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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145640/craving-as-a-dsm-5-symptom-of-alcohol-use-disorder-in-non-treatment-seekers
#1
Emily E Hartwell, Lara A Ray
Aims: DSM-5 has added craving as a new criterion and changed the diagnostic structure of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Though craving has long been a target of intervention, less is known about the impact this addition will have on prevalence and factor structure of AUD, particularly in non-treatment seeker with alcohol problems. Methods: Non-treatment seeking individuals reporting alcohol-related problems (N = 296) completed a structured clinical interview and the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS)...
November 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141966/nutritional-factors-affecting-adult-neurogenesis-and-cognitive-function
#2
REVIEW
Shibu M Poulose, Marshall G Miller, Tammy Scott, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136302/the-sociotype-in-dermatology
#3
S E Marron, R Del Moral, J Navarro, S Lamas, P C Marijuan, L Tomas-Aragones
Skin diseases can be the cause of a significant psychosocial burden for those who suffer them. A number of studies have considered issues such as a lower quality of life, increased anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation and other psychological disorders(1-3) . However, adequate means for evaluating social interaction difficulties, diminished social networks, and the impoverished conversational exchanges that affect the wellbeing and mental health of the individual have not been sufficiently developed. This article is protected by copyright...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136266/prostanoids-and-hair-follicles-implications-for-therapy-of-hair-disorders
#4
Xue-Gang Xu, Hong-Duo Chen
Prostanoids, including prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2), are a family of lipid-derived autacoids that modulate many physiological systems and pathological contexts. Prostanoids are generated by sequential metabolism of arachidonic acid, catalysed by cyclo-oxygenase, to PGH2, which is then converted to PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α, PGI2 and TXA2, catalysed by their specific synthases. Recent evidence suggests that prostanoids play a role in regulating hair growth. The PGF2α analogue is Food and Drug Administration-approved and routinely used to enhance the growth of human eyelashes...
November 14, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136088/abcd1-dysfunction-alters-white-matter-microvascular-perfusion
#5
Arne Lauer, Xiao Da, Mikkel Bo Hansen, Gregoire Boulouis, Yangming Ou, Xuezhu Cai, Afonso Liberato Celso Pedrotti, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Paul Caruso, Douglas L Hayden, Natalia Rost, Kim Mouridsen, Florian S Eichler, Bruce Rosen, Patricia L Musolino
Cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which lead to a rapidly progressive cerebral inflammatory demyelination in up to 60% of affected males. Selective brain endothelial dysfunction and increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier suggest that white matter microvascular dysfunction contributes to the conversion to cerebral disease. Applying a vascular model to conventional dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance perfusion imaging, we demonstrate that lack of ABCD1 function causes increased capillary flow heterogeneity in asymptomatic hemizygotes predominantly in the white matter regions and developmental stages with the highest probability for conversion to cerebral disease...
November 9, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134997/photoinduced-dynamics-in-cycloparaphenylenes-planarization-electron-phonon-coupling-localization-and-intra-ring-migration-of-the-electronic-excitation
#6
N Oldani, S K Doorn, S Tretiak, S Fernandez-Alberti
Cycloparaphenylenes represent the smallest possible fragments of armchair carbon nanotubes. Due to their cyclic and curved conjugation, these nanohoops own unique photophysical properties. Herein, the internal conversion processes of cycloparaphenylenes of sizes 9 through 16 are simulated using Non-Adiabatic Excited States Molecular Dynamics. In order to analyze effects of increased conformational disorder, simulations are done at both low temperature (10 K) and room temperature (300 K). We found the photoexcitation and subsequent electronic energy relaxation and redistribution lead to different structural and electronic signatures such as planarization of the chain, electron-phonon couplings, wavefunction localization, and intra-ring migration of excitons...
November 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134752/ideal-bandgap-organic-inorganic-hybrid-perovskite-solar-cells
#7
Zhibin Yang, Adharsh Rajagopal, Alex K-Y Jen
Extremely high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of ≈20-22% are realized through intensive research and development of 1.5-1.6 eV bandgap perovskite absorbers. However, development of ideal bandgap (1.3-1.4 eV) absorbers is pivotal to further improve PCE of single junction perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) because of a better balance between absorption loss of sub-bandgap photons and thermalization loss of above-bandgap photons as demonstrated by the Shockley-Queisser detailed balanced calculation. Ideal bandgap PVSCs are currently hindered by the poor optoelectronic quality of perovskite absorbers and their PCEs have stagnated at <15%...
