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Tara A Brant, Patricia N Okorie, Olushola Ogunmola, Nureni Bolaji Ojeyode, S B Fatunade, Emmanuel Davies, Yisa Saka, Michelle C Stanton, David H Molyneux, J Russell Stothard, Louise A Kelly-Hope
Nigeria has the heaviest burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in sub-Saharan Africa, which is caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. LF is targeted for elimination and the national programme is scaling up mass drug administration (MDA) across the country to interrupt transmission. However, in some regions the co-endemicity of the filarial parasite Loa loa (loiasis) is an impediment due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) associated with the drug ivermectin...
February 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
Clive Bock, Carolyn Young, Katherine Stevenson, Nikki Charlton
Scab (caused by Venturia effusa) is the major disease of pecan in the southeastern U.S.A. There is no information available on the fine scale population genetic diversity, or the occurrence of clonal types at small spatial scales that provides insight into inoculum sources and dispersal mechanisms, and potential opportunity for sexual reproduction. To investigate fine scale genetic diversity, 4 trees (cv. Wichita = populations) were sampled hierarchically: within each tree canopy, 4 approximately evenly spaced terminals (subpopulations) were selected and up to 6 leaflets (sub-subpopulations) were sampled from different compound leaves on each terminal...
May 17, 2018: Phytopathology
Katherine Vayda, Kathleen Donohue, Gabriela Alejandra Auge
Plants respond not only to the environment in which they find themselves, but also to that of their parents. The combination of within- and trans-generational phenotypic plasticity regulates plant development. Plants use light as source of energy and also as a cue of competitive conditions, since the quality of light (ratio of red to far-red light, R:FR) indicates the presence of neighbouring plants. Light regulates many aspects of plant development, including seed germination. To understand how seeds integrate environmental cues experienced at different times, we quantified germination responses to changes in light quantity (irradiance) and quality (R:FR) experienced during seed maturation and seed imbibition in Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes that differ in their innate dormancy levels and after treatments that break or reinduce dormancy...
June 2018: AoB Plants
Mutez Ali Ahmed, John Passioura, Andrea Carminati
To a first-order approximation, the yield of a water-limited grain crop depends (1) on how much water is available to the crop and (2) on how crop water use is partitioned during the growing season. The latter determines the harvest index of the crop, that is, the proportion of the crop's above ground biomass that is converted into grain, which is typically optimal if about 30% of the seasonal available water supply is used during flowering and grain-filling.Here we review the role of roots in extracting water from the soil both in the amount and in timing that may lead to maximal grain yield, and the various mechanisms underlying this activity...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Anna K Schweiger, Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Philip A Townsend, Sarah E Hobbie, Michael D Madritch, Ran Wang, David Tilman, John A Gamon
Biodiversity promotes ecosystem function as a consequence of functional differences among organisms that enable resource partitioning and facilitation. As the need for biodiversity assessments increases in the face of accelerated global change, novel approaches that are rapid, repeatable and scalable are critical, especially in ecosystems for which information about species identity and the number of species is difficult to acquire. Here, we present 'spectral diversity'-a spectroscopic index of the variability of electromagnetic radiation reflected from plants measured in the visible, near-infrared and short-wave infrared regions (400-2,400 nm)...
May 14, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Chenyuan Sha, Xuemei Wang, Yuanyuan Lin, Yifan Fan, Xi Chen, Jian Hang
Sustainable urban design is an effective way to improve urban ventilation and reduce vehicular pollutant exposure to urban residents. This paper investigated the impacts of urban open space and 'lift-up' building design on vehicular CO (carbon monoxide) exposure in typical three-dimensional (3D) urban canopy layer (UCL) models under neutral atmospheric conditions. The building intake fraction (IF) represents the fraction of total vehicular pollutant emissions inhaled by residents when they stay at home. The building daily CO exposure (Et ) means the extent of human beings' contact with CO within one day indoor at home...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ximeng Li, Chris J Blackman, Paul D Rymer, Desi Quintans, Remko A Duursma, Brendan Choat, Belinda E Medlyn, David T Tissue
Manipulative experiments have suggested that embolism-induced hydraulic impairment underpins widespread tree mortality during extreme drought, yet in situ evidence is rare. One month after drought-induced leaf and branch dieback was observed in field populations of Eucalyptus piperita Sm. in the Blue Mountains (Australia), we measured the level of native stem embolism and characterized the extent of leaf death in co-occurring dieback and healthy (non-dieback) trees. We found that canopy dieback-affected trees showed significantly higher levels of native embolism (26%) in tertiary order branchlets than healthy trees (11%)...
