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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931222/the-role-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-vasculopathy-in-the-etiology-of-stroke
#1
Laura A Benjamin, Theresa J Allain, Henry Mzinganjira, Myles D Connor, Colin Smith, Sebastian Lucas, Elizabeth Joekes, Sam Kampondeni, Karen Chetcuti, Ian Turnbull, Mark Hopkins, Steve Kamiza, Elizabeth L Corbett, Robert S Heyderman, Tom Solomon
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a recognized risk factor for stroke among young populations, but the exact mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the clinical, radiologic, and histologic features of HIV-related ischemic stroke to gain insight into the disease mechanisms. Methods: We conducted a prospective, in-depth analysis of adult ischemic stroke patients presenting to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, in 2011...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931221/modeling-of-us-human-papillomavirus-hpv-seroprevalence-by-age-and-sexual-behavior-indicates-an-increasing-trend-of-hpv-infection-following-the-sexual-revolution
#2
Marc D Ryser, Anne Rositch, Patti E Gravitt
Background: The United States has experienced an increase in the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers that are not screen-detectable. It has been hypothesized, but not directly demonstrated, that this is due to increasing HPV prevalence in the unvaccinated population. Methods: Female self-reported numbers of lifetime sex partners and HPV serology from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to develop mathematical models of sexual partner acquisition and antibody dynamics...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931216/emergence-of-oseltamivir-resistant-h7n9-influenza-viruses-in-immunosuppressed-cynomolgus-macaques
#3
Maki Kiso, Kiyoko Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Seiya Yamayoshi, Ryuta Uraki, Mutsumi Ito, Noriko Nakajima, Shinya Yamada, Masaki Imai, Eiryo Kawakami, Yuriko Tomita, Satoshi Fukuyama, Yasushi Itoh, Kazumasa Ogasawara, Tiago J S Lopes, Tokiko Watanabe, Louise H Moncla, Hideki Hasegawa, Thomas C Friedrich, Gabriele Neumann, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Antiviral compounds (eg, the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir) are invaluable for the treatment of individuals infected with influenza A viruses of the H7N9 subtype (A[H7N9]), which have infected and killed hundreds of persons. However, oseltamivir treatment often leads to the emergence of resistant viruses in immunocompromised individuals. To better understand the emergence and properties of oseltamivir-resistant A(H7N9) viruses in immunosuppressed individuals, we infected immunosuppressed cynomolgus macaques with an A(H7N9) virus and treated them with oseltamivir...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931145/medical-and-psychological-problems-faced-by-young-australian-gap-year-travellers
#4
Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Deborah Mills, Sarah Sheridan, Colleen Lau
Background: Gap year travellers can potentially be exposed to many infectious diseases and other travel-related health problems including injuries and psychological problems. Currently, there is little information on health and wellbeing of this particular group of travellers. Methods: Participants were recruited from an organization that specialized in organising international gap year placements. Gap year travellers were asked to complete a pre-departure survey on demographics, placement destination and duration, previous travel experience, hobbies, risk taking behaviour, anticipated problems during the placement, and pre-travel preparations...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931128/6-year-review-of-redivi-a-prospective-registry-of-imported-infectious-diseases-in-spain
#5
José A Pérez-Molina, Ana López-Polín, Begoña Treviño, Israel Molina, Josune Goikoetxea, Marta Díaz-Menéndez, Diego Torrús, Eva Calabuig, Agustín Benito, Rogelio López-Vélez
Background: Understanding and detecting imported diseases is a priority in the prevention and management of prevalent and emergent infectious diseases acquired abroad. The +Redivi network measures the burden of imported infections in Spain and is essential for closing the gap in travel medicine. Methods: Demographic characteristics, travel information, syndromes and confirmed travel-related diagnoses were registered in a standardised online database. Results: A total of 10 767 cases of imported infectious diseases were registered between October 2009 and December 2015...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930993/confocal-imaging-of-neuropeptide-y-phluorin-a-technique-to-visualize-insulin-granule-exocytosis-in-intact-murine-and-human-islets
#6
Madina Makhmutova, Tao Liang, Herbert Gaisano, Alejandro Caicedo, Joana Almaça
Insulin secretion plays a central role in glucose homeostasis under normal physiological conditions as well as in disease. Current approaches to study insulin granule exocytosis either use electrophysiology or microscopy coupled to the expression of fluorescent reporters. However most of these techniques have been optimized for clonal cell lines or require dissociating pancreatic islets. In contrast, the method presented here allows for real time visualization of insulin granule exocytosis in intact pancreatic islets...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930979/analysis-of-18fdg-pet-ct-imaging-as-a-tool-for-studying-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-treatment-in-non-human-primates
#7