November 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133084/mri-for-the-measurement-of-liver-iron-content-and-for-the-diagnosis-and-follow-up-of-iron-overload-disorders
#8
Anita Paisant, Gaspard d'Assignies, Elise Bannier, Edouard Bardou-Jacquet, Yves Gandon
MRI is now the reference method for detecting and quantifying hepatic and extrahepatic iron overload, regardless of its cause. The decrease of the hepatic signal is proportional to the amount of iron in the tissues. It is more pronounced with T2*-weighted gradient echo sequences. It increases proportionally with the strength of the magnetic field. Thus a 3-T MRI is be more sensitive and probably more accurate to detect a slight iron overload, as seen in dysmetabolic hepatosiderosis. Conversely, a 1.5-T MRI better estimates a high overload...
November 10, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132128/a-single-cysteine-post-translational-oxidation-suffices-to-compromise-globular-proteins-kinetic-stability-and-promote-amyloid-formation
#9
Patrizia Marinelli, Susanna Navarro, Ricardo Graña-Montes, Manuel Bañó-Polo, María Rosario Fernández, Elena Papaleo, Salvador Ventura
Oxidatively modified forms of proteins accumulate during aging. Oxidized protein conformers might act as intermediates in the formation of amyloids in age-related disorders. However, it is not known whether this amyloidogenic conversion requires an extensive protein oxidative damage or it can be promoted just by a discrete, localized post-translational modification of certain residues. Here, we demonstrate that the irreversible oxidation of a single free Cys suffices to severely perturb the folding energy landscape of a stable globular protein, compromise its kinetic stability, and lead to the formation of amyloids under physiological conditions...
October 31, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128549/personality-traits-and-appearance-ideal-internalization-differential-associations-with-body-dissatisfaction-and-compulsive-exercise
#10
Shelby J Martin, Sarah E Racine
Thin-ideal internalization is a robust risk factor for body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. Conversely, athletic-ideal internalization is often unrelated to body dissatisfaction, but predicts compulsive exercise (i.e., rigid, rule-driven exercise that is continued despite adverse consequences). Distinct personality traits could relate to internalization of different appearance ideals, which may be associated with divergent eating disorder outcomes. Past research has shown that neuroticism is related to body dissatisfaction, whereas extraversion and conscientiousness have been associated with regular and problematic exercise...
November 6, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127443/astragaloside-iv-attenuates-orbital-inflammation-in-graves-orbitopathy-through-suppression-of-autophagy
#11
Hong Li, Yali Zhang, Jie Min, Long Gao, Ren Zhang, Yucheng Yang
INTRODUCTION: Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder affecting the orbit around the eye. Astragaloside IV (AS-VI) is the main active ingredient of the Chinese herbal medicine Huangqi (Radix Astragali Mongolici). AS-IV exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and shows therapeutic potential in a number of ischemic and inflammatory diseases; however, its pharmaceutical activities in GO remain undefined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effects of AS-IV on interleukin (IL)-1β-induced orbital fibroblast inflammation in vitro and GO orbital inflammation and ocular histopathological changes in vivo, as well as the underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects...
November 10, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125119/research-progress-of-the-differentiation-of-3t3-l1-preadipocytes-into-mature-adipocytes
#12
Xiu Liu, Xi-Nong Liu, Tian-Jia Li, Bao Liu
Along with the increase in the prevalence of lipid metabolism disorders,in vitro research on the adipocytes has been a hot topic in recent years. 3T3-L1 preadipocyte line is one of the most commonly used cell line for establishing adipocytes models. However,for 3T3-L1 cell lines,the traditional method,known also as the "Cocktail" method,have disadvantages including low transformation rate and heterogeneous conversion. Therefore,many studies aimed to improving the induction method by changing the time of inducers or adding other new drugs have been performed(known as the improved method)...
October 30, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122399/-sleep-apneas-metabolic-syndrome-and-cardiovascular-risk-data-from-the-pays-de-la-loire-sleep-cohort
#13
REVIEW
F Gagnadoux, P Priou, T Urban, N Meslier, W Trzepizur
Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a prevalent disease characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete obstruction of upper airway during sleep. Untreated moderate to severe OSAHS is recognized as a cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. Data from the Pays de la Loire sleep cohort and other clinic- or population-based cohorts demonstrate a strong association between OSAHS and the different components of the metabolic syndrome including systemic hypertension, diabetes and impaired lipid metabolism...
