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Causes ulcerative colitis

Ichiro Otani, Shiro Oka, Shinji Tanaka
A 72-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis was referred to our hospital because of refractory diarrhea. Although she had been treated with prednisolone 12.5 mg/day and mesalazine suppositories 1 g/day, her watery diarrhea persisted. Colonoscopy was undergone 30 days after she started administration of mesalazine suppositories, and showed granularity of the mucosa with little erythematous appearance in the entire colon with endoscopic Mayo score 1. Double-contrast small-bowel radiography showed a rough mucosal surface in the terminal ileum...
October 15, 2016: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
Theresa Dankowski, Torsten Schröder, Steffen Möller, Xinhua Yu, David Ellinghaus, Florian Bär, Klaus Fellermann, Hendrik Lehnert, Stefan Schreiber, Andre Franke, Christian Sina, Saleh M Ibrahim, Inke R König
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of still unknown pathogenesis. Increasing evidence indicates that alterations in mitochondrial respiration and thus adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production are involved. This may contribute to mucosal energy deficiency and subsequently intestinal barrier malfunction, which is accepted to be a major hallmark of UC. Genetic alterations of the mitochondrial genome are one cause of mitochondrial dysfunction. However, less is known about mitochondrial gene polymorphisms in UC...
October 3, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Sophie Restellini, Olivier Chazouillères, Jean-Louis Frossard
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with various hepatobiliary disorders, reported both in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). They may occur at any moment in the natural course of the disease. The prevalence of liver dysfunction rises from 3% to 50% accordingly to definitions. Fatty liver is considered as the most common hepatobiliary complication in IBD whilst primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) the most specific one. Less frequently, IBD-associated hepatobiliary disorders include: autoimmune hepatitis/PSC overlap syndrome, IgG4-associated cholangiopathy, primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), hepatic amyloidosis, granulomatous hepatitis, cholelithiasis, portal vein thrombosis, and liver abscess...
October 6, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Marianthi Chatzikonstantinou, Panagiotis Konstantopoulos, Spyros Stergiopoulos, Konstantinos Kontzoglou, Christos Verikokos, Despina Perrea, Dimitris Dimitroulis
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic intestinal disorders caused by a number of factors, including external influences, intestinal microbiota and genetics. The two major clinically defined types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, each of which is characterized by relapses in the clinical course, thus patients must be under constant observation via regular endoscopies. As endoscopy, which has been used for direct evaluation and diagnosis of IBD, requires uncomfortable and expensive bowel preparation, a non-invasive test was required to reduce the number of patients undergoing unnecessary endoscopy...
October 2016: Biomedical Reports
Jae Hyon Park, Dong Yeon Jeong, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Michael Eisenhut, Jae Il Shin
Proinflammatory cytokines are thought to modulate pathogeneses of various inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), which has been studied in various allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), has been less considered to be involved in IBDs. However, mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) induced by various cytokines including TSLP were reported to cause polarization of T cell toward Th2 response, the differentiation of regulatory T-cell (Treg), and secretion of IgA by B cells...
October 1, 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
Steven R Brant, David T Okou, Claire L Simpson, David J Cutler, Talin Haritunians, Jonathan P Bradfield, Pankaj Chopra, Jarod Prince, Ferdouse Begum, Archana Kumar, Chengrui Huang, Suresh Venkateswaran, Lisa W Datta, Zhi Wei, Kelly Thomas, Lisa J Herrinton, Jan-Micheal A Klapproth, Antonio J Quiros, Jenifer Seminerio, Zhenqiu Liu, Jonathan S Alexander, Robert N Baldassano, Sharon Dudley-Brown, Raymond K Cross, Themistocles Dassopoulos, Lee A Denson, Tanvi A Dhere, Gerald W Dryden, John S Hanson, Jason K Hou, Sunny Z Hussain, Jeffrey S Hyams, Kim L Isaacs, Howard Kader, Michael D Kappelman, Jeffry Katz, Richard Kellermayer, Barbara S Kirschner, John F Kuemmerle, John H Kwon, Mark Lazarev, Ellen Li, David Mack, Peter Mannon, Dedrick E Moulton, Rodney D Newberry, Bankole O Osuntokun, Ashish S Patel, Shehzad A Saeed, Stephan R Targan, John F Valentine, Ming-Hsi Wang, Martin Zonca, John D Rioux, Richard H Duerr, Mark S Silverberg, Judy H Cho, Hakon Hakonarson, Michael E Zwick, Dermot P B McGovern, Subra Kugathasan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) cause significant morbidity and are increasing in prevalence among all populations, including African Americans. More than 200 susceptibility loci have been identified in populations of predominantly European ancestry, but few loci have been associated with IBD in other ethnicities. METHODS: We performed 2 high-density, genome-wide scans comprising 2345 cases of African Americans with IBD (1646 with CD, 583 with UC, and 116 inflammatory bowel disease unclassified [IBD-U]) and 5002 individuals without IBD (controls, identified from the Health Retirement Study and Kaiser Permanente database)...
