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Functional muscle transfer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918667/neuromuscular-fatigue-aetiology-after-repeated-sprints-depends-on-exercise-modality
#1
Katja Tomazin, Jean-Benoit Morin, Guillaume Y Millet
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to compare neuromuscular fatigue induced by repeated sprint running vs cycling. METHODS: Eleven active male participants performed two repeated maximal sprint protocol (5×6 s, 24-s rest periods, 4 sets, 3-min between sets), one in running (treadmill) and one in cycling (cycle ergometer). Neuromuscular function, evaluated before (PRE), 30 s after the first (S1), the second (S2), and the last set (LAST), and 5 min after the last set (POST5), consisted in determining knee extensors maximal voluntary torque (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), single twitch (Tw), high- (Db100) and low- (Db10) frequency torque, and maximal muscle compound action potential (M-wave) amplitude and duration of vastus lateralis...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911944/specific-stimuli-induce-specific-adaptations-sensorimotor-training-vs-reactive-balance-training
#2
Kathrin Freyler, Anne Krause, Albert Gollhofer, Ramona Ritzmann
Typically, balance training has been used as an intervention paradigm either as static or as reactive balance training. Possible differences in functional outcomes between the two modalities have not been profoundly studied. The objective of the study was to investigate the specificity of neuromuscular adaptations in response to two balance intervention modalities within test and intervention paradigms containing characteristics of both profiles: classical sensorimotor training (SMT) referring to a static ledger pivoting around the ankle joint vs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909699/aav-mediated-sirt1-overexpression-in-skeletal-muscle-activates-oxidative-capacity-but-does-not-prevent-insulin-resistance
#3
Laia Vilà, Carles Roca, Ivet Elias, Alba Casellas, Ricardo Lage, Sylvie Franckhauser, Fatima Bosch
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by triglyceride accumulation and reduced lipid oxidation capacity in skeletal muscle. SIRT1 is a key protein in the regulation of lipid oxidation and its expression is reduced in the skeletal muscle of insulin resistant mice. In this tissue, Sirt1 up-regulates the expression of genes involved in oxidative metabolism and improves mitochondrial function mainly through PPARGC1 deacetylation. Here we examined whether Sirt1 overexpression mediated by adeno-associated viral vectors of serotype 1 (AAV1) specifically in skeletal muscle can counteract the development of insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet in mice...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900313/semitendinosus-and-gracilis-free-muscle-tendon-graft-for-repair-of-massive-rotator-cuff-tears-surgical-technique
#4
Antonio Gigante, Carlo Bottegoni, Giuseppe Milano, Michele Riccio, Luca Dei Giudici
Massive rotator cuff tears are difficult to treat surgically due to retraction, degeneration and fraying of the ends of torn tendons, severe fatty infiltration and atrophy of the respective muscles. Procedures developed to close the gap between the rotator cuff and the greater tuberosity of the humerus, such as soft tissue release may be inadequate for large tears. Human or porcine dermal allografts still have uncertain benefits, and tendon transfers seem to be associated with poor outcomes, donor site morbidity and altered mechanics...
July 2016: Joints
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896688/design-simulation-and-modelling-of-auxiliary-exoskeleton-to-improve-human-gait-cycle
#5
O Ashkani, A Maleki, N Jamshidi
Exoskeleton is a walking assistance device that improves human gait cycle through providing auxiliary force and transferring physical load to the stronger muscles. This device takes the natural state of organ and follows its natural movement. Exoskeleton functions as an auxiliary device to help those with disabilities in hip and knee such as devotees, elderly farmers and agricultural machinery operators who suffer from knee complications. In this research, an exoskeleton designed with two screw jacks at knee and hip joints...
