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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786935/evaluation-of-pcr-primers-targeting-the-groel-gene-for-the-specific-detection-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-in-the-context-of-aquaculture
#1
W J Leigh, R N Zadoks, A Jaglarz, J Z Costa, G Foster, K D Thompson
AIMS: The aim of this study was to design a set of primers for specific detection and identification of Streptococcus agalactiae in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that can detect a diverse range of S. agalactiae isolates from different hosts and that it is capable of discriminating between S. agalactiae and other species that are closely related or potentially present in aquaculture environments, notably Streptococcus iniae. METHODS AND RESULTS: Primers, based on the groEL2 gene of S...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786872/prevalence-of-antibodies-against-borna-disease-virus-proteins-in-japanese-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Tomoyuki Honda, Kozue Sofuku, Hidenori Matsunaga, Masaya Tachibana, Ikuko Mohri, Masako Taniike, Keizo Tomonaga
Bornavirus infection is observed in both animals, including humans. However, bornavirus epidemiology in humans, especially in children, remains unclear. Here, we evaluated antibodies against bornaviruses in Japanese children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using immunofluorescence analysis, western blotting, and radio ligand assay. The prevalence of antibodies against bornavirus-specific speckles, N, and P proteins were 22%, 48%, and 33%, respectively, in the ASD children. According to our criteria, the prevalence of antibodies against bornaviruses was 7...
May 22, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786866/characterization-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-pathogen-inactivated-and-quarantine-plasma-in-routine-use-for-treatment-of-acquired-immune-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura
#3
R Herbrecht, M Ojeda-Uribe, D Kientz, C Fohrer, A Bohbot, O Hinschberger, K-L Liu, E Remy, C Ernst, J-S Lin, L Corash, J P Cazenave
BACKGROUND: Auto-immune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a morbid multi-organ disorder. Cardiac involvement not recognized in initial disease descriptions is a major cause of morbidity. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) requires exposure to multiple plasma donors with risk of transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI). Pathogen inactivation (PI) with amotosalen-UVA, the INTERCEPT Blood System for Plasma (IBSP) is licensed to reduce TTI risk. METHODS: An open-label, retrospective study evaluated the efficacy of quarantine plasma (QP) and IBSP in TTP and defined treatment emergent cardiac abnormalities...
May 21, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786865/infection-with-phytopathogenic-bacterium-inhibits-melatonin-biosynthesis-decreases-longevity-of-its-vector-and-suppresses-the-free-radical-defense
#4
Yasser Nehela, Nabil Killiny
Vector-borne phytopathogenic bacteria may alter the reproductive fitness, survival, behavior, and metabolism of their vectors. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is associated with the Huanglongbing (HLB; also known as citrus greening disease), one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide, and transmitted by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Insecta, Hemiptera, Liviidae). The genome sequencing of CLas revealed that it does not have the ability to synthesize tryptophan, the precursor of melatonin, and it must acquire it from its host plant or insect vector to achieve its biological processes, such as growth and multiplication...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786769/do-fatal-infectious-diseases-eradicate-host-species
#5
Alex P Farrell, James P Collins, Amy L Greer, Horst R Thieme
In simple SI epidemic and endemic models, three classes of incidence functions are identified for their potential to be associated with host extinction: weakly upper density-dependent incidences are never associated with host extinction. Power incidences that depend on the number of susceptibles and infectives by powers strictly between 0 and 1 are associated with initial-constellation-dependent host extinction for all parameter values. Homogeneous incidences, of which frequency-dependent incidence is a very particular case, and power incidences are associated with global host extinction for certain parameter constellations and with host survival for others...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786766/bacterial-dna-detected-on-pathologically-changed-heart-valves-using-16s-rrna-gene-amplification
#6
Miroslava Chalupova, Anna Skalova, Tomas Hajek, Lenka Geigerova, Dana Kralova, Pavel Liska, Hana Hecova, Jiri Molacek, Jaroslav Hrabak
Nowadays, dental diseases are one of the most common illnesses in the world. Some of them can lead to translocation of oral bacteria to the bloodstream causing intermittent bacteraemia. Therefore, a potential association between oral infection and cardiovascular diseases has been discussed in recent years as a result of adhesion of oral microbes to the heart valves. The aim of this study was to detect oral bacteria on pathologically changed heart valves not caused by infective endocarditis. In the study, patients with pathologically changed heart valves were involved...
May 22, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786671/mechanisms-of-action-and-cell-death-associated-with-clostridium-perfringens-toxins
#7
REVIEW
Mauricio A Navarro, Bruce A McClane, Francisco A Uzal
Clostridium perfringens uses its large arsenal of protein toxins to produce histotoxic, neurologic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. The major toxins involved in diseases are alpha (CPA), beta (CPB), epsilon (ETX), iota (ITX), enterotoxin (CPE), and necrotic B-like (NetB) toxins. CPA is the main virulence factor involved in gas gangrene in humans, whereas its role in animal diseases is limited and controversial. CPB is responsible for necrotizing enteritis and enterotoxemia, mostly in neonatal individuals of many animal species, including humans...