September 28, 2016: Gastroenterology
H P T Ammon
: Boswellic acids, which are pentacyclic triterpenes belong to the active pharmacological compounds of the oleogum resin of different Boswellia species. In the resin, more than 12 different boswellic acids have been identified but only KBA and AKBA received significant pharmacological interest. Biological Activity: In an extract of the resin of Boswellia species multiple factors are responsible for the final outcome of a therapeutic effect, be it synergistic or antagonistic. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory actions of BAs are caused by different mechanisms of action...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Dan Carter, Rami Eliakim
Diseases affecting the colon are common worldwide and can cause a major health problem. Colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as Inflammatory bowel diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in western countries. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) is a novel and promising technology that can be useful for the screening and monitoring of colonic diseases. In the recent years many articles examined the use of various versions of PCCE-the 1st and 2nd generation versus various other endoscopic or radiologic modalities both for detection of colonic polyps or cancer and in both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease...
August 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Jayson X Chen, Hong Wang, Anna Liu, Lanjing Zhang, Kenneth Reuhl, Chung S Yang
In the past decades, experimental rodent models developed to study the pathogenesis of human colorectal cancer (CRC) generally employed synthetic chemical carcinogens or genetic manipulation. Our lab, in order to establish a more physiologically relevant CRC model, recently developed a colon carcinogenesis model induced by the meat-derived dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and promoted by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in the cytochrome P450 1A-humanized (hCYP1A) mice...
September 23, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Eoin P Cummins, Daniel Crean
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a general term to describe inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. IBD affects approximately 1 in 200 individuals and exerts a significant health and quality of life burden on patients. Surgical intervention can be curative in ulcerative colitis but there is currently no cure for Crohn's disease. Since this is the case, and the fact that patients are often diagnosed at a young age, IBD exerts a significant financial burden on the health care system, and society as a whole...
September 20, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Koroush Ghanadi, Javad Valizadeh, Afshin Hasanvand
INTRODUCTION: One of the forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes inflammation and ulcers in colon is ulcerative colitis (UC). This study was aimed to determine the epidemiological and clinical aspects of patients with ulcerative colitis in the west of Iran. METHODS: In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 150 patients with definite diagnosis of UC who referred to a subspecialty gastroenterology clinic in Khorramabad, Iran. The study was performed from May 2014 to August 2015 by using census method...
2016: SpringerPlus
Marianne Forkel, Jenny Mjösberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we review recent literature indicating a role of innate lymphoid cells in human inflammatory bowel disease with a focus on the plastic population of ILC3. RECENT FINDINGS: Many studies suggest an involvement of ILC3 in human intestinal inflammation. ILC3 present the most abundant ILC subtype in the human intestine at steady state. In IBD, this composition is skewed towards ILCs showing an ILC1 phenotype and cytokine profile. This change is likely due to the microenvironment causing skewing of the functionally plastic ILC subsets...
October 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Iwona Krela-Kaźmierczak, Marta Kaczmarek-Ryś, Aleksandra Szymczak, Michał Michalak, Marzena Skrzypczak-Zielińska, Natalia Drwęska-Matelska, Michalina Marcinkowska, Piotr Eder, Lilianna Łykowska-Szuber, Ewa Wysocka, Krzysztof Linke, Ryszard Słomski
Osteoporosis is more frequent in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. A reduction in bone mineral mass in these individuals is caused not only by inflammatory processes in the bowel, because osteoporosis occurs already in very young IBD patients and in newly diagnosed individuals who have not yet undergone any pharmacological treatment. One of individual determinants of the bone turnover parameters is osteoprotegerin (OPG) encoded by the TNFRSF11B gene. The c.-223C > T polymorphism in this gene has been extensively studied in post-menopausal osteoporosis patients...
