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Eelco Lens, Oliver J Gurney-Champion, Daniël R Tekelenburg, Zdenko van Kesteren, Michael J Parkes, Geertjan van Tienhoven, Aart J Nederveen, Astrid van der Horst, Arjan Bel
PURPOSE: Contrary to what is commonly assumed, organs continue to move during breath-holding. We investigated the influence of lung volume on motion magnitude during breath-holding and changes in velocity over the duration of breath-holding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen healthy subjects performed 60-second inhalation breath-holds in room-air, with lung volumes of ∼100% and ∼70% of the inspiratory capacity, and exhalation breath-holds, with lung volumes of ∼30% and ∼0% of the inspiratory capacity...
October 20, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Eric P Ratliff, Roxanne W Kotzebue, Brandon Molina, Ruth E Mauntz, Arysa Gonzalez, Ayeh Barekat, Nadja El-Mecharrafie, Shannon Garza, Michael A Gurney, Madhulika Achal, Phyllis-Jean Linton, Greg L Harris, Kim D Finley
The autophagy pathway is critical for the long-term homeostasis of cells and adult organisms and is often activated during periods of stress. Reduced pathway efficacy plays a central role in several progressive neurological disorders that are associated with the accumulation of cytotoxic peptides and protein aggregates. Previous studies have shown that genetic and transgenic alterations to the autophagy pathway impacts longevity and neural aggregate profiles of adult Drosophila. In this study, we have identified methods to measure the acute in vivo induction of the autophagy pathway in the adult fly CNS...
2016: PloS One
Jonathan Rt Davidson
The effect of World War 1 military service on composers has been neglected in comparison with poets and artists. This article describes the wartime service of Arthur Bliss, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Ivor Gurney, EJ Moeran, Gordon Jacob, Patrick Hadley, and Maurice Ravel. The relationship between experiences of combat and the psychological health of these men is examined, with consideration being given to predisposition and possible causative influences of military service on their later careers, examined from individual and societal perspectives...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Ellie Wernham, Jason Gurney, James Stanley, Lis Ellison-Loschmann, Diana Sarfati
BACKGROUND: Internationally, a typical model of maternity care is a medically led system with varying levels of midwifery input. New Zealand has a midwife-led model of care, and there are movements in other countries to adopt such a system. There is a paucity of systemic evaluation that formally investigates safety-related outcomes in relationship to midwife-led care within an entire maternity service. The main objective of this study was to compare major adverse perinatal outcomes between midwife-led and medical-led maternity care in New Zealand...
September 2016: PLoS Medicine
Michael J Beltran, Tyson E Becker, Richard K Hurley, Jennifer M Gurney, Roman A Hayda
Hemorrhage continues to be the most common cause of death among service members wounded in combat. Injuries that were previously nonsurvivable in previous wars are now routinely seen by combat surgeons in forward surgical units, the result of improvements in body armor, the universal use of field tourniquets to control extremity hemorrhage at the point of injury, and rapid air evacuation strategies. Combat orthopaedic surgeons remain a vital aspect of the forward surgical unit, tasked with assisting general surgical colleagues in the resuscitation of patients in hemorrhagic shock while also addressing traumatic amputations, open and closed long bone fractures, and mechanically unstable pelvic trauma...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
A J Cope, P Richmond, S S James, K Gurney, D J Allerton
There is a growing requirement in computational neuroscience for tools that permit collaborative model building, model sharing, combining existing models into a larger system (multi-scale model integration), and are able to simulate models using a variety of simulation engines and hardware platforms. Layered XML model specification formats solve many of these problems, however they are difficult to write and visualise without tools. Here we describe a new graphical software tool, SpineCreator, which facilitates the creation and visualisation of layered models of point spiking neurons or rate coded neurons without requiring the need for programming...
September 15, 2016: Neuroinformatics
Susan F Wilson, Elizabeth P Gurney, Mary D Sammel, Courtney A Schreiber
BACKGROUND: Women undergoing office-based surgical management of a failed or undesired pregnancy often report fear of pain and anxiety pertaining to the procedure. Doulas are trained to specifically address women's physical and emotional needs in obstetric care, and recently have extended their practice to support women through all pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the impact of doulas on patients' physical and emotional responses to surgical management of a first-trimester failed or undesired pregnancy under local anesthesia...
September 6, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Andrew Rowland, Madelé van Dyk, Arduino A Mangoni, John O Miners, Ross A McKinnon, Michael D Wiese, Angela Rowland, Ganessan Kichenadasse, Howard Gurney, Michael J Sorich
INTRODUCTION: Small molecule protein kinase inhibitors (KIs) are a class of drugs with complex and unconventional physiochemical and pharmacokinetic characteristics. Cytochrome P450 mediated metabolism and transporter-mediated uptake and efflux are important processes that determine KI disposition and exposure. AREAS COVERED: We provide an overview of KI pharmacology, with a comprehensive summary of KI physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties and description of the major sources of variability in KI pharmacokinetics focusing on common pathways involved in determining exposure...
August 26, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Amy Diedrich, Natalie Stoeckl, Georgina G Gurney, Michelle Esparon, Richard Pollnac
Globally, marine protected areas (MPAs) have been relatively unsuccessful in meeting biodiversity objectives. In order to be effective, they require some alteration of people's use and access to marine resources, which they will resist if they do not perceive associated benefits. Stakeholder support is crucial to ecological success of MPAs, and support is likely to depend on their capacity to adapt to and benefit from MPAs. We examined the influence of social adaptive capacity (SAC) on perceived benefits of MPAs in Siquijor, Philippines, in the Coral Triangle...
