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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634175/interrelations-between-3-hydroxypropionate-and-propionate-metabolism-in-rat-liver-relevance-to-disorders-of-propionyl-coa-metabolism
#1
Kirkland A Wilson, Yong Han, Miaoqi Zhang, Jeremy Hess, Kimberly A Chapman, Gary W Cline, Gregory P Tochtrop, Henri Brunengraber, Guo-Fang Zhang
Propionate, 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP), methylcitrate, related compounds and ammonium accumulate in body fluids of patients with disorders of propionyl-CoA metabolism, such as propionic acidemia. Although liver transplantation alleviates hyperammonemia, high concentrations of propionate, 3HP and methylcitrate persist in body fluids. We hypothesized that conserved metabolic perturbations occurring in transplanted patients result from the simultaneous presence of propionate and 3HP in body fluids. We investigated the interrelations of propionate and 3HP metabolism in perfused livers from normal rats using metabolomic and stable isotopic technologies...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633952/chronic-methylphenidate-regulates-genes-and-proteins-mediating-neuroplasticity-in-the-juvenile-rat-brain
#2
Emmanuel Quansah, Tiziana Sgamma, Estabraq Jaddoa, Tyra S C Zetterström
Methylphenidate (MPH) is the front-line psychostimulant medication prescribed for alleviating the symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic MPH (2.0mg/kg, twice daily for 15 days) exposure to young rats (20-25days old at start of treatment) on the expression of genes and proteins associated with neuroplasticity, such as activity regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), insulin receptor substrate protein 53 (IRSp53), cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42), and actin-related protein 2 (Arp2)...
June 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629478/genetic-epigenetic-interactions-in-cis-a-major-focus-in-the-post-gwas-era
#3
REVIEW
Catherine Do, Alyssa Shearer, Masako Suzuki, Mary Beth Terry, Joel Gelernter, John M Greally, Benjamin Tycko
Studies on genetic-epigenetic interactions, including the mapping of methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs) and haplotype-dependent allele-specific DNA methylation (hap-ASM), have become a major focus in the post-genome-wide-association-study (GWAS) era. Such maps can nominate regulatory sequence variants that underlie GWAS signals for common diseases, ranging from neuropsychiatric disorders to cancers. Conversely, mQTLs need to be filtered out when searching for non-genetic effects in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS)...
June 19, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629387/an-updated-assessment-of-microglia-depletion-current-concepts-and-future-directions
#4
REVIEW
Jinming Han, Robert A Harris, Xing-Mei Zhang
Microglia are the principal resident immune cells in the central nervous system and are believed to be versatile players in both inflammatory and physiological contexts. On the one hand, in order to safeguard the microenvironment microglia can be rapidly activated by contact with microbial products or cell debris, thereby exerting the functions of innate immunity via phagocytosis and secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Conversely, microglia can also assist in brain development, synaptic plasticity and neural repair through the production of neurotrophic factors and clearance of myelin debris...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628846/substance-p-and-the-neurokinin-1-receptor-expression-in-dog-ileum-with-and-without-inflammation
#5
Giulia Polidoro, Fiorella Giancola, Federico Fracassi, Marco Pietra, Giuliano Bettini, Martina Asti, Roberto Chiocchetti
In the gastrointestinal tract, the tachykinin Substance P (SP) is involved in motility, fluid and electrolyte secretion, and blood flow and regulation of immunoinflammatory response. SP exerts its biological activity on target cells by interacting mainly with the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R). The present study aims to quantify the percentage of SP-immunoreactive (SP-IR) enteric neurons and the density of SP-IR nerve fibers in the ileum of control dogs (CTRL-dogs; n=7) vs dogs with spontaneous ileal inflammation (INF-dogs; n=8)...
June 12, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623975/mitochondrial-dna-content-and-methylation-in-fetal-cord-blood-of-pregnancies-with-placental-insufficiency
#6
Chiara Novielli, Chiara Mandò, Silvia Tabano, Gaia M Anelli, Laura Fontana, Patrizio Antonazzo, Monica Miozzo, Irene Cetin
INTRODUCTION: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preeclampsia (PE) are pregnancy disorders characterized by placental insufficiency with oxygen/nutrient restriction and oxidative stress, all influencing mitochondria functionality and number. Moreover, IUGR and PE fetuses are predisposed to diseases later in life, and this might occur through epigenetic alterations. Here we analyze content and methylation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), for the first time in IUGR and PE singleton fetuses, to identify possible alterations in mtDNA levels and/or epigenetic control of mitochondrial loci relevant to replication (D-loop) and functionality (mt-TF/RNR1: protein synthesis, mt-CO1: respiratory chain complex)...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622099/energy-drinks-and-alcohol-related-risk-among-young-adults
#7
Celeste M Caviness, Bradley J Anderson, Michael D Stein
BACKGROUND: Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. METHODS: We interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol use in the last month. Past 30 day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours")...
