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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778202/porcine-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-can-be-differentially-activated-by-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-and-its-matrix-protein-mutants
#1
Guoyan Sun, Xinkui Fang, Hao Wu, Xinchu Zhou, Yong Ke, Tao Sun
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can cause serious vesicular lesions in pigs, and the matrix (M) protein is its predominant virulence factor. Dendritic cells (DCs) act as the bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the susceptibility of porcine DCs to VSV infection and the role of M protein in modulating the function of infected DCs are still poorly defined. Thus, this study aimed to determine the ability of virulent wild-type VSV(wtVSV) and two attenuated M protein variants (VSVΔM51 and VSVMT ) to induce maturation of porcine monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) in vitro...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776088/how-nonuniform-contact-profiles-of-t-cell-receptors-modulate-thymic-selection-outcomes
#2
Hanrong Chen, Arup K Chakraborty, Mehran Kardar
T cell receptors (TCRs) bind foreign or self-peptides attached to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, and the strength of this interaction determines T cell activation. Optimizing the ability of T cells to recognize a diversity of foreign peptides yet be tolerant of self-peptides is crucial for the adaptive immune system to properly function. This is achieved by selection of T cells in the thymus, where immature T cells expressing unique, stochastically generated TCRs interact with a large number of self-peptide-MHC; if a TCR does not bind strongly enough to any self-peptide-MHC, or too strongly with at least one self-peptide-MHC, the T cell dies...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772011/induction-of-influenza-specific-local-cd8-t-cells-in-the-respiratory-tract-after-aerosol-delivery-of-vaccine-antigen-or-virus-in-the-babraham-inbred-pig
#3
Katie Tungatt, Garry Dolton, Sophie B Morgan, Meriem Attaf, Anna Fuller, Thomas Whalley, Johanneke D Hemmink, Emily Porter, Barbara Szomolay, Maria Montoya, John A Hammond, John J Miles, David K Cole, Alain Townsend, Mick Bailey, Pierre J Rizkallah, Bryan Charleston, Elma Tchilian, Andrew K Sewell
There is increasing evidence that induction of local immune responses is a key component of effective vaccines. For respiratory pathogens, for example tuberculosis and influenza, aerosol delivery is being actively explored as a method to administer vaccine antigens. Current animal models used to study respiratory pathogens suffer from anatomical disparity with humans. The pig is a natural and important host of influenza viruses and is physiologically more comparable to humans than other animal models in terms of size, respiratory tract biology and volume...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771935/cell-iron-status-influences-macrophage-polarization
#4
Rafiou Agoro, Meriem Taleb, Valerie F J Quesniaux, Catherine Mura
Macrophages play crucial roles in innate immune response and in the priming of adaptive immunity, and are characterized by their phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity. Reprogramming intracellular metabolism in response to microenvironmental signals is required for M1/M2 macrophage polarization and function. Here we assessed the influence of iron on the polarization of the immune response in vivo and in vitro. Iron-enriched diet increased M2 marker Arg1 and Ym1 expression in liver and peritoneal macrophages, while iron deficiency decreased Arg1 expression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769317/lysophospholipids-induce-innate-immune-transdifferentiation-of-endothelial-cells-resulting-in-prolonged-endothelial-activation
#5
Xinyuan Li, Luqiao Wang, Pu Fang, Yu Sun, Xiaohua Jiang, Hong Wang, Xiao-Feng Yang
Innate immune cells express danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) receptors, T-cell co-stimulation/co-inhibition receptors, and the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II). We have recently proposed that endothelial cells can serve as innate immune cells, but the molecular mechanisms involved still await discovery. Here, we investigated whether human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) could be transdifferentiated into innate immune cells by exposing them to hyperlipidemia-upregulated DAMP molecules, i...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765374/mica-129-dimorphism-and-soluble-mica-are-associated-with-the-progression-of-multiple-myeloma
