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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938790/factors-affecting-adipose-tissue-development-in-chickens-a-review
#1
Guoqing Wang, Woo Kyun Kim, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936911/postoperative-transient-blindness-after-general-anesthesia-and-surgery-case-report-of-conversion-disorder
#2
Semih Gungor, Rohit Aiyer
Postoperative acute visual loss due to organic pathology has been described after spinal surgery in the prone position. This report describes a case of transient postoperative blindness in a patient after general anesthesia and surgery in the prone position. Postoperative workup did not reveal any organic pathology. Unbeknown to the treating physicians, the patient had a comorbid untreated psychiatric history. Upon psychiatric consultation, the patient was diagnosed with conversion disorder as a cause of postoperative blindness...
September 22, 2017: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935930/characterization-of-soft-amyloid-cores-in-human-prion-like-proteins
#3
Cristina Batlle, Natalia Sanchez de Groot, Valentin Iglesias, Susanna Navarro, Salvador Ventura
Prion-like behaviour is attracting much attention due to the growing evidences that amyloid-like self-assembly may reach beyond neurodegeneration and be a conserved functional mechanism. The best characterized functional prions correspond to a subset of yeast proteins involved in translation or transcription. Their conformational promiscuity is encoded in Prion Forming Domains (PFDs), usually long and intrinsically disordered protein segments of low complexity. The compositional bias of these regions seems to be important for the transition between soluble and amyloid-like states...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935167/impact-of-lifetime-traumatic-experiences-on-suicidality-and-likelihood-of-conversion-in-a-cohort-of-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#4
Margaux M Grivel, Wei Leong, Michael D Masucci, Rebecca A Altschuler, Leigh Y Arndt, Samantha L Redman, Lawrence H Yang, Gary Brucato, Ragy R Girgis
Recent research suggests that trauma history (TH) is a strong socio-environmental risk factor for the development of psychosis. While reported rates of childhood trauma are higher among individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis than in the general population, little research has explored the effects of trauma upon the severity of attenuated positive symptoms. We aimed to explore the specific relationships between TH and baseline symptom severity; likelihood of conversion to full-blown psychosis; suicidal ideation (SI); and suicidal behavior (SB) in a cohort of 200 help-seeking CHR individuals...
September 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934303/characterization-of-the-cpap-treated-patient-population-in-catalonia
#5
Cecilia Turino, Sandra Bertran, Ricard Gavaldá, Ivan Teixidó, Holger Woehrle, Montserrat Rué, Francesc Solsona, Joan Escarrabill, Cristina Colls, Anna García-Altés, Jordi de Batlle, Manuel Sánchez de-la-Torre, Ferran Barbé
There are different phenotypes of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), many of which have not been characterised. Identification of these different phenotypes is important in defining prognosis and guiding the therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to characterise the entire population of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-treated patients in Catalonia and identify specific patient profiles using cluster analysis. A total of 72,217 CPAP-treated patients who contacted the Catalan Health System (CatSalut) during the years 2012 and 2013 were included...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928987/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-depression-and-physical-activity-making-the-neuroplastic-connection
#6
REVIEW
Cristy Phillips
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that is vital to the survival, growth, and maintenance of neurons in key brain circuits involved in emotional and cognitive function. Convergent evidence indicates that neuroplastic mechanisms involving BDNF are deleteriously altered in major depressive disorder (MDD) and animal models of stress. Herein, clinical and preclinical evidence provided that stress-induced depressive pathology contributes to altered BDNF level and function in persons with MDD and, thereby, disruptions in neuroplasticity at the regional and circuit level...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927883/retinol-saturase-modulates-lipid-metabolism-and-the-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#7
Xiao-Yan Pang, Suya Wang, Michael J Jurczak, Gerald I Shulman, Alexander R Moise
Retinol saturase (RetSat) catalyzes the saturation of double bonds of all-trans-retinol leading to the production of dihydroretinoid metabolites. Beside its role in retinoid metabolism, there is evidence that RetSat modulates the cellular response to oxidative stress and plays critical roles in adipogenesis and the accumulation of lipids. Here, we explore the relationship between RetSat, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress using in vitro and in vivo models with altered expression of RetSat. Our results reveal that RetSat is a potent modulator of the cellular response to oxidative stress and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927333/vulnerability-to-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures-is-linked-to-low-neuropeptide-y-levels
#8
Michael Winterdahl, Alessandro Miani, Moana J H Vercoe, Antonia Ciovica, Lori Uber-Zak, Charlotte Ulrikka Rask, Paul J Zak
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) is a conversion disorder that reflects underlying psychological distress. Female patients with PNES often present with a history of prolonged stressors, especially sexual abuse. In the current study, we studied the relationship between neuropeptide Y (NPY) and PNES symptoms in women with a history of sexual abuse. NPY has been associated with resilience to stress and we hypothesized that low levels would increase the extent and severity of PNES symptoms in this patient population...
