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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093018/algorithm-for-bionic-hand-reconstruction-in-patients-with-global-brachial-plexopathies
#1
Laura A Hruby, Agnes Sturma, Johannes A Mayer, Anna Pittermann, Stefan Salminger, Oskar C Aszmann
OBJECTIVE Global brachial plexus lesions with multiple root avulsions are among the most severe nerve injuries, leading to lifelong disability. Fortunately, in most cases primary and secondary reconstructions provide a stable shoulder and restore sufficient arm function. Restoration of biological hand function, however, remains a reconstructive goal that is difficult to reach. The recently introduced concept of bionic reconstruction overcomes biological limitations of classic reconstructive surgery to restore hand function by combining selective nerve and muscle transfers with elective amputation of the functionless hand and its replacement with a prosthetic device...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076883/in-vivo-feasibility-test-using-transparent-carbon-nanotube-coated-polydimethylsiloxane-sheet-at-brain-tissue-and-sciatic-nerve
#2
Caifeng Wang, Sangjin Oh, Hyun Ah Lee, Jieun Kang, Ki-Jae Jeong, Seon Woo Kang, Dae Youn Hwang, Jaebeom Lee
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with their unique and outstanding properties, such as strong mechanical strength and high electrical conductivity, have become very popular for the repair of tissues, particularly for those requiring electrical stimuli. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based elastomers have been used in a wide range of biomedical applications because of their optical transparency, physiological inertness, blood compatibility, non-toxicity, and gas permeability. In present study, most of artificial nerve guidance conduits (ANGCs) are not transparent...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058777/platysma-sparing-vascularized-submental-lymph-node-flap-transfer-for-extremity-lymphedema
#3
Igor Poccia, Chia-Yu Lin, Ming-Huei Cheng
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Due to its consistent vascular and lymphatic anatomy, the vascularized submental lymph node flap is a reliable option for lymphedema treatment. Despite these advantages, flap harvest requires resection of platysma, which may cause a marginal mandibular nerve pseudo-paralysis. The aim of this study was to investigate the donor site morbidity of an innovative platysma-sparing vascularized submental lymph node flap transfer for treating extremity lymphedema. METHODS: Ten patients undergoing platysma sparing submental lymph-node flap harvest were prospectively enrolled in the study and compared with a control group of 10 patients who underwent standard submental lymph-node flap harvest...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058213/face-transplantation-anesthetic-challenges
#4
REVIEW
Aparna Dalal
Face transplantation is a complex vascular composite allotransplantation (VCA) surgery. It involves multiple types of tissue, such as bone, muscles, blood vessels, nerves to be transferred from the donor to the recipient as one unit. VCAs were added to the definition of organs covered by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Final Rule and National Organ Transplant Act. Prior to harvest of the face from the donor, a tracheostomy is usually performed. The osteotomies and dissection of the midface bony skeleton may involve severe hemorrhagic blood loss often requiring transfusion of blood products...
December 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057164/role-of-pregabalin-in-management-of-pruritus-a-literature-review
#5
Nazanin Foroutan, Naemeh Nikvarz
Pruritus can be one of the distressing symptoms of many dermatologic, systemic, neurologic or psychiatric disorders. In each case, the origin of itch is in the skin and/or the nervous system. Involvement of the nervous system causes neurogenic, psychogenic or neuropathic itch. Itch sensation is transferred to the central nervous system via unmyelinated C-type nerve fibers, and many mediators and receptors engage in the its induction and transmission. Also it has been demonstrated that there are similarities and interactions between neurotransmitters and pathways of pain and itch sensation...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052417/c8-cross-transfer-for-the-treatment-of-caudal-brachial-plexus-avulsion-in-three-dogs
#6
Pierre Moissonnier, Claude Carozzo, Jean-Laurent Thibaut, Catherine Escriou, Antoine Hidalgo, Stéphane Blot
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cervical nerve 8 cross-transfer technique (C8CT) as a part of surgical treatment of caudal brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) in the dog. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs suspected to have caudal BPA based on neurological examination and electrophysiological testing (n = 3). METHODS: The distal stump of the surgically transected contralateral C8 ventral branch (donor) was bridged to the proximal stump of the avulsed C8 ventral branch (recipient) and secured with 9-0 polypropylene suture under an operating microscope...
