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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212060/pembrolizumab-as-second-line-therapy-for-advanced-urothelial-carcinoma
#1
Joaquim Bellmunt, Ronald de Wit, David J Vaughn, Yves Fradet, Jae-Lyun Lee, Lawrence Fong, Nicholas J Vogelzang, Miguel A Climent, Daniel P Petrylak, Toni K Choueiri, Andrea Necchi, Winald Gerritsen, Howard Gurney, David I Quinn, Stéphane Culine, Cora N Sternberg, Yabing Mai, Christian H Poehlein, Rodolfo F Perini, Dean F Bajorin
Background Patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma that progresses after platinum-based chemotherapy have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Methods In this open-label, international, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 542 patients with advanced urothelial cancer that recurred or progressed after platinum-based chemotherapy to receive pembrolizumab (a highly selective, humanized monoclonal IgG4κ isotype antibody against programmed death 1 [PD-1]) at a dose of 200 mg every 3 weeks or the investigator's choice of chemotherapy with paclitaxel, docetaxel, or vinflunine...
February 17, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099022/molecular-weight-dependence-of-interdiffusion-and-adhesion-of-polymers-at-short-contact-times
#2
Robert Gurney, Anastase Henry, Regis Schach, Anke Lindner, Costantino Creton
The autohesion and subsequent debonding of thin layers of three linear and monodisperse random copolymers of styrene-butadiene (SBR) with molecular weights varying between 30 and 75 times the average molecular weight between entanglements Me were investigated using a carefully controlled tack adhesion testing device in conjunction with a fast camera setup over a range of contact times tc (10 ms to 10 s) much shorter in comparison to the terminal relaxation times of the polymers. The evolution of the stress-strain curves and debonding mechanisms with increasing contact time was examined, and the work required to debond the layers was found to be strongly dependent on molecular weight at long contact times, but not at short contact times...
February 6, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092408/network-structure-and-local-adaptation-in-coevolving-bacteria-phage-interactions
#3
James Gurney, Lafi Aldakak, Alex Betts, Claire Gougat-Barbera, Timothée Poisot, Oliver Kaltz, Michael E Hochberg
Numerous theoretical and experimental studies have investigated antagonistic coevolution between parasites and their hosts. Although experimental tests of theory from a range of biological systems are largely concordant regarding the influence of several driving processes, we know little as to how mechanisms acting at the smallest scales (individual molecular and phenotypic changes) may result in the emergence of structures at larger scales, such as coevolutionary dynamics and local adaptation. We capitalized on methods commonly employed in community ecology to quantify how the structure of community interaction matrices, so called 'bipartite networks', reflected observed coevolutionary dynamics, and how phages from these communities may or may not have adapted locally to their bacterial hosts...
January 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090568/pathophysiology-of-intestinal-na-h-exchange
#4
Michael A Gurney, Daniel Laubitz, Fayez K Ghishan, Pawel R Kiela
Several members of the SLC9A family of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers are expressed in the gut, with varying expression patterns and cellular localization. Not only do they participate in the regulation of basic epithelial cell functions, including control of transepithelial Na(+) absorption, intracellular pH (pH i ), cell volume, and nutrient absorption, but also in cellular proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Additionally, they modulate the extracellular milieu in order to facilitate other nutrient absorption and to regulate the intestinal microbial microenvironment...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062066/28-year-old-woman-with-malaise-cough-myalgia-and-dark-urine
#5
Mark Gurney, Thomas G Cotter, Christopher M Wittich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054669/comparison-of-the-pharmacological-profiles-of-selective-pde4b-and-pde4d-inhibitors-in-the-central-nervous-system
#6
Chong Zhang, Ying Xu, Han-Ting Zhang, Mark E Gurney, James M O'Donnell
Inhibition of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) has been proposed as a potential treatment for a series of neuropsychological conditions such as depression, anxiety and memory loss. However, the specific involvement of each of the PDE4 subtypes (PDE4A, 4B and 4C) in different categories of behavior has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we compared the possible pharmacological effects of PDE4B and PDE4D selective inhibitors, A-33 and D159687, in mediating neurological function in mice...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049833/antibiotic-stress-selects-against-cooperation-in-the-pathogenic-bacterium-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#7
Marie Vasse, Robert J Noble, Andrei R Akhmetzhanov, Clara Torres-Barceló, James Gurney, Simon Benateau, Claire Gougat-Barbera, Oliver Kaltz, Michael E Hochberg
Cheats are a pervasive threat to public goods production in natural and human communities, as they benefit from the commons without contributing to it. Although ecological antagonisms such as predation, parasitism, competition, and abiotic environmental stress play key roles in shaping population biology, it is unknown how such stresses generally affect the ability of cheats to undermine cooperation. We used theory and experiments to address this question in the pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Although public goods producers were selected against in all populations, our competition experiments showed that antibiotics significantly increased the advantage of nonproducers...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048704/mo-fg-bra-09-towards-an-optimal-breath-holding-procedure-for-radiotherapy-differences-in-organ-motion-during-inhalation-and-exhalation-breath-holds