September 19, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921527/bumping-heart-and-sweaty-palms-physiological-hyperarousal-as-a-risk-factor-for-child-social-anxiety
#9
Milica Nikolić, Evin Aktar, Susan Bögels, Cristina Colonnesi, Wieke de Vente
BACKGROUND: Physiological hyperarousal in social situations is a characteristic of individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD), but so far it has been rarely studied as a biological risk for SAD. Here, we investigate whether children at high risk for SAD (because of their parents' SAD) display physiological hyperarousal while interacting with a stranger. Also, we examine whether early physiological hyperarousal is related to later child social anxiety. METHOD: One hundred and seventeen children took part in the stranger-approach task when they were 2...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921009/radiation-overexposure-from-repeated-ct-scans-in-young-adults-with-acute-abdominal-pain
#10
Massimo Tonolini, Elena Valconi, Angelo Vanzulli, Roberto Bianco
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the dose of ionizing radiation caused by repeated CT scans performed to investigate non-traumatic acute abdominal conditions in young adults. METHODS: Over 26 months, we collected a cohort of patients aged 18 to 45 years who were subject to at least one urgent contrast-enhanced abdomen/pelvis CT. Patients affected with urolithiasis, HIV infection, tumors, and vascular and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases were excluded...
September 18, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920491/consumer-satisfaction-with-antipsychotic-medication-monitoring-appointments-the-role-of-consumer-prescriber-communication-patterns
#11
Catherine M Reich, Samantha M Hack, Elizabeth A Klingaman, Clayton H Brown, Li Juan Fang, Lisa B Dixon, Danielle R Jahn, Julie A Kreyenbuhl
OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to explore patterns of prescriber communication behaviors as they relate to consumer satisfaction among a serious mental illness sample. METHODS: Recordings from 175 antipsychotic medication-monitoring appointments between veterans with psychiatric disorders and their prescribers were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) for communication behavioral patterns. RESULTS: The frequency of prescriber communication behaviors (i...
September 17, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917772/disordered-photonics-coupled-with-embedded-nano-au-plasmonics-inducing-efficient-photocurrent-enhancement
#12
Jing Li, Junling Wang, Zhihui Dai, Hongbo Li
Spatial order used to be considered as a benefit for photonics; but recently the study of disorder has broken into people's horizons for its strong random scattering of light. In this work, disordered photonics coupled with plasmonics for efficiently enhanced photocurrent was first investigated using Au-ZnO nanowire array as a model. The embedded Au-ZnO nanowire array was facilely prepared using a template-free electrodeposition method. On the optimal plasmonic substrate, the photocurrent of disorder-enhanced Au-ZnO nanowire array is about 20-fold that of ZnO nanowire array...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917376/ayurvedic-versus-conventional-dietary-and-lifestyle-counseling-for-mothers-with-burnout-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study-including-a-qualitative-evaluation
#13
Christian S Kessler, Clemens Eisenmann, Frank Oberzaucher, Martin Forster, Nico Steckhan, Larissa Meier, Elmar Stapelfeldt, Andreas Michalsen, Michael Jeitler
OBJECTIVES: Ayurveda claims to be effective in the treatment of psychosomatic disorders by means of lifestyle and nutritional counseling. DESIGN: In a randomized controlled study mothers with burnout were randomized into two groups: Ayurvedic nutritional counseling (according to tradition), and conventional nutritional counseling (following the recommendations of a family doctor). Patients received five counseling sessions over twelve weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes included levels of burnout, quality of life, sleep, stress, depression/anxiety, and spirituality at three and six months...
