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Cynthia Vierra-Green, David Roe, Jyothi Jayaraman, John Trowsdale, James Traherne, Rui Kuang, Stephen Spellman, Martin Maiers
The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) mediate human natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity via activating or inhibiting signals. Although informative and functional haplotype patterns have been reported, most genotyping has been performed at resolutions that are structurally ambiguous. In order to leverage structural information given low-resolution genotypes, we performed experiments to quantify the effects of population variations, reference haplotypes, and genotyping resolutions on population-level haplotype frequency estimations as well as predictions of individual haplotypes...
2016: PloS One
Brittany M Young, Julie M Stamm, Jie Song, Alexander B Remsik, Veena A Nair, Mitchell E Tyler, Dorothy F Edwards, Kristin Caldera, Justin A Sattin, Justin C Williams, Vivek Prabhakaran
Background: Brain-computer interface (BCI) devices are being investigated for their application in stroke rehabilitation, but little is known about how structural changes in the motor system relate to behavioral measures with the use of these systems. Objective: This study examined relationships among diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-derived metrics and with behavioral changes in stroke patients with and without BCI training. Methods: Stroke patients (n = 19) with upper extremity motor impairment were assessed using Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT), and DTI scans...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Karen B Kelly, John P Kennelly, Marta Ordonez, Randal Nelson, Kelly Leonard, Sally Stabler, Antonio Gomez-Muñoz, Catherine J Field, René L Jacobs
Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet...
2016: Nutrients
Marcelo L Berthier, Núria Roé-Vellvé, Ignacio Moreno-Torres, Carles Falcon, Karl Thurnhofer-Hemsi, José Paredes-Pacheco, María J Torres-Prioris, Irene De-Torres, Francisco Alfaro, Antonio L Gutiérrez-Cardo, Miquel Baquero, Rafael Ruiz-Cruces, Guadalupe Dávila
Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is a speech disorder that is defined by the emergence of a peculiar manner of articulation and intonation which is perceived as foreign. In most cases of acquired FAS (AFAS) the new accent is secondary to small focal lesions involving components of the bilaterally distributed neural network for speech production. In the past few years FAS has also been described in different psychiatric conditions (conversion disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia) as well as in developmental disorders (specific language impairment, apraxia of speech)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Valeria Righi, Francesca Parenti, Luisa Schenetti, Adele Mucci
This study describes for the first time the use of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on Klamath (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, AFA) blue-green algae directly on powder suspension. These algae are considered to be a "superfood", due to their complete nutritional profile that has proved to have important therapeutic effects. The main advantage of NMR spectroscopy is that it permits the detection of a number of metabolites all at once. The Klamath alga metabolome was revealed to be quite complex, and the most peculiar phytochemicals that can be detected directly on algae by NMR are mycosporine-like amino acids (porphyra-334, P334; shinorine, Shi) and low molecular weight glycosides (glyceryl β-d-galactopyranoside, GalpG; glyceryl 6-amino-6-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranoside, ADG), all compounds with a high nutraceutical value...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Laura Fernandes Gonçalves, Paulo de Oliveira Martins-Júnior, Ana Beatriz Fabrício de Melo, Rafaella Christina Rocha Moreira da Silva, Vicente de Paulo Martins, André Pitondo-Silva, Tatiana Amabile de Campos
The aim of this work was to analyse extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from outpatients with signs of cystitis in Hospital Universitário de Brasília (Brasília, Brazil) during the period July 2013 to April 2014. E. coli isolated from urine culture were identified and their antibiotic susceptibility profile was determined by VITEK 2. ESBL-producing strains identified were submitted to PCR for Clermont phylotyping, CTX-M group typing and virulence determinant detection, and clonal relationships were determined by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR...
September 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Frederick Michels, Guillaume Cordier, Stéphane Guillo, Filip Stockmans
Chronic instability is a common complication of lateral ankle sprains. If nonoperative treatment fails, a surgical repair or reconstruction may be indicated. Today, endoscopic techniques to treat ankle instability are becoming more popular. This article describes an endoscopic technique, using a step-by-step approach, to reconstruct the ATFL and CFL with a gracilis graft. The endoscopic technique is reproducible and safe with regard to the surrounding anatomic structures. Short and midterm results confirm the benefits of this technique...