January 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049831/mobile-zinc-increases-rapidly-in-the-retina-after-optic-nerve-injury-and-regulates-ganglion-cell-survival-and-optic-nerve-regeneration
#7
Yiqing Li, Lukas Andereggen, Kenya Yuki, Kumiko Omura, Yuqin Yin, Hui-Ya Gilbert, Burcu Erdogan, Maria S Asdourian, Christine Shrock, Silmara de Lima, Ulf-Peter Apfel, Yehong Zhuo, Michal Hershfinkel, Stephen J Lippard, Paul A Rosenberg, Larry Benowitz
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the projection neurons of the eye, cannot regenerate their axons once the optic nerve has been injured and soon begin to die. Whereas RGC death and regenerative failure are widely viewed as being cell-autonomous or influenced by various types of glia, we report here that the dysregulation of mobile zinc (Zn(2+)) in retinal interneurons is a primary factor. Within an hour after the optic nerve is injured, Zn(2+) increases several-fold in retinal amacrine cell processes and continues to rise over the first day, then transfers slowly to RGCs via vesicular release...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048629/tu-h-campus-jep2-04-deriving-delivered-doses-to-assess-the-viability-of-2-5-mm-margins-in-head-and-neck-sbrt
#8
S Lin, Q Shang, S Pirozzi, A Godley
PURPOSE: To calculate the delivered dose for head and neck SBRT patients using pre-treatment images. This delivered dose was then used to determine the viability of 2.5 mm margins. METHODS: Daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) were collected for 20 patients along with a planning CT, planned dose, and planning structures. The day 1 CBCT was aligned to the planning CT using the treatment shifts (six degrees of freedom) and then the dose and contours were transferred to the CBCT...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041767/-nerve-transfer-between-the-intercostal-nerves-and-the-motor-component-of-the-musculocutaneous-nerve-anatomical-study-of-feasibility
#9
M Fleury, D Lepage, I Pluvy, J Pauchot
INTRODUCTION: The intercostal nerves (ICN) transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) can restore elbow flexion in complete brachial plexus palsy. The last cases our service dealt with, allowed our staff to observe two different situations. In the 2 first patients, we were able to proceed with an intraneurodissection of the MCN motor component up to the axillary cavity level, while on the third case such dissection could not be performed as high. The aim of this work is to assess the feasibility of a transfer on the MCN's motor component...
December 29, 2016: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032001/sensory-reanimation-of-the-hand-by-transfer-of-the-superficial-branch-of-the-radial-nerve-to-the-median-and-ulnar-nerve
#10
Thilo L Schenck, Shenyu Lin, Jessica K Stewart, Konstantin C Koban, Michaela Aichler, Farid Rezaeian, Riccardo E Giunta
BACKGROUND: It remains a surgical challenge to treat high-grade nerve injuries of the upper extremity. Extra-anatomic reconstructions through the transfer of peripheral nerves have gained clinical importance over the past decades. This contribution outlines the anatomic and histomorphometric basis for the transfer of the superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) to the median nerve (MN) and the superficial branch of the ulnar nerve (SBUN). METHODS: The SBRN, MN, and SBUN were identified in 15 specimens and the nerve transfer performed...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027234/selective-nerve-root-transection-in-the-rat-produces-permanent-partial-nerve-injury-models-with-variable-levels-of-functional-deficit
#11
Louis H Poppler, Lauren M Schellhardt, Daniel A Hunter, Ying Yan, Susan E Mackinnon, Matthew D Wood, Amy M Moore
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to develop a partial, nonregenerative nerve injury model in a rat that results in permanently reduced motoneuron numbers and function. This model could serve as a platform for the study of therapeutics, such as a reverse end-to-side nerve transfer (i.e., supercharge). The authors hypothesized that transection of one or more of the L4 to L6 nerve roots supplying the sciatic nerve would cause a permanent reduction in muscle force. METHODS: Rats were randomized into five groups that underwent variations of nerve root transections or sham injury...
January 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017835/aav-mediated-transfer-of-rhoa-shrna-and-cntf-promotes-retinal-ganglion-cell-survival-and-axon-regeneration
#12
Ling-Ping Cen, Jia-Jian Liang, Jian-Huan Chen, Alan R Harvey, Tsz Kin Ng, Mingzhi Zhang, Chi Pui Pang, Qi Cui, You-Ming Fan
The aim of the present study was to determine whether adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) mediated transfer of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and RhoA shRNA has additive effects on promoting the survival and axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after optic nerve crush (ONC). Silencing effects of AAV-RhoA shRNA were confirmed by examining neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, and by quantifying RhoA expression levels with western blotting. Young adult Fischer rats received an intravitreal injection of (i) saline, (ii) AAV green fluorescent protein (GFP), (iii) AAV-CNTF, (iv) AAV-RhoA shRNA, or (v) a combination of both AAV-CNTF and AAV-RhoA shRNA...
December 23, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012041/brain-to-stomach-transfer-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-via-vagal-preganglionic-projections
#13
Ayse Ulusoy, Robert J Phillips, Michael Helwig, Michael Klinkenberg, Terry L Powley, Donato A Di Monte
Detection of α-synuclein lesions in peripheral tissues is a feature of human synucleinopathies of likely pathogenetic relevance and bearing important clinical implications. Experiments were carried out to elucidate the relationship between α-synuclein accumulation in the brain and in peripheral organs, and to identify potential pathways involved in long-distance protein transfer. Results of this in vivo study revealed a route-specific transmission of α-synuclein from the rat brain to the stomach. Following targeted midbrain overexpression of human α-synuclein, the exogenous protein was capable of reaching the gastric wall where it was accumulated into preganglionic vagal terminals...
