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Causes ulcerative colitis

Jingping Zhang, Jingjing Huang, Kasimujiang Aximujiang, Chenbo Xu, Abulaiti Ahemaiti, Guixia Wu, Li Zhong, Kurexi Yunusi
Stress is a powerful modulator of neuroendocrine, behavioral, and immunological functions. So far, the molecular mechanisms of response to stressors still remain elusive. In the current study, after 10 days of repeated chronic stress (hot-dry environment and electric foot-shock), a murine model of combined-stress (CS) was created in the SPF Wistar rats. Meanwhile, we established an ulcerative-colitis (UC) rat model induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)/ethanol enema according to previous studies...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Motohiro Tamiya, Hidekazu Suzuki, Takayuki Shiroyama, Ayako Tanaka, Naoko Morishita, Norio Okamoto, Kenichi Sakai, Hironori Shigeoka, Kunimitsu Kawahara, Tomonori Hirashima
Background Bevacizumab (Bev) is generally well-tolerated, and Bev-associated intestinal perforation (BAP) is a rare albeit serious side effect in cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, the present study aimed to identify clinical predictors of BAP to help predict and manage the development of life-threatening intestinal complications among patients receiving Bev. Methods This retrospective study evaluated demographic, clinical, and treatment factors for patients with NSCLC who were treated with Bev between February 2010 and August 2015 at our center...
March 14, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Reuban Toby D'cruz, Cheryl Chien-Li Lau, Thomas Paulraj Thamboo
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) typically causes gastrointestinal infections in immunocompetent patients. Colonic perforations secondary to CMV are exceeding rare. We describe a 88-year-old male presenting with a week-long history of intractable abdominal discomfort, bloating, nausea and diarrhea. Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed significant ulceration with yellowish slough. Emergency surgery was performed subsequently in view of multiple perforations in the rectosigmoid junction. CMV gastrointestinal infections demonstrated an ischemic process secondary to vasculitis, which accelerated the pathway to colonic perforation...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Virology
Sabine Buhner, Hannes Hahne, Kerstin Hartwig, Qin Li, Sheila Vignali, Daniela Ostertag, Chen Meng, Gabriele Hörmannsperger, Breg Braak, Christian Pehl, Thomas Frieling, Giovanni Barbara, Roberto De Giorgio, Ihsan Ekin Demir, Güralp Onur Ceyhan, Florian Zeller, Guy Boeckxstaens, Dirk Haller, Bernhard Kuster, Michael Schemann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The causes of gastrointestinal complaints in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remain poorly understood. Altered nerve function has emerged as an important pathogenic factor as IBS mucosal biopsy supernatants consistently activate enteric and sensory neurons. We investigated the neurally active molecular components of such supernatants from patients with IBS and quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC). METHOD: Effects of supernatants from 7 healthy controls (HC), 20 IBS and 12 UC patients on human and guinea pig submucous neurons were studied with neuroimaging techniques...
2018: PloS One
Ashish Malhotra, Parkpoom Phatharacharukul, Charat Thongprayoon
BACKGROUND: Repeat hospitalizations in veterans with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are understudied. The early readmission rate and potentially modifiable risk-factors for 90-day readmission in veterans with IBD were studied to avert avoidable readmissions. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the data from veterans who were admitted to the Minneapolis VA Medical Center (MVMC) between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013, for an IBD-related problem...
February 8, 2018: Military Medical Research
Iclal Ocak, Gideon Bollino, Carl Fuhrman
Ulcerative colitis can cause inflammation of small and large airways, characterized by mucosal inflammation, tracheobronchial stenosis, bronchiestasis, and bronchiolitis. We present a case of tracheobronchitis and bronchiolitis associated with ulcerative colitis in a 58-year-old nonsmoking man, 17 years after the total colectomy and complete resolution of intestinal findings. Computed tomography demonstrated wall thickening of trachea and left main stem bronchus, and multiple bronchi around the both hilum with mild to moderate stenosis...
