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Evan S Haworth, Michael J Cunningham, Kathleen M Calf Tjorve
Sugarbirds are a family of two socially-monogamous passerine species endemic to southern Africa. Cape and Gurney's Sugarbird ( Promerops cafer and P. gurneyi ) differ in abundance, dispersion across their range and in the degree of sexual dimorphism in tail length, factors that affect breeding systems and potentially genetic diversity. According to recent data, P. gurneyi are in decline and revision of the species' IUCN conservation status to a threatened category may be warranted. It is therefore necessary to understand genetic diversity and risk of inbreeding in this species...
2018: PeerJ
Joshua E Cinner, Eva Maire, Cindy Huchery, M Aaron MacNeil, Nicholas A J Graham, Camilo Mora, Tim R McClanahan, Michele L Barnes, John N Kittinger, Christina C Hicks, Stephanie D'Agata, Andrew S Hoey, Georgina G Gurney, David A Feary, Ivor D Williams, Michel Kulbicki, Laurent Vigliola, Laurent Wantiez, Graham J Edgar, Rick D Stuart-Smith, Stuart A Sandin, Alison Green, Marah J Hardt, Maria Beger, Alan M Friedlander, Shaun K Wilson, Eran Brokovich, Andrew J Brooks, Juan J Cruz-Motta, David J Booth, Pascale Chabanet, Charlotte Gough, Mark Tupper, Sebastian C A Ferse, U Rashid Sumaila, Shinta Pardede, David Mouillot
Coral reefs provide ecosystem goods and services for millions of people in the tropics, but reef conditions are declining worldwide. Effective solutions to the crisis facing coral reefs depend in part on understanding the context under which different types of conservation benefits can be maximized. Our global analysis of nearly 1,800 tropical reefs reveals how the intensity of human impacts in the surrounding seascape, measured as a function of human population size and accessibility to reefs ("gravity"), diminishes the effectiveness of marine reserves at sustaining reef fish biomass and the presence of top predators, even where compliance with reserve rules is high...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Manjit Kaur Doola Singh, Surajudeen Abiola Abdulrahman, Abdul Rashid
Background: Given background sparsity of country-specific literature evidence, and the pervasive unhealthy lifestyle habits such as tobacco, alcohol use, and high sugar consumption among fishermen, the aim of this study was to assess the oral health status and associated lifestyle factors among Malaysian fishermen in Teluk Bahang, Penang. Subjects and Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional design, we used simple random sampling technique to select 242 multiracial Malaysian male fishermen aged between 18 and 75 years from five fishing villages located at Gurney Drive, Tanjong Tokong, Tanjong Bungah, Batu Ferringhi, and Teluk Bahang to participate in this study...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Rob McMickle
I never had the chance to introduce myself to Ms. Jones. She was without a pulse the night she was wheeled into our emergency room by EMS personnel after arresting during dinner with her family. I, a newly-minted medical student, was in the midst of seeing another patient when a monotonic voice over the intercom abruptly interrupted our meeting to announce her pending arrival: "ROSC en route, t-minus five minutes." I left the room to join the rest of the team organizing in the resuscitation bay, confirming their roles in the resuscitation around the gurney and casually going over their plans for the weekend...
June 12, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Remy Klaassen, Oliver J Gurney-Champion, Marc R W Engelbrecht, Jaap Stoker, Johanna W Wilmink, Marc G Besselink, Arjan Bel, Geertjan van Tienhoven, Hanneke W M van Laarhoven, Aart J Nederveen
PURPOSE: To compare 6 diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) MRI models for response evaluation in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: DWI images were acquired at 3T for b = 0-600 s/mm2 in fourteen patients with advanced PDAC during 2 separate pretreatment sessions and 9 patients with (borderline) resectable PDAC pre and post neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Data was fitted with a mono-exponential (ADC), double mono-exponential to b = 0 and 100 s/mm2 (ADCfast ), and b = 100 and 600 s/mm2 (ADCslow ), IVIM model with D* free (D, f, D*) and fixed (D, f), tri-exponent (D, f1 , f2 ), and stretched exponent model (DDC, α)...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Steven G Schauer, Michael D April, Andrew D Fisher, Cord W Cunningham, Jennifer Gurney
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is the leading cause of potentially preventable death on the battlefield. Although the resurgence of limb tourniquets revolutionized hemorrhage control in combat casualties in the recent conflicts, the mortality rate for patients with junctional hemorrhage is still high. Junctional tourniquets (JTQs) offer a mechanism to address the high mortality rate. The success of these devices in the combat setting is unclear given a dearth of existing data. METHODS: From the Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR) and the Department of Defense Trauma Registry, we extracted cases of JTQ use in Afghanistan...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Frank K Butler, John B Holcomb, Stacy Shackelford, Harold R Montgomery, Shawn Anderson, Jeffrey S Cain, Howard R Champion, Cord W Cunningham, Warren C Dorlac, Brendon Drew, Kurt Edwards, John V Gandy, Elon Glassberg, Jennifer Gurney, Theodore Harcke, Donald A Jenkins, Jay Johannigman, Bijan S Kheirabadi, Russ S Kotwal, Lanny F Littlejohn, Matthew Martin, Edward L Mazuchowski, Edward J Otten, Travis Polk, Peter Rhee, Jason M Seery, Zsolt Stockinger, Jeremy Torrisi, Avi Yitzak, Ken Zafren, Scott P Zietlow
