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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335562/virus-bacteria-interactions-an-emerging-topic-in-human-infection
#1
REVIEW
Erin A Almand, Matthew D Moore, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Bacteria and viruses often occupy the same niches, however, interest in their potential collaboration in promoting wellness or disease states has only recently gained traction. While the interaction of some bacteria and viruses is well characterized (e.g., influenza virus), researchers are typically more interested in the location of the infection than the manner of cooperation. There are two overarching types of bacterial-virus disease causing interactions: direct interactions that in some way aid the viruses, and indirect interactions aiding bacteria...
March 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335552/virological-surveillance-of-influenza-a-subtypes-isolated-in-2014-from-clinical-outbreaks-in-canadian-swine
#2
Helena Grgić, Jackie Gallant, Zvonimir Poljak
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are respiratory pathogens associated with an acute respiratory disease that occurs year-round in swine production. It is currently one of the most important pathogens in swine populations, with the potential to infect other host species including humans. Ongoing research indicates that the three major subtypes of IAV-H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2-continue to expand in their genetic and antigenic diversity. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of 16 IAVs isolated from different clinical outbreaks in Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, and Saskatchewan in 2014...
March 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335547/genomic-loads-and-genotypes-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-viral-factors-during-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-chilean-hospitalized-infants
#3
Yazmín Espinosa, Camila San Martín, Alejandro A Torres, Mauricio J Farfán, Juan P Torres, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Pedro A Piedra, Lorena I Tapia
The clinical impact of viral factors (types and viral loads) during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is still controversial, especially regarding newly described genotypes. In this study, infants with RSV bronchiolitis were recruited to describe the association of these viral factors with severity of infection. RSV antigenic types, genotypes, and viral loads were determined from hospitalized patients at Hospital Roberto del Río, Santiago, Chile. Cases were characterized by demographic and clinical information, including days of lower respiratory symptoms and severity...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335535/enterovirus-71-neutralizing-antibodies-seroepidemiological-research-among-children-in-guangzhou-china-between-2014-and-2015-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Dingmei Zhang, Yan Chen, Xiashi Chen, Zhenjian He, Xun Zhu, Yuantao Hao
A hand-foot-mouth disease outbreak occurred in 2014 around Guangdong. The purpose of this study was investigating the status and susceptibility of infectious neutralizing antibodies to enterovirus 71 among children so as to provide scientific evidence for the population immunity level of hand-foot-mouth disease and prepare for enterovirus 71 vaccination implementation. Serum specimens were collected from children in communities from January 2014 to March 2015 in Guangzhou. A total of 197 serum samples from children 1-5 years old were collected for this cross-sectional study via non-probabilistic sampling from the database of Chinese National Science and Technique Major Project...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335454/porcine-rotaviruses-epidemiology-immune-responses-and-control-strategies
#5
REVIEW
Anastasia N Vlasova, Joshua O Amimo, Linda J Saif
Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in young animals and children worldwide. Immunocompetent adults of different species become resistant to clinical disease due to post-infection immunity, immune system maturation and gut physiological changes. Of the 9 RV genogroups (A-I), RV A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively) are associated with diarrhea in piglets. Although discovered decades ago, porcine genogroup E RVs (RVE) are uncommon and their pathogenesis is not studied well...
March 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335444/hiv-education-and-welfare-services-in-primary-care-an-empirical-model-of-integration-in-brazil-s-unified-health-system
#6
Rahbel Rahman, Rogério M Pinto, Melanie M Wall
Integration of health education and welfare services in primary care systems is a key strategy to solve the multiple determinants of chronic diseases, such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). However, there is a scarcity of conceptual models from which to build integration strategies. We provide a model based on cross-sectional data from 168 Community Health Agents, 62 nurses, and 32 physicians in two municipalities in Brazil's Unified Health System (UHS)...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335421/pamam-dendrimers-cross-the-blood-brain-barrier-when-administered-through-the-carotid-artery-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#7
Bhairavi Srinageshwar, Sarah Peruzzaro, Melissa Andrews, Kayla Johnson, Allison Hietpas, Brittany Clark, Crystal McGuire, Eric Petersen, Jordyn Kippe, Andrew Stewart, Olivia Lossia, Abeer Al-Gharaibeh, Aaron Antcliff, Rebecca Culver, Douglas Swanson, Gary Dunbar, Ajit Sharma, Julien Rossignol
Drug delivery into the central nervous system (CNS) is challenging due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and drug delivery into the brain overcoming the BBB can be achieved using nanoparticles such as dendrimers. The conventional cationic dendrimers used are highly toxic. Therefore, the present study investigates the role of novel mixed surface dendrimers, which have potentially less toxicity and can cross the BBB when administered through the carotid artery in mice. In vitro experiments investigated the uptake of amine dendrimers (G1-NH₂ and G4-NH₂) and novel dendrimers (G1-90/10 and G4-90/10) by primary cortical cultures...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335410/non-canonical-roles-of-dengue-virus-non-structural-proteins
#8
REVIEW
Julianna D Zeidler, Lorena O Fernandes-Siqueira, Glauce M Barbosa, Andrea T Da Poian
The Flaviviridae family comprises a number of human pathogens, which, although sharing structural and functional features, cause diseases with very different outcomes. This can be explained by the plurality of functions exerted by the few proteins coded by viral genomes, with some of these functions shared among members of a same family, but others being unique for each virus species. These non-canonical functions probably have evolved independently and may serve as the base to the development of specific therapies for each of those diseases...