#8
E Lens, O Gurney-Champion, A van der Horst, D Tekelenburg, Z van Kesteren, M Parkes, G van Tienhoven, A Nederveen, A Bel
PURPOSE: Breath-holding (BH) is often used to reduce organ motion during radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in pancreatic and diaphragmatic motion during BH between inhalation and exhalation BHs with variable lung volumes and to investigate whether motion increases/decreases during BH. METHODS: Sixteen healthy volunteers were asked to perform four different 60-second BHs, from fully inflated to fully deflated lungs (i.e. lung volumes of: 100%, ∼70%, ∼30% and 0% of inspiratory capacity) three times (total of 192 BHs)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046531/tu-h-206-08-quantitative-impact-of-biliary-stent-artefacts-on-mr-images
#9
O Gurney-Champion, T Bruins Slot, E Lens, A van der Horst, R Klaassen, H van Laarhoven, J van Hooft, A Nederveen, A Bel
PURPOSE: Biliary stents may cause artifacts in MR-images. These artifacts are caused by differences in susceptibility (artifact-1), eddy currents during read-out (artifact-2) and eddy currents due to the excitation pulse (artifact-3), which all are MRI sequence-dependent. In this study, we investigated and quantified the magnitude of these artifacts as a function of the distance from biliary stents, using a sequence-independent approach where possible. METHODS: Eight phantoms were made containing different commercial biliary stents made of nitinol, platinol, stainless steel or polyethylene...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979911/atrioventricular-node-dysfunction-and-ion-channel-transcriptome-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#10
Ian P Temple, Sunil Jit R J Logantha, Mais Absi, Yu Zhang, Eleftheria Pervolaraki, Joseph Yanni, Andrew Atkinson, Maria Petkova, Gillian M Quigley, Simon Castro, Mark Drinkhill, Heiko Schneider, Oliver Monfredi, Elizabeth Cartwright, Min Zi, Tomoko T Yamanushi, Vaikom S Mahadevan, Alison M Gurney, Ed White, Henggui Zhang, George Hart, Mark R Boyett, Halina Dobrzynski
BACKGROUND: Heart block is associated with pulmonary hypertension, and the aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the heart block is the result of a change in the ion channel transcriptome of the atrioventricular (AV) node. METHODS AND RESULTS: The most commonly used animal model of pulmonary hypertension, the monocrotaline-injected rat, was used. The functional consequences of monocrotaline injection were determined by echocardiography, ECG recording, and electrophysiological experiments on the Langendorff-perfused heart and isolated AV node...
December 2016: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965739/coastal-macroinvertebrate-study-in-penang-island-malaysia
#11
Chee Su Yin, Sim Yee Kwang
Land reclamation in Penang began two decades ago and is still rampant with large reclamation projects planned to be executed in the near future. The present study provides the first information on effects of land reclamation in Penang towards the coastal macroinvertebrates. This study assessed the abundance, diversity, and evenness of coastal invertebrates assumed to be the foremost affected when land is reclaimed. Three kinds of areas were focused on: reclaimed, unclaimed (adjacent to reclaimed), and undisturbed...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853619/multi-alternative-decision-making-with-non-stationary-inputs
#12
Luana F Nunes, Kevin Gurney
One of the most widely implemented models for multi-alternative decision-making is the multihypothesis sequential probability ratio test (MSPRT). It is asymptotically optimal, straightforward to implement, and has found application in modelling biological decision-making. However, the MSPRT is limited in application to discrete ('trial-based'), non-time-varying scenarios. By contrast, real world situations will be continuous and entail stimulus non-stationarity. In these circumstances, decision-making mechanisms (like the MSPRT) which work by accumulating evidence, must be able to discard outdated evidence which becomes progressively irrelevant...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851199/1564-analysis-of-pediatric-trauma-in-a-combat-zone-to-inform-high-fidelity-simulation-training
#13
Patrick Reeves, Elizabeth Mann-Salinas, Jennifer Gurney, Zsolt Stockinger, Tuan Le, Matthew Borgman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844247/a-profile-on-emergency-department-utilization-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#14
Guodong Liu, Amanda M Pearl, Lan Kong, Douglas L Leslie, Michael J Murray
There has been an increase in utilization of the Emergency Department (ED) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) which may reflect a deficit of services (Green et al., Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 40(3):325-332, 2001; Gurney et al., Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 160:825-830, 2006; Leichtman et al., American Journal of Orthopsyhciatry 72(2):227-235, 2001). The current study examined the rates of ED utilization between 2005 and 2013 in ASD youth 12- to 21-years-old...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811811/harpacticoid-copepods-their-symbiotic-associations-and-biogenic-substrata-a-review
#15
Rony Huys
Members of the order Harpacticoida are primarily free-living and benthic but some lineages have adopted alternative modes of life which involve a major habitat shift or dependence on a host. Since the first discovery of a harpacticoid associated with an invertebrate host about 150 years ago, a total of 172 species, representing 84 genera and 17 families, have been shown to live in symbiotic partnership with other organisms. The steady addition of new taxa during the last 35 years testifies to the widespread and previously underestimated occurrence of symbiosis in the group...