This change to the Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) Guidelines that updates the recommendations for management of suspected tension pneumothorax for combat casualties in the prehospital setting does the following things: (1) Continues the aggressive approach to suspecting and treating tension pneumothorax based on mechanism of injury and respiratory distress that TCCC has advocated for in the past, as opposed to waiting until shock develops as a result of the tension pneumothorax before treating. The new wording does, however, emphasize that shock and cardiac arrest may ensue if the tension pneumothorax is not treated promptly...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Clara Torres-Barceló, James Gurney, Claire Gougat-Barberá, Marie Vasse, Michael E Hochberg
Phages, the viruses of bacteria, have been proposed as antibacterial agents to complement or replace antibiotics due to the growing problem of resistance. In nature and in the clinic, antibiotics are ubiquitous and may affect phages indirectly via impacts on bacterial hosts. Even if the synergistic association of phages and antibiotics has been shown in several studies, the focus is often on bacteria with little known about the impact on phages. Evolutionary studies have demonstrated that time scale is an important factor in understanding the consequences of antimicrobial strategies, but this perspective is generally overlooked in phage-antibiotic combination studies...
June 5, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Joshua N Freedman, David J Collins, Oliver J Gurney-Champion, Jamie R McClelland, Simeon Nill, Uwe Oelfke, Martin O Leach, Andreas Wetscherek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The superior soft-tissue contrast of 4D-T2w MRI motivates its use for delineation in radiotherapy treatment planning. We address current limitations of slice-selective implementations, including thick slices and artefacts originating from data incompleteness and variable breathing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A method was developed to calculate midposition and 4D-T2w images of the whole thorax from continuously acquired axial and sagittal 2D-T2w MRI (1...
June 2, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Elizabeth P Gurney, Sarita Sonalkar, Arden Mcallister, Mary D Sammel, Courtney A Schreiber
BACKGROUND: Immediate placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) after vaginal delivery is safe and convenient, but longitudinal data describing clinical outcomes have been limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of TCu380A (copper) IUDs devices expelled, partially expelled, malpositioned, and retained, as well as contraceptive use by 6 months postpartum. To determine risk factors for expulsion and partial expulsion. STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective, observational study, women who received a postplacental TCu380A IUD at vaginal delivery were enrolled postpartum...
June 2, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Russ S Kotwal, Amanda M Staudt, Edward L Mazuchowski, Jennifer M Gurney, Stacy A Shackelford, Frank K Butler, Zsolt T Stockinger, John B Holcomb, Shawn C Nessen, Elizabeth A Mann-Salinas
BACKGROUND: Timely and optimal care can reduce mortality among critically injured combat casualties. US military Role 2 surgical teams were deployed to forward positions in Afghanistan on behalf of the battlefield trauma system. They received prehospital casualties, provided early damage control resuscitation and surgery, and rapidly transferred casualties to Role 3 hospitals for definitive care. A database was developed to capture Role 2 data. METHODS: A retrospective review and descriptive analysis was conducted of battle-injured casualties transported to US Role 2 surgical facilities in Afghanistan from February 2008 to September 2014...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Tuan D Le, Jennifer M Gurney, Nina S Nnamani, Kirby R Gross, Kevin K Chung, Zsolt T Stockinger, Shawn C Nessen, Anthony E Pusateri, Kevin S Akers
Importance: Nonbattle injury (NBI) among deployed US service members increases the burden on medical systems and results in high rates of attrition, affecting the available force. The possible causes and trends of NBI in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars have, to date, not been comprehensively described. Objectives: To describe NBI among service members deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, quantify absolute numbers of NBIs and proportion of NBIs within the Department of Defense Trauma Registry, and document the characteristics of this injury category...