March 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335090/in-ovo-vaccination-using-eimeria-profilin-and-clostridium-perfringens-netb-proteins-in-montanide-ims-adjuvant-increases-protective-immunity-against-experimentally-induced-necrotic-enteritis
#9
Hyun Soon Lillehoj, Seung Ik Jang, Alfredo Panebra, Erik Peter Lillehoj, Laurent Dupuis, Juliette B Arous, Seung Kyoo Lee, Sung Taek Oh
Objective: The effects of vaccinating 18-day-old chicken embryos with the combination of recombinant Eimeria profilin plus Clostridium perfringens NetB proteins mixed in the Montanide IMS adjuvant on the chicken immune response to necrotic enteritis (NE) were investigated using an E. maxima/C. perfringens co-infection NE disease model that we previously developed. Methods: Eighteen-day-old broiler embryos were injected with 100 μl of PBS, profilin, profilin plus NetB, profilin plus NetB/Montanide adjuvant (IMS 106), and profilin plus Net-B/Montanide adjuvant (IMS 101)...
March 21, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335042/acute-sensory-neuronopathy-following-enterovirus-infection-in-a-3-year-old-girl
#10
Chih-Chin Chiu, Chen-Ya Yang, Tsui-Fen Yang, Kon-Ping Lin, Shou-Hsien Huang, Jia-Chi Wang
Acute sensory neuronopathy (SNN) is a rapidly developing peripheral nervous system disease that primarily affects sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion or trigeminal ganglion, leading to the impairment of sensory axons. SNN is notably uncommon in childhood; only three cases of childhood or adolescent SNN have been reported to date. Moreover, SSN has never been reported in association with enterovirus infection. Here, we report the case of a 3-year-old girl who was initially diagnosed with enterovirus infection based on the presentation of fevers, rashes on all extremities, and ulceration over the posterior pharynx...
March 23, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335010/schistosomiasis-in-scottish-travellers-public-health-importance-of-laboratory-testing-and-the-need-for-enhanced-surveillance
#11
Claire L Alexander, Laura Cottom, Kitty Smith, Kali Perrow, Michael Coyne, Brian L Jones
Background: Imported schistosomiasis is of significant public health importance and is likely to be underestimated since infection is often asymptomatic. We describe data from travellers residing in Scotland which includes a subset of group travellers from one of the largest Health Boards in Scotland. Methods: Clotted bloods were obtained during the period 2001-15 from a total of 8163 Scottish travellers. This included seven groups comprising of 182 travellers. Sera were examined for the presence of Schistosome species antibody at the Scottish Parasite Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory (SPDRL)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334962/exposure-to-fictional-medical-television-and-health-a-systematic-review
#12
Beth L Hoffman, Ariel Shensa, Charles Wessel, Robert Hoffman, Brian A Primack
Fictional medical television programs have long been a staple of television programming, and they remain popular today. We aimed to examine published literature assessing the influence of medical television programs on health outcomes. We conducted systematic literature searches in PubMed, PsychINFO and CINAHL. Selected studies had to be scholarly research, to involve exposure to fictionalized medical television programming, and to assess associations between exposures and outcomes. Of 3541 unique studies identified, nineteen met selection criteria...
March 14, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334854/the-burden-of-hpv-related-diseases-in-italy-2001-12
#13
P Kuhdari, S Previato, M Giordani, P Biavati, S Ferretti, G Gabutti
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main cause of cervical cancer and plays a relevant role in the development of genital warts and of the cancer of penis and anus, head/neck, oropharynx and genitourinary system. The aim of this study is the evaluation of hospitalizations due to HPV-related pathologies in 2001-12 in Italy. Methods: The national hospital discharge forms were provided by the Ministry of Health. The HPV-related hospitalizations were identified using specific diagnostic codes, accordingly to the ICD-9-CM coding system...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334495/elbasvir-grazoprevir-does-not-worsen-renal-function-in-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-pre-existing-renal-disease
#14
K Rajender Reddy, David Roth, Annette Bruchfeld, Peggy Hwang, Barbara Haber, Michael N Robertson, Eliav Barr, Wayne Greaves
AIM: Treatment options have been limited for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and chronic kidney disease stage 4/5 (CKD 4/5). The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the impact of elbasvir/grazoprevir on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with CKD stage 3 enrolled in phase II/III clinical trials. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective integrated analysis of patients with CKD 3 enrolled in the EBR/GZR phase II/III clinical trials...
