Read by QxMD icon Read


Shih-Chun Kao, Daniel R Westfall, Andrew C Parks, Matthew B Pontifex, Charles H Hillman
PURPOSE: This study investigated the relationship between aerobic and muscular fitness with working memory and academic achievement in preadolescent children. METHODS: Seventy-nine 9-11 year old children completed an aerobic fitness assessment using a graded exercise test; a muscular fitness assessment consisting of upper body, lower body, and core exercises; a serial n-back task to assess working memory; and an academic achievement test of mathematics and reading...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Fabrizio Leo, Elena Cocchi, Luca Brayda
Vision loss has severe impacts on physical, social and emotional well-being. The education of blind children poses issues as many scholar disciplines (e.g. geometry, mathematics) are normally taught by heavily relying on vision. Touch-based assistive technologies are potential tools to provide graphical contents to blind users, improving learning possibilities and social inclusion. Raised-lines drawings are still the golden standard, but stimuli cannot be reconfigured or adapted and the blind person constantly requires assistance...
October 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Ji-Sun Kim, Han-Byeol Oh, A-Hee Kim, Jun-Sik Kim, Eun-Suk Lee, Jin-Young Baek, Ki Sung Lee, Soon-Cheol Chung, Jae-Hoon Jun
Glucose concentration is closely related to the metabolic activity of cells and it is the most important substance as the energy source of a living body which plays an important role in the human body. This paper proposes an optical method that can measure the concentration of glucose. The change in glucose concentration was observed by using CIE diagram, and wavelength and purity values were detected. Also, even small changes in glucose concentration can be evaluated through mathematical modeling. This system is simple, economical, and capable of quantifying optical signals with numerical values for glucose sensing...
October 24, 2016: Bioengineered
Andreas Widder, Christian Kuehn
In this paper, we focus on the influence of heterogeneity and stochasticity of the population on the dynamical structure of a basic susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model. First we prove that, upon a suitable mathematical reformulation of the basic reproduction number, the homogeneous system and the heterogeneous system exhibit a completely analogous global behaviour. Then we consider noise terms to incorporate the fluctuation effects and the random import of the disease into the population and analyse the influence of heterogeneity on warning signs for critical transitions (or tipping points)...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Anthony Tongen, Maria Zubillaga, Jorge E Rabinovich
Population dynamic models often include males in the calculation of population change, but even in those cases males have rarely been introduced to represent polygyny (harem social structure), where it is particularly important to include males in the reproductive performance of the population. In this article we develop an adaptable matrix population modeling framework for species that have a harem-like social structure under an assumption that the transitions from newborn to juvenile and juvenile to adult both take one time step...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
K E Starkov, Svetlana Bunimovich-Mendrazitsky
Understanding the global interaction dynamics between tumor and the immune system plays a key role in the advancement of cancer therapy. Bunimovich-Mendrazitsky et al. (2015) developed a mathematical model for the study of the immune system response to combined therapy for bladder cancer with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) . We utilized a mathematical approach for bladder cancer treatment model for derivation of ultimate upper and lower bounds and proving dissipativity property in the sense of Levinson...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Danilo T Perez-Rivera, Veronica L Torres-Torres, Abraham E Torres-Colon, Maytee Cruz-Aponte
Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by a range of metabolic complications involving an individual's blood glucose levels, and its main regulator, insulin. These complications can vary largely from person to person depending on their current biophysical state. Biomedical research day-by-day makes strides to impact the lives of patients of a variety of diseases, including diabetes. One large stride that is being made is the generation of techniques to assist physicians to ``personalize medicine''. From available physiological data, biological understanding of the system, and dimensional analysis, a differential equation-based mathematical model was built in a sequential matter, to be able to elucidate clearly how each parameter correlates to the patient's current physiological state...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Oscar Patterson-Lomba, Muntaser Safan, Sherry Towers, Jay Taylor
Urban areas, with large and dense populations, offer conditions that favor the emergence and spread of certain infectious diseases. One common feature of urban populations is the existence of large socioeconomic inequalities which are often mirrored by disparities in access to healthcare. Recent empirical evidence suggests that higher levels of socioeconomic inequalities are associated with worsened public health outcomes, including higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STD's) and lower life expectancy...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Jianquan Li, Yiqun Li, Yali Yang
The epidemic characteristics, including the epidemic final size, peak, and turning point, of two classical SIR models with disease-induced death are investigated when a small initial value of the infective population is released. The models have mass-action (i.e. bilinear), or density dependent (i.e. standard) incidence, respectively. For the two models, the conditions that determining whether the related epidemic characteristics of an epidemic outbreak appear are explicitly determine by rigorous mathematical analysis...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Anarina L Murillo, Muntaser Safan, Carlos Castillo-Chavez, Elizabeth D Capaldi Phillips, Devina Wadhera
Eating behaviors among a large population of children are studied as a dynamic process driven by nonlinear interactions in the sociocultural school environment. The impact of food association learning on diet dynamics, inspired by a pilot study conducted among Arizona children in Pre-Kindergarten to 8th grades, is used to build simple population-level learning models. Qualitatively, mathematical studies are used to highlight the possible ramifications of instruction, learning in nutrition, and health at the community level...
