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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749031/unraveling-proximate-cues-of-mass-flowering-in-the-tropical-forests-of-southeast-asia-from-gene-expression-analyses
#1
Suat Hui Yeoh, Akiko Satake, Shinya Numata, Tomoaki Ichie, Soon Leong Lee, Norlia Basherudin, Norwati Muhammad, Toshiaki Kondo, Tatsuya Otani, Mazlan Hashim, Naoki Tani
Elucidating the physiological mechanisms of the irregular yet concerted flowering rhythm of mass flowering tree species in the tropics requires long term monitoring of flowering phenology, exogenous and endogenous environmental factors, as well as identifying interactions and dependencies among these factors. To investigate the proximate factors for floral initiation of mast seeding trees in the tropics, we monitored the expression dynamics of two key flowering genes, meteorological conditions and endogenous resources over two flowering events of Shorea curtisii and Shorea leprosula in the Malay Peninsula...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748838/larvicidal-activity-prediction-against-aedes-aegypti-mosquito-using-computational-tools
#2
Yudith Cañizares-Carmenate, Mirelys Hernandez-Morfa, Francisco Torrens, Gloria Castellano, Juan A Castillo-Garit
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Aedes aegypti is an important vector for transmission of dengue, yellow fever, chikun- gunya, arthritis, and Zika fever. According to the World Health Organization, it is estimated that Ae. aegypti causes 50 million infections and 25,000 deaths per year. Use of larvicidal agents is one of the recommendations of health organizations to control mosquito populations and limit their distribution. The aim of present study was to deduce a mathematical model to predict the larvicidal action of chemical compounds, based on their structure...
April 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748537/differences-in-brain-morphology-and-working-memory-capacity-across-childhood
#3
Joe Bathelt, Susan E Gathercole, Amy Johnson, Duncan E Astle
Working memory (WM) skills are closely associated with learning progress in key areas such as reading and mathematics across childhood. As yet, however, little is known about how the brain systems underpinning WM develop over this critical developmental period. The current study investigated whether and how structural brain correlates of components of the working memory system change over development. Verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory were assessed in 153 children between 5.58 and 15.92 years, and latent components of the working memory system were derived...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748506/impact-of-awareness-programs-on-cholera-dynamics-two-modeling-approaches
#4
Chayu Yang, Xueying Wang, Daozhou Gao, Jin Wang
We propose two differential equation-based models to investigate the impact of awareness programs on cholera dynamics. The first model represents the disease transmission rates as decreasing functions of the number of awareness programs, whereas the second model divides the susceptible individuals into two distinct classes depending on their awareness/unawareness of the risk of infection. We study the essential dynamical properties of each model, using both analytical and numerical approaches. We find that the two models, though closely related, exhibit significantly different dynamical behaviors...
July 26, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748469/protocols-and-applications-of-cellular-metabolomics-in-safety-studies-using-precision-cut-tissue-slices-and-carbon-13-nmr
#5
Gabriel Baverel, Maha El Hage, Guy Martin
Numerous xenobiotics are toxic to human and animal cells by interacting with their metabolism, but the precise metabolic step affected and the biochemical mechanism behind such a toxicity remain often unknown. In an attempt to reduce the ignorance in this field, we have developed a new approach called cellular metabolomics. This approach, developed in vitro, provides a panoramic view not only of the pathways involved in the metabolism of physiological substrates of any normal or pathological human or animal cell but also of the beneficial and adverse effects of xenobiotics on these metabolic pathways...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748461/applications-of-mass-spectrometry-imaging-for-safety-evaluation
#6
David Bonnel, Jonathan Stauber
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was first derived from techniques used in physics, which were then incorporated into chemistry followed by application in biology. Developed over 50 years ago, and with different principles to detect and map compounds on a sample surface, MSI supports modern biology questions by detecting biological compounds within tissue sections. MALDI (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization) imaging trend analysis in this field shows an important increase in the number of publications since 2005, especially with the development of the MALDI imaging technique and its applications in biomarker discovery and drug distribution...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748095/the-origin-of-mathematics-and-number-sense-in-the-cerebellum-with-implications-for-finger-counting-and-dyscalculia
#7
Larry Vandervert
BACKGROUND: Mathematicians and scientists have struggled to adequately describe the ultimate foundations of mathematics. Nobel laureates Albert Einstein and Eugene Wigner were perplexed by this issue, with Wigner concluding that the workability of mathematics in the real world is a mystery we cannot explain. In response to this classic enigma, the major purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical model of the ultimate origin of mathematics and "number sense" (as defined by S. Dehaene) that is proposed to involve the learning of inverse dynamics models through the collaboration of the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex (but prominently cerebellum-driven)...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748084/mechanical-damage-to-green-and-red-lentil-seeds
#8
Feizollah Shahbazi, Saman Valizade, Ali Dowlatshah
In this research, the breakage susceptibility of two classes of lentil (green and red) was evaluated as affected by impact energy and seed moisture content. The experiments were conducted at impact energies of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 J, and moisture contents of 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20 and 25% (wet basis). Results showed that red lentil seeds had more breakage than green seeds and the difference in breakage percentage between green and red lentil seeds was significant at 0.01% level according to analysis of variance (p < ...
