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Functional muscle transfer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783118/placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-their-exosomes-exert-therapeutic-effects-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#1
Ariel Bier, Peter Berenstein, Noam Kronfeld, Daria Morgoulis, Amotz Ziv-Av, Hodaya Goldstein, Gila Kazimirsky, Simona Cazacu, Rinat Meir, Rachela Popovtzer, Amir Dori, Chaya Brodie
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative lethal, X-linked disease of skeletal and cardiac muscles caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Cell therapy using different cell types, including mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), has been considered as a potential approach for the treatment of DMD. MSCs can be obtained from autologous sources such as bone marrow and adipose tissues or from allogeneic placenta and umbilical cord. The safety and therapeutic impact of these cells has been demonstrated in pre-clinical and clinical studies and their functions are attributed to paracrine effects that are mediated by secreted cytokines and extracellular vesicles...
May 3, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771049/-a-case-report-of-tracheotomy-complicated-by-hemorrhage-after-radical-operation-of-tongue
#2
M Y Sun, H J Wu
A 55-year old middle-aged male presented swelling lymph nodes in neck and mass in left tongue for three mouths. Physical examination shows a size 5 cm×5 cm mass in tongue and went over the midline. The mandibular lymph nodes were touched with moderate tenderness and little mobility in bilateral. The laboratory results, function of the kidney and heart liver, nasopharyngeal fiber area were basically normal. The result of CT and MRI shows the mass reached the lingual muscle layer and several suspected metastatic lymph nodes in neck...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768096/lower-extremity-muscle-function-of-front-row-rugby-union-scrummaging
#3
Mostafa Yaghoubi, Sally D Lark, Wyatt H Page, Philip W Fink, Sarah P Shultz
A rugby scrum's front row must act uniformly to transfer maximal horizontal force and improve performance. This study investigated the muscle activation patterns of lower extremity muscles in front row forwards during live and machine scrums at professional and amateur levels. Electromyography was collected bilaterally on vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles of 75 male rugby prop players during live and machine scrums. ANOVAs compared muscle reaction time, rate of change in muscle amplitude and muscle amplitude between groups and conditions...
May 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765351/multiscale-information-transfer-in-functional-corticomuscular-coupling-estimation-following-stroke-a-pilot-study
#4
Xiaoling Chen, Ping Xie, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yuling Chen, Fangmei Yang, Litai Zhang, Xiaoli Li
Recently, functional corticomuscular coupling (FCMC) between the cortex and the contralateral muscle has been used to evaluate motor function after stroke. As we know, the motor-control system is a closed-loop system that is regulated by complex self-regulating and interactive mechanisms which operate in multiple spatial and temporal scales. Multiscale analysis can represent the inherent complexity. However, previous studies in FCMC for stroke patients mainly focused on the coupling strength in single-time scale, without considering the changes of the inherently directional and multiscale properties in sensorimotor systems...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757529/fiber-based-scaffolding-techniques-for-tendon-tissue-engineering
#5
REVIEW
Yang Wu, Yi Han, Yoke San Wong, Jerry Ying Hsi Fuh
Tendon refers to a band of tough, regularly arranged and connective tissue connecting muscle and bone, transferring strength from muscle to bone, and enabling articular stability and movement. The limitations of natural tendon grafts motivate the scaffold-based tissue engineering (TE) approaches, which aim to build patient-specific biological substitutes that can repair the damaged or diseased tissues. Advances in engineering and knowledge of chemistry and biology have brought forth numerous fiber-based technologies, including electrospinning, electrohydrodynamic jet printing, electrochemical alignment technique and other fiber-assembly technologies, which enable the fabrication of tendon tissue structure in three-dimension...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745256/salvage-of-cervical-motor-radiculopathy-using-peripheral-nerve-transfer-reconstruction
#6
Fardad T Afshari, Taushaba Hossain, Caroline Miller, Dominic M Power
PURPOSE: Motor nerve transfer surgery involves re-innervation of important distal muscles using either an expendable motor branch or a fascicle from an adjacent functioning nerve. This technique is established as part of the reconstructive algorithm for traumatic brachial plexus injuries. The reproducible outcomes of motor nerve transfer surgery have resulted in exploration of the application of this technique to other paralysing conditions. The objective of this study is to report feasibility and increase awareness about nerve transfer as a method of improving upper limb function in patients with cervical motor radiculopathy of different aetiology...
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734894/-in-situ-vascular-nerve-graft-for-restoration-of-intrinsic-hand-function-an-anatomical-study
#7
Kamran Mozaffarian, Hamid Reza Zemoodeh, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Mohammad Owji
BACKGROUND: In combined high median and ulnar nerve injury, transfer of the posterior interosseous nerve branches to the motor branch of the ulnar nerve (MUN) is previously described in order to restore intrinsic hand function. In this operation a segment of sural nerve graft is required to close the gap between the donor and recipient nerves. However the thenar muscles are not innervated by this nerve transfer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the superficial radial nerve (SRN) can be used as an "in situ vascular nerve graft" to connect the donor nerves to the MUN and the motor branch of median nerve (MMN) at the same time in order to address all denervated intrinsic and thenar muscles...