August 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Azizeh Jabbari, Carlos Castillo-Chavez, Fereshteh Nazari, Baojun Song, Hossein Kheiri
A two-strain tuberculosis (TB) transmission model incorporating antibiotic-generated TB resistant strains and long and variable waiting periods within the latently infected class is introduced. The mathematical analysis is carried out when the waiting periods are modeled via parametrically friendly gamma distributions, a reasonable alternative to the use of exponential distributed waiting periods or to integral equations involving ``arbitrary'' distributions. The model supports a globally-asymptotically stable disease-free equilibrium when the reproduction number is less than one and an endemic equilibriums, shown to be locally asymptotically stable, or l...
August 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Qihua Huang, Hao Wang
The question of the effects of environmental toxins on ecological communities is of great interest from both environmental and conservational points of view. Mathematical models have been applied increasingly to predict the effects of toxins on a variety of ecological processes. Motivated by the fact that individuals with different sizes may have different sensitivities to toxins, we develop a toxin-mediated size-structured model which is given by a system of first order fully nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs)...
August 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
H T Banks, John E Banks, R A Everett, John D Stark
We develop statistical and mathematical based methodologies for determining (as the experiment progresses) the amount of information required to complete the estimation of stable population parameters with pre-specified levels of confidence. We do this in the context of life table models and data for growth/death for three species of Daphniids as investigated by J. Stark and J. Banks [17]. The ideas developed here also have wide application in the health and social sciences where experimental data are often expensive as well as difficult to obtain...
August 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Shuo Wang, Heinz Schattler
We consider cancer chemotherapy as an optimal control problem with the aim to minimize a combination of the tumor volume and side effects over an a priori specified therapy horizon when the tumor consists of a heterogeneous agglomeration of many subpopulations. The mathematical model, which accounts for different growth and apoptosis rates in the presence of cell densities, is a finite-dimensional approximation of a model originally formulated by Lorz et al. [18,19] and Greene et al. [10,11] with a continuum of possible traits...
December 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Jaroslaw Smieja, Marzena Dolbniak
This paper deals with development of signaling pathways models and using plasmid-based experiments to support parameter estimation. We show that if cells transfected with plasmids are used in experiments, the models should include additional components that describe explicitly effects induced by plasmids. Otherwise, when the model is used to analyze responses of wild type, i.e. non-transfected cells, it may not capture their dynamics properly or even lead to false conclusions. In order to illustrate this, an original mathematical model of miRNA-mediated control of gene expression in the NFκB pathway is presented...
December 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Christoph Sadee, Eugene Kashdan
In this work, we investigate chemo- thermotherapy, a recently clinically-approved post-surgery treatment of non muscle invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma. We developed a mathematical model and numerically simulated the physical processes related to this treatment. The model is based on the conductive Maxwell's equations used to simulate the therapy administration and Convection-Diffusion equation for incompressible fluid to study heat propagation through the bladder tissue. The model parameters correspond to the data provided by the thermotherapy device manufacturer...
December 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
D Mackey, E Kelly, R Nooney
One of the primary considerations in immunoassay design is optimizing the concentration of capture antibody in order to achieve maximal antigen binding and, subsequently, improved sensitivity and limit of detection. Many immunoassay technologies involve immobilization of the antibody to solid surfaces. Antibodies are large molecules in which the position and accessibility of the antigen-binding site depend on their orientation and packing density. In this paper we propose a simple mathematical model, based on the theory known as random sequential adsorption (RSA), in order to calculate how the concentration of correctly oriented antibodies (active site exposed for subsequent reactions) evolves during the deposition process...
December 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Beata Jackowska-Zduniak, Urszula Forys
A proposed model consisting of two coupled models (Hodgkin-Huxley and Yanagihara-Noma-Irisawa model) is considered as a description of the heart's action potential. System of ordinary differential equations is used to recreate pathological behaviour in the conducting heart's system such as double fire and the most common tachycardia: atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). Part of the population has an abnormal accessory pathways: fast and slow (Fujiki, 2008). These pathways in the atrioventricular node (AV node) are anatomical and functional contributions of supraventricular tachycardia...
December 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Eugene Kashdan, Dominique Duncan, Andrew Parnell, Heinz Schattler
The editors of this Special Issue of Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering were the organizers for the Third International Workshop "Mathematical Methods in System Biology" that took place on June 15-18, 2015 at the University College Dublin in Ireland. As stated in the workshop goals, we managed to attract a good mix of mathematicians and statisticians working on biological and medical applications with biologists and clinicians interested in presenting their challenging problems and looking to find mathematical and statistical tools for their solutions...
December 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Katsumi Sakata, Toshiyuki Saito, Hajime Ohyanagi, Jun Okumura, Kentaro Ishige, Harukazu Suzuki, Takuji Nakamura, Setsuko Komatsu
Soybean (Glycine max) is sensitive to flooding stress, and flood damage at the seedling stage is a barrier to growth. We constructed two mathematical models of the soybean metabolic network, a control model and a flooded model, from metabolic profiles in soybean plants. We simulated the metabolic profiles with perturbations before and after the flooding stimulus using the two models. We measured the variation of state that the system could maintain from a state-space description of the simulated profiles. The results showed a loss of variation of state during the flooding response in the soybean plants...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"