September 2016: Foot and Ankle Clinics
Arash Aryana, Marcin Kowalski, Padraig Gearoid O'Neill, Charles H Koo, Hae W Lim, Asif Khan, Robert B Hokanson, Mark R Bowers, David N Kenigsberg, Kenneth A Ellenbogen
BACKGROUND: Limited data exists on cryoablation of atrial fibrillation (Cryo-AF) using the newly-available third-generation (AFA-ST) cryoballoon. OBJECTIVE: In this multicenter study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of Cryo-AF using the AFA-ST versus the second-generation (AFA) cryoballoon. METHODS: We examined the procedural safety and efficacy and acute and mid-term results from 355 consecutive patients (72% with paroxysmal AF) who underwent a first-time Cryo-AF using AFA-ST (n=102) or AFA (n=253)...
August 5, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Jørgen V Grevsen, Hanne Kirkegaard, Edith Kruse, Poul R Kruse
The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 8 deals with products from Lundbeck. Lundbeck which today is known as a considerable international pharmaceutical company could in 2015 celebrate its 100 years' jubilee. Among the early Danish medicinal companies H. Lundbeck & Co. is in many ways an exception as the company was not originally established as a pharmaceutical company. Not until several years after the foundation the company began to import foreign ready-made medicinal products and later-on to manufacture these medicinal products in own factory and even later to do research and development of own innovative products...
2016: Theriaca
Aimee N C Campbell, Don Des Jarlais, Cooper Hannah, Sarah Braunstein, Susan Tross, Laura Kersanske, Christine Borges, Martina Pavlicova, Kevin Jefferson, Howard Newville, Laurel Weaver, Margaret Wolff
BACKGROUND: The intersection of HIV-related health outcomes and problem substance use has been well documented. New York City continues to be a focal point of the U.S. HIV epidemic. In 2011, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) issued a recommendation that all HIV infected individuals should be offered antiretroviral therapy (ART) regardless of CD4 cell count or other indicators of disease progression. This policy is based in the concept of "treatment as prevention," in which providing ART to people living with HIV (PLWH) greatly reduces the likelihood of HIV transmission, while also improving individual health...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Gabriela Hernández-Molina, Carlos Nuñez-Alvarez, Carmen Avila-Casado, Luis Llorente, Carlos Hernández-Hernández, María Luisa Calderillo, Verónica Marroquín, Claudia Recillas-Gispert, Juanita Romero-Díaz, Jorge Sánchez-Guerrero
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of anti-α-fodrin antibodies (AFA) in combination with rheumatoid factor (RF) and/or antinuclear antibodies (ANA) as an alternative immunological criterion for Sjögren syndrome (SS) among patients with negative anti-Ro/La serology. METHODS: The study included 350 patients (100 with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and systemic sclerosis, and 50 with primary SS) randomly selected and assessed for SS...
October 2016: Journal of Rheumatology
Mária Megyeri, Péter Mikó, András Farkas, Márta Molnár-Láng, István Molnár
The cytomolecular discrimination of the A(m)- and A-genome chromosomes facilitates the selection of wheat-Triticum monococcum introgression lines. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with the commonly used DNA probes Afa family, 18S rDNA and pSc119.2 showed that the more complex hybridisation pattern obtained in T. monococcum relative to bread wheat made it possible to differentiate the A(m) and A chromosomes within homoeologous groups 1, 4 and 5. In order to provide additional chromosomal landmarks to discriminate the A(m) and A chromosomes, the microsatellite repeats (GAA)n, (CAG)n, (CAC)n, (AAC)n, (AGG)n and (ACT)n were tested as FISH probes...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
Eivind Berge, Geoffrey Cohen, Melinda B Roaldsen, Erik Lundström, Eva Isaksson, Ann-Sofie Rudberg, Karsten Bruins Slot, John Forbes, Joel Smith, Jonathan Drever, Joanna M Wardlaw, Richard I Lindley, Peter A G Sandercock, William N Whiteley
BACKGROUND: The effect of alteplase on patient survival after ischaemic stroke is the subject of debate. We report the effect of intravenous alteplase on long-term survival after ischaemic stroke of participants in the Third International Stroke Trial (IST-3). METHODS: In IST-3, done at 156 hospitals in 12 countries (Australia, Europe, and the UK), participants (aged >18 years) were randomly assigned with a telephone voice-activated or web-based system in a 1:1 ratio to treatment with intravenous 0·9 mg/kg alteplase plus standard care or standard care alone within 6 h of ischaemic stroke...