August 17, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Thomas G Cotter, Mark Gurney, Conor G Loftus
The evaluation of the patient with gas and bloating can be complex and the treatment extremely challenging. In this article, a simplified approach to the history and relevant physical examination is presented and applied in a case-oriented manner, suitable for application in the primary care setting.
August 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
J Gurney, A Chong, N Culliford-Semmens, E Tilton, N J Wilson, D Sarfati
BACKGROUND: A reduction in the burden of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) may be possible by identifying the condition while the patient is still asymptomatic. Currently, there is much debate about whether it is appropriate to screen for the presence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in a symptomless population. The purpose of this study was to identify self-reported benefits and harms from the perspective of screening participants and their families. METHODS: In order to describe participant experiences and changes in behaviour post-screening, we interviewed a sample of parents/caregivers of children who were screened for the presence of RHD between 2007 and 2012 (n=276)...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
David J Titus, Nicole M Wilson, Julie E Freund, Melissa M Carballosa, Kevin E Sikah, Concepcion Furones, W Dalton Dietrich, Mark E Gurney, Coleen M Atkins
UNLABELLED: Learning and memory impairments are common in traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors. However, there are no effective treatments to improve TBI-induced learning and memory impairments. TBI results in decreased cAMP signaling and reduced cAMP-response-element binding protein (CREB) activation, a critical pathway involved in learning and memory. TBI also acutely upregulates phosphodiesterase 4B2 (PDE4B2), which terminates cAMP signaling by hydrolyzing cAMP. We hypothesized that a subtype-selective PDE4B inhibitor could reverse the learning deficits induced by TBI...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Daniel J Gurney, Neil Howlett, Karen Pine, Megan Tracey, Rachel Moggridge
Individuals often receive judgements from others based on their clothing and their posture. While both of these factors have been found to influence judgements of competency independently, their relative importance in impression formation is yet to be investigated. We address this by examining interactive effects of posture and clothing on four competency measures: confidence, professionalism, approachability, and likeliness of a high salary. Participants rated photographs of both male and female models pictured in different postures (strong, neutral, weak) in smart clothing (a suit for males; both a trouser suit and skirt suit for females) and casual clothing...
July 6, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Joanne Louise Welton, Paul Brennan, Mark Gurney, Jason Paul Webber, Lisa Kate Spary, David Gil Carton, Juan Manuel Falcón-Pérez, Sean Peter Walton, Malcolm David Mason, Zsuzsanna Tabi, Aled Clayton
Proteomics analysis of biofluid-derived vesicles holds enormous potential for discovering non-invasive disease markers. Obtaining vesicles of sufficient quality and quantity for profiling studies has, however, been a major problem, as samples are often replete with co-isolated material that can interfere with the identification of genuine low abundance, vesicle components. Here, we used a combination of ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography to isolate and analyse vesicles of plasma or urine origin...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Alfred B Gurney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Alf L Nastri, Ben Gurney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Management of midface trauma is complex and challenging and requires a clear understanding of the facial buttress system, subunit anatomy and inter-relationships. Too often clinicians attempt surgical repair without adequate knowledge of the common complications associated with poor reduction and improper sequencing of fracture repair. This review outlines a working approach to the identification and management of such injuries, and the definitive management of common injury patterns...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
J K Gurney, J Stanley, M G Baker, N J Wilson, D Sarfati
In New Zealand, efforts to control acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and its sequelae have focused on school-age children in the poorest socioeconomic areas; however, it is unclear whether this approach is optimal given the strong association with demographic risk factors other than deprivation, especially ethnicity. The aim of this study was to estimate the stratum-specific risk of ARF by key sociodemographic characteristics. We used hospitalization and disease notification data to identify new cases of ARF between 2010 and 2013, and used population count data from the 2013 New Zealand Census as our denominator...
June 17, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
F T Roncolato, M Chatfield, B Houghton, G Toner, M Stockler, D Thomson, M Friedlander, H Gurney, M Rosenthal, P Grimison
BACKGROUND/AIM: The utility of pulmonary function testing (PFT) to detect bleomycin-induced pneumonitis is controversial. We describe its impact on bleomycin dosing in a phase 2 trial of accelerated BEP (bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin) for advanced germ cell tumours. METHODS: There were 12 planned weekly bleomycin doses for intermediate-risk and poor-risk disease and nine for good-risk disease. Clinical assessments, chest X-ray, diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were performed bi-weekly...
August 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
En Yang, Zuwei Liu, Hitesh Arora, Tsai-Wei Wu, Vipin Ayanoor-Vitikkate, Detlef Spoddig, Daniel Bedau, Michael Grobis, Bruce A Gurney, Thomas R Albrecht, Bruce Terris
We present a method for growing bit patterned magnetic recording media using directed growth of sputtered granular perpendicular magnetic recording media. The grain nucleation is templated using an epitaxial seed layer, which contains Pt pillars separated by amorphous metal oxide. The scheme enables the creation of both templated data and servo regions suitable for high density hard disk drive operation. We illustrate the importance of using a process that is both topographically and chemically driven to achieve high quality media...
July 13, 2016: Nano Letters
Naila Naz, Alicia Requena Jimenez, Anna Sanjuan-Vilaplana, Megan Gurney, Jaleel Miyan
Folate is vital in a range of biological processes and folate deficiency is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as neural tube defects and hydrocephalus (HC). 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate-dehydrogenase (FDH) is a key regulator for folate availability and metabolic interconversion for the supply of 1-carbon groups. In previous studies, we found a deficiency of FDH in CSF associated with the developmental deficit in congenital and neonatal HC. In this study, we therefore aimed to investigate the role of FDH in folate transport and metabolism during the brain development of the congenital hydrocephalic Texas (H-Tx) rat and normal (Sprague-Dawley) rats...
August 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
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