November 6, 2017: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121974/a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-minocycline-and-or-omega-3-fatty-acids-added-to-treatment-as-usual-for-at-risk-mental-states-nayab-study-protocol
#14
Inti Qurashi, Imran B Chaudhry, Ameer B Khoso, Sana Farooque, Steve Lane, Mohammad Omair Husain, Simon Chu, Jane Sarginson, Munir Hamarani, Haider A Naqvi, Bushra Razzaque, Fareed A Minhas, Alison R Yung, J F W Deakin, Nusrat Husain
BACKGROUND: The at-risk mental state (ARMS) describes individuals at high risk of developing schizophrenia or psychosis. The use of antipsychotics in this population is not supported, because most individuals with ARMS are unlikely to develop psychosis. Anti-inflammatory treatments and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may have some beneficial effects in the treatment of ARMS. There have been no controlled clinical trials in which researchers have investigated the use of minocycline for ARMS and no trials involving PUFAs in combination with other proposed treatments...
November 9, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117909/a-history-of-obstetric-complications-is-associated-with-the-risk-of-progression-from-an-at-risk-mental-state-to-psychosis
#15
Magdalena Kotlicka-Antczak, Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Tomasz Pawełczyk, Dominik Strzelecki, Natalia Żurner, Michał Seweryn Karbownik
OBJECTIVE: Clinical criteria for diagnosing Clinical High Risk for psychosis are now available. However, an understanding of the factors modulating the risk of subsequent development of frank psychosis in "at risk" individuals remains elusive. The aim of the study was to identify associations between obstetric history and the development of psychotic disorders in individuals with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS). METHODS: Obstetric data was obtained from the medical records of 82 individuals meeting ARMS criteria...
November 5, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117869/frequency-of-use-of-the-international-classification-of-diseases-icd-10-diagnostic-categories-for-mental-and-behavioural-disorders-across-world-regions
#16
Y Faiad, B Khoury, S Daouk, M Maj, J Keeley, O Gureje, G Reed
AIMS: The study aimed to examine variations in the use of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10) diagnostic categories for mental and behavioural disorders across countries, regions and income levels using data from the online World Psychiatric Association (WPA)-World Health Organization (WHO) Global Survey that examined the attitudes of psychiatrists towards the classification of mental disorders. METHODS: A survey was sent to 46 psychiatric societies which are members of WPA...
November 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116600/recent-progress-in-the-pharmacotherapy-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Rita Khoury, Kush Patel, Jake Gold, Stephanie Hinds, George T Grossberg
Alzheimer's disease is the most common major neurocognitive disorder with substantial social and economic impacts. This article is an update on current pharmacotherapy, advancements in biomarker use, and drugs in the pipeline for this disease. To date, no new drug has qualified to be added to the current therapeutic arsenal comprising cholinesterase inhibitors and the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine. Drugs in the pipeline include symptomatic therapies that are neurotransmitter-based, but mostly disease-modifying therapies...
November 7, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115388/antinociceptive-effect-of-valeriana-fauriei-regulates-bdnf-signaling-in-an-animal-model-of-fibromyalgia
#18
Hwayoung Lee, Jiyun Im, Hansol Won, Jun Young Kim, Hyung-Ki Kim, Jun-Tack Kwon, Young Ock Kim, Sanghyun Lee, Ik-Hyun Cho, Sang Won Lee, Hak-Jae Kim
The genus Valeriana has been widely used in popular medicine for centuries, to treat sleep disorders, anxiety, epilepsy and insomnia. Recent studies have focused on the novel pharmacological effects of Valeriana fauriei Briq. (VF) species. Previous studies have attempted to determine the pharmacological functions of Valeriana in various human diseases, particularly with regards to its neuroprotective effects, and its ability to reduce pain and stress. The present study constructed an animal model of fibromyalgia (FM), which was induced by intermittent cold stress with slight modification...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114997/in-vitro-modeling-of-hiv-proviral-activity-in-microglia
#19
Lee A Campbell, Christopher T Richie, Yajun Zhang, Emily J Heathward, Lamarque M Coke, Emily Y Park, Brandon K Harvey
Microglia, the resident macrophages of the brain, play a key role in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) due to their productive infection by HIV. This results in the release of neurotoxic viral proteins and pro-inflammatory compounds which negatively affect the functionality of surrounding neurons. Because models of HIV infection within the brain are limited, we aimed to create a novel microglia cell line with an integrated HIV provirus capable of recreating several hallmarks of HIV infection...
November 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110766/cerebrospinal-fluid-in-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#20
Inga Zerr, Saima Zafar, Matthias Schmitz, Franc Llorens
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains a dynamic and complex mixture of proteins, which reflects physiologic or pathologic states of the central nervous system. Changes in CSF proteome have been described in various neurodegenerative disorders. Earliest publications came from the field of prion disease. Two major approaches have been followed aiming to detect the pathologic form of prion protein (PrPSc) in various peripheral tissues on one hand, but also looking for surrogate parameters as a consequence of the underlying neurodegenerative process...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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