#6
Alessandra Zingoni, Elisabetta Vulpis, Francesca Cecere, Maria G Amendola, Daniel Fuerst, Taron Saribekyan, Adnane Achour, Tatyana Sandalova, Ilaria Nardone, Agnese Peri, Alessandra Soriani, Cinzia Fionda, Elena Mariggiò, Maria T Petrucci, Maria R Ricciardi, Joannis Mytilineos, Marco Cippitelli, Cristina Cerboni, Angela Santoni
Natural killer (NK) cells are immune innate effectors playing a pivotal role in the immunosurveillance of multiple myeloma (MM) since they are able to directly recognize and kill MM cells. In this regard, among activating receptors expressed by NK cells, NKG2D represents an important receptor for the recognition of MM cells, being its ligands expressed by tumor cells, and being able to trigger NK cell cytotoxicity. The MHC class I-related molecule A (MICA) is one of the NKG2D ligands; it is encoded by highly polymorphic genes and exists as membrane-bound and soluble isoforms...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761100/moving-the-cellular-peptidome-by-transporters
#7
REVIEW
Rupert Abele, Robert Tampé
Living matter is defined by metastability, implying a tightly balanced synthesis and turnover of cellular components. The first step of eukaryotic protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) leads to peptides, which are subsequently degraded to single amino acids by an armada of proteases. A small fraction of peptides, however, escapes further cytosolic destruction and is transported by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and lysosomes. The ER-resident heterodimeric transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a crucial component in adaptive immunity for the transport and loading of peptides onto major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755461/efficient-uptake-of-recombinant-lipidated-survivin-by-antigen-presenting-cells-initiates-antigen-cross-presentation-and-antitumor-immunity
#8
Chen-Yi Chiang, Yi-Jyun Chen, Chiao-Chieh Wu, Shih-Jen Liu, Chih-Hsiang Leng, Hsin-Wei Chen
Survivin is overexpressed in various types of human cancer, but rarely expressed in terminally differentiated adult tissues. Thus, survivin is a potential target antigen for a cancer vaccine. However, self-tumor-associated antigens are not highly immunogenic. Bacteria-derived lipoproteins can activate antigen-presenting cells through their toll-like receptors to enhance immune responses. In this context, lipidated survivin is an attractive candidate for cancer immunotherapy. In the present study, recombinant lipidated human survivin (LSur) was prepared from an Escherichia coli -based system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752262/cd4-t-cell-mediated-rejection-of-mhc-class-ii-positive-tumor-cells-is-dependent-on-antigen-secretion-and-indirect-presentation-on-host-apcs
#9
Ole Audun Werner Haabeth, Marte Fauskanger, Melanie Manzke, Katrin U Lundin, Alexandre Corthay, Bjarne Bogen, Anders Aune Tveita
Tumor-specific CD4+ T cells have been shown to mediate efficient anti-tumor immune responses against cancer. Such responses can occur through direct binding to MHC class II (MHC II)-expressing tumor cells or indirectly via activation of professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) that take up and present the tumor antigen. We have previously shown that CD4+ T cells reactive against an epitope within the Ig light chain variable region of a murine B cell lymphoma can reject established tumors. Given the presence of MHC II molecules at the surface of lymphoma cells, we investigated whether MHC II-restricted antigen presentation on tumor cells alone was required for rejection...
May 11, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751114/very-low-numbers-of-cd4-foxp3-tregs-expanded-in-donors-via-tl1a-ig-and-low-dose-il-2-exhibit-a-distinct-activation-functional-profile-and-suppress-gvhd-in-a-pre-clinical-model
#10
Sabrina Copsel, Dietlinde Wolf, Brandon Kale, Henry Barreras, Casey O Lightbourn, Cameron S Bader, W Alperstein, Norman H Altman, Krishna V Komanduri, Robert B Levy
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for the maintenance of tolerance and immune homeostasis. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT), transfer of appropriate Treg numbers is a promising therapy for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We have recently reported a novel approach which induces the marked expansion and selective activation of Tregs in vivo by targeting TNF receptor superfamily 25 (TNFRSF25) and CD25. A potential advance to promote clinical application of Treg cells to ameliorate GVHD and other disorders would be the generation of more potent Treg populations...