November 28, 2016: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882640/physiological-markers-of-exercise-capacity-and-lung-disease-severity-in-cystic-fibrosis
#6
Laurie Smith, Charles C Reilly, Victoria MacBean, Caroline J Jolley, Caroline Elston, John Moxham, Gerrard F Rafferty
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Peak aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) is an important outcome measure in cystic fibrosis (CF), but measurement is not widely available and can be influenced by patient motivation, pain and fatigue. Alternative markers of disease severity would be helpful. Neural respiratory drive, measured using parasternal intercostal muscle electromyography (EMGpara), reflects the load to capacity balance of the respiratory system and provides a composite measure of pulmonary function impairment in CF...
November 24, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881152/fitness-and-mobility-training-in-patients-with-intensive-care-unit-acquired-muscle-weakness-fitonicu-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Jan Mehrholz, Simone Thomas, Jane H Burridge, André Schmidt, Bettina Scheffler, Ralph Schellin, Stefan Rückriem, Daniel Meißner, Katja Mehrholz, Wolfgang Sauter, Ulf Bodechtel, Bernhard Elsner
BACKGROUND: Critical illness myopathy (CIM) and polyneuropathy (CIP) are a common complication of critical illness. Both cause intensive-care-unit-acquired (ICU-acquired) muscle weakness (ICUAW) which increases morbidity and delays rehabilitation and recovery of activities of daily living such as walking ability. Focused physical rehabilitation of people with ICUAW is, therefore, of great importance at both an individual and a societal level. A recent systematic Cochrane review found no randomised controlled trials (RCT), and thus no supporting evidence, for physical rehabilitation interventions for people with defined CIP and CIM to improve activities of daily living...
November 24, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879592/reinnervated-split-muscle-technique-for-creating-additional-myoelectric-sites-in-an-animal-model
#8
Maria Florencia Deslivia, Hyun-Joo Lee, Rizki Fajar Zulkarnain, Bin Zhu, Arnold Adikrishna, In-Ho Jeon, Keehoon Kim
BACKGROUND: This study proposes a novel reinnervated split-muscle operation to create additional myoelectric sites as sources of command signals of myoelectric prostheses for enhanced dexterous hand-to-wrist motions. The aim of this study was to investigate the postprocedure electromyographic properties of the muscles as distinct myoelectric sites in a rat model. METHODS: The reinnervated split-muscle group (n = 6) had the gastrocnemius muscle separated along its longitudinal axis and nerves transferred to each new muscle (peroneal nerve to lateral muscle head and tibial to medial one); the non-split-muscle group (n = 6) only had nerve transfers with its muscle intact...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879456/hindlimb-spasticity-after-unilateral-motor-cortex-lesion-in-rats-is-reduced-by-contralateral-nerve-root-transfer
#9
Hai Yang Zong, Fenfen Ma, Lai Yin Zhang, Hui Ping Lu, Jing Ru Gong, Min Cai, Hao Dong Lin, Yizhun Zhun Zhu, Chun Lin Hou
The aim was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of contralateral nerve root transfer in reducing post stroke spasticity of the affected hindlimb muscles in rats. In our study, we for the first time created a novel animal hindlimb spastic hemiplegia model in rats with photothrombotic lesion of unilateral motor cortex and we established a novel surgical procedure in reducing motor cortex lesion induced hindlimb spastic hemiplegia in rats. Thirty six rats were randomized into three groups. In group A, rats received sham operation...
November 22, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878999/experimental-evaluation-of-multiscale-tendon-mechanics
#10
REVIEW
Fei Fang, Spencer P Lake
Tendon's primary function is a mechanical link between muscle and bone. The hierarchical structure of tendon and specific compositional constituents are believed to be critical for proper mechanical function. With increased appreciation for tendon importance and the development of various technological advances, this review paper summarizes recent experimental approaches that have been used to study multiscale tendon mechanics, includes an overview of studies that have evaluated the role of specific tissue constituents, and also proposes challenges/opportunities facing tendon study...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876359/somatoautonomic-reflexes-in-acupuncture-therapy-a-review
#11
Sae Uchida, Fusako Kagitani, Ikuko Sato-Suzuki
Oriental therapies such as acupuncture, moxibustion, or Anma, have been used to treat visceral disorders since ancient times. In each of these therapies, stimulation of the skin or underlying muscles leads to excitation of afferent nerves. The sensory information is carried to the central nervous system, where it is transferred to autonomic efferents, thus affecting visceral functions. This neuronal pathway, known as the "somatoautonomic reflex", has been systematically studied by Sato and his colleagues for over a half century...