May 11, 2018: Tree Physiology
Lian Jin Guo, Jia Peng DU, Yan Ping Wu, Zhi Peng Xiao, Ting Liao, Xiu Juan Shao
To find appropriate environment for Emmenopterys henryi seedlings and develop corresponding strategies for their natural regeneration, the net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, chlorophyll content, height, basal diameter and biomass of two-year old seedlings and the relationships with environmental factors were studied in different habitats, i.e., undercanopy, crown edge, forest gap, and forest edge. In the four habitats, the maximum photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was 50-1380 Μmol·m-2 ·s-1 , net photosynthetic rate of E...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Xiu Qing Yang, Chan Shi, Xu Gang Wang, Hui Jing Ma, Hai Bing Yan
The secondary Picea forest is one of the dominant vegetation types in Guandi Mountain. It's also the representative type of evergreen cold-temperate coniferous forests in subalpine region of north China. A 4 hm2 fixed monitoring Picea forest plot was established in Pangquangou Nature Reserve, Guandi Mountain (GDS plot) to better understand the basic characteristics such as species composition, community structure and its potential ecological process and mechanisms. We analyzed species composition, structure and spatial distribution of sample forest based on the first background survey data in this paper...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Xiao Li Wu, Chao Su Li, Yong Lu Tang, Yu Bin Liu, Bo Qun Li, Gao Qiong Fan, Tao Xiong
A nitrogen management experiment with three nitrogen levels (0, 120, and 180 kg·hm-2 , namely N0 , N120 , N180 ) and three nitrogen allocation modes (NA : base fertilizer 100%; NB : base fertilizer 70% + seedling fertilizer 30%; NC : base fertilizer 60% + jointing fertilizer 40%) was conducted at four sites (Chongqing, Renshou, Guanghan and Xichang) during two consecutive years, the SPAD value, canopy photosynthetic rate (CAP), photosynthetically active radia-tion (PAR) interception efficiency and grain yield were determined, and the nitrogen use efficiency and PAR use efficiency were calculated...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Hong Yang Zhou, Dan Ju Zhang, Jie Zhang, Yan Bo Zhao, Bo Zhao, Da Ping Wei, Jian Zhang
In order to understand the effects of canopy density on the functional group characteristics of soil macrofauna in Pinus massoniana plantations, we divided the captured soil fauna into five types including xylophages, predators, saprophages, omnivores and fungal feeders. The results showed that 1) Saprozoic feeders had the highest percentage of total individuals, and the omnivores and xylophages occupied higher percentages of total taxa. 2) The individual and group number of the predators, and the group number of xylophages did not change significantly under 0...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Maria Serena Chiriacò, Andrea Luvisi, Elisabetta Primiceri, Erika Sabella, Luigi De Bellis, Giuseppe Maruccio
Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain CoDiRO, a pathogen responsible for Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS), is strongly threatening the agricultural-based economy of South Italy and making its typical landscape collapse. The bacteria can also infect more than other twenty woody or shrub species and quarantine programs are carried out in Italy. Since symptoms of OQDS like leaf scorching and wilting of canopy may appear several months after infection and some hosts are asymptomatic, a tool for the rapid and early screening of plants is desirable, in order to plan a sudden control strategy and apply programs for pest management...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Misha Leong, Robert R Dunn, Michelle D Trautwein
The ecological dynamics of cities are influenced not only by geophysical and biological factors, but also by aspects of human society. In cities around the world, a pattern of higher biodiversity in affluent neighbourhoods has been termed 'the luxury effect'. The luxury effect has been found globally regarding plant diversity and canopy or vegetative cover. Fewer studies have considered the luxury effect and animals, yet it has been recognized in the distributions of birds, bats, lizards and indoor arthropods...