October 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917196/possible-predictors-of-age-at-illness-onset-and-illness-duration-in-a-cohort-study-comparing-younger-adults-and-older-major-affective-patients
#14
Gianluca Serafini, Xenia Gonda, Fiammetta Monacelli, Matteo Pardini, Maurizio Pompili, Zoltan Rihmer, Mario Amore
BACKGROUND: Major affective conditions are associated with significant disability and psychosocial impairment. Whether specific socio-demographic and clinical characteristics may distinguish subgroups of patients in terms of prognosis and illness trajectories is a matter of debate. METHODS: The sample of this naturalistic cohort study included 675 currently euthymic patients with major affective disorders of which 428 (63.4%) were diagnosed with unipolar and 247 (36...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915764/sequence-dependent-aggregation-of-peptides-and-fibril-formation
#15
Nguyen Ba Hung, Duy-Manh Le, Trinh X Hoang
Deciphering the links between amino acid sequence and amyloid fibril formation is key for understanding protein misfolding diseases. Here we use Monte Carlo simulations to study the aggregation of short peptides in a coarse-grained model with hydrophobic-polar (HP) amino acid sequences and correlated side chain orientations for hydrophobic contacts. A significant heterogeneity is observed in the aggregate structures and in the thermodynamics of aggregation for systems of different HP sequences and different numbers of peptides...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915001/design-of-donor-polymers-with-strong-temperature-dependent-aggregation-property-for-efficient-organic-photovoltaics
#16
Huawei Hu, Philip C Y Chow, Guangye Zhang, Tingxuan Ma, Jing Liu, Guofang Yang, He Yan
Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) have attracted intensive research attention over the past two decades owing to their unique advantages including mechanical flexibility, light weight, large area, and low-cost fabrications. To date, OSC devices have achieved power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) exceeding 12%. Much of the progress was enabled by the development of high-performance donor polymers with favorable morphological, electronic, and optical properties. A key problem in morphology control of OSCs is the trade-off between achieving small domain size and high polymer crystallinity, which is especially important for the realization of efficient thick-film devices with high fill factors...
September 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914403/self-transformation-at-the-boundary-of-religious-conversion-and-psychosis
#17
Szabolcs Kéri
The relationship between religious conversion, as a form of spiritual emergency, and psychosis is one of the fundamental issues at the meeting point of theology and clinical psychology. In the present study, we assessed 53 individuals referred to a psychiatry center with the initial diagnosis of a psychotic episode by focusing on the clinical diagnosis (psychosis vs. spiritual emergency), subjective experiences (basic symptoms), and neuropsychological functions. Twenty-nine individuals meet the diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, but 24 persons experienced only religious and spiritual problems (religious conversion)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914382/clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Jordina Tor, Montserrat Dolz, Anna Sintes, Daniel Muñoz, Marta Pardo, Elena de la Serna, Olga Puig, Gisela Sugranyes, Inmaculada Baeza
The concept of being at risk for psychosis has been introduced both for adults and children and adolescents, but fewer studies have been conducted in the latter population. The aim of this study is to systematically review the articles associated with clinical description, interventions, outcome and other areas in children and adolescents at risk for psychosis. We searched in MEDLINE/PubMed and PsycINFO databases for articles published up to 30/06/16. Reviewed articles were prospective studies; written in English; original articles with Clinical High Risk (CHR) for psychosis samples; and mean age of samples younger than 18 years...
September 15, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911972/sex-specific-effects-of-developmental-lead-exposure-on-the-immune-neuroendocrine-network
#19
REVIEW
Jane Kasten-Jolly, David A Lawrence
The environmental toxicant lead (Pb) has long been known to induce neurological deficits. The 1st century Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides noted that "lead makes the mind give way". Current studies are suggesting the effects of Pb on behaviors may involve the immune system and conversely some immunomodulatory changes may be due to Pb effects in the central nervous system. Although Pb-induced disorders do not appear to discriminate among females and males, this report discusses the differences observed in human and animal studies regarding differential gender effects on gene expression after Pb exposure...
September 11, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911819/non-neurogenic-language-disorders-a-preliminary-classification
#20
REVIEW
Mario F Mendez
BACKGROUND: Few publications deal with non-neurogenic language disorders (NNLDs), distinct from psychogenic speech disorders such as psychogenic dysphonia or stuttering. NNLDs are alterations in language owing to psychosomatic preoccupations, conversion disorder, psychiatric disorders, or other psychological reasons. OBJECTIVE: To identify and classify the range of NNLDs and their characteristics. METHODS: This review summarizes the literature on disturbances in language, broadly defined as the use of symbols for communication, which may have a psychogenic or psychiatric etiology...
August 10, 2017: Psychosomatics
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