June 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734889/oberlin-s-transfer-long-term-outcomes
#8
Karlis Verdins, Martins Kapickis
BACKGROUND: Brachial plexus injury is very commonly associated with road traffic accidents, and frequently affects young adults, causing significant disability and impact on quality of life. The successful treatment of upper plexus injury with the Oberlin technique to restore elbow flexion with good functional results. METHODS: We retrieved the records of all patients with upper plexus injury who underwent Oberlin transfer operation between March 2007 and July 2012...
June 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732501/pkm2-dependent-metabolic-reprogramming-in-cd4-t-cells-is-crucial-for-hyperhomocysteinemia-accelerated-atherosclerosis
#9
Silin Lü, Jiacheng Deng, Huiying Liu, Bo Liu, Juan Yang, Yutong Miao, Jing Li, Nan Wang, Changtao Jiang, Qingbo Xu, Xian Wang, Juan Feng
Inflammation mediated by activated T cells plays an important role in the initiation and progression of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-accelerated atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. Homocysteine (Hcy) activates T cells to secrete proinflammatory cytokines, especially interferon (IFN)-γ; however, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. Metabolic reprogramming is critical for T cell inflammatory activation and effector functions. Our previous study demonstrated that Hcy regulates T cell mitochondrial reprogramming by enhancing endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria coupling...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729609/virtual-surgical-planning-and-three-dimensional-printing-in-multidisciplinary-oncologic-chest-wall-resection-and-reconstruction-a-case-report
#10
Basel Sharaf, M Diya Sabbagh, Aparna Vijayasekaran, Mark Allen, Jane Matsumoto
INTRODUCTION: Primary sarcomas of the sternum are extremely rare and present the surgical teams involved with unique challenges. Historically, local muscle flaps have been utilized to reconstruct the resulting defect. However, when the resulting oncologic defect is larger than anticipated, local tissues have been radiated, or when preservation of chest wall muscles is necessary to optimize function, local reconstructive options are unsuitable. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Virtual surgical planning (VSP) and in house three-dimensional (3D) printing provides the platform for improved understanding of the anatomy of complex tumours, communication amongst surgeons, and meticulous pre-operative planning...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728514/positron-emission-tomography-of-adoptively-transferred-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells-with-zirconium-89-oxine
#11
Michael Ryan Weist, Renate Starr, Brenda Aguilar, Junie Chea, Joshua Miles, Erasmus Poku, Ethan Gerdts, Xin Yang, Saul Priceman, Stephen Forman, David Colcher, Christine Brown, John Shively
CAR T cell therapy is a promising clinical approach for reducing tumor progression and prolonging patient survival. However, improvements in both the safety and potency of CAR T cell therapy demand quantitative imaging techniques to determine the distribution of cells following adoptive transfer. The purpose of this study is to optimize zirconium-89-oxine (89 Zr-oxine) labeling of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells and evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) as a platform for imaging adoptively transferred CAR T cells...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726007/alterations-in-the-muscle-force-transfer-apparatus-in-aged-rats-during-unloading-and-reloading-impact-of-microrna-31
#12
David C Hughes, George R Marcotte, Leslie M Baehr, Daniel W D West, Andrea G Marshall, Scott M Ebert, Arik Davidyan, Christopher M Adams, Sue C Bodine, Keith Baar
KEY POINTS: Force transfer is integral for maintaining skeletal muscle structure and function. One important component is dystrophin. There is limited understanding of how force transfer is impacted by age and loading. Here, we investigate the force transfer apparatus in muscles of adult and old rats exposed to periods of disuse and reloading. Our results demonstrate an increase in dystrophin protein during the reloading phase in the adult TA muscle that is delayed in old. The consequence of this delay is an increased susceptibility towards contraction-induced muscle injury...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722436/cigarette-smoke-upregulates-pde3-and-pde4-to-decrease-camp-in-airway-cells
#13
Haoxiao Zuo, Bing Han, Wilfred J Poppinga, Lennard Ringnalda, Loes E M Kistemaker, Andrew J Halayko, Reinoud Gosens, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Martina Schmidt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a central second messenger that broadly regulates cell function and can underpin pathophysiology. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a lung disease primarily provoked by cigarette smoke (CS), the induction of cAMP-dependent pathways, via inhibition of hydrolyzing phosphodiesterases (PDEs), is a prime therapeutic strategy. Mechanisms that disrupt cAMP signaling in airway cells, in particular regulation of endogenous PDEs are poorly understood...