Alexander G White, Pauline Maiello, M Teresa Coleman, Jaime A Tomko, L James Frye, Charles A Scanga, Philana Ling Lin, JoAnne L Flynn
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the number one infectious agent in the world today. With the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains, new clinically relevant methods are needed that evaluate the disease process and screen for potential antibiotic and vaccine treatments. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has been established as a valuable tool for studying a number of afflictions such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and inflammation/infection. Outlined here are a number of strategies that have been employed to evaluate PET/CT images in cynomolgus macaques that are infected intrabronchially with low doses of M...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930915/microvesicle-subsets-in-sepsis-due-to-community-acquired-pneumonia-compared-to-faecal-peritonitis
#8
Hazem M S Lashin, Suchita Nadkarni, Silvia Oggero, Hefin R Jones, Julian C Knight, Charles J Hinds, Mauro Perretti
RATIONALE: Microvesicles (MV) act as a non-soluble means of inter-cellular communication, with effector roles in disease pathogenesis and potentially as biomarkers. Previously, we reported that neutrophil MV expressing alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2MG) are protective in experimental sepsis and associate with survival in a small cohort of patients with sepsis due to community acquired pneumonia (CAP). OBJECTIVES: To characterise MV profiles in sepsis due to CAP or faecal peritonitis (FP) and determine their relation to outcome...
September 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930865/presence-of-human-herpesvirus-6b-in-the-pancreas-of-subjects-with-and-without-type-1-diabetes
#9
Maja Ericsson, Oskar Skog
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) A and B in human pancreata and to search for signs of active infection in this organ of subjects with and without type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Pancreata from brain-dead organ donors with and without T1D were examined for the presence of HHV6 genomic sequences by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transcripts by reverse transcriptase-PCR, and protein by immunohistochemistry...
September 19, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930859/p16-methylation-was-associated-with-the-development-age-hepatic-viruses-infection-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-p16-expression-had-a-poor-survival-a-systematic-meta-analysis-prisma
#10
Xueyou Lv, Guoliang Ye, Xinjun Zhang, Tao Huang
BACKGROUND: Loss of tumor suppressor gene p16 expression via promoter methylation has been reported in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between p16 methylation and HCC. Additionally, we also analyzed the potential prognostic role of p16 methylation, expression or alteration-associated HCC. METHODS: Online databases based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline were performed to analyze the role of p16 gene in HCC...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930642/microbial-complexes-and-caries-in-17-year-olds-with-and-without-streptococcus-mutans
#11
L Eriksson, P Lif Holgerson, A Esberg, I Johansson
Streptococcus mutans is a key bacterial species in the caries process, which affects >90% of the population worldwide. However, other acidogenic and aciduric/acidophilic species may contribute to disease development. In Sweden, a country with low prevalences of caries and S. mutans, a significant portion of caries-affected adolescents lack detectable levels of S. mutans. The objectives of the present study were 1) to characterize the tooth biofilm and saliva microbiota of adolescents with caries disease, with or without detectable S...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930586/drug-repurposing-approaches-to-fight-dengue-virus-infection-and-related-diseases
#12
Lorenzo Botta, Mirko Rivara, Valentina Zuliani, Marco Radi
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically distinct serotypes of Dengue Virus (DENV), namely DENV1-4 and is currently considered the most important arthropod-born viral disease in the world. An effective antiviral therapy to treat Dengue Virus infection is still missing and a number of replicative cycle inhibitors are currently under study. Considering the rapid spreading of DENV and the common timeframe required for bringing a new drug on the market, the repurposing of approved drugs used for different diseases to identify novel inhibitors of this pathogen represents an attractive approach for a rapid therapeutic intervention...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930584/metal-and-metalloid-containing-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-trypanosomatid-diseases
#13
Gianni Colotti, Annarita Fiorillo, Andrea Ilari
The trypanosomatid-induced diseases are considered as neglected, because the countries where they kill people are not important markets for western big pharmaceutical companies. However, recently some effort has been made to translate the use of already known drugs to neglected infectious disease. Although many metals are essential to life, many disorders affecting metal homeostasis and bioavailability are responsible for several human diseases. Metals can be toxic even at very low concentrations and semimetals are classified as toxic and dangerous for the environment...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930571/role-of-pericytes-in-vascular-immunosurveillance
#14
Konstantin Stark, Kami Pekayvaz, Steffen Massberg