December 2017: Radiology Case Reports
Paula M De Angelis, Aasa R Schjølberg, Juliana B Hughes, Henrik S Huitfeldt, Solveig Norheim Andersen, Anne Carine Østvold
Background: The colon and rectum are continuously exposed to oxidative stress that generates reactive oxygen species, which are a major cause of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Furthermore, chronic inflammatory diseases such as ulcerative colitis (UC) are characterized by an excess of reactive nitrogen species that can also lead to DNA double-strand breakage and genomic instability. We investigated the expression of the nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1 (NUCKS1) protein in UC and sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) due to its involvement in both DNA double-strand break repair and inflammatory signaling...
February 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Riccardo Terenzi, Sara Monti, Giulia Tesei, Linda Carli
The term spondyloarthritis (SpA) represents a condition characterised by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, laboratory abnormalities and imaging features; in particular, SpA is an inflammatory condition in which both peripheral and axial joints might be affected. The majority of people with this disease have either psoriatic arthritis or axial spondyloarthritis, which includes ankylosing spondylitis. Less common subgroups are enteropathic SpA, which is associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), reactive arthritis, which can occur in people following gastrointestinal or genitourinary infections and undifferentiated SpA, that does not meet the diagnostic criteria of the other subgroups at onset, but that may evolve to do so later...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Mengge Liu, Shiyu Li, Qian Zhang, Zhenrui Xu, Jiajia Wang, Hanxiao Sun
In recent years, using genetic engineering and bioengineering techniques, Bifidobacterium as a carrier to express specific functions of the protein or polypeptide, has become a new treatment for disease. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Although the cause of this inflammatory disorder is still unknown, a large amount of evidence suggests that ulcerative colitis is associated with increased activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a kind of superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been demonstrated to play a key role in the pathophysiology of colitis...
February 14, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Daniela Ribeiro, Carina Proenca, Silvia Rocha, Jose L F C Lima, Felix Carvalho, Eduarda Fernandes, Marisa Freitas
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprise two disorders of idiopathic chronic intestinal inflammation that affect about three million people worldwide: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Nowadays, the first-line of treatment for patients with mild to moderate symptoms of IBD comprises corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, antibiotics, and biological agents. Unfortunately, none of these drugs are curative, and their long-term use may cause severe side effects and complications. Almost 40% of IBD patients use alternative therapies to complement the conventional one, and flavonoids are gaining attention for this purpose...
February 14, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Loni Berkowitz, Bárbara M Schultz, Geraldyne A Salazar, Catalina Pardo-Roa, Valentina P Sebastián, Manuel M Álvarez-Lobos, Susan M Bueno
Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for gastrointestinal disorders, such as peptic ulcer, Crohn's disease (CD), and several cancers. The mechanisms proposed to explain the role of smoking in these disorders include mucosal damage, changes in gut irrigation, and impaired mucosal immune response. Paradoxically, cigarette smoking is a protective factor for the development and progression of ulcerative colitis (UC). UC and CD represent the two most important conditions of inflammatory bowel diseases, and share several clinical features...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Börje Jonefjäll, Magnus Simrén, Anders Lasson, Lena Öhman, Hans Strid
Background: Patients with ulcerative colitis often report fatigue. Objectives: To investigate prevalence of and risk factors for fatigue in patients with ulcerative colitis with active disease and during deep remission. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, disease activity was evaluated with endoscopy and calprotectin, and patients were classified as having active disease ( n = 133) or being in deep remission ( n = 155). Blood samples were analysed to assess anaemia, iron deficiency and systemic immune activity...
February 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Mustafa Akar, Fuat Aydin, Mustafa A Yurci, Seçil Abay, İhsan Ateş, Kemal Deniz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The role of bacterial infection in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) is under investigation. This study aims to (i) determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. in patients with UC, (ii) identify the antibiotic susceptibility of isolated agents, and (iii) investigate the role of these microorganisms in the pathogenesis and/or activation of UC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty patients with UC and 40 healthy individuals were included in the study...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Kosaku Nanki, Shinta Mizuno, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Keiko Ono, Shinya Sugimoto, Hiroki Kiyohara, Mari Arai, Moeko Nakashima, Kozue Takeshita, Keiichiro Saigusa, Mitsutoshi Senoh, Tadashi Fukuda, Makoto Naganuma, Haru Kato, Wataru Suda, Masahira Hattori, Takanori Kanai
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been reported as a safe and effective therapy in patients with refractory and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). FMT has also been reported as a promising therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Both, CDI and UC, are believed to be caused by dysbiosis, such as altered compositions or decreased diversity of the intestinal microbiota. This report describes a patient with UC in remission with a second recurrent episode of CDI, who was treated with FMT...
