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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853619/multi-alternative-decision-making-with-non-stationary-inputs
#1
Luana F Nunes, Kevin Gurney
One of the most widely implemented models for multi-alternative decision-making is the multihypothesis sequential probability ratio test (MSPRT). It is asymptotically optimal, straightforward to implement, and has found application in modelling biological decision-making. However, the MSPRT is limited in application to discrete ('trial-based'), non-time-varying scenarios. By contrast, real world situations will be continuous and entail stimulus non-stationarity. In these circumstances, decision-making mechanisms (like the MSPRT) which work by accumulating evidence, must be able to discard outdated evidence which becomes progressively irrelevant...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851199/1564-analysis-of-pediatric-trauma-in-a-combat-zone-to-inform-high-fidelity-simulation-training
#2
Patrick Reeves, Elizabeth Mann-Salinas, Jennifer Gurney, Zsolt Stockinger, Tuan Le, Matthew Borgman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844247/a-profile-on-emergency-department-utilization-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
Guodong Liu, Amanda M Pearl, Lan Kong, Douglas L Leslie, Michael J Murray
There has been an increase in utilization of the Emergency Department (ED) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) which may reflect a deficit of services (Green et al., Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 40(3):325-332, 2001; Gurney et al., Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 160:825-830, 2006; Leichtman et al., American Journal of Orthopsyhciatry 72(2):227-235, 2001). The current study examined the rates of ED utilization between 2005 and 2013 in ASD youth 12- to 21-years-old...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811811/harpacticoid-copepods-their-symbiotic-associations-and-biogenic-substrata-a-review
#4
Rony Huys
Members of the order Harpacticoida are primarily free-living and benthic but some lineages have adopted alternative modes of life which involve a major habitat shift or dependence on a host. Since the first discovery of a harpacticoid associated with an invertebrate host about 150 years ago, a total of 172 species, representing 84 genera and 17 families, have been shown to live in symbiotic partnership with other organisms. The steady addition of new taxa during the last 35 years testifies to the widespread and previously underestimated occurrence of symbiosis in the group...
October 11, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782717/quantitative-assessment-of-biliary-stent-artifacts-on-mr-images-potential-implications-for-target-delineation-in-radiotherapy
#5
Oliver J Gurney-Champion, Thijs Bruins Slot, Eelco Lens, Astrid van der Horst, Remy Klaassen, Hanneke W M van Laarhoven, Geertjan van Tienhoven, Jeanin E van Hooft, Aart J Nederveen, Arjan Bel
PURPOSE: Biliary stents may cause susceptibility artifacts, gradient-induced artifacts, and radio frequency (RF) induced artifacts on magnetic resonance images, which can hinder accurate target volume delineation in radiotherapy. In this study, the authors investigated and quantified the magnitude of these artifacts for stents of different materials. METHODS: Eight biliary stents made of nitinol, platinum-cored nitinol, stainless steel, or polyethylene from seven vendors, with different lengths (57-98 mm) and diameters (3...
October 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773445/abdominal-organ-motion-during-inhalation-and-exhalation-breath-holds-pancreatic-motion-at-different-lung-volumes-compared
#6
Eelco Lens, Oliver J Gurney-Champion, Daniël R Tekelenburg, Zdenko van Kesteren, Michael J Parkes, Geertjan van Tienhoven, Aart J Nederveen, Astrid van der Horst, Arjan Bel
PURPOSE: Contrary to what is commonly assumed, organs continue to move during breath-holding. We investigated the influence of lung volume on motion magnitude during breath-holding and changes in velocity over the duration of breath-holding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen healthy subjects performed 60-second inhalation breath-holds in room-air, with lung volumes of ∼100% and ∼70% of the inspiratory capacity, and exhalation breath-holds, with lung volumes of ∼30% and ∼0% of the inspiratory capacity...