September 17, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Loredana Cavalli, Andrea Guazzini, Luisella Cianferotti, Simone Parri, Tiziana Cavalli, Alessia Metozzi, Francesca Giusti, Caterina Fossi, Dennis M Black, Maria Luisa Brandi
BACKGROUND: BoneTour is a campaign conducted throughout the Italian territory for the assessment of Italian people bone status and for the prevention of osteoporosis. METHODS: A total of 7305 sequential subjects of both sexes were screened, collecting clinical data through the FRAX™ questionnaire, and measuring heel bone stiffness by Quantitative Ultrasonography (QUS). The 10-year risk for hip and major osteoporotic fractures was calculated taking into account personal or family history of fragility fracture, smoking, alcohol abuse, rheumatoid arthritis, prolonged steroids assumption...
2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Ho-Su Lee, Jaewon Choe, Seon-Ok Kim, Sun-Ho Lee, Hyo Jeong Lee, Hyungil Seo, Gwang-Un Kim, Myeongsook Seo, Eun Mi Song, Sung Wook Hwang, Sang Hyoung Park, Dong-Hoon Yang, Kyung-Jo Kim, Byong Duk Ye, Jeong-Sik Byeon, Seung-Jae Myung, Yong Sik Yoon, Chang Sik Yu, Jin-Ho Kim, Suk-Kyun Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Limited data are available regarding mortality from inflammatory bowel disease in non-Caucasian populations. Herein, we evaluated overall and cause-specific mortality in a hospital-based cohort of Korean inflammatory bowel disease patients. METHODS: We determined mortality in 2,414 Crohn's disease patients and 2,798 ulcerative colitis patients diagnosed between 1977 and 2013. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated in several demographic and phenotypic subgroups...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Börje Jonefjäll, Lena Öhman, Magnus Simrén, Hans Strid
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms (GI) compatible with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) in remission. The causes of these symptoms remain to be clarified. Our aim was to investigate prevalence and factors associated with IBS-like symptoms in patients with UC in deep remission. METHODS: We included 298 patients with UC and used Mayo score, sigmoidoscopy, and fecal calprotectin to define deep remission versus active disease...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Vincenzo Davide Palumbo, Marcello Romeo, Antonella Marino Gammazza, Francesco Carini, Provvidenza Damiani, Giuseppe Damiano, Salvatore Buscemi, Attilio Ignazio Lo Monte, Alice Gerges-Geagea, Abdo Jurjus, Giovanni Tomasello
AIM: Intestinal dysbiosis seems to be the leading cause of inflammatory bowel diseases, and probiotics seems to represent the proper support against their occurrence. Actually, probiotic blends and anti-inflammatory drugs represent a weapon against inflammatory bowel diseases. The present study evaluates the long-term (2 years) effects of combination therapy (mesalazine plus a probiotic blend of Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidus strain BGN4) on ulcerative colitis activity...
September 2016: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Takeshi Shin, Hiroshi Okada
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms "IBD AND male infertility", "Crohn's disease AND male infertility", "ulcerative colitis AND male infertility"...
August 6, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
K M Schieffer, E D Williams, G S Yochum, W A Koltun
BACKGROUND: A total proctocolectomy followed by ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a potentially curative surgery for ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis. About 5-35% of patients with ulcerative colitis and 0-11% of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis develop subsequent inflammation of the ileal pouch termed pouchitis. AIM: To provide a comprehensive analysis of the research studying the possible pathogenesis of pouchitis. The goals were to identify promising areas of investigation, to help focus clinicians, researchers and patients on how to better understand and then potentially manage ileal pouchitis, and to provide avenues for future research investigations...
October 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Gerhard Rogler, Jonas Zeitz, Luc Biedermann
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a 'prototype disease' for chronic auto-inflammatory disorders with a polygenic background and important multifaceted environmental trigger components. The environmental factors contribute both to pathogenesis and disease flares. Thus, IBD is a disease par excellence to study the interactions between host genetics, environmental factors (such as infections or smoking) and 'in-vironmental' factors - for example, our intestinal microbiota. Longitudinal intercurrent events, including the impact of long-term medication on disease progression or stabilization, can exemplarily be studied in this disease group...
2016: Digestive Diseases
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