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Nerve transfer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207955/can-an-injured-nerve-be-used-as-a-donor-nerve-for-distal-nerve-transfer-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#1
Chieh-Han John Tzou, Chuieng-Yi Johnny Lu, Tommy Naj-Jen Chang, David Chwei-Chin Chuang
BACKGROUND: Distal nerve transfer has proven efficacy. The purpose of this study was to investigate if an injured nerve can be used as a donor nerve for transfer, and to determine the threshold of injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat's left ulnar-nerves in the axilla with different degrees of injury were selected as the donor nerves for transfer, and the musculocutaneous-nerves the target nerves for being re-innervated. Six rats each served as positive and negative controls: Group A, intact ulnar-nerve transfer; and Group E, the ulnar-nerve was cut but no transfer...
February 16, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198771/correlation-between-facial-nerve-axonal-load-and-age-and-its-relevance-to-facial-reanimation
#2
Austin Hembd, Purushottam Nagarkar, Justin Perez, Andrew Gassman, Philip Tolley, Joan Reisch, Charles L White, Shai Rozen
PURPOSE: Two-stage facial reanimation procedures with a cross-facial nerve graft often have unsatisfactory results in the older patient. Although the cause of result variability is likely multifactorial, some studies suggest that increased donor nerve axonal load improves function of a free muscle transfer after a cross-facial nerve graft. This study attempts to characterize the relationship between age and facial nerve axonal load. METHODS: 63 fresh, cadaveric heads were dissected to expose the facial nerve...
February 13, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194713/use-of-compressive-osseointegration-endoprostheses-for-massive-bone-loss-from-tumor-and-failed-arthroplasty-a-viable-option-in-the-upper-extremity
#3
Krista A Goulding, Adam Schwartz, Steven J Hattrup, R Lor Randall, Donald Lee, Damian M Rispoli, Daniel M Lerman, Christopher Beauchamp
BACKGROUND: Endoprostheses using principles of compressive osseointegration have shown good survivorship in several studies involving the lower extremity; however, no series to our knowledge have documented the use of this technology in the management of massive bone loss in the upper limb. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What proportion of upper extremity implants using compressive osseointegration fixation principles achieved durable short-term fixation, and what were the modes of failure? (2) What surgical complications resulted from reconstruction using this technique? METHODS: A multiinstitutional retrospective review identified nine patients (five women; four men) who underwent 13 endoprosthetic replacements between 2003 and 2014 using compressive osseointegration (Compliant(®) Pre-stress Device [CPS]; Biomet Inc, Warsaw, IN, USA) in the upper extremity, including two proximal humeri, two humeral diaphyses, seven distal humeri, and two proximal ulna...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192259/impact-of-intraoperative-monitoring-during-elective-complex-spinal-fusions-%C3%A2-4-levels-on-30-day-complication-and-readmission-rates-a-single-institutional-study-of-643-adult-spinal-deformity-patients
#4
Aladine A Elsamadicy, Owoicho Adogwa, Emily Lydon, Gireesh Reddy, Rayan Kaakati, Amanda Sergesketter, Oren N Gottfried, Isaac O Karikari
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine if there are differences in 30-day postoperative complication and readmission rates between spinal deformity patients undergoing complex spinal fusion with and without intraoperative monitoring. METHODS: The medical records of 643 adult spine deformity patients undergoing elective complex spinal fusion (≥4 levels) at a major academic institution from 2005 to 2015 were reviewed. We identified 122 (19%) cases that involved intraoperative monitoring (IOM) including EMG, SSEP, and/or TcMEP and 521 (81%) that did not (IOM: n=122; No-IOM: n=521)...
February 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184302/the-role-of-exosomes-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-disease
#5
REVIEW
Tingting Xiao, Weiwei Zhang, Bin Jiao, Chu-Zheng Pan, Xixi Liu, Lu Shen
Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by most cell types including neurons that function in intercellular communication through transfer of their cargo or encapsulate and eliminate unnecessary cellular components and therefore have a broad impact on nerve development, activation and regeneration. In addition, exosomes have been observed to be involved in spreading pathological misfolded proteins, thereby leading to the onset and propagation of disease. Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and characterized by two types of lesions: amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170119/lateral-arm-free-tissue-transfer-for-parotid-reconstruction-a-pictorial-essay
#6
Stephen Y Kang, Matthew O Old, Theodoros N Teknos
BACKGROUND: The goals of parotid reconstruction are to provide accurate volume reconstruction of the defect while minimizing ptosis, optimize color match to surrounding facial skin, maintain anatomic position of the auricle, and to perform facial nerve rehabilitation in cases in which the facial nerve is removed. METHODS AND RESULTS: For many complex parotid defects, the lateral arm free tissue transfer achieves these reconstructive goals and is the ideal donor site for microvascular reconstruction...
