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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331595/the-interaction-between-neurocognitive-functioning-subthreshold-psychotic-symptoms-and-pharmacotherapy-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-longitudinal-comparative-study
#1
R Weinberger, O Weisman, Y Guri, T Harel, A Weizman, D Gothelf
BACKGROUND: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common genetic syndrome associated with schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to evaluate longitudinally the interaction between neurocognitive functioning, the presence of subthreshold psychotic symptoms (SPS) and conversion to psychosis in individuals with 22q11DS. In addition, we attempted to identify the specific neurocognitive domains that predict the longitudinal evolution of positive and negative SPS, as well as the effect of psychiatric medications on 22q11DS psychiatric and cognitive developmental trajectories...
December 8, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331264/altered-levels-of-the-splicing-factor-muscleblind-modifies-cerebral-cortical-function-in-mouse-models-of-myotonic-dystrophy
#2
Gang Chen, Russell E Carter, John D Cleary, Tammy S Reid, Laura P Ranum, Maurice S Swanson, Timothy J Ebner
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a progressive, multisystem disorder affecting skeletal muscle, heart, and central nervous system. In both DM1 and DM2, microsatellite expansions of CUG and CCUG RNA repeats, respectively, accumulate and disrupt functions of alternative splicing factors, including muscleblind (MBNL) proteins. Grey matter loss and white matter changes, including the corpus callosum, likely underlie cognitive and executive function deficits in DM patients. However, little is known how cerebral cortical circuitry changes in DM...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327600/population-based-serum-omentin-1-levels-paradoxical-association-with-cardiometabolic-disorders-primarily-in-men
#3
Altan Onat, Evin Ademoglu, Yusuf Karadeniz, Gunay Can, Ahmet Okan Uzun, Barıs Simsek, Aysem Kaya
AIM: The conflicting relationships of serum omentin with inflammation markers and cardiometabolic disorders were investigated. Results & methodology: Unselected 864 population-based middle-aged adults were cross-sectionally studied by sex-specific omentin tertiles. Men in the lowest omentin tertile (T1) had lower systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and glucose values and tended in T3 to higher lipoprotein(a) levels. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for four covariates, revealed significant independent associations with the presence of hypertension and diabetes only in men...
January 12, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327278/nicotinamide-inhibits-ethanol-induced-caspase-3-and-parp-1-over-activation-and-subsequent-neurodegeneration-in-the-developing-mouse-cerebellum
#4
Alessandro Ieraci, Daniel G Herrera
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the principal preventable cause of mental retardation in the western countries resulting from alcohol exposure during pregnancy. Ethanol-induced massive neuronal cell death occurs mainly in immature neurons during the brain growth spurt period. The cerebellum is one of the brain areas that are most sensitive to ethanol neurotoxicity. Currently, there is no effective treatment that targets the causes of these disorders and efficient treatments to counteract or reverse FASD are desirable...
January 11, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326024/aerodynamic-characteristics-of-syllable-and-sentence-productions-in-normal-speakers
#5
Cedric Thiel, Jin Yang, Brianna Crawley, Priya Krishna, Thomas Murry
BACKGROUND: Aerodynamic measures of subglottic air pressure (Ps) and airflow rate (AFR) are used to select behavioral voice therapy versus surgical treatment for voice disorders. However, these measures are usually taken during a series of syllables, which differs from conversational speech. Repeated syllables do not share the variation found in even simple sentences, and patients may use their best rather than typical voice unless specifically instructed otherwise. This study examined the potential differences in estimated Ps and AFR in syllable and sentence production and their effects on a measure of vocal efficiency in normal speakers...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324451/aromatase-deficiency-due-to-a-homozygous-cyp19a1-mutation-in-a-46-xx-egyptian-patient-with-ambiguous-genitalia
#6
Inas Mazen, Ken McElreavey, Aya Elaidy, Alaa K Kamel, Mohamed S Abdel-Hamid
Aromatase deficiency (AD) is a very rare disorder resulting from mutations in the CYP19A1 gene encoding aromatase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays a pivotal role in androgen conversion to estrogens. AD is inherited in an autosomal recessive trait, and to date only 35 cases have been described in the literature. Herein, we depict a new patient reared as a male, who presented at the age of 21 years with no palpable testis, hypoplastic scrotum, penis-like phallus (3 cm), and penoscrotal hypospadias. The patient was born to consanguineous parents, his karyotype was 46,XX, and SRY was negative...
