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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640349/use-of-gc-ms-to-identify-chemical-constituents-and-cytotoxic-activity-of-the-leaves-of-phoradendron-mucronatum-and-phoradendron-microphyllum-viscaceae
#1
Isla V G A Bastos, Tatiane B DE Oliveira, Maria D Rodrigues, Gardênia C G Militão, Teresinha G DA Silva, Izabel C C Turatti, Norberto P Lopes, Sebastião J DE Melo
Phoradendron mucronatum and P. microphyllum are plants that found in tropical and subtropical areas, used in traditional medicine and popularly known as mistle-thrush. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical constituents of different leaf extracts from P. mucronatum and P. microphyllum and assess cytotoxic activity against strains from a human tumour cells. Extracts obtained with hexane, dichloromethane, chloroform and ethyl acetate from the leaves were analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTT method (bromide (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide))...
April 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636672/metabolomic-profile-and-nucleoside-composition-of-cordyceps-nidus-sp-nov-cordycipitaceae-a-new-source-of-active-compounds
#2
Juan Chiriví, Giovanna Danies, Rocio Sierra, Nicolas Schauer, Sandra Trenkamp, Silvia Restrepo, Tatiana Sanjuan
Cordyceps sensu lato is a genus of arthropod-pathogenic fungi, which have been used traditionally as medicinal in Asia. Within the genus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis is the most coveted and expensive species in China. Nevertheless, harvesting wild specimens has become a challenge given that natural populations of the fungus are decreasing and because large-scale culture of it has not yet been achieved. The worldwide demand for products derived from cultivable fungal species with medicinal properties has increased recently...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636311/insights-into-integrated-lead-generation-and-target-identification-in-malaria-and-tuberculosis-drug-discovery
#3
John Okombo, Kelly Chibale
New, safe and effective drugs are urgently needed to treat and control malaria and tuberculosis, which affect millions of people annually. However, financial return on investment in the poor settings where these diseases are mostly prevalent is very minimal to support market-driven drug discovery and development. Moreover, the imminent loss of therapeutic lifespan of existing therapies due to evolution and spread of drug resistance further compounds the urgency to identify novel effective drugs. However, the advent of new public-private partnerships focused on tropical diseases and the recent release of large data sets by pharmaceutical companies on antimalarial and antituberculosis compounds derived from phenotypic whole cell high throughput screening have spurred renewed interest and opened new frontiers in malaria and tuberculosis drug discovery...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623550/antibiotic-susceptibility-profiles-among-campylobacter-isolates-obtained-from-international-travelers-between-2007-and-2014
#4
A Post, D Martiny, N van Waterschoot, M Hallin, U Maniewski, E Bottieau, M Van Esbroeck, E Vlieghe, S Ombelet, O Vandenberg, J Jacobs
Campylobacter infection is a common cause of diarrhea among international travelers. We studied antibiotic resistance patterns among Campylobacter isolates obtained from international travelers according to travel destination. Three collections of isolates obtained from international travelers between 2007 and 2014 (Institute of Tropical Medicine, the "Laboratoire Hospitalier Universitaire de Bruxelles "and the Belgian National Reference Centre for Campylobacter) were used. Isolates were tested for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (E-test macromethod) for fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and meropenem...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615856/a-rare-case-of-theileria-annulata-induced-corneal-opacity-in-a-calf
#5
Vivek Joshi, S Alam, U Dimri, A G Bhanuprakash, A Gopalakrishnan, Y Ajith
A 10 months old male cross-bred calf was presented in OPD Medicine, Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar with the history of anorexia, impaired vision, heavy tick infestation and diarrhoea for the last 1 week. The clinical examination revealed enlarged pre-scapular lymph nodes, prominent cloudiness in eyes and exophthalmos. The presence of Koch blue bodies in biopsied lymph nodes and a PCR assay confirmed it to be bovine tropical theileriosis associated with unique corneal opacity...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615836/molecular-identification-of-an-old-clinical-isolate-of-indian-kala-azar
#6
Madhumita Manna, Supriya Khanra