February 7, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167212/recruitment-of-rna-molecules-by-connexin-rna-binding-motifs-implication-in-rna-and-dna-transport-through-microvesicles-and-exosomes
#7
REVIEW
Marta Varela-Eirin, Adrian Varela-Vazquez, Marina Rodríguez-Candela Mateos, Anton Vila-Sanjurjo, Eduardo Fonseca, José L Mascareñas, M Eugenio Vázquez, Maria D Mayan
Connexins (Cxs) are integral membrane proteins that form high-conductance plasma membrane channels, allowing communication from cell to cell (via gap junctions) and from cells to the extracellular environment (via hemichannels). Initially described for their role in joining excitable cells (nerve and muscle), gap junctions (GJs) are found between virtually all cells in solid tissues and are essential for functional coordination by enabling the direct transfer of small signalling molecules, metabolites, ions, and electrical signals from cell to cell...
February 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160014/the-incidence-and-clinical-outcomes-of-peroneal-nerve-injuries-associated-with-posterolateral-corner-injuries-of-the-knee
#8
T J Ridley, Mark A McCarthy, Matthew J Bollier, Brian R Wolf, Annunziato Amendola
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the incidence of complete and partial peroneal nerve injuries in patients with posterolateral corner (PLC) knee injuries; additionally, to compare patient-reported outcomes among patients with and without peroneal nerve injury and to examine the factors that predict the recovery of nerve function. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who underwent PLC reconstruction or repair from 2000 to 2012 with a minimum 6-month clinical follow-up...
February 3, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159544/analysis-of-the-ideal-muscle-weight-of-gracilis-muscle-transplants-for-facial-reanimation-surgery-with-regard-to-the-donor-nerve-and-outcome
#9
David Braig, Holger Bannasch, G Björn Stark, Steffen U Eisenhardt
BACKGROUND: Free functional muscle transfers represent the 'criterion standard' for smile reconstruction in facial paralysis. The gracilis muscle is a common donor muscle; however, no data exist regarding the volume of the muscle tissue that is necessary for symmetric commissure excursion. METHODS: All patients with facial paralysis receiving a free functional muscle transfer for facial reanimation surgery between January 2009 and November 2015 were retrospectively analysed...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149223/successful-nerve-transfers-for-traumatic-brachial-plexus-palsy-in-a-septuagenarian-a-case-report
#10
Parker H Johnsen, Scott W Wolfe
Background: Conventional wisdom and the available literature demonstrate compromised outcomes following nerve reconstruction for traumatic brachial plexus palsy in the elderly. We present a 74-year-old male who was reconstructed with multiple nerve transfers for brachial plexus palsy after a ski accident. Methods: Triceps to axillary nerve transfer, spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer, and ulnar to musculocutaneous nerve transfer were performed 16 weeks post injury. Results: At 11 years post-op, the patient could abduct to 65° and forward flex at M4 strength, limited only by painful glenohumeral arthritis...
December 2016: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149207/intraneural-median-nerve-anatomy-and-implications-for-treating-mixed-median-nerve-injury-in-the-hand
#11
Michael J Franco, Dennis C Nguyen, Benjamin Z Phillips, Susan E Mackinnon
Background: Nerve transfers have resulted in increased interest in the microanatomy of peripheral nerves. Herein, we expand our understanding of the internal anatomy of the digital nerve to the ulnar index and long fingers, the radial long and ring fingers, and the nerves to the second and third web spaces. Methods: The median nerve was dissected from the digital nerves to the antecubital fossa in 14 fresh upper extremities. The distance of proximal internal neurolysis of the fascicles to the second and third web space and proper digital nerves was measured relative to the radial styloid...
December 2016: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145995/dynamic-alterations-of-the-levels-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-interleukin-6-and-interleukin-1%C3%AE-in-rat-primary-motor-cortex-during-transhemispheric-functional-reorganization-after-contralateral-seventh-cervical-spinal-nerve-root-transfer-following-brachial-plexus
#12
Ming-Jie Yang, Shuang Li, Chen-Song Yang, Xu-Jia Wang, Shi-Min Chang, Gui-Xin Sun
The transfer of a contralateral healthy seventh cervical spinal nerve root (cC7) to the recipient nerve in the injured side is considered a reliable and effective procedure for restoration of the physiological functions of an injured hand after brachial plexus root avulsion injury (BPAI). Growing evidence shows that the transhemispheric cortical reorganization is induced after cC7 nerve transfer surgery. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. Proinflammatory cytokines reportedly play an important role in the neural plasticity...
January 31, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139019/from-single-cells-single-columns-to-cortical-networks-dendritic-excitability-coincidence-detection-and-synaptic-transmission-in-brain-slices-and-brains
#13
Bert Sakmann
While patch pipettes were initially designed to record extracellularly elementary current events from muscle and neuron membrane, the whole-cell (eg Sakmann, 1992) and loose cell-attached recording configurations proved to be useful tools for examining signaling within and between nerve cells. In this Paton Lecture I will summarize first work on electrical signaling within single neurons, describing communication between its dendritic compartments, soma and nerve terminals via forward and backward propagating action potentials...