May 22, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786579/operative-treatment-of-corrosive-esophageal-strictures
#8
Volodymyr O Shaprynskyi, Yevhen V Shaprynskyi, Yaroslav V Karyi, Serhii A Lysenko, Oleg O Vorovskyi, Andrii I Semenenko
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Nowadays operative treatment of corrosive esophageal strictures remains one of the difficult and unsolved problems in surgery. The level of postoperative complications such as anastomotic leak (develops in 7-30% of cases), infections, pneumonia, pleural empyema, mediastinitis, peritonitis, postoperative corrosive strictures is still rather high. The aim of our work was to improve the results of surgical treatment of patients with corrosive esophageal strictures by analyzing and refining on conservative therapy options as well as differentiated approach to each operative treatment method...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786532/rice-body-formation-without-rheumatic-disease-or-tuberculosis-in-a-sausage-ring-finger
#9
M Cegarra-Escolano, C Jaloux, O Camuzard
Rice bodies are very unusual lesions, generally encountered in chronic synovitis due to rheumatoid diseases or tuberculosis. A 31-year-old right-handed man presented with a 15-year history of progressively growing "sausage-like" swelling of the 4th finger and palm of his right hand. There was an immovable, painless mass with restriction of the finger's ROM without local or general associated signs. Imaging showed a large non-aggressive mass within the tendon sheath. Complete excision of the mass was performed...
May 18, 2018: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786519/effect-of-vaccination-on-cattle-subclinically-infected-with-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-in-cameroon
#10
Miranda R Bertram, Amy Delgado, Steven J Pauszek, George R Smoliga, Barbara Brito, Carolina Stenfeldt, Ethan J Hartwig, Simon Dickmu Jumbo, Mamoudou Abdoulmoumini, Amba Abona Oliva Marie, Robert Salhine, Luis L Rodriguez, Rebecca Garabed, Jonathan Arzt
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious and economically important livestock diseases worldwide. Four serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV; O, A, SAT1, SAT2) circulate in Cameroon, and a trivalent inactivated vaccine against the three most common serotypes (O, A, SAT2) was recently introduced in 2014. The objective of this study was to characterize vaccine performance in cattle under natural hyperendemic conditions in the Adamawa region of Cameroon. Vaccinated cattle (n = 50) and non-vaccinated controls (n = 100) were monitored by serum and oropharyngeal fluid (OPF) sample collection through a 12-month period...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786110/multi%C3%A2-layered-prevention-and-treatment-of-chronic-inflammation-organ-fibrosis-and-cancer-associated-with-canonical-wnt-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-catenin-signaling-activation-review
#11
Masaru Katoh
β‑catenin/CTNNB1 is an intracellular scaffold protein that interacts with adhesion molecules (E‑cadherin/CDH1, N‑cadherin/CDH2, VE‑cadherin/CDH5 and α‑catenins), transmembrane‑type mucins (MUC1/CD227 and MUC16/CA125), signaling regulators (APC, AXIN1, AXIN2 and NHERF1/EBP50) and epigenetic or transcriptional regulators (BCL9, BCL9L, CREBBP/CBP, EP300/p300, FOXM1, MED12, SMARCA4/BRG1 and TCF/LEF). Gain‑of‑function CTTNB1 mutations are detected in bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and uterine cancer, whereas loss‑of‑function CTNNB1 mutations are also detected in human cancer...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785872/effect-evaluation-on-use-of-bedside-fiber-bronchoscope-in-treating-stroke-associated-pneumonia
#12
Qiu Han, Chun Chen, Hai-Qin Hu, Jun Shen, Guang Yang, Bin Chen, Lei Xia
Background The bedside fiber bronchoscope has been widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory disease. This study aims to assess the effect of using bedside fiber bronchoscope in sputum suction and alveolar lavage for treatment of stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP), compared with the use of conventional suction catheter. Methods One hundred and six patients with SAP were randomly divided into control group (n = 53) and experimental group (n = 53) for a controlled study. Patients in the two groups were conventionally treated with phlegm-resolving and anti-infective therapy...
May 22, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785679/drooling-in-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-of-a-role-for-divided-attention
#13
Hannah Reynolds, Nick Miller, Richard Walker
Drooling is a frequently reported symptom in Parkinson's Disease (PD) with significant psychosocial impact and negative health consequences including silent aspiration of saliva with the associated risk of respiratory infections. It is suggested that in PD drooling is associated with inefficient oropharyngeal swallowing which reduces the effective clearance of saliva rather than hyper-salivation. This is compounded by unintended mouth opening and flexed posture increasing anterior loss of saliva. It is reported to occur most frequently during cognitively distracting concurrent tasks suggesting an impact from divided attention in a dual-task situation...