May 2018: Biology Letters
Qilu Li, Kong Yang, Yan Wang, Biao Jin, Chunling Luo, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
Paddy fields play an important role in the transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) due to the filter effects of canopy and their wide distribution. Thus, most studies have been focusing on the filter effects of canopy for POPs. However, shielding effects of canopy might also influence transport and portion of POPs between top and bottom. To investigate these two important processes, our study involved 30 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a paddy field. Samples of bulk depositions, surface water, and air were taken to investigate the occurrence and the behaviour of PCBs...
May 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
A Hakeem, J F Grant, P L Lambdin, F A Hale, J R Rhea, G J Wiggins, C Coots
Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an exotic pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae), in the eastern United States. Two commonly used insecticides to manage adelgid are imidacloprid, a systemic neonicotinoid insecticide, and horticultural oil, a refined petroleum oil foliar spray. We have investigated the influence of imidacloprid and horticultural oil on spider abundance at different canopy strata in eastern hemlock. In total, 2,084 spiders representing 11 families were collected from the canopies of eastern hemlock...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Han Zhi Li, Xin Xiao Yu, Guo Dong Jia, Na Zhao, Zi Qiang Liu, Wei Wei Lu, Yong E Zhang
This research employed off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique to observe CO2 concentration and δ13 C values of planted Platycladus orientalis in Beijing mountainous area. We compared the variation between CO2 concentration and δ13 C values in the plantation at different heights observed by every 0.5 h to explore how the CO2 concentration and δ13 C values responded to the meteorological factors. The results showed that the CO2 concentration showed the pattern of "first decreased and then increased" after sunrise...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yong E Zhang, Xin Xiao Yu, Li Hua Chen, Guo Dong Jia, Zhen Yao Zhang, Li Bo Sun, Jie Ming Zhang, Gui Rong Hou
In this study, we focused on Platycladus orientalis, a widely distributed tree species in Beijing western mountains area, and precisely determined its foliar water use efficiency (including instantaneous water use efficiency derived from gas exchange and short-term water use efficiency obtained on carbon isotope model) by carefully considering the discrepancies of meteorological factors and atmosphere CO2 concentration and δ13 C among different canopy heights, hoping to provide theoretical basis for carbon sequestration and water loss in regional forest ecosystem, and offer technical support for regional forest management and maintenance...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Ya-Feng Zhang, Xin-Ping Wang, Rui Hu, Yan-Xia Pan
Numerous field experiments had demonstrated great spatial variability and temporal stability of throughfall under tree canopies within forested ecosystems. Nonetheless, no known studies have investigated the intrastorm spatial-temporal variability of throughfall beneath xerophytic shrub canopies within arid desert ecosystems where water is typically the principal limiting factor determining the structure and dynamics of ecosystems. Here we investigated the spatial-temporal pattern of throughfall at intrastorm scale, and systematically examined the effects of meteorological variables on throughfall based on the principal components analysis (PCA) and a multiple regression model...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Leonardo Suveges Moreira Chaves, Jan E Conn, Rossana Verónica Mendoza López, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum
The precise role that deforestation for agricultural settlements and commercial forest products plays in promoting or inhibiting malaria incidence in Amazonian Brazil is controversial. Using publically available databases, we analyzed temporal malaria incidence (2009-2015) in municipalities of nine Amazonian states in relation to ecologically defined variables: (i) deforestation (rate of forest clearing over time); (ii) degraded forest (degree of human disturbance and openness of forest canopy for logging) and (iii) impacted forest (sum of deforested and degraded forest patches)...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sujung Kim, Nobuyoshi Mochizuki, Ayumi Deguchi, Atsushi J Nagano, Tomomi Suzuki, Akira Nagatani
Plants sense and respond to light via multiple photoreceptors including phytochrome. The decreased ratio of red to far-red light that occurs under a canopy triggers shade avoidance responses, which allow plants to compete with neighbouring plants. The leaf acts as a photoperceptive organ in this response. In the present study, we investigated how the shade stimulus is spatially processed within the cotyledon. We performed transcriptome analysis on micro-tissue samples collected from vascular and non-vascular regions of Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledons...
May 4, 2018: Plant Physiology
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