November 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711219/assessing-basal-and-acute-autophagic-responses-in-the-adult-drosophila-nervous-system-the-impact-of-gender-genetics-and-diet-on-endogenous-pathway-profiles
#7
Eric P Ratliff, Roxanne W Kotzebue, Brandon Molina, Ruth E Mauntz, Arysa Gonzalez, Ayeh Barekat, Nadja El-Mecharrafie, Shannon Garza, Michael A Gurney, Madhulika Achal, Phyllis-Jean Linton, Greg L Harris, Kim D Finley
The autophagy pathway is critical for the long-term homeostasis of cells and adult organisms and is often activated during periods of stress. Reduced pathway efficacy plays a central role in several progressive neurological disorders that are associated with the accumulation of cytotoxic peptides and protein aggregates. Previous studies have shown that genetic and transgenic alterations to the autophagy pathway impacts longevity and neural aggregate profiles of adult Drosophila. In this study, we have identified methods to measure the acute in vivo induction of the autophagy pathway in the adult fly CNS...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681060/the-music-of-war-seven-world-war-1-composers-and-their-experience-of-combat
#8
Jonathan Rt Davidson
The effect of World War 1 military service on composers has been neglected in comparison with poets and artists. This article describes the wartime service of Arthur Bliss, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Ivor Gurney, EJ Moeran, Gordon Jacob, Patrick Hadley, and Maurice Ravel. The relationship between experiences of combat and the psychological health of these men is examined, with consideration being given to predisposition and possible causative influences of military service on their later careers, examined from individual and societal perspectives...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676611/a-comparison-of-midwife-led-and-medical-led-models-of-care-and-their-relationship-to-adverse-fetal-and-neonatal-outcomes-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-new-zealand
#9
Ellie Wernham, Jason Gurney, James Stanley, Lis Ellison-Loschmann, Diana Sarfati
BACKGROUND: Internationally, a typical model of maternity care is a medically led system with varying levels of midwifery input. New Zealand has a midwife-led model of care, and there are movements in other countries to adopt such a system. There is a paucity of systemic evaluation that formally investigates safety-related outcomes in relationship to midwife-led care within an entire maternity service. The main objective of this study was to compare major adverse perinatal outcomes between midwife-led and medical-led maternity care in New Zealand...
September 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661422/resuscitation-and-treatment-of-shock
#10
Michael J Beltran, Tyson E Becker, Richard K Hurley, Jennifer M Gurney, Roman A Hayda
Hemorrhage continues to be the most common cause of death among service members wounded in combat. Injuries that were previously nonsurvivable in previous wars are now routinely seen by combat surgeons in forward surgical units, the result of improvements in body armor, the universal use of field tourniquets to control extremity hemorrhage at the point of injury, and rapid air evacuation strategies. Combat orthopaedic surgeons remain a vital aspect of the forward surgical unit, tasked with assisting general surgical colleagues in the resuscitation of patients in hemorrhagic shock while also addressing traumatic amputations, open and closed long bone fractures, and mechanically unstable pelvic trauma...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628934/spinecreator-a-graphical-user-interface-for-the-creation-of-layered-neural-models
#11
A J Cope, P Richmond, S S James, K Gurney, D J Allerton
There is a growing requirement in computational neuroscience for tools that permit collaborative model building, model sharing, combining existing models into a larger system (multi-scale model integration), and are able to simulate models using a variety of simulation engines and hardware platforms. Layered XML model specification formats solve many of these problems, however they are difficult to write and visualise without tools. Here we describe a new graphical software tool, SpineCreator, which facilitates the creation and visualisation of layered models of point spiking neurons or rate coded neurons without requiring the need for programming...
September 15, 2016: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612588/doulas-for-surgical-management-of-miscarriage-and-abortion-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Susan F Wilson, Elizabeth P Gurney, Mary D Sammel, Courtney A Schreiber
BACKGROUND: Women undergoing office-based surgical management of a failed or undesired pregnancy often report fear of pain and anxiety pertaining to the procedure. Doulas are trained to specifically address women's physical and emotional needs in obstetric care, and recently have extended their practice to support women through all pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the impact of doulas on patients' physical and emotional responses to surgical management of a first-trimester failed or undesired pregnancy under local anesthesia...
September 6, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561659/kinase-inhibitor-pharmacokinetics-comprehensive-summary-and-roadmap-for-addressing-inter-individual-variability-in-exposure
#13
Andrew Rowland, Madelé van Dyk, Arduino A Mangoni, John O Miners, Ross A McKinnon, Michael D Wiese, Angela Rowland, Ganessan Kichenadasse, Howard Gurney, Michael J Sorich
Small molecule protein kinase inhibitors (KIs) are a class of drugs with complex and unconventional physiochemical and pharmacokinetic characteristics. Cytochrome P450 mediated metabolism and transporter-mediated uptake and efflux are important processes that determine KI disposition and exposure. Areas covered: We provide an overview of KI pharmacology, with a comprehensive summary of KI physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties and description of the major sources of variability in KI pharmacokinetics focusing on common pathways involved in determining exposure...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530721/social-capital-as-a-key-determinant-of-perceived-benefits-of-community-based-marine-protected-areas
#14
Amy Diedrich, Natalie Stoeckl, Georgina G Gurney, Michelle Esparon, Richard Pollnac
Globally, marine protected areas (MPAs) have been relatively unsuccessful in meeting biodiversity objectives. To be effective, they require some alteration of people's use and access to marine resources, which they will resist if they do not perceive associated benefits. Stakeholders' support is crucial to ecological success of MPAs, and their support is likely to depend on their capacity to adapt to and benefit from MPAs. We examined the influence of social adaptive capacity (SAC) on perceived benefits of MPAs in Siquijor, Philippines, in the Coral Triangle...
