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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345031/amazon-droughts-and-forest-responses-largely-reduced-forest-photosynthesis-but-slightly-increased-canopy-greenness-during-the-extreme-drought-of-2015-2016
#1
Jia Yang, Hanqin Tian, Shufen Pan, Guangsheng Chen, Bowen Zhang, Shree Dangal
Amazon droughts have major impacts on regional ecosystem functioning as well as global carbon cycling. The severe dry-season droughts in 2005 and 2010, driven by Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly, have been widely investigated in terms of drought severity and impacts on ecosystems. Although the influence of Pacific SST anomaly on wet-season precipitation has been well recognized, it remains uncertain to what extent the droughts driven by Pacific SST anomaly could affect forest greenness and photosynthesis in the Amazon...
January 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342152/do-nursery-habitats-provide-shelter-from-flow-for-juvenile-fish
#2
Darren M Parsons, Iain MacDonald, Dane Buckthought, Crispin Middleton
Juvenile fish nurseries are an essential life stage requirement for the maintenance of many fish populations. With many inshore habitats globally in decline, optimising habitat management by increasing our understanding of the relationship between juvenile fish and nursery habitats may be a prudent approach. Previous research on post-settlement snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) has suggested that structure may provide a water flow refuge, allowing snapper to access high water flow sites that will also have a high flux of their pelagic prey...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340657/ixodes-scapularis-acari-ixodidae-reservoir-host-diversity-and-abundance-impacts-on-dilution-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-spirochaetales-spirochaetaceae-in-residential-and-woodland-habitats-in-connecticut-united-states
#3
Megan A Linske, Scott C Williams, Kirby C Stafford, Isaac M Ortega
The dilution effect in the zoonotic disease transmission cycle theorizes that an increased diversity of host species will alter transmission dynamics, result in a decrease in pathogen prevalence, and potentially lower human disease incidence. The interrelationship of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner) (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiological agent of Lyme disease (LD), and its primary vector, blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say) (Acari: Ixodidae), is a commonly used example of the dilution effect, suggesting that an increased diversity of host species will be found in large, undisturbed forested tracts and lower diversity in fragmented forests...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330677/evaluating-efficacy-of-landsat-derived-environmental-covariates-for-predicting-malaria-distribution-in-rural-villages-of-vhembe-district-south-africa
#4
Oupa E Malahlela, Jane M Olwoch, Clement Adjorlolo
Malaria in South Africa is still a problem despite existing efforts to eradicate the disease. In the Vhembe District Municipality, malaria prevalence is still high, with a mean incidence rate of 328.2 per 100,0000 persons/year. This study aimed at evaluating environmental covariates, such as vegetation moisture and vegetation greenness, associated with malaria vector distribution for better predictability towards rapid and efficient disease management and control. The 2005 malaria incidence data combined with Landsat 5 ETM were used in this study...