January 31, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131103/segmental-latissimus-dorsi-free-flap-attempting-to-preserve-function-at-the-donor-site-anatomical-and-clinical-experiences
#14
YiChun Ding, Dong Sheng Cao, XueYing Huang, Juan Xie, HongHong Li
Background The purpose of the present study was to evaluate arm and shoulder function prospectively after transfer of the lateral segment of the latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle. Methods In this study, 20 specimens of LD muscles from 10 cadavers were dissected to determine the relationship between the artery and the nerve. Twenty patients were recruited and functional disability was determined by the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), and muscle strength by needle electromyography (EMG) before surgery and at five different time points postoperatively...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121890/facial-reanimation-basic-surgical-tools-and-creation-of-an-effective-toolbox-for-treating-patients-with-facial-paralysis-part-a-functional-muscle-transfers-in-the-long-term-facial-palsy-patient
#15
Shai M Rozen
The literature on facial paralysis is vast; however, detailed videos of the basic tools of dynamic reanimation within the context of patient scenarios accompanied by detailed narrative emphasizing both technique and thought processes are not common. Although not all scenarios of facial paralysis can be discussed in one setting, videographic visualization of basic surgical procedures, including facial marking, facial dissection, donor nerve preparation, cross-facial nerve graft, nerve transfers, and muscle harvest and inset, may provide a strong toolbox...
February 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114571/effect-of-corneal-nerve-ablation-on-immune-tolerance-induced-by-corneal-allografts-oral-immunization-or-anterior-chamber-injection-of-antigens
#16
Juan Mo, Sudha Neelam, Jessamee Mellon, Joseph R Brown, Jerry Y Niederkorn
Purpose: Severing corneal nerves during corneal transplantation does not affect first corneal transplants, but abolishes immune privilege of subsequent corneal allografts. This abrogation of immune privilege is attributable to the disabling of T regulatory cells (T regs) induced by corneal transplantation. The goal of this study was to determine if severing corneal nerves induces the development of contrasuppressor (CS) cells, which disable T regs that impair other forms of immune tolerance...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113296/pressure-in-the-cochlea-during-infrared-irradiation
#17
Nan Xia, Xiaodong Tan, Yingyue Xu, Wensheng Hou, Teresa Mao, Claus-Peter Richter
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to demonstrate laser evoked pressure waves in small confined volumes such as the cochlea. METHODS: Custom fabricated pressure probes were used to determine the pressure in front of the optical fiber in a small dish and patch pipettes to measure temperature changes. Pressure probes were inserted into scala tympani or vestibuli during laser stimulation. With a sensitive microphone the pressure was measured in the outer ear canal...
December 7, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093018/algorithm-for-bionic-hand-reconstruction-in-patients-with-global-brachial-plexopathies
#18
Laura A Hruby, Agnes Sturma, Johannes A Mayer, Anna Pittermann, Stefan Salminger, Oskar C Aszmann
OBJECTIVE Global brachial plexus lesions with multiple root avulsions are among the most severe nerve injuries, leading to lifelong disability. Fortunately, in most cases primary and secondary reconstructions provide a stable shoulder and restore sufficient arm function. Restoration of biological hand function, however, remains a reconstructive goal that is difficult to reach. The recently introduced concept of bionic reconstruction overcomes biological limitations of classic reconstructive surgery to restore hand function by combining selective nerve and muscle transfers with elective amputation of the functionless hand and its replacement with a prosthetic device...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076883/in-vivo-feasibility-test-using-transparent-carbon-nanotube-coated-polydimethylsiloxane-sheet-at-brain-tissue-and-sciatic-nerve
#19
Caifeng Wang, Sangjin Oh, Hyun Ah Lee, Jieun Kang, Ki-Jae Jeong, Seon Woo Kang, Dae Youn Hwang, Jaebeom Lee
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with their unique and outstanding properties, such as strong mechanical strength and high electrical conductivity, have become very popular for the repair of tissues, particularly for those requiring electrical stimuli. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based elastomers have been used in a wide range of biomedical applications because of their optical transparency, physiological inertness, blood compatibility, non-toxicity, and gas permeability. In present study, most of artificial nerve guidance conduits (ANGCs) are not transparent...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058777/platysma-sparing-vascularized-submental-lymph-node-flap-transfer-for-extremity-lymphedema
#20
Igor Poccia, Chia-Yu Lin, Ming-Huei Cheng
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Due to its consistent vascular and lymphatic anatomy, the vascularized submental lymph node flap is a reliable option for lymphedema treatment. Despite these advantages, flap harvest requires resection of platysma, which may cause a marginal mandibular nerve pseudo-paralysis. The aim of this study was to investigate the donor site morbidity of an innovative platysma-sparing vascularized submental lymph node flap transfer for treating extremity lymphedema. METHODS: Ten patients undergoing platysma sparing submental lymph-node flap harvest were prospectively enrolled in the study and compared with a control group of 10 patients who underwent standard submental lymph-node flap harvest...
January 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
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