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Functional muscle transfer

Yunlong Zou, Zhiyuan Li, Yunjing Zou, Haiyang Hao, Ning Li, Qiuyan Li
The regulatory function of Fbxo40 has been well characterized in mice. As a key component of the SCF-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, Fbxo40 induces IRS1 ubiquitination, thus inactivating the IGF1/Akt pathway. The expression of Fbxo40 is restricted to muscle, and mice with an Fbxo40 null mutation exhibit muscle hypertrophy. However, the function of FBXO40 has not been elucidated in pigs, and it is not known whether FBXO40 mutations affect their health. We therefore generated FBXO40 knockout pigs using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Stephen Brimijoin, Yang Gao, Liyi Geng, Vicky P Chen
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), a plasma enzyme that hydrolyses the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine relatively well, with far lower efficiency than acetylcholinesterase (AChE) but with the capability to degrade a broad range of bioactive esters. AChE is universally understood as essential to cholinergic neurotransmission, voluntary muscle performance, and cognition, among other roles, and its catalytic impact is essential for life. A total absence of BChE activity, whether by enzyme inhibition or simple lack of enzyme protein is not only compatible with life, but does not lead to obvious physiologic disturbance...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
T Patzer
BACKGROUND: In a progredient rotator cuff tear with tendon retraction, fatty infiltration and atrophy of rotator cuff muscles the humerus cannot be centered and stabilized sufficiently in the glenohumeral joint. This leads to rotator cuff defect arthropathy as an eccentric osteoarthritis with acetabularization and wear of the acromion, as well as of the glenoid. INDICATION: A painful pseudoparalysis of the shoulder indicates the implantation of a reversed total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) to reduce pain and restore active motion...
March 7, 2018: Der Orthopäde
Michelle F Goody, Clarissa A Henry
Skeletal muscle enables posture, breathing, and locomotion. Skeletal muscle also impacts systemic processes such as metabolism, thermoregulation, and immunity. Skeletal muscle is energetically expensive and is a major consumer of glucose and fatty acids. Metabolism of fatty acids and glucose requires NAD+ function as a hydrogen/electron transfer molecule. Therefore, NAD+ plays a vital role in energy production. In addition, NAD+ also functions as a cosubstrate for post-translational modifications such as deacetylation and ADP-ribosylation...
March 7, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
Yali Huang, Shengding Zhang, Xiaoyu Fang, Lu Qin, Yu Fan, Dandan Ding, Xiansheng Liu, Min Xie
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between plasma miRNAs levels and inflammatory characteristics in asthmatic patients. METHODS: Eligible adults with untreated asthma (n = 35) underwent a clinical assessment, sputum induction, and assessment of pulmonary function test and Asthma Control Test (ACT) scores. Asthma phenotypes were defined using the sputum cell count. miR-199a-5p expression was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
2018: PloS One
Joel T Zelt, Joshua H Jones, Daniel M Hirai, Trevor J King, Danilo C Berton, Kyra E Pyke, Denis E O'Donnell, J Alberto Neder
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases play a major role in morbidity and mortality in the earlier stages of COPD. We hypothesized that systemic vascular dysfunction would be present even in patients who are currently considered at "low-risk" for negative cardiovascular outcomes, i.e., those with largely preserved FEV1 , few exacerbations and only mild burden of respiratory symptoms (GOLD spirometric grade 1, clinical group A). METHODS: 16 patients (FEV1  = 86 ± 13%) and 16 age- and gender-matched controls underwent measurements of: a) central arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity, b) brachial flow-mediated dilation and c) forearm muscle oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy...
March 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Antonio Cusano, Nicholas Pagani, Xinning Li
Medial scapular winging is often due to dysfunction of the serratus anterior muscle as a result of injury to the long thoracic nerve. Impairment of the serratus anterior muscle may cause uncoordinated scapulohumeral rhythm during shoulder elevation and subsequent subscapular or shoulder pain, subacromial impingement, and glenohumeral joint instability. Although long thoracic nerve injury typically resolves in 12 to 18 months after a physical therapy regimen, surgical intervention is indicated in patients who fail conservative management...