January 2018: Intestinal Research
Seung Hoon Lee, Jeong Eun Kwon, Mi-La Cho
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory state of the gastrointestinal tract and can be classified into 2 main clinical phenomena: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The pathogenesis of IBD, including CD and UC, involves the presence of pathogenic factors such as abnormal gut microbiota, immune response dysregulation, environmental changes, and gene variants. Although many investigations have tried to identify novel pathogenic factors associated with IBD that are related to environmental, genetic, microbial, and immune response factors, a full understanding of IBD pathogenesis is unclear...
January 2018: Intestinal Research
Masashi Fujita, Nagahide Matsubara, Ikuo Matsuda, Kazuhiro Maejima, Ayako Oosawa, Tomoki Yamano, Akihiro Fujimoto, Mayuko Furuta, Kaoru Nakano, Aya Oku-Sasaki, Hiroko Tanaka, Yuichi Shiraishi, Raúl Nicolás Mateos, Kenta Nakai, Satoru Miyano, Naohiro Tomita, Seiichi Hirota, Hiroki Ikeuchi, Hidewaki Nakagawa
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) increases the risk of colorectal cancer, known as colitis-associated cancer (CAC). It is still unclear what driver mutations are caused by chronic inflammation and lead to CAC development. To get insight into this issue, we investigated somatic alterations in CAC. We performed exome sequencing of 22 fresh CACs and targeted sequencing of 43 genes on 90 archive specimens from Japanese CAC patients, of which 58 were ulcerative colitis (UC) and 32 were Crohn's disease (CD). Consistently with the previous reports, TP53 was commonly mutated (66%) whereas APC, KRAS and SMAD4 were mutated less frequently (16%, 11% and 11%, respectively)...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Maria A Revell, Marcia A Pugh, Melanie McGhee
The abdomen is a big place even in a small person. Gastrointestinal trauma can result in injury to the stomach, small bowel, colon, or rectum. Traumatic causes include blunt or penetrating trauma, such as gunshot wounds, stabbings, motor vehicle collisions, and crush injuries. Nontraumatic causes include appendicitis, Crohn disease, cancer, diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis, blockage of the bowel, and chemotherapy. The mechanism of injury will affect both the nature and severity of any resulting injuries. Treatment must address the critical and emergent nature of these injuries as well as issues that affect all trauma situations, which include management of hemodynamic instability...
March 2018: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
Dhruvan Patel, Chinmay Trivedi, Nabeel Khan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anemia is the most common complication as well as an extra intestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is associated with a significant impact on patient's quality of life (QoL); as well it represents a common cause of frequent hospitalization, delay of hospital inpatient discharge and overall increased healthcare burden. In spite of all these, anemia is still often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Our aim in this review is to provide a pathway for physicians to help them achieve early diagnosis as well as timely and appropriate treatment of anemia which in turn would hopefully reduce the prevalence and subsequent complications of this condition among IBD patients...
March 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Shiran Shapira, Ari Leshno, Daniel Katz, Nitsan Maharshak, Gil Hevroni, Maayan Jean-David, Sarah Kraus, Lior Galazan, Ilan Aroch, Dina Kazanov, Aharon Hallack, Stewart Becker, Mark Umanski, Menachem Moshkowitz, Iris Dotan, Nadir Arber
Background: Curcumin, green tea polyphenols and selenium possess anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Individually they have demonstrated some efficacy in animal models and human subjects with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Coltect [Curcumin (500 mg), green tea (250 mg) and selenium (100 µg)] in vivo and in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: Each component was compared to placebo in a DSS mice colitis model...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
Visvakanth Sivanathan, Gian Eugenio Tontini, Markus Möhler, Peter R Galle, Helmut Neumann
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) causing severe damage of the luminal gastrointestinal tract. Differential diagnosis between both disease entities is sometimes awkward requiring a multifactorial pathway, including clinical and laboratory data, radiological findings, histopathology and endoscopy. Apart from disease diagnosis, endoscopy in IBD plays a major role for prediction of disease severity and extent (i.e. mucosal healing) for tailored patient management and for screening of colitis associated cancer and its precursor lesions...
January 23, 2018: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
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