Molecular characterization is an important task for species identification of the isolates belonging to different Leishmania species. Clinical symptoms, tissue tropism, vector preference, reservoir and geographical distribution may act as distinguishing parameters but not always decisive. On the other hand, modern taxonomic tools employed to divulge characteristics of the genome or protein molecules of the parasite would be convincing and for Leishmania sp., they include nuclear and kDNA buoyant density, multi locus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), RAPD, RFLP or use of monoclonal antibodies etc...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613071/potent-inhibitor-of-drug-resistant-hiv-1-strains-identified-from-the-medicinal-plant-justicia-gendarussa
#7
Hong-Jie Zhang, Emily Rumschlag-Booms, Yi-Fu Guan, Dong-Ying Wang, Kang-Lun Liu, Wan-Fei Li, Van H Nguyen, Nguyen M Cuong, Djaja D Soejarto, Harry H S Fong, Lijun Rong
Justicia gendarussa, a medicinal plant collected in Vietnam, was identified as a potent anti-HIV-1 active lead from the evaluation of over 4500 plant extracts. Bioassay-guided separation of the extracts of the stems and roots of this plant led to the isolation of an anti-HIV arylnaphthalene lignan (ANL) glycoside, patentiflorin A (1). Evaluation of the compound against both the M- and T-tropic HIV-1 isolates showed it to possess a significantly higher inhibition effect than the clinically used anti-HIV drug AZT...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612497/pharmacotherapy-follow-up-role-in-active-malaria-surveillance-in-a-travel-medicine-centre-outside-the-transmission-area-in-brazil
#8
R S Pedro, P Brasil, A Pina-Costa, C R Machado, L S Damasceno, C T Daniel-Ribeiro, L Guaraldo
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Malaria is a potentially severe disease, widespread in tropical and subtropical areas. Apart from parasite drug resistance, which receives the largest share of attention, several factors directly influence the response to antimalarial treatment such as incorrect doses, adverse drug events, lack of adherence to treatment, drug quality and drug-drug interactions. Pharmacotherapy follow-up can be used to monitor and improve the effectiveness of treatment, prevent drug-related problems and ensure patient safety...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612293/nowhere-to-run-rabbit-the-cold-war-calculus-of-disease-ecology
#9
Warwick Anderson
During the cold war, Frank Fenner (protégé of Macfarlane Burnet and René Dubos) and Francis Ratcliffe (associate of A. J. Nicholson and student of Charles Elton) studied mathematically the coevolution of host resistance and parasite virulence when myxomatosis was unleashed on Australia's rabbit population. Later, Robert May called Fenner the "real hero" of disease ecology for his mathematical modeling of the epidemic. While Ratcliffe came from a tradition of animal ecology, Fenner developed an ecological orientation in World War II through his work on malaria control (with Ratcliffe and Ian Mackerras, among others)-that is, through studies of tropical medicine...
June 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607833/medical-school-hotline-from-laboratory-bench-to-community-tropical-medicine-students-promote-vaccination-in-hawai-i
#10
Yukie Lloyd-Sato, Eleanore Chuang, Priscilla Seabourn, Han Ha Youn, Bradley Thomas, Michael Fernandez, Tiana Elisara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606149/malaria-research-in-malawi-from-1984-to-2016-a-literature-review-and-bibliometric-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Chikondi A Mwendera, Christiaan de Jager, Herbert Longwe, Charles Hongoro, Clifford M Mutero, Kamija S Phiri
BACKGROUND: Malaria research can play a vital role in addressing the malaria burden in Malawi. An organized approach in addressing malaria in Malawi started in 1984 by the establishment of the first National Malaria Control Programme and research was recognized to be significant. This study aimed to assess the type and amount of malaria research conducted in Malawi from 1984 to 2016 and its related source of funding. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in the Medline/PubMed database for Malawian publications and approved malaria studies from two Ethical Committees were examined...
June 12, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597822/fungi-that-infect-humans
#12
Julia R Köhler, Bernhard Hube, Rosana Puccia, Arturo Casadevall, John R Perfect
Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597709/philippine-academy-of-rehabilitation-medicine-emergency-basic-relief-and-medical-aid-mission-project-november-2013-february-2014-the-role-of-physiatrists-in-super-typhoon-haiyan
#13
Filipinas Ganchoon, Rommel Bugho, Liezel Calina, Rochelle Dy, James Gosney
BACKGROUND: Physiatrists have provided humanitarian assistance in recent large-scale global natural disasters. Super Typhoon Haiyan, the deadliest and most costly typhoon in modern Philippine history, made landfall on 8 November 2013 resulting in significant humanitarian needs. METHODS: Philippine Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine physiatrists conducted a project of 23 emergency basic relief and medical aid missions in response to Super Typhoon Haiyan from November 2013 to February 2014...