Pericytes build together with endothelial cells the microvascular vessel wall. They have been mainly implicated in angiogenesis and maintenance of the blood brain barrier, but there is accumulating evidence for an immunological function of pericytes. Occupying a strategic position between the blood stream and the interstitial space, pericytes are able to sense environmental cues from both sides in an organ-specific manner and serve as gatekeepers for innate immune cells. In addition, pericytes are able to interact with leukocytes mediated by adhesion molecules as well as chemokines and are involved from the development of leukocytes in the bone marrow to their migration to injured or infected areas in target tissues...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930549/growth-factors-in-the-pathogenesis-of-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#15
Min Qi, Qiuhong Zhou, Weiqi Zeng, Lisha Wu, Shuang Zhao, Wangqing Chen, Chang Luo, Minxue Shen, Jianglin Zhang, Can-E Tang
Foot ulcers affect 15% of patients with diabetes, resulting in a great health burden. The occurrence and development of diabetic foot ulcers is associated with neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease, and infection. Several growth factors are involved in these processes, including epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta, fibroblast growth factor, and erythropoietin, which could promote wound healing of patients with diabetes. Thus, this review discusses the role of these growth factors in the pathogenesis of diabetic foot ulcers, aiming to achieve novel insights into the management of diabetic foot ulcers...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930546/tick-host-pathogen-systems-immunobiology-an-interactive-trio
#16
Stephen K Wikel
Significant new insights are being made into tick modulation of host immune defenses and the implications of those host defense changes on tick-borne pathogen transmission and establishment of infection. Understanding tick saliva complexity increased with construction and analyses of salivary gland cDNA libraries. High throughput next generation sequencing and advances in proteomics are revealing greater complexity of saliva, nature of gene families and differential gene expression patterns not previously attainable...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930536/reca-a-universal-drug-target-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#17
Athanasia Pavlopoulou
The spread of bacterial infectious diseases due to the development of resistance to antibiotic drugs in pathogenic bacteria is an emerging global concern. Therefore, the efficacious management and prevention of bacterial infections are major public health challenges. RecA is a pleiotropic recombinase protein that has been demonstrated to be implicated strongly in the bacterial drug resistance, survival and pathogenicity. In this minireview, RecA's role in the development of antibiotic resistance and its potential as an antimicrobial drug target are discussed...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930519/divergent-impact-of-gender-in-advancement-of-liver-injuries-diseases-and-carcinogenesis
#18
Subhrajit Biswas, Sampa Ghose
Several investigations have revealed that liver diseases exhibit gender biases, but identifying the root causes of such biases has been challenging. Evidence of gender differences in liver function is present from the early stage of embryonic development. The differences in access to care and treatment as well as diagnostic deliberation may affect gender-specific differences in liver disease progression. Apart from the pathogenesis, xenobiotic metabolism, immune responses, gene expressions, mitochondrial function, lipid composition, and enzyme activities also differ in this sexually dimorphic organ...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930498/molecular-and-morphological-characterization-of-a-brazilian-lineage-of-plasmodium-novyella-unalis-in-turdus-spp-passeriformes-of-the-atlantic-forest-with-remarks-on-new-hosts-and-high-genetic-variation
#19
Raquel Tostes, Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias, Luísa de Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius Xavier Senra, Carlos Luiz Massard, Marta D'Agosto
Plasmodium spp. are haemosporidian protozoans that alternate their live cycles between bloodsucking Culicidae dipterans and vertebrate hosts (mammals, reptiles and birds). In birds, these parasites are the causative agents of the so called avian malaria, a disease associated with considerable declines and extinctions in the avifauna in different geographical regions. In this work, we applied a multidisciplinary approach, light microscopy and cytochrome oxidase b (cyt b) gene sequence analysis for characterization of Plasmodium found in association with wild birds of the genus Turdus, collected in Atlantic forest fragments of southeastern Brazil...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930292/proton-pump-inhibitors-understanding-the-complications-and-risks
#20
REVIEW
Peter Malfertheiner, Arne Kandulski, Marino Venerito
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most effective therapy for the full spectrum of gastric-acid-related diseases. However, in the past decade, a steadily increasing list of complications following long-term use of PPIs has been reported. Their potent acid-suppressive action induces several structural and functional changes within the gastric mucosa, including fundic gland polyps, enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and hypergastrinaemia, which can be exaggerated in the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection...
September 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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