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Undernutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104187/growth-faltering-in-rural-gambian-children-after-four-decades-of-interventions-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#1
Helen M Nabwera, Anthony J Fulford, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice
BACKGROUND: Growth faltering remains common in children in sub-Saharan Africa and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Due to a very slow decline in the prevalence of stunting, the total number of children with stunting continues to rise in sub-Saharan Africa. Identification of effective interventions remains a challenge. METHODS: We analysed the effect of 36 years of intensive health interventions on growth in infants and young children from three rural Gambian villages...
February 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100703/paternal-epigenetic-programming-evolving-metabolic-disease-risk
#2
Suzy Sj Hur, Jennifer E Cropley, Catherine M Suter
Parental health or exposures can affect the lifetime health outcomes of offspring, independently of inherited genotypes. Such 'epigenetic' effects occur over a broad range of environmental stressors, including defects in parental metabolism. While maternal metabolic effects are well documented, it has only recently been established that that there is also an independent paternal contribution to long-term metabolic health. Both paternal undernutrition and overnutrition can induce metabolic phenotypes in immediate offspring, and in some cases the induced phenotype can affect multiple generations, implying inheritance of an acquired trait...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100278/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-undernutrition-among-schoolchildren-in-the-plateau-central-and-centre-ouest-regions-of-burkina-faso
#3
Séverine Erismann, Astrid M Knoblauch, Serge Diagbouga, Peter Odermatt, Jana Gerold, Akina Shrestha, Grissoum Tarnagda, Boubacar Savadogo, Christian Schindler, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
BACKGROUND: Multiple factors determine children's nutritional status, including energy and nutrient intake, recurrent infectious diseases, access (or lack thereof) to clean water and improved sanitation, and hygiene practices, among others. The "Vegetables go to School: improving nutrition through agricultural diversification" (VgtS) project implements an integrated school garden programme in five countries, including Burkina Faso. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undernutrition and its risk factors among schoolchildren in Burkina Faso before the start of the project...
January 19, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099756/levofloxacin-effect-on-erlotinib-absorption-evaluation-of-the-interaction-in-undernutrition-situations-through-population-pharmacokinetic-analysis-in-rats
#4
Alejandro Pérez Pitarch, Beatriz Guglieri-López, Amparo Nacher, Virginia Merino, Matilde Merino-Sanjuan
The main objective of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic model in order to describe the intestinal absorption of erlotinib in rat and to quantify the interaction of levofloxacin on this process in well- and undernourished rats. Absorption studies were performed in male Wistar rats. Concentration-time profiles in proximal and distal intestine were analysed through non-linear mixed effect modelling using the NONMEM software version 7.3. Simulations were performed in order to explore the influence of covariates on apparent absorption rate constant...
January 18, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090472/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-the-weight-loss-during-hospitalization-in-children-a-single-korean-children-s-hospital-experience
#5
Eun Ha Hwang, Jae Hong Park, Peter Chun, Yeoun Joo Lee
PURPOSE: Undernutrition during hospitalization increases the risk of nosocomial infection and lengthens the disease courses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors of weight loss during hospitalization in children. METHODS: All the patients who were admitted in general wards between April and May 2014 were enrolled. Patients aged >18 years and discharged within 2 days were excluded. Weight loss during hospitalization was defined as a decrease in body weight of >2% in 8 hospital days or on the day of discharge...
December 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081252/corn-soy-blend-fortified-with-phosphorus-to-prevent-refeeding-hypophosphatemia-in-undernourished-piglets
#6
Anne-Louise Hother, Mikkel Lykke, Torben Martinussen, Hanne Damgaard Poulsen, Christian Mølgaard, Per Torp Sangild, André Briend, Christian Fink Hansen, Henrik Friis, Kim F Michaelsen, Thomas Thymann
BACKGROUND: Phosphorus (P) levels in refeeding diets are very important as undernourished children are at risk of hypophosphatemia during refeeding. For this reason, conventional corn-soy-blends (CSB) have been reformulated by the World Food Programme to obtain a mono-calcium-phosphate fortified product (CSB+) and a product further fortified with skim milk powder (CBS++). METHODS: Using a piglet model of undernourished children, we hypothesized that feeding of CSB+, CSB++ or CSB+ with added whey permeate (CSB+/wp) would help to prevent refeeding hypophosphatemia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076749/epigenetic-changes-of-hepatic-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-sheep-male-offspring-undernourished-in-utero
#7
Stella Chadio, Basiliki Kotsampasi, Stylliani Taka, Emmanouil Liandris, Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Elias Plakokefalos
The aim of this study was to characterise the effects of maternal undernutrition during gestation on hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme gene expression and to determine whether such effects are mediated through epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Pregnant ewes were fed a 50% nutrient-restricted diet from Day 0 to 30 (R1) or from Day 31 to 100 of gestation (R2) or a 100% diet throughout gestation (Control). After parturition lambs were fed to appetite. At 10 months of age offspring were euthanised and livers were removed...