January 12, 2018: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321393/-n-3-fatty-acids-and-the-maintenance-of-neuronal-functions
#7
Michio Hashimoto
The functions of n-3 fatty acids are known to be diverse, and they play roles in cardiovascular and neuronal systems and in lipid metabolism. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is the most abundant n-3 fatty acid in the brain, is essential for the maintenance of brain functions throughout the human lifespan. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that reduced n-3 fatty acid intake is closely associated with the onset of mental and neurological diseases such as brain developmental disorders, depression, and Alzheimer's disease...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321381/association-between-genetic-polymorphism-and-levothyroxine-bioavailability-in-hypothyroid-patients
#8
Merve Arici, Ezgi Oztas, Fatih Yanar, Nihat Aksakal, Beyza Ozcinar, Gul Ozhan
Thyroid hormones play a vital role in the human body for growth and differentiation, regulation of energy metabolism, and physiological function. Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder, which generally results from diminished normal circulating concentrations of serum thyroxine (fT4) and triiodothyronine (fT3). The primary choice in hypothyroidism treatment is oral administration of levothyroxine (L-T4), a synthetic T4 hormone, as approximately 100-125 μg/day. Generally, dose adjustment is made by trial and error approach...
January 11, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319602/an-interactional-profile-to-assist-the-differential-diagnosis-of-neurodegenerative-and-functional-memory-disorders
#9
Markus Reuber, Daniel J Blackburn, Chris Elsey, Sarah Wakefield, Kerry A Ardern, Kirsty Harkness, Annalena Venneri, Danielle Jones, Chloe Shaw, Paul Drew
OBJECTIVE: Specialist services for dementia are seeing an increasing number of patients. We investigated whether interactional and linguistic features in the communication behavior of patients with memory problems could help distinguish between those with problems secondary to neurological disorders (ND) and those with functional memory disorder (FMD). METHODS: In part 1 of this study, a diagnostic scoring aid (DSA) was developed encouraging linguists to provide quantitative ratings for 14 interactional features...
January 9, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318957/research-brief-self-reports-of-a-constellation-of-persistent-antiandrogenic-estrogenic-physical-and-psychological-effects-of-finasteride-usage-among-men
#10
Alicia A Walf, Shan Kaurejo, Cheryl A Frye
Our research objective is to understand more, through subjective, self-reports on discussion boards/forums, persons' experiences associated with the use of drugs that alter androgen metabolism, such as finasteride. Finasteride is an orally active, specific inhibitor of 5α-reductase, which is localized to many androgen-dependent tissues. Finasteride inhibits the conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and is commonly used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and male pattern baldness (MPB), both disorders associated with elevated DHT levels and 5α-reductase activity in the prostate and hair follicles, respectively...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318665/ternary-system-with-controlled-structure-a-new-strategy-toward-efficient-organic-photovoltaics
#11
Pei Cheng, Rui Wang, Jingshuai Zhu, Wenchao Huang, Sheng-Yung Chang, Lei Meng, Pengyu Sun, Hao-Wen Cheng, Meng Qin, Chenhui Zhu, Xiaowei Zhan, Yang Yang
Recently, a new type of active layer with a ternary system has been developed to further enhance the performance of binary system organic photovoltaics (OPV). In the ternary OPV, almost all active layers are formed by simple ternary blend in solution, which eventually leads to the disordered bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure after a spin-coating process. There are two main restrictions in this disordered BHJ structure to obtain higher performance OPV. One is the isolated second donor or acceptor domains. The other is the invalid metal-semiconductor contact...
January 10, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316009/excess-incidence-and-risk-factors-for-recurrent-pneumonia-in-bipolar-disorder
#12
Min-Shan Li, Galen Chin-Lun Hung, Shu-Yu Yang, Chun-Hung Pan, Ya-Tang Liao, Shang-Ying Tsai, Chiao-Chicy Chen, Chian-Jue Kuo
AIM: Patients with bipolar disorder had poorer outcomes after pneumonia and could have a higher risk for recurrence of pneumonia. We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of recurrent pneumonia in patients with bipolar disorder. METHODS: In a nationwide cohort of bipolar patients (derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan) who were hospitalized for pneumonia between 1996 and 2012, we identified 188 patients who developed recurrent pneumonia after a baseline pneumonia episode...
January 8, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310925/th17-lineage-cells-in-pulmonary-sarcoidosis-and-l%C3%A3-fgren-s-syndrome-friend-or-foe
#13
REVIEW
Jelle R Miedema, Ylva Kaiser, Caroline E Broos, Marlies S Wijsenbeek, Johan Grunewald, Mirjam Kool
Sarcoidosis, a multisystem granulomatous disorder, has historically been classified as Th1-driven disease. However, increasing data demonstrate a key role of Th17-cell plasticity in granuloma formation and maintenance. In Löfgren's syndrome (LS), an acute and distinct phenotype of sarcoidosis with a favorable outcome, differences in Th17-lineage cell subsets, cytokine expression and T-cell suppressive mechanisms may account for differences in clinical presentation as well as prognosis compared to non-LS sarcoidosis...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310912/monocyte-activation-detected-prior-to-a-diagnosis-of-schizophrenia-in-the-us-military-new-onset-psychosis-project-mnopp
#14
Natalya S Weber, Kristin L Gressitt, David N Cowan, David W Niebuhr, Robert H Yolken, Emily G Severance
Low-grade inflammation is present in some cases of schizophrenia, particularly in the early stages of this disorder. The inflammation source is not known but may be the result of dysbiotic processes occurring in the gut. We examined peripheral biomarkers of bacterial translocation, soluble CD14 (sCD14) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and of general inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), in a unique, pre-onset study of schizophrenia. This sample was composed of 80 case-control matched pairs of US military service members from whom blood samples were obtained at time of entry to service, before a psychiatric diagnosis was made...