October 11, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782717/quantitative-assessment-of-biliary-stent-artifacts-on-mr-images-potential-implications-for-target-delineation-in-radiotherapy
#16
Oliver J Gurney-Champion, Thijs Bruins Slot, Eelco Lens, Astrid van der Horst, Remy Klaassen, Hanneke W M van Laarhoven, Geertjan van Tienhoven, Jeanin E van Hooft, Aart J Nederveen, Arjan Bel
PURPOSE: Biliary stents may cause susceptibility artifacts, gradient-induced artifacts, and radio frequency (RF) induced artifacts on magnetic resonance images, which can hinder accurate target volume delineation in radiotherapy. In this study, the authors investigated and quantified the magnitude of these artifacts for stents of different materials. METHODS: Eight biliary stents made of nitinol, platinum-cored nitinol, stainless steel, or polyethylene from seven vendors, with different lengths (57-98 mm) and diameters (3...
October 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773445/abdominal-organ-motion-during-inhalation-and-exhalation-breath-holds-pancreatic-motion-at-different-lung-volumes-compared
#17
Eelco Lens, Oliver J Gurney-Champion, Daniël R Tekelenburg, Zdenko van Kesteren, Michael J Parkes, Geertjan van Tienhoven, Aart J Nederveen, Astrid van der Horst, Arjan Bel
PURPOSE: Contrary to what is commonly assumed, organs continue to move during breath-holding. We investigated the influence of lung volume on motion magnitude during breath-holding and changes in velocity over the duration of breath-holding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen healthy subjects performed 60-second inhalation breath-holds in room-air, with lung volumes of ∼100% and ∼70% of the inspiratory capacity, and exhalation breath-holds, with lung volumes of ∼30% and ∼0% of the inspiratory capacity...
November 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711219/assessing-basal-and-acute-autophagic-responses-in-the-adult-drosophila-nervous-system-the-impact-of-gender-genetics-and-diet-on-endogenous-pathway-profiles
#18
Eric P Ratliff, Roxanne W Kotzebue, Brandon Molina, Ruth E Mauntz, Arysa Gonzalez, Ayeh Barekat, Nadja El-Mecharrafie, Shannon Garza, Michael A Gurney, Madhulika Achal, Phyllis-Jean Linton, Greg L Harris, Kim D Finley
The autophagy pathway is critical for the long-term homeostasis of cells and adult organisms and is often activated during periods of stress. Reduced pathway efficacy plays a central role in several progressive neurological disorders that are associated with the accumulation of cytotoxic peptides and protein aggregates. Previous studies have shown that genetic and transgenic alterations to the autophagy pathway impacts longevity and neural aggregate profiles of adult Drosophila. In this study, we have identified methods to measure the acute in vivo induction of the autophagy pathway in the adult fly CNS...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681060/the-music-of-war-seven-world-war-1-composers-and-their-experience-of-combat
#19
Jonathan Rt Davidson
The effect of World War 1 military service on composers has been neglected in comparison with poets and artists. This article describes the wartime service of Arthur Bliss, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Ivor Gurney, EJ Moeran, Gordon Jacob, Patrick Hadley, and Maurice Ravel. The relationship between experiences of combat and the psychological health of these men is examined, with consideration being given to predisposition and possible causative influences of military service on their later careers, examined from individual and societal perspectives...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676611/a-comparison-of-midwife-led-and-medical-led-models-of-care-and-their-relationship-to-adverse-fetal-and-neonatal-outcomes-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-new-zealand
#20
Ellie Wernham, Jason Gurney, James Stanley, Lis Ellison-Loschmann, Diana Sarfati
BACKGROUND: Internationally, a typical model of maternity care is a medically led system with varying levels of midwifery input. New Zealand has a midwife-led model of care, and there are movements in other countries to adopt such a system. There is a paucity of systemic evaluation that formally investigates safety-related outcomes in relationship to midwife-led care within an entire maternity service. The main objective of this study was to compare major adverse perinatal outcomes between midwife-led and medical-led maternity care in New Zealand...
September 2016: PLoS Medicine
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