January 12, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076319/impact-of-nutrition-on-pollutant-toxicity-an-update-with-new-insights-into-epigenetic-regulation
#8
Jessie B Hoffman, Michael C Petriello, Bernhard Hennig
Exposure to environmental pollutants is a global health problem and is associated with the development of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There is a growing body of evidence that nutrition can both positively and negatively modulate the toxic effects of pollutant exposure. Diets high in proinflammatory fats, such as linoleic acid, can exacerbate pollutant toxicity, whereas diets rich in bioactive and anti-inflammatory food components, including omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, can attenuate toxicant-associated inflammation...
January 11, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072825/dietary-chromium-restriction-of-pregnant-mice-changes-the-methylation-status-of-hepatic-genes-involved-with-insulin-signaling-in-adult-male-offspring
#9
Qian Zhang, Xiaofang Sun, Xinhua Xiao, Jia Zheng, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Fan Ping, Zhixin Wang, Cuijuan Qi, Tong Wang, Xiaojing Wang
Maternal undernutrition is linked with an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus in offspring regardless of the postnatal dietary status. This is also found in maternal micro-nutrition deficiency, especial chromium which is a key glucose regulator. We investigated whether maternal chromium restriction contributes to the development of diabetes in offspring by affecting DNA methylation status in liver tissue. After being mated with control males, female weanling 8-week-old C57BL mice were fed a control diet (CON, 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069486/leptin-and-adiponectin-as-new-markers-of-undernutrition-in-cancer
#10
C Bobin-Dubigeon, A Lefrançois, D Vansteene, M Dupé, M-P Joalland, Jean-Marie Bard
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate leptin and adiponectin as markers of undernutrition in cancer patients, and compared their performances with those of other biomarkers. DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective and observational study of 132 patients with various types of cancer. Following the recommended professional criteria, we diagnosed undernutrition at the time of blood sampling for the biological analysis of leptin, adiponectin, paraoxonase (hydrolysis rate of three substrates: paraoxon (PON), phenylacetate (ARE) and thiolactone (LAC)), and the calculation of the Prognostic Inflammatory and Nutritional Index (PINI)...
January 6, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065195/programming-maternal-and-child-overweight-and-obesity-in-the-context-of-undernutrition-current-evidence-and-key-considerations-for-low-and-middle-income-countries
#11
Lindsay M Jaacks, Justine Kavle, Abigail Perry, Albertha Nyaku
The goals of the present targeted review on maternal and child overweight and obesity were to: (i) understand the current situation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) with regard to recent trends and context-specific risk factors; and (ii) building off this, identify entry points for leveraging existing undernutrition programmes to address overweight and obesity in LMIC. Trends reveal that overweight and obesity are a growing problem among women and children in LMIC; as in Ghana, Kenya, Niger, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zimbabwe, where the prevalence among urban women is approaching 50 %...
January 9, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063514/undernutrition-as-independent-predictor-of-early-mortality-in%C3%A2-elderly-cancer-patients
#12
Renata B Martucci, Mariana V Barbosa, Cristiane A D'Almeida, Viviane D Rodrigues, Anke Bergmann, Nivaldo B de Pinho, Luiz Claudio S Thuler
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the 1-y survival of elderly patients with cancer and the association between undernutrition and mortality. METHODS: This was a cohort study with elderly patients ages ≥65 y admitted between September and October 2014. A nutritionist performed a Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) assessment during 48 h of hospital admission and collected data about potential confounding variables (comorbidities, stage of cancer, treatment in the previous 3 mo, and reason for hospitalization)...
February 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062579/lactobacillus-plantarum-favors-the-early-emergence-of-fit-and-fertile-adult-drosophila-upon-chronic-undernutrition
#13
Mélisandre A Téfit, François Leulier
Animals are naturally surrounded by a variety of microorganisms with which they constantly interact. Among these microbes, some live closely associated with a host and form its microbiota. These communities are now extensively studied, owing to their contributions to shaping various aspects of animal physiology. One of these commensal species, Lactobacillus plantarum, and in particular the L.p.(WJL) strain, has been shown to promote the growth of Drosophila larvae upon nutrient scarcity, allowing earlier metamorphosis and adult emergence compared to axenic individuals...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061830/age-nutrition-chirugie-anc-study-impact-of-a-geriatric-intervention-on-the-screening-and-management-of-undernutrition-in-elderly-patients-operated-on-for-colon-cancer-a-stepped-wedge-controlled-trial
#14
Marine Dupuis, Elisabetta Kuczewski, Laurent Villeneuve, Sylvie Bin-Dorel, Max Haine, Claire Falandry, Thomas Gilbert, Guillaume Passot, Olivier Glehen, Marc Bonnefoy
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition prior to major abdominal surgery is frequent and increases morbidity and mortality, especially in older patients. The management of undernutrition reduces postoperative complications. Nutritional management should be a priority in patient care during the preoperative period. However undernutrition is rarely detected and the guidelines are infrequently followed. Preoperative undernutrition screening should allow a better implementation of the guidelines. METHODS/DESIGN: The ANC ("Age Nutrition Chirurgie") study is an interventional, comparative, prospective, multicenter, randomized protocol based on the stepped wedge trial design...