June 16, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620464/recent-insights-on-principles-of-synaptic-protein-degradation
#8
REVIEW
Laurie D Cohen, Noam E Ziv
Maintaining synaptic integrity and function depends on the continuous removal and degradation of aged or damaged proteins. Synaptic protein degradation has received considerable attention in the context of synaptic plasticity and growing interest in relation to neurodegenerative and other disorders. Conversely, less attention has been given to constitutive, ongoing synaptic protein degradation and the roles canonical degradation pathways play in these processes. Here we briefly review recent progress on this topic and new experimental approaches which have expedited such progress and highlight several emerging principles...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620355/role-of-the-vasopressin-apelin-balance-and-potential-use-of-metabolically-stable-apelin-analogs-in-water-metabolism-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Adrien Flahault, Pierre Couvineau, Rodrigo Alvear-Perez, Xavier Iturrioz, Catherine Llorens-Cortes
Apelin, a (neuro)vasoactive peptide, plays a prominent role in controlling body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular functions. In animal models, experimental data demonstrate that intracerebroventricular injection of apelin into lactating rats inhibits the phasic electrical activity of arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons, reduces plasma AVP levels, and increases aqueous diuresis. In the kidney, apelin increases diuresis by increasing the renal microcirculation and by counteracting the antidiuretic effect of AVP at the tubular level...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615544/evidence-of-associations-between-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-serum-levels-and-gene-polymorphisms-with-tinnitus
#10
Aysun Coskunoglu, Seda Orenay-Boyacioglu, Artuner Deveci, Mustafa Bayam, Ece Onur, Arzu Onan, Fethi S Cam
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene polymorphisms are associated with abnormalities in regulation of BDNF secretion. Studies also linked BDNF polymorphisms with changes in brainstem auditory-evoked response test results. Furthermore, BDNF levels are reduced in tinnitus, psychiatric disorders, depression, dysthymic disorder that may be associated with stress, conversion disorder, and suicide attempts due to crises of life. For this purpose, we investigated whether there is any role of BDNF changes in the pathophysiology of tinnitus...
May 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613090/personality-disorders-in-primary-care-impact-on-depression-outcomes-within-collaborative-care
#11
Kurt B Angstman, Ashok Seshadri, Alberto Marcelin, Cesar A Gonzalez, Gregory M Garrison, Jay-Sheree Allen
BACKGROUND: Individuals with personality disorders (PDs) are high utilizers of primary care and mental health services; however, they struggle to utilize the care effectively and studies have shown a strong association between having a PD and higher impairment in social role functioning. This is especially important because PDs are highly comorbid with a wide range of other mental health disorders. The collaborative care model (CCM) for depression was developed with an emphasis on patient engagement and aimed to reduce health care utilization, while improving treatment outcomes in primary care...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Primary Care & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612424/sleep-disordered-breathing-and-cognitive-functioning-in-preschool-children-with-and-without-down-syndrome
#12
A Joyce, D Dimitriou
BACKGROUND: Sleep affects children's cognitive development, preparedness for school and future academic outcomes. People with Down syndrome (DS) are particularly at risk for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). To our knowledge, the association between SDB and cognition in preschoolers with DS is unknown. METHODS: We assessed sleep by using cardiorespiratory polygraphy in 22 typically developing (TD) preschoolers and 22 with DS. Cognition was assessed by using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and behaviour by using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608560/endocannabinoid-system-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Balapal S Basavarajappa, Madhu Shivakumar, Vikram Joshi, Shivakumar Subbanna
Most neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs) are characterized by cognitive impairment and other neurological defects. The definite cause of and pathways underlying the progression of these NDDs are not well defined. Several mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the development of NDDs. These mechanisms may proceed concurrently or successively, and they differ among cell types at different developmental stages in distinct brain regions. The endocannabinoid system, which involves cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1R) and type 2 (CB2R), endogenous cannabinoids and the enzymes that catabolize these compounds, has been shown to contribute to the development of NDDs in several animal models and human studies...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606495/personality-traits-in-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-pnes-and-psychogenic-movement-disorder-pmd-neuroticism-and-perfectionism
#14
Vindhya Ekanayake, Sarah Kranick, Kathrin LaFaver, Arshi Naz, Anne Frank Webb, W Curt LaFrance, Mark Hallett, Valerie Voon
OBJECTIVE: Psychogenic movement disorder (PMD) and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are two subtypes of conversion disorder (CD). In this case-control study, we asked whether these subtypes varied as a function of personality and history of childhood abuse. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with PMD from the Human Motor Control Section Clinic at the National Institutes of Health, 43 patients with PNES from the Rhode Island Hospital Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Neurology Division, and 26 healthy volunteers (HC) received a battery of neurological, psychiatric and psychological assessments, including the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO PI-R), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ)...