July 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747744/predicting-trend-of-early-childhood-caries-in-mainland-china-a-combined-meta-analytic-and-mathematical-modelling-approach-based-on-epidemiological-surveys
#9
Xiaonan Zhang, Lei Zhang, Yonghong Zhang, Zhaoying Liao, Jinlin Song
Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common chronic disease in young children. A reliable predictive model for ECC prevalence is needed in China as a decision supportive tool for planning health resources. In this study, we first established the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and grey predictive model (GM) based on the estimated national prevalence of ECC with meta-analysis from the published articles. The pooled data from 1988 to 2010 were used to establish the model, while the data from 2011 to 2013 were used to validate the models...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747624/number-of-infection-events-per-cell-during-hiv-1-cell-free-infection
#10
Yusuke Ito, Azaria Remion, Alexandra Tauzin, Keisuke Ejima, Shinji Nakaoka, Yoh Iwasa, Shingo Iwami, Fabrizio Mammano
HIV-1 accumulates changes in its genome through both recombination and mutation during the course of infection. For recombination to occur, a single cell must be infected by two HIV strains. These coinfection events were experimentally demonstrated to occur more frequently than would be expected for independent infection events and do not follow a random distribution. Previous mathematical modeling approaches demonstrated that differences in target cell susceptibility can explain the non-randomness, both in the context of direct cell-to-cell transmission, and in the context of free virus transmission (Q...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747465/unbounded-evidence-accumulation-characterizes-subjective-visual-vertical-svv-forced-choice-perceptual-choice-and-confidence
#11
Koeun Lim, Wei Wang, Daniel M Merfeld
Humans can subjectively yet quantitatively assess choice confidence based on perceptual precision even when a perceptual decision is made without an immediate reward or feedback. However, surprisingly little is known about choice confidence. Here we investigate the dynamics of choice confidence by merging two parallel conceptual frameworks of decision-making, signal detection theory and sequential analyses (i.e., drift diffusion modeling). Specifically, in order to capture end-point statistics of binary choice and confidence, we built on a previous study that defined choice confidence in terms of psychophysics derived from signal detection theory...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747397/changes-and-classification-in-myocardial-contractile-function-in-the-left-ventricle-following-acute-myocardial-infarction
#12
Hao Gao, Andrej Aderhold, Kenneth Mangion, Xiaoyu Luo, Dirk Husmeier, Colin Berry
In this research, we hypothesized that novel biomechanical parameters are discriminative in patients following acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). To identify these biomechanical biomarkers and bring computational biomechanics 'closer to the clinic', we applied state-of-the-art multiphysics cardiac modelling combined with advanced machine learning and multivariate statistical inference to a clinical database of myocardial infarction. We obtained data from 11 STEMI patients (ClinicalTrials...
July 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747359/coupling-between-phosphate-and-calcium-homeostasis-a-mathematical-model
#13
David Granjon, Olivier Bonny, Aurélie Edwards
We developed a mathematical model of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (PO4) homeostasis in the rat to elucidate the hormonal mechanisms that underlie the regulation of Ca and PO4 balance. The model represents the exchanges of Ca and PO4 between the intestine, plasma, kidneys, bone, and the intracellular compartment, and the formation of Ca-PO4-fetuin A complexes. It accounts for the regulation of these fluxes by parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D3, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and Ca2+-sensing receptors...