May 30, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Maria Razzoli, Kewir Nyuyki-Dufe, Allison Gurney, Connor Erickson, Jacob McCallum, Nicholas Spielman, Marta Marzullo, Jessica Patricelli, Morito Kurata, Emily A Pope, Chadi Touma, Rupert Palme, David A Largaespada, David B Allison, Alessandro Bartolomucci
Stress and low socioeconomic status in humans confer increased vulnerability to morbidity and mortality. However, this association is not mechanistically understood nor has its causation been explored in animal models thus far. Recently, cellular senescence has been suggested as a potential mechanism linking lifelong stress to age-related diseases and shorter life expectancy in humans. Here, we established a causal role for lifelong social stress on shortening lifespan and increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in mice...
May 28, 2018: Aging Cell
Jane S Hankins, Jeremie H Estepp, Jason R Hodges, Martha A Villavicencio, Leslie L Robison, Mitchell J Weiss, Guolian Kang, Jane E Schreiber, Jerlym S Porter, Sue C Kaste, Kay L Saving, Paulette C Bryant, Jeffrey E Deyo, Kerri A Nottage, Allison A King, Amanda M Brandow, Jeffrey D Lebensburger, Oyebimpe Adesina, Stella T Chou, Babette S Zemel, Matthew P Smeltzer, Winfred C Wang, James G Gurney
BACKGROUND: Previous natural history studies have advanced the understanding of sickle cell disease (SCD), but generally have not included sufficient lifespan data or investigation of the role of genetics in clinical outcomes, and have often occurred before the widespread use of disease-modifying therapies, such as hydroxyurea and chronic erythrocyte transfusions. To further advance knowledge of SCD, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital established the Sickle Cell Clinical Research and Intervention Program (SCCRIP), to conduct research in a clinically evaluated cohort of individuals with SCD across their lifetime...
May 24, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Zhiwei Huang, Robert S Gurney, Tao Wang, Dan Liu
Superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces with self-cleaning photocatalytic properties have become an important research focus in recent years. In this work, we fabricated multifunctional and environmentally durable SH surfaces via a facile one-step reaction of octadecyl isocyanate (ODI) with TiO2 particles. The resulting films possess SH properties, facilitated by a combination of hydrophobic long alkyl chains and the hierarchical crystalline structure. Films can be prepared via spray or blade coating on a variety of hard and soft substrates, and function well when exposed to either air or oil...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Shawn C Nessen, Jennifer Gurney, Todd E Rasmussen, Andrew P Cap, Elizabeth Mann-Salinas, Tuan D Le, Stacy Shackelford, Kyle N Remick, Kevin Akers, Brian Eastridge, Donald Jenkins, Zsolt Stockinger, Clinton K Murray, Kirby Gross, Jason Seery, Robert Mabry, John B Holcomb
Level IV/Observational/Retrospective/Historic Controls.
May 4, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Virginia Signal, Stephanie Huang, Diana Sarfati, James Stanley, Katherine A McGlynn, Jason K Gurney
Dairy consumption has been studied extensively in terms of its relationship with testicular cancer (TC), yet this relationship remains unclear. In this systematic review, we aimed to answer whether TC development is associated with (a) high amounts of dairy product consumption, (b) the type of dairy product consumed, (c) increasing levels of dairy product consumption, and (d) dairy consumption during certain periods during the lifecourse. Following a systematic review of the literature, eight studies (all case-control studies) were included in our review...
May 21, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Diane Gurney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
Rowan Gurney, Yvonne S Davidson, Andrew C Robinson, Anna Richardson, Matthew Jones, Julie S Snowden, David M A Mann
A failure of protein degradation may underpin Lewy body disease (LBD) where α-synuclein is assimilated into the pathognomic Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. We investigated histological alterations in lysosomes and autophagosomes in the substantia nigra (SN) and cingulate gyrus (CG) in 34 patients with LBD employing antibodies against phosphorylated α-synuclein and lysosomal (lysosomal associated membrane proteins 1 and 2 (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2), cathepsin D (CTSD)) and autophagosomal (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3α (LC3A)) proteins...
May 10, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Yanling Liao, Larisa Ivanova, Rajarajeswari Sivalenka, Trevor Plumer, Hongwen Zhu, Xiaokui Zhang, Angela M Christiano, John A McGrath, Jodi P Gurney, Mitchell S Cairo
Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a devastating inherited skin blistering disease caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene that encodes type VII collagen (C7), a major structural component of anchoring fibrils at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ). We recently demonstrated that human cord blood-derived unrestricted somatic stem cells promote wound healing and ameliorate the blistering phenotype in a RDEB (col7a1-/- ) mouse model. Here, we demonstrate significant therapeutic effect of a further novel stem cell product in RDEB, that is, human placental-derived stem cells (HPDSCs), currently being used as human leukocyte antigen-independent donor cells with allogeneic umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation in patients with malignant and nonmalignant diseases...
May 10, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
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