May 3, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717398/successful-limb-salvage-through-staged-bypass-combined-with-free-gracilis-muscle-transfer-for-critical-limb-ischemia-with-osteomyelitis-after-failed-endovascular-therapy
#14
Keisuke Miyake, Shinsuke Kikuchi, Hiroko Okuda, Atsuhiro Koya, Satomi Abe, Yoshiki Sawa, Tetsuo Ota, Nobuyoshi Azuma
BACKGROUND: Critical limb ischemia with osteomyelitis is so difficult to treat that even appropriate revascularization and wound therapy cannot achieve limb salvage because of uncontrollable infection. It is still difficult to judge the possibility of limb salvage before revascularization. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old male complained of a small ulcer on his left toe, which was treated with multiple endovascular therapy. After failed endovascular therapy, he suffered extensive tissue loss with tibial osteomyelitis...
May 2, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710183/an-update-on-the-management-of-neonatal-brachial-plexus-palsy-replacing-old-paradigms-a-review
#15
Brandon W Smith, Alecia K Daunter, Lynda J-S Yang, Thomas J Wilson
Importance: Neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) can result in persistent deficits for those who develop it. Advances in surgical technique have resulted in the availability of safe, reliable options for treatment. Prevailing paradigms include, "all neonatal brachial plexus palsy recovers," "wait a year to see if recovery occurs," and "don't move the arm." Practicing by these principles places these patients at a disadvantage. Thus, the importance of this review is to provide an update on the management of NBPP to replace old beliefs with new paradigms...
April 30, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707452/pedicled-descending-branch-latissimus-dorsi-mini-flap-for-repairing-partial-mastectomy-defect-a-new-technique
#16
Ruizhao Cai, Zeming Xie, Lihuan Zhou, Jin Wang, Xing Li, Junhao Huang, Yan Wang, Mingtian Yang, Edward I Chang, Jun Tang
Volume loss is 1 of the major factors influencing cosmetic outcomes of breast after partial mastectomy (PM), especially for smaller breasts, and therefore, volume replacement is critical for optimizing the final aesthetic outcome. We present a novel technique of raising a pedicled descending branch latissimus dorsi (LD) mini-flap for reconstruction of PM defects via an axillary incision. After PM, the LD mini-flap is harvested through the existing axillary incision of the axillary dissection or the sentinel lymph node biopsy...
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706347/the-effect-of-actn3-gene-doping-on-skeletal-muscle-performance
#17
Fleur C Garton, Peter J Houweling, Damjan Vukcevic, Lyra R Meehan, Fiona X Z Lee, Monkol Lek, Kelly N Roeszler, Marshall W Hogarth, Chrystal F Tiong, Diana Zannino, Nan Yang, Stephen Leslie, Paul Gregorevic, Stewart I Head, Jane T Seto, Kathryn N North
Loss of expression of ACTN3, due to homozygosity of the common null polymorphism (p.Arg577X), is underrepresented in elite sprint/power athletes and has been associated with reduced muscle mass and strength in humans and mice. To investigate ACTN3 gene dosage in performance and whether expression could enhance muscle force, we performed meta-analysis and expression studies. Our general meta-analysis using a Bayesian random effects model in elite sprint/power athlete cohorts demonstrated a consistent homozygous-group effect across studies (per allele OR = 1...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702048/nerve-transfer-surgery-for-penetrating-upper-extremity-injuries
#18
Efstathios Karamanos, Ilya Rakitin, Sophie Dream, Aamir Siddiqui
CONTEXT: Nerve transfer surgery is an option for repair of penetrating injuries of the upper extremity. In the right setting, it has advantages over tendon transfers and nerve grafting. OBJECTIVE: To review our experience since 2006 of nerve transfer surgery in the upper extremities. DESIGN: We included cases performed to repair penetrating trauma within three months of injury with at least three years' follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preoperative and postoperative muscle strength of the affected extremity...
April 9, 2018: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697623/facial-reanimation-in-the-seventh-and-eighth-decades-of-life
#19
Austin Hembd, Bridget Harrison, Cynthia Souza Martins Rocha, Franklin de Souza Rocha, Khalil Chamseddin, Daniel Labbé, Alexander Cárdenas-Mejía, Shai M Rozen
BACKGROUND: Treatment of facial paralysis in the older population is often relegated to static rather than dynamic reanimation for fear of poor outcomes. This pervasive approach lacks physiologic foundation and is not evidence based. Thus, the authors present an extensive literature review demonstrating weak evidence supporting this misguided concept, followed by detailed outcomes from three centers of the largest reported series to date of patients older than 60 years after reanimation performed using three techniques-lengthening temporalis myoplasty, free functional muscle, and nerve transfers...
May 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696080/therapeutic-effects-of-serum-extracellular-vesicles-in-liver-fibrosis
#20
Li Chen, Ruju Chen, Sherri Kemper, Min Cong, Hong You, David R Brigstock
The lack of approved therapies for hepatic fibrosis seriously limits medical management of patients with chronic liver disease. Since extracellular vesicles (EVs) function as conduits for intercellular molecular transfer, we investigated if EVs from healthy individuals have anti-fibrotic properties. Hepatic fibrogenesis or fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )- or thioacetic acid-induced liver injury models in male or female mice were suppressed by serum EVs from normal mice (EVN) but not from fibrotic mice (EVF)...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
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