January 7, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058772/suaahara-in-nepal-an-at-scale-multi-sectoral-nutrition-program-influences-knowledge-and-practices-while-enhancing-equity
#15
Kenda Cunningham, Akriti Singh, Pooja Pandey Rana, Laura Brye, Bindu Gautam, Karin Lapping, Silvia Alayon, Carol Underwood, Rolf D W Klemm
The burden of undernutrition in South Asia is greater than anywhere else. Policies and programmatic efforts increasingly address health and non-health determinants of undernutrition. In Nepal, one large-scale integrated nutrition program, Suaahara, aimed to reduce undernutrition among women and children in the 1,000-day period, while simultaneously addressing inequities. In this study, we use household-level process evaluation data (N = 480) to assess levels of exposure to program inputs and levels of knowledge and practices related to health, nutrition, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)...
January 6, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052270/neurodevelopmental-effects-of-undernutrition-and-placental-underperfusion-in-fetal-growth-restriction-rabbit-models
#16
Míriam Illa Armengol, Elisenda Eixarch, Emma Muñoz-Moreno, Dafnis Batalle, Rocío Leal-Campanario, Agnès Gruart, José María Delgado-García, Francesc Figueras, Eduard Gratacós
INTRODUCTION: Chronic reduction of oxygen and nutrient delivery to the fetus has been related to neurodevelopmental problems. Placental underperfusion induces a significant reduction in oxygen and nutrient delivery, whereas maternal undernutrition causes mainly nutrient deficiency. A comparison of the neurodevelopmental effects of both situations in pregnant rabbits was performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The placental underperfusion model was induced after uteroplacental vessel ligation at 25 days of pregnancy...
5, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051763/maternal-undernutrition-programs-the-apelinergic-system-of-adipose-tissue-in-adult-male-rat-offspring
#17
S Lecoutre, L Marousez, A Drougard, C Knauf, C Guinez, D Eberlé, C Laborie, D Vieau, J Lesage, C Breton
Based on the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease concept, maternal undernutrition has been shown to sensitize adult offspring to metabolic pathologies such as obesity. Using a model of maternal 70% food restriction in pregnant female rats throughout gestation (called FR30), we previously reported that obesity-prone adult male rat offspring displayed hyperleptinemia with modifications in leptin and leptin receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in white adipose tissue (WAT). Apelin is a member of the adipokine family that regulates various aspects of energy metabolism and WAT functionality...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051178/muscle-specific-deletion-of-bdk-amplifies-loss-of-myofibrillar-protein-during-protein-undernutrition
#18
Takuya Ishikawa, Yasuyuki Kitaura, Yoshihiro Kadota, Yukako Morishita, Miki Ota, Fumiya Yamanaka, Minjun Xu, Masahito Ikawa, Naokazu Inoue, Fuminori Kawano, Naoya Nakai, Taro Murakami, Shinji Miura, Yukino Hatazawa, Yasutomi Kamei, Yoshiharu Shimomura
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids for mammals and play key roles in the regulation of protein metabolism. However, the effect of BCAA deficiency on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle in vivo remains unclear. Here we generated mice with lower BCAA concentrations by specifically accelerating BCAA catabolism in skeletal muscle and heart (BDK-mKO mice). The mice appeared to be healthy without any obvious defects when fed a protein-rich diet; however, bolus ingestion of BCAAs showed that mTORC1 sensitivity in skeletal muscle was enhanced in BDK-mKO mice compared to the corresponding control mice...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041921/rising-trend-of-diabetes-mellitus-amongst-the-undernourished-state-of-the-art-review
#19
REVIEW
Nimmy K Francis, Harpreet S Pawar, Anirban Mitra, Analava Mitra
Diabetes mellitus is prevailing in the malnourished populations congruently in well-nourished ones with an escalating trend in the former group regardless of the absence of obesity as an etiologic determining factor as per the studies in underprivileged sectors of the population. Chronic undernutrition across a lifetime may be an imperative stimulator of diabetes in an individual either by progressively reducing beta cell function alongside islet cell volume and increasing the individual predisposition to other genetic or environmental diabetogenic influences with modifying influence on the course of clinical syndrome...
December 23, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031055/the-returns-of-family-planning-macro-level-assessment-of-the-effect-of-contraceptive-use-on-women-s-anaemia-and-childhood-undernutrition
#20
Md Juel Rana, Srinivas Goli
This study investigated the effect of family planning on the levels of women's anaemia and child undernutrition at the aggregate level using the compiled databases of the World Bank, UNICEF and the Economist Intelligence Unit. Correlation scatter matrix plots and multivariate OLS regression models were employed to assess the effect of family planning on women's anaemia and child nutritional status across countries. At the aggregate level, the bivariate correlation estimates found that the Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) was negatively associated with women's anaemia (r=-0...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
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