January 12, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329336/effective-dispersal-and-density-dependence-in-mesophotic-macroalgal-forests-insights-from-the-mediterranean-species-cystoseira-zosteroides
#5
Pol Capdevila, Cristina Linares, Eneko Aspillaga, Joan Lluís Riera, Bernat Hereu
Dispersal and recruitment are fundamental processes for population recovery following disturbances in sessile species. While both processes are well understood for many terrestrial species, they still remain poorly resolved for some macroalgal species. Here we experimentally investigated the effective dispersal and recruit survival of a mesophotic Mediterranean fucoid, Cystoseira zosteroides. In three isolated populations, four sets of settlement collectors were placed at increasing distances (from 0 to 10 m) and different orientations (North, South, East and West)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324847/sabina-chinensis-and-liriodendron-chinense-improve-air-quality-in-beijing-china
#6
Yanan Wu, Wenmei Ma, Jiakai Liu, Lijuan Zhu, Ling Cong, Jiexiu Zhai, Yu Wang, Zhenming Zhang
Urban forests have been shown to be efficient for reducing air pollutants especially for particulate matters (PMs). This study aims to reveal the PM blocking capacity of two common artificial landscape species, Sabina chinensis and Liriodendron chinense and to investigate spatial-temporal heterogeneities by estimating the vegetation collection velocity of coarse (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5) during different seasons and heights. PM concentration and meteorological data were collected on both leeward and windward sides of trees during the daytime in both summers and winters from 2013 to 2015...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323793/atmospheric-nitrogen-deposition-on-petals-enhances-seed-quality-of-the-forest-herb-anemone-nemorosa
#7
Pieter De Frenne, Haben Blondeel, Jörg Brunet, Maria Mercedes Caron, Olivier Chabrerie, Mathias Cougnon, Sara A O Cousins, Guillaume Decocq, Martin Diekmann, Bente J Graae, Mick E Hanley, Thilo Heinken, Martin Hermy, Annette Kolb, Jonathan Lenoir, Jaan Liira, Anna Orczewska, Anna Shevtsova, Thomas Vanneste, Kris Verheyen
Elevated atmospheric input of nitrogen (N) is currently affecting plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The growth and survival of numerous plant species is known to respond strongly to N fertilization. Yet, few studies have assessed the effects of N deposition on seed quality and reproductive performance, which is an important life-history stage of plants. Here we address this knowledge gap by assessing the effects of atmospheric N deposition on seed quality of the ancient forest herb Anemone nemorosa using two complementary approaches...
January 11, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323155/canopy-nitrogen-distribution-is-optimized-to-prevent-photoinhibition-throughout-the-canopy-during-sun-flecks
#8
Mitsutoshi Kitao, Satoshi Kitaoka, Hisanori Harayama, Hiroyuki Tobita, Evgenios Agathokleous, Hajime Utsugi
As photoinhibition primarily reduces the photosynthetic light use efficiency at low light, sunfleck-induced photoinhibition might result in a fatal loss of carbon gain in the shade leaves within a canopy with barely positive carbon balance. We hypothesized that shade leaves at the lower canopy might retain a certain amount of leaf nitrogen (NL) to maintain energy consumption via electron transport, which contributes to circumventing photoinhibition during sunflecks to keep efficient utilization of low light during the rest period of daytime...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322582/large-scale-disturbance-legacies-and-the-climate-sensitivity-of-primary-picea-abies-forests
#9
Jonathan S Schurman, Volodymyr Trotsiuk, Radek Bače, Vojtěch Čada, Shawn Fraver, Pavel Janda, Dominik Kulakowski, Jana Labusova, Martin Mikoláš, Thomas A Nagel, Rupert Seidl, Michal Synek, Kristýna Svobodová, Oleh Chaskovskyy, Marius Teodosiu, Miroslav Svoboda
Determining the drivers of shifting forest disturbance rates remains a pressing global change issue. Large-scale forest dynamics are commonly assumed to be climate driven, but appropriately scaled disturbance histories are rarely available to assess how disturbance legacies alter subsequent disturbance rates and the climate sensitivity of disturbance. We compiled multiple tree-ring based disturbance histories from primary Picea abies forest fragments distributed throughout five European landscapes spanning the Bohemian Forest and the Carpathian Mountains...