July 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747353/effectiveness-of-a-low-cost-graduate-student-led-intervention-on-study-habits-and-performance-in-introductory-biology
#14
Tyler D Hoskins, J D Gantz, Blake R Chaffee, Kel Arlinghaus, James Wiebler, Michael Hughes, Joyce J Fernandes
Institutions have developed diverse approaches that vary in effectiveness and cost to improve student performance in introductory science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses. We developed a low-cost, graduate student-led, metacognition-based study skills course taught in conjunction with the introductory biology series at Miami University. Our approach aimed to improve performance for underachieving students by combining an existing framework for the process of learning (the study cycle) with concrete tools (outlines and concept maps) that have been shown to encourage deep understanding...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747205/detection-of-antibiotic-resistance-is-essential-for-gonorrhoea-point-of-care-testing-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#15
Stephanie M Fingerhuth, Nicola Low, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Christian L Althaus
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is threatening to make gonorrhoea untreatable. Point-of-care (POC) tests that detect resistance promise individually tailored treatment, but might lead to more treatment and higher levels of resistance. We investigate the impact of POC tests on antibiotic-resistant gonorrhoea. METHODS: We used data about the prevalence and incidence of gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men and women (HMW) to calibrate a mathematical gonorrhoea transmission model...
July 26, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747167/combined-interventions-to-reduce-hiv-incidence-in-kwazulu-natal-a-modelling-study
#16
Stéphanie Blaizot, Helena Huerga, Benjamin Riche, Tom Ellman, Amir Shroufi, Jean-François Etard, René Ecochard
BACKGROUND: Combined prevention interventions, including early antiretroviral therapy initiation, may substantially reduce HIV incidence in hyperendemic settings. Our aim was to assess the potential short-term impact of combined interventions on HIV spreading in the adult population of Mbongolwane and Eshowe (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) using sex- and age-specific scenarios, and age-targeted interventions. METHODS: A mathematical model was used with data on adults (15-59 years) from the Mbongolwane and Eshowe HIV Impact in Population Survey to compare the effects of various interventions on the HIV incidence rate...
July 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747158/characteristics-of-disability-in-activity-of-daily-living-in-elderly-people-associated-with-locomotive-disorders
#17
Tsutomu Iwaya, Tokuhide Doi, Atsushi Seichi, Yuichi Hoshino, Toru Ogata, Masami Akai
BACKGROUND: Ageing is associated with a decline of motor function and ability to perform daily activities. Locomotive disorders are one of the major disorders resulting in adverse health condition in elderly people. Concept of Locomotive syndrome (LoS) was proposed to tackle the problems and prolong healthy life expectancy of people with locomotive disorders. To develop intervention strategy for LoS it is mandatory to investigate impairments, functional disabilities which people with locomotive disorder experience and to examine relationships among these parameters...
July 26, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746894/sampa-a-free-software-tool-for-skin-and-membrane-permeation-data-analysis
#18
Aleš Bezrouk, Zdeněk Fiala, Lenka Kotingová, Iva Selke Krulichová, Monika Kopečná, Kateřina Vávrová
Skin and membrane permeation experiments comprise an important step in the development of a transdermal or topical formulation or toxicological risk assessment. The standard method for analyzing these data relies on the linear part of a permeation profile. However, it is difficult to objectively determine when the profile becomes linear, or the experiment duration may be insufficient to reach a maximum or steady state. Here, we present a software tool for Skin And Membrane Permeation data Analysis, SAMPA, that is easy to use and overcomes several of these difficulties...
July 23, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746867/tcr-signal-quality-modulates-fate-decisions-of-single-cd4-t-cells-in-a-probabilistic-manner
#19
Yi-Li Cho, Michael Flossdorf, Lorenz Kretschmer, Thomas Höfer, Dirk H Busch, Veit R Buchholz
To what extent the lineage decisions of activated CD4(+) T cells are determined by the quality of T cell receptor (TCR) ligation is incompletely understood. Here, we show that individual T cells expressing identical TCRs take highly variable fate decisions despite binding the same ligand. We identify a mathematical model that correctly captures this probabilistic behavior and allows one to formalize changes in TCR signal quality-due to cognate versus altered peptide ligation-as changes of lineage-specific proliferation and differentiation rates...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746374/spatial-dynamics-and-control-of-a-crop-pathogen-with-mixed-mode-transmission
#20
Christopher Finn McQuaid, Frank van den Bosch, Anna Szyniszewska, Titus Alicai, Anthony Pariyo, Patrick Chiza Chikoti, Christopher Aidan Gilligan
Trade or sharing that moves infectious planting material between farms can, for vertically-transmitted plant diseases, act as a significant force for dispersal of pathogens, particularly where the extent of material movement may be greater than that of infected vectors or inoculum. The network over which trade occurs will then effect dispersal, and is important to consider when attempting to control the disease. We consider the difference that planting material exchange can make to successful control of cassava brown streak disease, an important viral disease affecting one of Africa's staple crops...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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