June 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606234/-efficacy-and-safety-of-cyclophosphamide-as-a-sequential-immunotherapy-drug-for-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-in-children
#15
Wei-Wen Zhu, Wei-Ping Liao, Yong-Hong Yi, Xing-Wang Song
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of cyclophosphamide as a second-line drug in the treatment of children with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. METHODS: Six children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, who showed poor response to steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin, were given cyclophosphamide as a second-line immunotherapy. Follow-up was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cyclophosphamide. RESULTS: After first-line immunotherapy for 1-4 weeks, the six patients had reduced psychiatric symptoms, seizures, and involuntary movements; three patients had an improved level of consciousness and were able to make simple conversations...
June 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605056/mild-cognitive-impairment-as-a-risk-factor-for-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#16
Jeroen Hoogland, Judith A Boel, Rob M A de Bie, Ronald B Geskus, Ben A Schmand, John C Dalrymple-Alford, Connie Marras, Charles H Adler, Jennifer G Goldman, Alexander I Tröster, David J Burn, Irene Litvan, Gert J Geurtsen
BACKGROUND: The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society criteria for mild cognitive impairment in PD were recently formulated. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this international study was to evaluate the predictive validity of the comprehensive (level II) version of these criteria by assessment of their contribution to the hazard of PD dementia. METHODS: Individual patient data were selected from four separate studies on cognition in PD that provided information on demographics, motor examination, depression, neuropsychological examination suitable for application of level II criteria, and longitudinal follow-up for conversion to dementia...
June 12, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604905/nature-of-peptide-wrapping-onto-metal-nanoparticle-catalysts-and-driving-forces-for-size-control
#17
Hadi Ramezani-Dakhel, Nicholas M Bedford, Taylor J Woehl, Marc R Knecht, Rajesh R Naik, Hendrik Heinz
Colloidal metal nanocrystals find many applications in catalysis, energy conversion devices, and therapeutics. However, the nature of ligand interactions and implications on shape control have remained uncertain at the atomic scale. Large differences in peptide adsorption strength and facet specificity were found on flat palladium surfaces versus surfaces of nanoparticles of 2 to 3 nm size using accurate atomistic simulations with the Interface force field. Folding of longer peptides across many facets explains the formation of near-spherical particles with local surface disorder, in contrast to the possibility of nanostructures of higher symmetry with shorter ligands...
June 12, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603719/prospective-study-of-quality-of-life-after-lung-cancer-resection
#18
Kathleen G Hopkins, Peter F Ferson, Manisha R Shende, Neil A Christie, Matthew J Schuchert, Arjun Pennathur
BACKGROUND: Surgical resection with curative-intent remains the gold standard for clinically operable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This goal can be accomplished using a minimally invasive option, e.g., video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) or standard thoracotomy. Surgical techniques continue to evolve and few studies have compared the QOL of patients managed with these procedures using current approaches. The primary goal of this study was to investigate differences between patients managed surgically via VATS compared to thoracotomy with respect to ratings of chronic pain, anxiety/depression and quality of life (QOL)...
May 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601731/methamphetamine-alcohol-interactions-in-murine-models-of-sequential-and-simultaneous-oral-drug-taking
#19
Elissa K Fultz, Douglas L Martin, Courtney N Hudson, Tod E Kippin, Karen K Szumlinski
BACKGROUND: A high degree of co-morbidity exists between methamphetamine (MA) addiction and alcohol use disorders and both sequential and simultaneous MA-alcohol mixing increases risk for co-abuse. As little preclinical work has focused on the biobehavioral interactions between MA and alcohol within the context of drug-taking behavior, we employed simple murine models of voluntary oral drug consumption to examine how prior histories of either MA- or alcohol-taking influence the intake of the other drug...
May 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601693/causal-role-for-inverse-reasoning-on-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-preliminary-evidence-from-a-cognitive-bias-modification-for-interpretation-bias-study
#20
Shiu F Wong, Jessica R Grisham
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The inference-based approach (IBA) is a cognitive account of the genesis and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). According to the IBA, individuals with OCD are prone to using inverse reasoning, in which hypothetical causes form the basis of conclusions about reality. Several studies have provided preliminary support for an association between features of the IBA and OCD symptoms. However, there are currently no studies that have investigated the proposed causal relationship of inverse reasoning in OCD...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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