June 9, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596011/emmenagogue-properties-of-milicia-excelsa-welw-c-c-berg-moraceae-based-at-least-in-part-on-its-ability-to-correlate-the-activity-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis-to-that-of-the-ovaries
#14
Marie Alfrede Mvondo, Aude Jaelle Touomo Sakock, Sylvin Benjamin Ateba, Charline Florence Awounfack, Telesphore Nanbo Gueyo, Dieudonné Njamen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C.C. Berg (Moraceae) is a medicinal plant recommended over tropical Africa as a cure for several ailments including amenorrhea. This is the hallmark of an ovarian lesion or a dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis which may lead to infertility, osteoporosis or endometrial cancer. However, regardless these traditional claims, no scientific report dealing with emmenagogue properties has been reported yet. AIM OF THE STUDY: To bring scientific evidence to the curative action of the plant, we proposed evaluating the effects of a root aqueous extract of Milicia excelsa on female Wistar rat sexual maturation...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595541/evaluating-the-role-of-interleukin-12-b-gene-polymorphism-in-prediction-of-disease-progression-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#15
Nadia Elwan, Khalda Amr, Sahar Elyamany, Walaa Elkhalawany, Shaimaa Soliman, Mohamed Ziada, Sherief Abd-Elsalam
Background &Aims: Cell-mediated immunity plays a critical role in viral clearance and disease progression during Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Interleukin (IL)-12 is a cytokine that has been shown to be a potent antiviral cytokine. The aim of this work is to investigate the association of IL-12 B gene polymorphism with the progression of liver disease in chronic HCV patients. METHODS: This cross sectional study was carried out in tropical medicine department, Tanta university hospital, Egypt, on 120 chronic HCV patients with various stages of liver disease and 30 healthy subjects served as control...
June 5, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577435/aryl-benzofuran-derivatives-from-the-stem-bark-of-calpocalyx-dinklagei-attenuate-inflammation
#16
Deccaux W F G Kapche, Nadège M Lekane, Seda S Kulabas, Hande Ipek, Tugba T Tok, Bonaventure T Ngadjui, Ibrahim Demirtas, Tugba B Tumer
Calpocalyx dinklagei Harms (Fabaceae) is a tropical medicinal tree, which is indigenous to Western Africa. A phytochemical study of this local plant species from its stem bark has led to the isolation of two previously undescribed aryl benzofuran derivatives, named dinklagein A and B, together with eight known compounds. Their chemical structures were elucidated by use of extensive spectroscopic methods (IR, HREI-MS and 1D and 2D NMR). Among all isolates, dinklagein A displayed remarkably potent inhibitory activity against the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced RAW264...
May 31, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573766/tropical-medicine-international-health
#17
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570369/drug-interactions-and-the-role-of-pharmacokinetic-trials-in-guiding-choices-in-first-line-hiv-therapy-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#18
Kay Seden, Marta Boffito, Saye Khoo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face specific challenges in the treatment of people living with HIV. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) involving antiretrovirals (ARVs) are prevalent in all settings and have considerable potential to cause clinical harm to patients via toxicity or reduced efficacy of treatment. Differing comorbidities, endemic infections and traditional medicines may complicate ARV therapy (ART) in LMICs, which usually takes a public health approach in these settings, with fewer alternative regimens available...
July 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569545/interview-with-alexander-cohen
#19
Alexander Ander Cohen
Ander Cohen speaks to Adam Price-Evans, Commissioning Editor of Future Cardiology: Alexander (Ander) Cohen MBBS (Hons), MSc, MD, FRACP is a vascular physician and epidemiologist at Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital, King's College (London, UK). He graduated with honors in medicine and honors in surgery from the University of Melbourne, Australia, and became a fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians in 1990. He was awarded an MSc in Epidemiology from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London in 1991 with a thesis on the metabolic syndrome in South-Asian populations...
June 1, 2017: Future Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557533/induced-cell-turnover-a-novel-therapeutic-modality-for-in-situ-tissue-regeneration
#20
Francesco Albert Bosco Cortese, Sebastian Aguiar, Giovanni Santostasi
Induced Cell Turnover (ICT) is a theoretical intervention in which the targeted ablation of damaged, diseased and/or nonfunctional cells is coupled with replacement by partially differentiated induced pluripotent stem cells in a gradual and multi-phasic manner. Tissue-specific ablation can be achieved using pro-apoptotic small molecule cocktails, peptide mimetics, and/or tissue-tropic AAV-delivered suicide genes driven by cell-type specific promoters. Replenishment with new cells can be mediated by systemic administration of cells engineered for homing, robustness, and even enhanced function and disease resistance...
May 30, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
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