November 16, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870893/activin-receptor-type-iib-inhibition-improves-muscle-phenotype-and-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#12
Min Liu, David W Hammers, Elisabeth R Barton, H Lee Sweeney
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that causes progressive muscle atrophy and weakness. Using adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer, we evaluated the potential to improve skeletal muscle weakness via systemic, postnatal inhibition of either myostatin or all signaling via the activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB). After demonstrating elevated p-SMAD3 content and differential content of ActRIIB ligands, 4-week-old male C/C SMA model mice were treated intraperitoneally with 1x1012 genome copies of pseudotype 2/8 virus encoding a soluble form of the ActRIIB extracellular domain (sActRIIB) or protease-resistant myostatin propeptide (dnMstn) driven by a liver specific promoter...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863396/p2rx4-deficiency-in-mice-alleviates-allergen-induced-airway-inflammation
#13
Andreas Zech, Benjamin Wiesler, Cemil Korcan Ayata, Tilmann Schlaich, Thorsten Dürk, Madelon Hoßfeld, Nicolas Ehrat, Sanja Cicko, Marco Idzko
Compelling evidences point out a crucial role for extracellular nucleotides such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during inflammatory conditions. Once released into the extracellular space, ATP modulates migration, maturation and function of various inflammatory cells via activating of purinergic receptors of the P2Y- and P2X- family. P2RX4 is an ATP-guided ion channel expressed on structural cells such as alveolar epithelial and smooth muscle cells as well as inflammatory cells including macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells...
November 15, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859915/transcriptome-based-phylogeny-of-endemic-lake-baikal-amphipod-species-flock-fast-speciation-accompanied-by-frequent-episodes-of-positive-selection
#14
Sergey A Naumenko, Maria D Logacheva, Nina V Popova, Anna V Klepikova, Aleksey A Penin, Georgii A Bazykin, Anna E Etingova, Nikolai S Mugue, Alexey S Kondrashov, Lev Y Yampolsky
Endemic species flocks inhabiting ancient lakes, oceanic islands and other long-lived isolated habitats are often interpreted as adaptive radiations. Yet molecular evidence for directional selection during species flocks radiation is scarce. Using partial transcriptomes of 64 species of Lake Baikal (Siberia, Russia) endemic amphipods and two non-endemic outgroups, we report a revised phylogeny of this species flock, and analyze evidence for positive selection within the endemic lineages. We confirm two independent invasions of amphipods into Baikal and demonstrate that several morphological features of Baikal amphipods, such as body armor and reduction of appendages and sensory organs, evolved in several lineages in parallel...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858573/multiple-nerve-and-tendon-transfers-a-new-strategy-for-restoring-hand-function-in-a-patient-with-c7-t1-brachial-plexus-avulsions
#15
Bin Xu, Zhen Dong, Cheng-Gang Zhang, Yu-Dong Gu
C7-T1 brachial plexus palsies result in a loss of finger motion and hand function. The authors have observed that finger flexion motion can be recovered after a brachialis motor branch transfer. However, finger flexion strength after this procedure merely corresponds to Medical Research Council Grades M2-M3, lowering the grip strength and practical value of the reconstructed hand. Therefore, they used 2 donor nerves and accomplished double nerve transfers for stronger finger flexion. In a patient with a C7-T1 brachial plexus injury, they transferred the pronator teres branch to the anterior interosseous nerve and the brachialis motor branch to the flexor digitorum superficialis branch for reinnervation of full finger flexors...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857656/reverse-flow-anterolateral-thigh-perforator-an-ad-hoc-flap-for-severe-post-burn-knee-contracture
#16
H A Ismail, L E El-Bassiony
We evaluate function outcomes of the reverse-flow ALT perforator flap to reconstruct severe post-burn knee contracture. Between October 2012 and December 2014, 10 patients with severe post-burn knee contracture were subjected to reconstruction with 10 ipsilateral reversed-flow ALT perforator flaps. All the patients were male. Ages ranged from 15 to 47 years (mean = 32 years). Time from burn injury to patient presentation ranged from 2-8 months. All patients demonstrated post-burn flexion contracture of the knee joint, ranging from 35 to 75 degrees...