January 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321907/the-groot-effect-plant-facilitation-and-desert-shrub-regrowth-following-extensive-damage
#10
Christopher J Lortie, Eva Gruber, Alex Filazzola, Taylor Noble, Michael Westphal
Deserts are increasing in extent globally, but existing deserts are decreasing in health. The basic biology and ecology of foundation plant species in deserts are limited. This is a direct study that provides an estimate of the capacity for a locally dominant foundation shrub species in California to recover from damage. Desert shrubs are cleared and damaged by humans for many purposes including agriculture, oil and gas production, and sustainable energy developments; we need to know whether foundation species consistently facilitate the abundance and diversity of other plants in high-stress ecosystems and whether they can recover...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321893/opposing-deer-and-caterpillar-foraging-preferences-may-prevent-reductions-in-songbird-prey-biomass-in-historically-overbrowsed-forests
#11
R Keating Godfrey, Ellen H Yerger, Timothy J Nuttle
Overbrowsing by ungulates decimates plant populations and reduces diversity in a variety of ecosystems, but the mechanisms by which changes to plant community composition influence other trophic levels are poorly understood. In addition to removal of avian nesting habitat, browsing is hypothesized to reduce bird density and diversity through reduction of insect prey on browse-tolerant hosts left behind by deer. In this study, we excluded birds from branches of six tree species to quantify differences in songbird prey removal across trees that vary in deer browse preference...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321886/gap-formation-and-dynamics-after-long-term-steady-state-in-an-old-growth-picea-abies-stand-in-norway-above-and-belowground-interactions
#12
Per Holm Nygaard, Line Tau Strand, Arne Oddvar Stuanes
Stand dynamics and the gap initiation prior to gap formation are not well-understood because of its long-term nature and the scarcity of late-successional stands. Reconstruction of such disturbance is normally based on historical records and dendroecological methods. We investigated gap initiation and formation at the fine-scale stand level in the old-growth reserve of Karlshaugen in Norway. Given its long-term conservation history, and thorough mapping in permanent marked plots with spatially referenced trees, it provides an opportunity to present stand development before, during, and after gap formation...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321872/relative-contribution-of-neutral-and-deterministic-processes-in-shaping-fruit-feeding-butterfly-assemblages-in-afrotropical-forests
#13
Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Freerk Molleman, William Oduro, Samuel K Oppong, David J Lohman, Rampal S Etienne
The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography has gained the status of a quantitative null model for explaining patterns in ecological (meta)communities. The theory assumes that individuals of trophically similar species are functionally equivalent. We empirically evaluate the relative contribution of neutral and deterministic processes in shaping fruit-feeding butterfly assemblages in three tropical forests in Africa, using both direct (confronting the neutral model with species abundance data) and indirect approaches (testing the predictions of neutral theory using data other than species abundance distributions)...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321848/divergent-habitat-use-of-two-urban-lizard-species
#14
Kristin M Winchell, Elizabeth J Carlen, Alberto R Puente-Rolón, Liam J Revell
Faunal responses to anthropogenic habitat modification represent an important aspect of global change. In Puerto Rico, two species of arboreal lizard, Anolis cristatellus and A. stratulus, are commonly encountered in urban areas, yet seem to use the urban habitat in different ways. In this study, we quantified differences in habitat use between these two species in an urban setting. For each species, we measured habitat use and preference, and the niche space of each taxon, with respect to manmade features of the urban environment...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320514/sound-mapping-a-coniferous-forest-perspectives-for-biodiversity-monitoring-and-noise-mitigation
#15
Anthony Turner, Michael Fischer, Joseph Tzanopoulos
Acoustic diversity indices have been proposed as low-cost biodiversity monitoring tools. The acoustic diversity of a soundscape can be indicative of the richness of an acoustic community and the structural/vegetation characteristics of a habitat. There is a need to apply these methods to landscapes that are ecologically and/or economically important. We investigate the relationship between the acoustic properties of a coniferous forest with stand-age and structure. We sampled a 73 point grid in part of the UK's largest man-made lowland coniferous plantation forest, covering a 320ha mosaic of different aged stands...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318846/-a-survey-on-ecological-environment-of-wild-adiantum-reniforme-var-sinense-in-three-gorges-reservoir-region
#16
Zhong-de Xie, Han Jia, Shao-Zhi Fu, Wen-Yuan Gao, Zhi-Wei Zhang, Wei Sun
The study aims at investigating the ecological environment Adiantum reniforme var. sinense of in Three Gorges Reservoir region, and providing a reference basis for the protection of resources and artificial cultivation of A. reniforme var. sinense. By using the method of investigation, field survey and experimental analysis, the vegetation, natural geographical environment, climate, soil nutrients of A. reniforme var. sinense were studied and analyzed. The survey found that A. reniforme var. sinense distribution area reduced fast in Three Gorges region, a lot of distribution has diminished and vanished due to excessive digging, currently only in 3 towns of Wanzhou there exist 4 wild distribution areas...