August 17, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492915/gas-and-bloating-controlling-emissions-a-case-based-review-for-the-primary-care-provider
#15
REVIEW
Thomas G Cotter, Mark Gurney, Conor G Loftus
The evaluation of the patient with gas and bloating can be complex and the treatment extremely challenging. In this article, a simplified approach to the history and relevant physical examination is presented and applied in a case-oriented manner, suitable for application in the primary care setting.
August 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428313/the-benefits-and-harms-of-rheumatic-heart-disease-screening-from-the-perspective-of-the-screened-population
#16
J Gurney, A Chong, N Culliford-Semmens, E Tilton, N J Wilson, D Sarfati
BACKGROUND: A reduction in the burden of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) may be possible by identifying the condition while the patient is still asymptomatic. Currently, there is much debate about whether it is appropriate to screen for the presence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in a symptomless population. The purpose of this study was to identify self-reported benefits and harms from the perspective of screening participants and their families. METHODS: In order to describe participant experiences and changes in behaviour post-screening, we interviewed a sample of parents/caregivers of children who were screened for the presence of RHD between 2007 and 2012 (n=276)...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383587/chronic-cognitive-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury-is-improved-with-a-phosphodiesterase-4b-inhibitor
#17
David J Titus, Nicole M Wilson, Julie E Freund, Melissa M Carballosa, Kevin E Sikah, Concepcion Furones, W Dalton Dietrich, Mark E Gurney, Coleen M Atkins
UNLABELLED: Learning and memory impairments are common in traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors. However, there are no effective treatments to improve TBI-induced learning and memory impairments. TBI results in decreased cAMP signaling and reduced cAMP-response-element binding protein (CREB) activation, a critical pathway involved in learning and memory. TBI also acutely upregulates phosphodiesterase 4B2 (PDE4B2), which terminates cAMP signaling by hydrolyzing cAMP. We hypothesized that a subtype-selective PDE4B inhibitor could reverse the learning deficits induced by TBI...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381170/dressing-up-posture-the-interactive-effects-of-posture-and-clothing-on-competency-judgements
#18
Daniel J Gurney, Neil Howlett, Karen Pine, Megan Tracey, Rachel Moggridge
Individuals often receive judgements from others based on their clothing and their posture. While both of these factors have been found to influence judgements of competency independently, their relative importance in impression formation is yet to be investigated. We address this by examining interactive effects of posture and clothing on four competency measures: confidence, professionalism, approachability, and likeliness of a high salary. Participants rated photographs of both male and female models pictured in different postures (strong, neutral, weak) in smart clothing (a suit for males; both a trouser suit and skirt suit for females) and casual clothing...
July 6, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363484/proteomics-analysis-of-vesicles-isolated-from-plasma-and-urine-of-prostate-cancer-patients-using-a-multiplex-aptamer-based-protein-array
#19
Joanne Louise Welton, Paul Brennan, Mark Gurney, Jason Paul Webber, Lisa Kate Spary, David Gil Carton, Juan Manuel Falcón-Pérez, Sean Peter Walton, Malcolm David Mason, Zsuzsanna Tabi, Aled Clayton
Proteomics analysis of biofluid-derived vesicles holds enormous potential for discovering non-invasive disease markers. Obtaining vesicles of sufficient quality and quantity for profiling studies has, however, been a major problem, as samples are often replete with co-isolated material that can interfere with the identification of genuine low abundance, vesicle components. Here, we used a combination of ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography to isolate and analyse vesicles of plasma or urine origin...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27361032/-when-is-it-safe-for-me-to-start-my-exercises-2207-board-359-june-2-2-00-pm-3-30-pm
#20
Alfred B Gurney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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