March 31, 2016: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855487/transfer-of-therapeutic-genes-into-fetal-rhesus-monkeys-using-recombinant-adeno-associated-type-i-viral-vectors
#17
Thomas J Conlon, Cathryn S Mah, Christina A R Pacak, Mary B Rucker Henninger, Kirsten E Erger, Marda L Jorgensen, Charles C Lee, Alice F Tarantal, Barry J Byrne
Neuromuscular disorders such as Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease, type II), result in early and potentially irreversible cellular damage with a very limited opportunity for intervention in the newborn period. Pompe disease is due to deficiency in acid α-glucosidase (GAA) leading to lysosomal accumulation of glycogen in all cell types, abnormal myofibrillogenesis, respiratory insufficiency, neurological deficits, and reduced contractile function in striated muscle. Previous studies have shown that fetal delivery of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) encoding GAA to the peritoneal cavity of Gaa-/- mice resulted in high-level transduction of the diaphragm...
November 17, 2016: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836255/combined-flexor-hallucis-longus-tendon-transfer-and-gastrocnemius-recession-for-reconstruction-of-gapped-chronic-achilles-tendon-ruptures
#18
Hatem Elsayed Ahmed Elgohary, Nabil A Elmoghazy, Mohammed Serry Abd Ellatif
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the functional outcomes after a combined FHL transfer and a gastrocnemius recession for treatment of chronic ruptures of Achilles tendon with a gap and to investigate the patient's satisfaction about the great toe function after transfer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 19 patients with chronic rupture of the Achilles tendon with a gap were treated with a flexor halluces longus tendon transfer combined with a gastrocnemius recession, Clinical diagnosis depends on the presence of gap in the tendon on examination, inability of tip toe walking on the affected side and positive calf-squeeze test, MRI was used to confirm the clinical diagnosis...
December 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830921/post-operative-physical-therapy-program-for-latissimus-dorsi-and-teres-major-tendons-transfer-to-rotator-cuff-in-children-with-obstetrical-brachial-plexus-injury
#19
Yasser A Safoury, Mohamed Eldesoky, Enas E Abutaleb, Mohamed Raafat, Ahmed M Gaber
BACKGROUND: The transfer latissimus dorsi and teres major tendons to rotator cuff have been developed to rebalance the muscular dysfunction and improve shoulder range of motion in children with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP). No previous study reported the ideal postoperative physical therapy program for these cases. AIM: The aim of the present study was to design appropriate postoperative physical therapy (PT) program after latissimus dorsi and teres major tendons transfer to rotator cuff in OBPP to improve upper limb function...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827299/outcome-comparison-of-nerve-transfer-with-different-donor-nerves-in-a-rat-model
#20
Xiaotian Jia, Cong Yu, Jianyun Yang
OBJECTIVE: The phrenic nerve and the contralateral seventh cervical (C7) nerve root are the most commonly used donor nerves in the treatment of total brachial plexus avulsion. The aim of this study was to determine if the phrenic nerve or the contralateral C7 nerve root yields a superior outcome for nerve transfer. METHODS: A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. In Group A the phrenic nerve was used as the donor nerve; in Group B the contralateral C7 nerve root nerve was used as the donor nerve; in Group C the nerve was directly sutured...
November 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
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