November 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316093/trees-tolerate-an-extreme-heatwave-via-sustained-transpirational-cooling-and-increased-leaf-thermal-tolerance
#17
John E Drake, Mark G Tjoelker, Angelica Vårhammar, Belinda E Medlyn, Peter B Reich, Andrea Leigh, Sebastian Pfautsch, Chris J Blackman, Rosana López, Michael J Aspinwall, Kristine Y Crous, Remko A Duursma, Dushan Kumarathunge, Martin G De Kauwe, Mingkai Jiang, Adrienne B Nicotra, David T Tissue, Brendan Choat, Owen K Atkin, Craig V M Barton
Heatwaves are likely to increase in frequency and intensity with climate change, which may impair tree function and forest C uptake. However, we have little information regarding the impact of extreme heatwaves on the physiological performance of large trees in the field. Here, we grew Eucalyptus parramattensis trees for one year with experimental warming (+3 °C) in a field setting, until they were greater than 6-m-tall. We withheld irrigation for one month to dry the surface soils and then implemented an extreme heatwave treatment of four consecutive days with air temperatures exceeding 43 °C, while monitoring whole-canopy exchange of CO2 and H2 O, leaf temperatures, leaf thermal tolerance, and leaf and branch hydraulic status...
January 7, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315603/on-the-relationship-between-fire-regime-and-vegetation-structure-in-the-tropics
#18
Elmar M Veenendaal, Mireia Torello-Raventos, Heloisa S Miranda, Naomi Margarete Sato, Imma Oliveras, Frank van Langevelde, Gregory P Asner, Jon Lloyd
We assessed data from 11 experiments examining the effects of the timing and/or frequency of fire on tropical forest and/or savanna vegetation structure over one decade or more. The initial 'control treatment' in many such cases consisted of previously cleared land. This is as opposed to natural vegetation subject to some sort of endogenous fire regime before the imposition of fire treatments. Effects of fire on fractional foliar cover are up to 10-fold greater when clearing pre-treatments are imposed. Moreover, because many of the 'classic' fire trials were initialised with applied management questions in mind, most have also used burning regimes much more frequent and/or severe than those occurring in the absence of human activity...
January 7, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314635/semiochemicals-to-enhance-herbivory-by-diorhabda-carinulata-aggregations-in-saltcedar-tamarix-spp-infestations
#19
Alexander M Gaffke, Sharlene E Sing, Tom L Dudley, Daniel W Bean, Justin A Russak, Agenor Mafra-Neto, Paul A Grieco, Robert K D Peterson, David K Weaver
BACKGROUND: Semiochemicals for monitoring, attracting or repelling pest and beneficial organisms are increasingly deployed in agricultural and forest systems for pest management activities. However, the use of aggregation pheromones and host plant attractants for the express purpose of increasing the efficacy of classical biological control agents of weeds has not been widely reported. Therefore, we conducted field-based assays to determine if a specialized wax based matrix impregnated with an aggregation pheromone of the northern tamarisk beetle Diorhabda carinulata (Desbrochers) or host plant volatiles could increase the efficacy of D...
January 3, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307311/the-effects-of-within-stand-disturbance-in-plantation-forests-indicate-complex-and-contrasting-responses-among-and-within-beetle-families
#20
S Mladenović, T Loskotová, J Boháč, J Pavlíček, J Brestovanský, J Horák
Plantation forests with timber production as the major function are highly fragmented and disturbed regarding the tree species composition and stand area. Their closed canopies also have different microclimatic conditions compared with better studied conservation areas. We studied three beetle families (click, longhorn, and rove beetles) with different ecological demands in lowland plantation forests dominated by Sessile oak and Norway spruce in the Czech Republic. Our main interest was how their species richness, abundance, diversity, body length, rarity, red-list status, species composition and individual species were driven by the main tree species, stand area and canopy openness...
January 8, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
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