August 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
Özlenen Özkan, Ömer Özkan, Anı Çinpolat, Mehmet Can Ubur, Gamze Bektaş, Adil Jumshudov, Hilmi Uysal
BACKGROUND: The repair of extensive lower lip defects is difficult due to the presence of both functional and esthetic requirements. This report describes functional lip repair using the partial latissimus dorsi free flap without nerve coaptation. METHODS: Reconstruction of the lower lip due to subtotal and total tissue defects was performed using latissimus dorsi free flap on twelve patients, between 2013 and 2017. The etiology was squamous cell carcinoma in six patients, malignant melanoma in one, firearm injury in three and microstomia in two...
February 23, 2018: Microsurgery
Mi Jin Kim, Jung Wook Hwang, Chang-Koo Yun, Youngjun Lee, Yong-Soo Choi
Mitochondria are essential organelles involved in the maintenance of cell growth and function, and have been investigated as therapeutic targets in various diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that direct mitochondrial transfer can restore cellular functions of cells with inherited or acquired mitochondrial dysfunction. However, previous mitochondrial transfer methods are inefficient and time-consuming. Here, we developed a simple and easy mitochondrial transfer protocol using centrifugation, which can be applied to any cell type...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mehmet Akif Cakmak, Hakan Cinal, Ensar Zafer Barin, Muhammed Sedat Sakat, Harun Karaduman, Onder Tan
Free flaps based on static slings principles cannot provide esthetic and functional outcomes at a desired level in total or close to total lip loss. Therefore, dynamic methods have become a current issue in recent years and especially the idea of functional gracilis free muscle flap has been suggested. In this study, we present a case of a successful total lower lip repair with this flap.In a 78-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma involving the entire lower lip, bilateral modified radical neck dissection and full-thickness total resection with 1 cm surgical margin so as to include both commissures of the tumor were performed and then a free gracilis muscle flap was transferred from the same side...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Tarek A Amer, Mohamed S El Kholy
Long-standing cases of facial paralysis are currently treated with free functional muscle transfer. Several nerves are mentioned in the literature to supply the free muscle transfer. The aim of this study is to compare the split hypoglossal nerve and the cross-face nerve graft to supply the free functional muscle transfer in facial reanimation. Of 94 patients with long-standing, unilateral facial palsy, 49 were treated using the latissimus dorsi muscle supplied by the split hypoglossal nerve, and 45 patients were treated using the latissmus dorsi muscle supplied by healthy contralateral buccal branch of the facial nerve...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Adeline Cambon-Binder, Lynda Preure, Heba Dubert-Khalifa, Pierre-Sylvain Marcheix, Zoubir Belkheyar
Spinal accessory nerve grafting requires identification of both nerve stumps in the scar tissue, which is sometimes difficult. We propose a direct nerve transfer using a fascicle from the posterior division of the upper trunk. We retrospectively reviewed 11 patients with trapezius palsy due to an iatrogenic injury of the spinal accessory nerve in nine cases. The mean age was 38 years (range 21-59). Preoperatively, patients showed shoulder weakness and limited range of motion. At a mean follow-up of 25 months, active shoulder abduction improvement averaged 57°...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
Michael James McClure, David Josh Cohen, Allison N Ramey, Caroline B Bivens, Satya Mallu, Jonathan E Isaacs, Emily Imming, Yen-Chen Huang, MoonHae Sunwoo, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara Boyan
Current strategies to treat volumetric muscle loss use primarily pedicle or free muscle transfers, but these grafts fail to adequately regenerate functional tissue. Decellularized soft tissue grafts possess physical and chemical cues to promote muscle regeneration, suggesting their potential for use in large muscle defects. In this study, we developed a decellularized muscle matrix (DMM) graft using rat gastrocnemius. Anisotropy and chemical components of the extracellular matrix were retained, including laminin, fibronectin, and collagen...
February 12, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Li-Ping Wang, Zhi-Bo Jia, Yue Liu, Qiang Gao, Su-Jun Cheng, Di Jin, Lan Ma, Xin-Hua Yin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of wild-type P53 gene transfer on graft coronary artery disease (GCAD) after heart transplantation and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: A rat model of heterotopic heart transplantation was established using Wistar rats as donors and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats as recipients. The donor hearts were collected and perfused, via the coronary artery, with 800 μl of recombinant adenovirus carrying the P53 gene (Ad-P53)...
