile-fish-assemblages-in-temperate-rocky-reefs-are-shaped-by-the-presence-of-macro-algae-canopy-and-its-three-dimensional-structure
#18
Adrien Cheminée, Jérémy Pastor, Olivier Bianchimani, Pierre Thiriet, Enric Sala, Jean-Michel Cottalorda, Jean-Marie Dominici, Pierre Lejeune, Patrice Francour
Arborescent macro-algae forests covering temperate rocky reefs are a known habitat for juvenile fishes. However, in the Mediterranean, these forests are undergoing severe transformations due to pressures from global change. In our study, juvenile fish assemblages differed between pristine arborescent forests (Cystoseira brachycarpa var. balearica) versus an alternate state: bushland (Dictyotales - Sphacelariales). Forests hosted richer and three-fold more abundant juvenile assemblages. This was consistent through space, whatever the local environmental conditions, along 40 km of NW Mediterranean subtidal rocky shores (Corsica, France)...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114438/assessment-of-fine-scale-resource-selection-and-spatially-explicit-habitat-suitability-modelling-for-a-re-introduced-tiger-panthera-tigris-population-in-central-india
#19
Mriganka Shekhar Sarkar, Ramesh Krishnamurthy, Jeyaraj A Johnson, Subharanjan Sen, Goutam Kumar Saha
Background: Large carnivores influence ecosystem functions at various scales. Thus, their local extinction is not only a species-specific conservation concern, but also reflects on the overall habitat quality and ecosystem value. Species-habitat relationships at fine scale reflect the individuals' ability to procure resources and negotiate intraspecific competition. Such fine scale habitat choices are more pronounced in large carnivores such as tiger (Panthera tigris), which exhibits competitive exclusion in habitat and mate selection strategies...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113561/metagenome-sequence-clustering-with-hash-based-canopies
#20
Mohammad Arifur Rahman, Nathan LaPierre, Huzefa Rangwala, Daniel Barbara
Metagenomics is the collective sequencing of co-existing microbial communities which are ubiquitous across various clinical and ecological environments. Due to the large volume and random short sequences (reads) obtained from community sequences, analysis of diversity, abundance and functions of different organisms within these communities are challenging tasks. We present a fast and scalable clustering algorithm for analyzing large-scale metagenome sequence data. Our approach achieves efficiency by partitioning the large number of sequence reads into groups (called canopies) using hashing...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
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