May 8, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743369/intrastructural-help-harnessing-t-helper-cells-induced-by-licensed-vaccines-for-improvement-of-hiv-env-antibody-responses-to-virus-like-particle-vaccines
#11
Hassan Elsayed, Ghulam Nabi, William J McKinstry, Keith K Khoo, Johnson Mak, Andres M Salazar, Matthias Tenbusch, Vladimir Temchura, Klaus Überla
Induction of persistent antibody responses by vaccination is generally thought to depend on efficient help by T follicular helper cells. Since the T helper cell response to HIV Env may not be optimal, we explored the possibility to improve the HIV Env antibody response to virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines by recruiting T helper cells induced by a commonly-used licensed vaccines to provide help for Env-specific B cells. B cells specific for the surface protein of a VLP can internalize the entire VLP and thus present peptides derived from the surface and core proteins on their MHC-II molecules...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730801/challenges-and-prospects-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy-in-solid-tumors
#12
REVIEW
Vishal Jindal, Ena Arora, Sorab Gupta
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a novel and innovative immunotherapy. CAR-T cells are genetically engineered T cells, carrying MHC independent specific antigen receptor and co-stimulatory molecule which can activate an immune response to a cancer specific antigen. This therapy showed great results in hematological malignancies but were unable to prove their worth in solid tumors. Likely reasons for their failure are lack of antigens, poor trafficking, and hostile tumor microenvironment. Excessive amount of research is going on to improve the efficacy of CAR T cell therapy in solid tumors...
May 5, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724463/analysis-of-epitope-based-vaccine-candidates-against-the-e-antigen-of-the-hepatitis-b-virus-based-on-the-b-genotype-sequence-an-in-silico-and-in-vitro-approach
#13
Juzeng Zheng, Zhanfan Ou, Xianfan Lin, Lingling Wang, Yang Liu, Sisi Jin, Jinming Wu
Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a worldwide health problem with no current effective strategy to achieve a cure. The Hepatitis B virus (HBV) E antigen (HBeAg) has a negative effect on the immune system and a therapeutic vaccine is a promising strategy in order to treat chronic virus infection. In this study, we analyzed and identified the MHC-I, MHC-II and B cell epitopes of the HBeAg based on a B genotype sequence of HBV using a bioinformatic approach and in vitro experiments. The computational approach provided us with four epitopes (LLWFHISCL, YLVSFGVWI, MQLFHLCLI, TVLEYLVSF) of the specific MHC-I allele HLA-A0201 that conformed to all criteria...
April 30, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719685/selective-imaging-of-cathepsin-l-in-breast-cancer-by-fluorescent-activity-based-probes
#14
Marcin Poreba, Wioletta Rut, Matej Vizovisek, Katarzyna Groborz, Paulina Kasperkiewicz, Darren Finlay, Kristiina Vuori, Dusan Turk, Boris Turk, Guy S Salvesen, Marcin Drag
Cysteine cathepsins normally function in the lysosomal degradation system where they are critical for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and the MHC II immune response, and have been found to have major roles in several diseases and in tumor progression. Selective visualization of individual protease activity within a complex proteome is of major importance to establish their roles in both normal and tumor cells, thereby facilitating our understanding of the regulation of proteolytic networks. A generally accepted means to monitor protease activity is the use of small molecule substrates and activity-based probes...