September 2016: Lancet Neurology
A C Gray, S S Sidhu, P C Chandrasekera, C F M Hendriksen, C A K Borrebaeck
The multibillion-dollar global antibody industry produces an indispensable resource but that is generated using millions of animals. Despite the irrefutable maturation and availability of animal-friendly affinity reagents (AFAs) employing naïve B lymphocyte or synthetic recombinant technologies expressed by phage display, animal immunisation is still authorised for antibody production. Remarkably, replacement opportunities have been overlooked, despite the enormous potential reduction in animal use. Directive 2010/63/EU requires that animals are not used where alternatives exist...
July 11, 2016: Trends in Biotechnology
Wei-Chao Lee, Steve Matthews, James A Garnett
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli is the primary cause of pediatric diarrhea in developing countries. They utilize aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAFs) to promote initial adherence to the host intestinal mucosa, promote the formation of biofilms, and mediate host invasion. Five AAFs have been identified to date and AAF/IV is amongst the most prevalent found in clinical isolates. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure of the AAF/IV tip protein HdaB at 2.0 Å resolution. It shares high structural homology with members of the Afa/Dr superfamily of fimbriae, which are involved in host invasion...
October 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Gustavo R Goldenberg, Daniel Burd, Piotr Lodzinski, Giuseppe Stabile, Jacob A Udell, David Newman, Mohammed Shurrab, Eugene Crystal
BACKGROUND: Three months of empirical antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy after atrial fibrillation ablation (AFA) is a common practice to prevent early arrhythmia recurrence; the data of influence of this practice on longer term ablation outcomes is limited. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of published controlled trials comparing temporary AAD therapy after AFA with no AAD therapy in patients after AFA. The primary outcome was recurrence of arrhythmia...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Kentaro Matsui, Xavier Martin Oliva, Masato Takao, Bruno S Pereira, Tiago Mota Gomes, Jan Martinez Lozano, Mark Glazebrook
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical utility of three bony tubercles: fibular obscure tubercle, talar obscure tubercle and tuberculum ligamenti calcaneofibularis, to serve as anatomical landmarks for defining the precise location of the origins and insertions of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL). METHODS: Twelve lower extremity cadaveric specimens were procured. The detectability of the tubercles was tested using palpation and fluoroscopy with subsequent confirmation after dissection...
June 28, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Si-Jia Ma, Li-Li Ding, Hui Huang, Jin-Ju Geng, Ke Xu, Yan Zhang, Hong-Qiang Ren
In this paper, we employ atomic force microscopy (AFM), fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and MiSeq analysis to study the effects of traditional dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (0.71-1.32mg/L, 2.13-3.02mg/L and 4.31-5.16mg/L) on surface force, cell membrane properties and microbial community dynamics of activated sludge. Results showed that low DO level enhanced the surface force and roughness of activated sludge; the medium DO level decreased cell membrane fluidity by reducing the synthesis of branched fatty acids in the cell membrane; high DO level resulted in the highest protein content in the effluent by EEM scanning...
August 2016: Bioresource Technology
Petra Muenzner, Arnaud Kengmo Tchoupa, Benedikt Klauser, Thomas Brunner, Johannes Putze, Ulrich Dobrindt, Christof R Hauck
Attachment to the host mucosa is a key step in bacterial pathogenesis. On the apical surface of epithelial cells, members of the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family are abundant glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion and modulation of cell signaling. Interestingly, several gram-negative bacterial pathogens target these receptors by specialized adhesins. The prototype of a CEACAM-binding pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, utilizes colony opacity associated (Opa) proteins to engage CEA, as well as the CEA-related cell adhesion molecules CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 on human epithelial cells...
May 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Shilpa Elizabeth Kuruvilla, Arathi Roddam Simha
We report ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (AFA) along with associated skin lesions in a 7-day-old child from South India. It could be a variant of the well described ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip and palate syndrome also called Hay-Wells syndrome wherein AFA, skin lesions, and clefting are characteristic. The ocular features, genetic inheritance, and possible systemic associations, along with the options for management, are discussed. The need for awareness among ophthalmologists of its systemic associations is discussed to ensure that proper multidisciplinary care is offered to the individuals affected by this rare disorder...
March 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
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