March 23, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334452/quantitative-assessment-of-the-risk-of-release-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-via-export-of-bull-semen-from-israel
#15
A Meyer, L Zamir, A Ben Yair Gilboa, B Gelman, D U Pfeiffer, T Vergne
Various foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus strains circulate in the Middle East, causing frequent episodes of FMD outbreaks among Israeli livestock. Since the virus is highly resistant in semen, artificial insemination with contaminated bull semen may lead to the infection of the receiver cow. As a non-FMD-free country with vaccination, Israel is currently engaged in trading bull semen only with countries of the same status. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of release of FMD virus through export of bull semen in order to estimate the risk for FMD-free countries considering purchasing Israeli bull semen...
March 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334434/withdrawn-nutrition-support-for-bone-marrow-transplant-patients
#16
REVIEW
Susan M Murray, Sima Pindoria
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 2, 2002. Bone marrow transplantation involves administration of toxic chemotherapy and infusion of marrow cells. After treatment, patients can develop poor appetite, mucositis and gastrointestinal failure, leading to malnutrition. To prevent this, parenteral nutrition (PN) support is often first choice but is associated with increased risk of infection. Enteral nutrition (EN) is an alternative, as is addition of substrates...
March 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334246/the-role-of-the-beetle-hypocryphalus-mangiferae-coleoptera-curculionidae-in-the-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-mango-wilt
#17
Tarcísio Visintin da Silva Galdino, Dalton de Oliveira Ferreira, Paulo Antônio Santana Júnior, Lucas de Paulo Arcanjo, Elenir Aparecida Queiroz, Renato Almeida Sarmento, Marcelo Coutinho Picanço
The knowledge of the spatiotemporal dynamics of pathogens and their vectors is an important step in determining the pathogen dispersion pattern and the role of vectors in disease dynamics. However, in the case of mango wilt little is known about its spatiotemporal dynamics and the relationship of its vector [the beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing 1914)] to these dynamics. The aim of this work was to determine the spatial-seasonal dynamic of H. mangiferae attacks and mango wilt in mango orchards and to verify the importance of H...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334203/innate-immune-recognition-and-inflammation-in-neisseria-meningitidis-infection
#18
Kay Johswich
N. meningitidis (Nme) can cause meningitis and sepsis, diseases which are characterized by an overwhelming inflammatory response. Inflammation is triggered by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) which are activated by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Nme contains multiple PAMPs including lipooligosaccharide, peptidoglycan, proteins and metabolites. Various classes of PRRs including Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, C-type lectins, scavenger receptors, pentraxins and others are expressed by the host to respond to any given microbe...
March 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334088/relapse-re-infection-and-mixed-infections-in-tuberculosis-disease
#19
Amanda McIvor, Hendrik Koornhof, Bavesh Davandra Kana
Tuberculosis (TB) disease can be characterized by genotypic and phenotypic complexity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli within a single patient. This microbiological heterogeneity has become an area of intense study due its perceived importance in drug tolerance, drug resistance and as a surrogate measure of transmission rates. This review presents a descriptive analysis of research describing the prevalence of mixed strain TB infections in geographically distinct locations. Despite significant variation in disease burden and a rampant HIV-TB co-epidemic, there was no difference in the prevalence range of mixed infections reported in African countries when compared to the rest of the world...
February 18, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334041/virus-mediated-suppression-of-host-non-self-recognition-facilitates-horizontal-transmission-of-heterologous-viruses
#20
Songsong Wu, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Tao Chen, Daohong Jiang, Said A Ghabrial, Jiatao Xie
Non-self recognition is a common phenomenon among organisms; it often leads to innate immunity to prevent the invasion of parasites and maintain the genetic polymorphism of organisms. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is a type of non-self recognition which often induces programmed cell death (PCD) and restricts the spread of molecular parasites. It is not clearly known whether virus infection could attenuate non-self recognition among host individuals to facilitate its spread. Here, we report that a hypovirulence-associated mycoreovirus, named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycoreovirus 4 (SsMYRV4), could suppress host non-self recognition and facilitate horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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