February 28, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710479/antigen-adjuvant-effects-of-icariin-in-enhancing-tumor-specific-immunity-in-mastocytoma-bearing-dba-2j-mice
#15
Xiaodi Zhang, Zhichen Kang, Qingjie Li, Jin Zhang, Sha Cheng, Hao Chang, Shanshan Wang, Shufang Cao, Tie Li, Jiawei Li, Yishan Wang, Yu Song, Hao Yu
Cancer immunotherapy has attracted much attention in recent years because of the ability of immune system to identify tumor cells and limit their growth. Icariin (ICA) is a natural flavonoid glucoside isolated from Epimedium plants and has shown a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory effects, immunological regulation and anticancer potency. Furthermore, it has immunoadjuvant effects on enhancing Th1-immune response, suggesting that ICA may serve as an adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708291/phenotypic-and-functional-analysis-of-bovine-peripheral-blood-dendritic-cells-before-parturition-by-a-novel-purification-method
#16
Tao Zhuang, Megumi Urakawa, Hidetoshi Sato, Yuko Sato, Teruaki Taguchi, Tsuyoshi Umino, Shiro Katto, Koutaro Tanaka, Kozue Yoshimura, Naokazu Takada, Hiroko Kobayashi, Megumi Ito, Michael T Rose, Yoshio Kiku, Yuya Nagasawa, Haruki Kitazawa, Kouichi Watanabe, Tomonori Nochi, Tomohito Hayashi, Hisashi Aso
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen presenting cells specializing in antigen uptake and processing, and play an important role in the innate and adaptive immune response. A subset of bovine peripheral blood DCs was identified as CD172a+ /CD11c+ /MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class II+ cells. Although DCs are identified at 0.1%-0.7% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), the phenotype and function of DCs remain poorly understood with regard to maintaining tolerance during the pregnancy...
April 30, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699516/reduction-of-mhc-i-expression-limits-t-lymphocyte-mediated-killing-of-cancer-initiating-cells
#17
Brian J Morrison, Jason C Steel, John C Morris
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that cancer establishment, maintenance, and recurrence may be attributed to a unique population of tumor cells termed cancer-initiating cells (CICs) that may include characteristics of putative cancer stem cell-like cells. Studies in lung cancer have shown that such cells can be enriched and propagated in vitro by culturing tumor cells in serum-free suspension as tumorspheres. CICs have been characterized for their phenotype, stem cell-like qualities, and their role in establishing tumor and maintaining tumor growth...
April 26, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691253/the-inhibitory-nkr-p1b-clr-b-recognition-axis-facilitates-detection-of-oncogenic-transformation-and-cancer-immunosurveillance
#18
Miho Tanaka, Jason H Fine, Christina L Kirkham, Oscar A Aguilar, Antoaneta Belcheva, Alberto Martin, Troy Ketela, Jason Moffat, David Sj Allan, James R Carlyle
Natural killer (NK) cells express receptors specific for MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules involved in "missing-self" recognition of cancer and virus-infected cells. Here we elucidate the role of MHC-I-independent NKR-P1B:Clr-b interactions in the detection of oncogenic transformation by NK cells. Ras oncogene overexpression was found to promote a real-time loss of Clr-b on mouse fibroblasts and leukemia cells, mediated in part via the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K pathways. Ras-driven Clr-b downregulation occurred at the level of the Clrb (Clec2d) promoter, nascent Clr-b transcripts, and cell surface Clr-b protein, in turn promoting missing-self recognition via the NKR-P1B inhibitory receptor...
April 24, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684823/fecal-microbiome-from-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-is-potent-to-induce-inflammatory-responses
#19
Shaoxuan Wang, Li Yao, Yanyan Liu
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic idiopathic disease affecting the colon. Patients with UC display a number of alterations in immune-related molecules and cells, as well as dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiota. It remains unclear whether the alterations in the patients' immune systems are initiating factors of UC or a result from external insults. Also, precisely how these intestinal microorganisms affect UC development is not completely understood. To answer these questions, fecal bacteria were collected from UC patients during the active phase (UC-active), UC patients during the remission phase (UC-remission), and healthy controls...
June 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677477/systems-immunology-learning-the-rules-of-the-immune-system
#20
Alexandra-Chloé Villani, Siranush Sarkizova, Nir Hacohen
Given the many cell types and molecular components of the human immune system, along with vast variations across individuals, how should we go about developing causal and predictive explanations of immunity? A central strategy in human studies is to leverage natural variation to find relationships among variables, including DNA variants, epigenetic states, immune phenotypes, clinical descriptors, and others. Here, we focus on how natural variation is used to find patterns, infer principles, and develop predictive models for two areas: (a) immune cell activation-how single-cell profiling boosts our ability to discover immune cell types and states-and (b) antigen presentation and recognition-how models can be generated to predict presentation of antigens on MHC molecules and their detection by T cell receptors...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
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