May 21, 2018: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785663/enterobacteria-and-host-resistance-to-infection
#14
REVIEW
Eugene Kang, Alanna Crouse, Lucie Chevallier, Stéphanie M Pontier, Ashwag Alzahrani, Navoun Silué, François-Xavier Campbell-Valois, Xavier Montagutelli, Samantha Gruenheid, Danielle Malo
Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of Gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacteria. Although many species exist as part of the natural flora of animals including humans, some members are associated with both intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. In this review, we focus on members of this family that have important roles in human disease: Salmonella, Escherichia, Shigella, and Yersinia, providing a brief overview of the disease caused by these bacteria, highlighting the contribution of animal models to our understanding of their pathogenesis and of host genetic determinants involved in susceptibility or resistance to infection...
May 21, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785564/helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-pediatric-patients-update-on-diagnosis-and-eradication-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Kallirroi Kotilea, Nicolas Kalach, Matjaž Homan, Patrick Bontems
Helicobacter pylori infection is acquired mainly in childhood and remains an essential cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. This article provides commentary on the last ESPGHAN/NASPGHAN guidelines and on publications made after the consensus conference of 2015. The majority of infected children are asymptomatic and pediatric studies do not support a role for H. pylori in functional disorders such as recurrent abdominal pain. The role of H. pylori infection in failure to thrive, children's growth, type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and celiac disease remains controversial...
May 22, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785520/times-from-infection-to-disease-induced-death-and-their-influence-on-final-population-sizes-after-epidemic-outbreaks
#16
Alex P Farrell, James P Collins, Amy L Greer, Horst R Thieme
For epidemic models, it is shown that fatal infectious diseases cannot drive the host population into extinction if the incidence function is upper density-dependent. This finding holds even if a latency period is included and the time from infection to disease-induced death has an arbitrary length distribution. However, if the incidence function is also lower density-dependent, very infectious diseases can lead to a drastic decline of the host population. Further, the final population size after an epidemic outbreak can possibly be substantially affected by the infection-age distribution of the initial infectives if the life expectations of infected individuals are an unbounded function of infection age (time since infection)...
May 21, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785478/changing-trend-of-infectious-diseases-in-nepal
#17
Shiba Kumar Rai
Many infectious/communicable diseases (IDs) are endemic in Nepal. Until a decade and half ago, IDs were the major cause of both morbidity and mortality accounting 70% for both. However, as a result of various preventive measures implemented by both the state and non-state actors, the overall IDs have shown a changing (declining) trend. The most impressive decline has been seen in the intestinal helminth infection. Though the overall burden of IDs is decreasing, several newer infectious diseases (emerging infections) namely, dengue fever, scrub typhus, influenza (H5N1 and H1N1), and others are posing a great public health problem...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785327/ex-vivo-confocal-microscopy-an-emerging-technique-in-dermatology
#18
Elisa Cinotti, Jean Luc Perrot, Bruno Labeille, Frédéric Cambazard, Pietro Rubegni
This review aims to give an overview of the current available applications of ex vivo confocal microscopy (EVCM) in dermatology. EVCM is a relatively new imaging technique that allows microscopic examination of freshly excised unfixed tissue. It enables a rapid examination of the skin sample directly in the surgery room and thus represents an alternative to the intraoperative micrographic control of the surgical margins of cutaneous tumors by standard microscopic examination on cryopreserved sections during Mohs surgery...
April 2018: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785216/-staphylococcus-aureus-surface-protein-g-is-an-immunodominant-protein-and-a-possible-target-in-an-anti-biofilm-drug-development
#19
Yury Belyi, Ivan Rybolovlev, Nikita Polyakov, Alena Chernikova, Irina Tabakova, Alexandre Gintsburg
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes severe illnesses in the human population. The capacity of S. aureus strains to form biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces creates serious problems for treatment of hospital infections and has stimulated efforts to develop new means of specific protection or immunotherapy. Material and Methods: We found that rabbit serum raised against crude concentrated S. aureus liquid culture significantly decreased the development of staphylococcal biofilm in vitro ...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785215/mycobacteriosis-and-tuberculosis-laboratory-diagnosis
#20
REVIEW
Davood Azadi, Tahereh Motallebirad, Kazem Ghaffari, Hasan Shojaei
Background: Tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious diseases that has claimed its victims throughout much of known human history. With Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus as the etiologic agent of the disease, his sanitary and hygienic measures, which were based on his discovery and the development of a vaccine against tuberculosis by Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin in 1921, an attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain, bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG), and the discovery of the first antibiotic against tuberculosis, streptomycin by Selman Waksman in 1943, soon led to the opinion that appropriate control measures had become available for tuberculosis and it had been assumed that the disease could ultimately be eradicated...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
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