February 6, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Kaku Barkoh, Joshua W Lucas, Larry Lee, Patrick C Hsieh, Jeffrey C Wang, Kevin Rolfe
PURPOSE: To review the current understanding and data of sagittal balance and alignment considerations in paraplegic patients. METHODS: A PubMed literature search was conducted to identify all relevant articles relating to sagittal alignment and sagittal balance considerations in paraplegic and spinal cord injury patients. RESULTS: While there are numerous studies and publications on sagittal balance in the ambulatory patient with spinal deformity or complex spine disorders, there is paucity of the literature on "normal" sagittal balance in the paraplegic patients...
February 8, 2018: European Spine Journal
Kathrine B Nielsen, Navneet N Lal, Philip W Sheard
The age-related loss of muscle mass and function predominantly affect muscles of the lower limbs and have largely been associated with decline in muscle fibre size and number, although the exact mechanisms underlying these losses are poorly understood. In addition, consistent reports that the loss of muscle strength exceeds that which can be explained by declines in muscle mass has widened the search for causes of sarcopenia to include supporting tissues such as the extracellular matrix and tendons. Although the changes to both muscle and tendon with age are well characterised, little work has focused on the interface between these two tissues, the myotendinous junction (MTJ)...
January 30, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Tomito Oji, Akiteru Hayashi, Akihiro Ogino, Kiyoshi Onishi
BACKGROUND: Lengthening temporalis myoplasty is a faster and less invasive alternative to free muscle transfer for smile reconstruction. However, it requires a nasolabial fold incision, which leaves a midfacial scar. Based on esthetic considerations, a modified approach, involving an extended lazy-S (parotidectomy) incision instead of a nasolabial fold incision, was developed. METHODS: A cadaveric study involving 10 hemifaces was conducted. From February 2013 to March 2016, the modified lengthening temporalis myoplasty procedure was employed in 10 patients...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Qin Ping Zhao, Qian Gao, Yan Zhang, Yan Wei Li, Wen Ling Huang, Chun-Lian Tang, Hui Fen Dong
The amphibious snail, Oncomelania hupensis, primarily distributed in the Far East, is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes the most virulent form of schistosomiasis. Obligatory parasitism of snails is the main vehicle for human and livestock infection and depends primarily on parasite infectivity, snail defense capacity and specificity, and parasite-snail compatibility. Therefore, the schistosome-snail interaction is biomedically significant, particularly the molecular mechanisms involved in the innate immune response against S...
January 30, 2018: Acta Tropica
Cesar de Cesar Netto, Apisan Chinanuvathana, Lucas Furtado da Fonseca, Eric J Dein, Eric W Tan, Lew Charles Schon
BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic Achilles tendon disorders, Achilles tendon debridement can be supplemented with a tendon transfer, with the flexor hallucis longus tendon (FHL) transfer representing the most common used technique. Our study describes clinical and functional results of patients treated with flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon transfer in the treatment of patients with chronic Achilles tendon disorders. METHODS: Retrospective study of prospectively collected data of thirteen patients (15 feet) that underwent FDL tendon transfer as part of the treatment of chronic Achilles tendon disorders...
December 19, 2017: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Patrice Vidal, Serena Pagliarani, Pasqualina Colella, Helena Costa Verdera, Louisa Jauze, Monika Gjorgjieva, Francesco Puzzo, Solenne Marmier, Fanny Collaud, Marcelo Simon Sola, Severine Charles, Sabrina Lucchiari, Laetitia van Wittenberghe, Alban Vignaud, Bernard Gjata, Isabelle Richard, Pascal Laforet, Edoardo Malfatti, Gilles Mithieux, Fabienne Rajas, Giacomo Pietro Comi, Giuseppe Ronzitti, Federico Mingozzi
Glycogen storage disease type III (GSDIII) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of glycogen-debranching enzyme (GDE), which results in profound liver metabolism impairment and muscle weakness. To date, no cure is available for GSDIII and current treatments are mostly based on diet. Here we describe the development of a mouse model of GSDIII, which faithfully recapitulates the main features of the human condition. We used this model to develop and test novel therapies based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene transfer...
December 28, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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