December 23, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011743/5-ht2c-receptor-knockdown-in-the-amygdala-inhibits-neuropathic-pain-related-plasticity-and-behaviors
#14
Guangchen Ji, Wei Zhang, Lenin Mahimainathan, Madhusudhanan Narasimhan, Takaki Kiritoshi, Xiuzhen Fan, Jigong Wang, Thomas A Green, Volker Neugebauer
: Neuroplasticity in the amygdala drives pain-related behaviors. The central nucleus (CeA) serves major amygdala output functions and can generate emotional-affective behaviors and modulate nocifensive responses. The CeA receives excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the basolateral nucleus (BLA), and serotonin receptor subtype 5-HT2CR in the BLA, but not CeA, has been implicated anxiogenic behaviors and anxiety disorders. Here we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT2CR in the BLA plays a critical role in CeA plasticity and neuropathic pain behaviors in the rat spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005071/rab8a-rab11a-regulate-intercellular-communications-between-neural-cells-via-tunneling-nanotubes
#15
Hui Zhu, Chengbin Xue, Xi Xu, Yibing Guo, Xiaohong Li, Jingjing Lu, Shaoqing Ju, Yongjun Wang, Zheng Cao, Xiaosong Gu
Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are F-actin-based membrane tubes, and can form between cultured cells and within vital tissues. TNTs mediate intercellular communications that range from electrical signaling to the transfer of organelles. Following peripheral nerve injury, the orchestrated intercellular communications among neural and non-neural cells are required for effective nerve regeneration. It remains unknown whether TNTs exist between neural cells in the peripheral nerve system and how TNTs affect neural regeneration...
December 22, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998741/the-scolopidial-accessory-organ-in-the-jerusalem-cricket-orthoptera-stenopelmatidae
#16
Johannes Strauß
Multiple mechanosensory organs form the subgenual organ complex in orthopteroid insects, located in the proximal tibia. In several Ensifera (Orthoptera), a small chordotonal organ, the so-called accessory organ, is the most posterior part of this sensory complex. In order to document the presence of this accessory organ among the Ensifera, the chordotonal sensilla and their innervation in the posterior tibia of two species of Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus) is described. The sensory structures were stained by axonal tracing...
January 4, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997789/nano-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-dopamine-distribution-across-nanometer-vesicles
#17
Jelena Lovrić, Johan Dunevall, Anna Larsson, Lin Ren, Shalini Andersson, Anders Meibom, Per Malmberg, Michael E Kurczy, Andrew G Ewing
We report an approach to spatially resolve the content across nanometer neuroendocrine vesicles in nerve-like cells by correlating super high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging, NanoSIMS, with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, intracellular electrochemical cytometry at nanotip electrodes is used to count the number of molecules in individual vesicles to compare to imaged amounts in vesicles. Correlation between the NanoSIMS and TEM provides nanometer resolution of the inner structure of these organelles...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993031/complex-coacervate-core-micelles-for-the-dispersion-and-stabilization-of-organophosphate-hydrolase-in-organic-solvents
#18
Carolyn E Mills, Allie Obermeyer, Xuehui Dong, Jeremy Walker, Bradley D Olsen
Organophosphate (OP) nerve agents are a class of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) that exist as bulk stocks in current and past war zones. Thus, a technology that can perform on-site decontamination in a safe and timely fashion is desirable. Here, complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) were used to encapsulate organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) and chemostabilize it to maintain activity after exposure to organophosphate simulants ethanol and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). C3Ms were formed by two polymers-poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate)-b-poly(4-vinyl N-methylpyridyl iodide), (POEGMA-b-qP4VP)...
December 20, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989353/nerve-transfer-with-entubulated-nerve-allograft-transfers-to-treat-recalcitrant-lower-extremity-neuromas
#19
Christopher Bibbo, Edgardo Rodrigues-Colazzo
Neuroma formation in the lower extremity can be debilitating to patients, especially when the neuromas are recurrent. The results of an advanced nerve reconstruction technique consisting of nerve transfer combined with nerve allograft and entubulation was evaluated in 4 patients with severe, debilitating, lower extremity neuromas. At a mean follow-up period of 26 months, the mean visual analog scale had improved from 9.5 preoperatively to 1.25 postoperatively (p < .05). These data suggest that techniques using a nerve allograft with a nerve conduit could be of great assistance in successfully managing debilitating neuromas of the lower extremity...
January 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986399/paranodal-lesions-in-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy-associated-with-anti-neurofascin-155-antibodies
#20
Jean-Michel Vallat, Nobuhiro Yuki, Kenji Sekiguchi, Norito Kokubun, Nobuyuki Oka, Stéphane Mathis, Laurent Magy, Diane L Sherman, Peter J Brophy, Jérôme J Devaux
Antibodies to Contactin-1 and Neurofascin 155 (Nfasc155) have recently been associated with subsets of patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Contactin-1 and Nfasc155 are cell adhesion molecules that constitute the septate-like junctions observed by electron microscopy in the paranodes of myelinated axons. Antibodies to Contactin-1 have been shown to affect the localization of paranodal proteins both in patient nerve biopsies and in animal models after passive transfer. However, it is unclear whether these antibodies alter the paranodal ultrastructure...
October 24, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
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