January 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310066/is-recurrence-in-major-depressive-disorder-related-to-bipolarity-and-mixed-features-results-from-the-bridge-ii-mix-study
#15
Lorenzo Mazzarini, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Daria Piacentino, Salvatore Rizzato, Jules Angst, Jean-Michel Azorin, Charles L Bowden, Sergey Mosolov, Allan H Young, Eduard Vieta, Paolo Girardi, Giulio Perugi
BACKGROUND: Current classifications separate Bipolar (BD) from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) based on polarity rather than recurrence. We aimed to determine bipolar/mixed feature frequency in a large MDD multinational sample with (High-Rec) and without (Low-Rec) >3 recurrences, comparing the two subsamples. METHODS: We measured frequency of bipolarity/hypomanic features during current depressive episodes (MDEs) in 2347 MDD patients from the BRIDGE-II-mix database, comparing High-Rec with Low-Rec...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309751/activation-of-npy-y2-receptors-ameliorates-disease-pathology-in-the-r6-2-mouse-and-pc12-cell-models-of-huntington-s-disease
#16
Oluwaseun Fatoba, Eugen Kloster, Christiane Reick, Carsten Saft, Ralf Gold, Jörg T Epplen, Larissa Arning, Gisa Ellrichmann
Huntington's disease (HD) is a monogenic inherited polyglutamine-mediated neurodegenerative disorder for which effective therapies are currently unavailable. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been implicated as a potential therapeutic target in several neurodegenerative diseases, including HD. However, its mechanisms of action in the context of HD pathology remain unknown. Here, we investigated the beneficial effects of Y2 receptor (Y2R) activation with NPY or Y2R selective agonist NPY13-36 in the R6/2 mouse and PC12 cell models of HD...
January 5, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307036/acceptance-or-despair-maternal-adjustment-to-having-a-child-diagnosed-with-autism
#17
Nikko S Da Paz, Bryna Siegel, Michael A Coccia, Elissa S Epel
Psychological adjustment to having one's child diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder has important implications for a parent's mental health. In a longitudinal study, we examined the association between maternal adjustment to the diagnosis and measures of distress and well-being in 90 mothers of children with autism (baseline and 18 months). We used a novel 30-item scale "Adjustment to the Diagnosis of Autism." Factor analysis identified three dimensions of adjustment: acceptance, self-blame, and despair...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305919/pathological-role-of-lipid-interaction-with-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Mari Suzuki, Kazunori Sango, Keiji Wada, Yoshitaka Nagai
Alpha-synuclein (αSyn) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In sporadic PD and DLB, normally harmless αSyn proteins without any mutations might gain toxic functions by unknown mechanisms. Thus, it is important to elucidate the factors promoting the toxic conversion of αSyn, towards understanding the pathogenesis of and developing disease-modifying therapies for PD and DLB. Accumulating biophysical and biochemical studies have demonstrated that αSyn interacts with lipid membrane, and the interaction influences αSyn oligomerization and aggregation...
January 3, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303343/theory-of-the-spin-galvanic-effect-at-oxide-interfaces
#19
Götz Seibold, Sergio Caprara, Marco Grilli, Roberto Raimondi
The spin galvanic effect (SGE) describes the conversion of a nonequilibrium spin polarization into a transverse charge current. Recent experiments have demonstrated a large conversion efficiency for the two-dimensional electron gas formed at the interface between two insulating oxides, LaAlO_{3} and SrTiO_{3}. Here, we analyze the SGE for oxide interfaces within a three-band model for the Ti t_{2g} orbitals which displays an interesting variety of effective spin-orbit couplings in the individual bands that contribute differently to the spin-charge conversion...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301845/elixir-of-life-thwarting-aging-with-regenerative-reprogramming
#20
REVIEW
Ergin Beyret, Paloma Martinez Redondo, Aida Platero Luengo, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte
All living beings undergo systemic physiological decline after ontogeny, characterized as aging. Modern medicine has increased the life expectancy, yet this has created an aged society that has more predisposition to degenerative disorders. Therefore, novel interventions that aim to extend the healthspan in parallel to the life span are needed. Regeneration ability of living beings maintains their biological integrity and thus is the major leverage against aging. However, mammalian regeneration capacity is low and further declines during aging...
January 5, 2018: Circulation Research
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