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Undernutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331301/marrow-adipose-tissue-imaging-in-humans
#1
Vibha Singhal, Miriam A Bredella
Bone strength is affected not only by bone mineral density (BMD) and bone microarchitecture but also its microenvironment. Recent studies have focused on the role of marrow adipose tissue (MAT) in the pathogenesis of bone loss. Osteoblasts and adipocytes arise from a common mesenchymal stem cell within bone marrow and many osteoporotic states, including aging, medication use, immobility, over - and undernutrition are associated with increased marrow adiposity. Advancements in imaging technology allow the non-invasive quantification of MAT...
January 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324977/maternal-metabolic-immune-and-microbial-systems-in-late-pregnancy-vary-with-malnutrition-in-mice
#2
Kristin L Connor, Christel Chehoud, Adam Altrichter, Luisa Chan, Todd Z DeSantis, Stephen J Lye
Malnutrition is a global threat to pregnancy health and impacts offspring development. Establishing an optimal pregnancy environment requires the coordination of maternal metabolic and immune pathways, which converge at the gut. Diet, metabolic and immune dysfunctions have been associated with gut dysbiosis in the non-pregnant individual. In pregnancy, these states are associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and offspring development. However, the impact of malnutrition on maternal gut microbes, and their relationships with maternal metabolic and immune status, has been largely underexplored...
January 9, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324840/malaria-increased-the-risk-of-stunting-and-wasting-among-young-children-in-ethiopia-results-of-a-cohort-study
#3
Taye Gari, Eskindir Loha, Wakgari Deressa, Tarekegn Solomon, Bernt Lindtjørn
INTRODUCTION: Given the high prevalence of malnutrition in a malaria-endemic setting, improving nutritional status could serve as a tool to prevent malaria. However, the relationship between the two conditions remains unclear. Therefore, this study assessed the association between under-nutrition and malaria among a cohort of children aged 6 to 59 months old. METHODS: Two cohorts of children were followed for 89 weeks in a rural Rift Valley area of Ethiopia. In the first approach (malaria-malnutrition), a cohort of 2,330 non-stunted and 4,204 non-wasted children were included to assess under-nutrition (outcome) based on their previous malaria status (exposure)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322564/can-fortified-foods-and-snacks-increase-the-energy-and-protein-intake-of-hospitalised-older-patients-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
S R Mills, C R Wilcox, K Ibrahim, H C Roberts
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition affects over 44% of hospitalised older people, who often dislike oral nutritional supplements (ONS). This review summarises the evidence for an alternative strategy, using energy and protein dense meals (via fortification) or snacks (supplementation) to increase the dietary energy and protein intake of older inpatients. METHODS: A search was conducted through PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews (May 1996 to May 2016) that used fortification or supplementation to increase the energy or protein intake of patients (mean age ≥60 years) in hospitals or rehabilitation centres...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316198/co-causation-of-reduced-newborn-size-by-maternal-undernutrition-infections-and-inflammation
#5
Per Ashorn, Lotta Hallamaa, Lindsay H Allen, Ulla Ashorn, Upeksha Chandrasiri, Megan Deitchler, Ronan Doyle, Ulla Harjunmaa, Josh M Jorgensen, Steve Kamiza, Nigel Klein, Kenneth Maleta, Minyanga Nkhoma, Brietta M Oaks, Basho Poelman, Stephen J Rogerson, Christine P Stewart, Mamane Zeilani, Kathryn G Dewey
More than 20 million babies are born with low birthweight annually. Small newborns have an increased risk for mortality, growth failure, and other adverse outcomes. Numerous antenatal risk factors for small newborn size have been identified, but individual interventions addressing them have not markedly improved the health outcomes of interest. We tested a hypothesis that in low-income settings, newborn size is influenced jointly by multiple maternal exposures and characterized pathways associating these exposures with newborn size...
January 8, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309520/causal-effect-of-parental-schooling-on-early-childhood-undernutrition-quasi-experimental-evidence-from-zimbabwe
#6
Jan-Walter De Neve, S V Subramanian
An estimated 3.1 million children die each year because of undernutrition. Although cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have found a protective association between greater parental education and undernutrition in their children, no randomized trial has identified a causal effect, to our knowledge. Using the 1980 education reform in Zimbabwe as a natural experiment, we estimated the causal effect of additional parental schooling on the probability of anthropometric failure in their children under 5 years of age (ages 3 through 59 months)...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306867/efficacy-of-endoscopic-screening-for-esophageal-cancer-in-china-esecc-design-and-preliminary-results-of-a-population-based-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Zhonghu He, Zhen Liu, Mengfei Liu, Chuanhai Guo, Ruiping Xu, Fenglei Li, Anxiang Liu, Haijun Yang, Lin Shen, Qi Wu, Liping Duan, Xiang Li, Chaoting Zhang, Yaqi Pan, Hong Cai, Yang Ke
OBJECTIVE: Description of the design and preliminary results of baseline recruitment and screening in the endoscopic screening for esophageal cancer in China (ESECC), the first randomised controlled trial (RCT) assessing efficacy and cost-effectiveness of endoscopic screening for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). DESIGN: ESECC trial is a cluster RCT, and 668 villages in rural Hua County, Henan Province, a high-incidence area of ESCC in China, were randomised into two arms at a ratio of 1:1...
January 6, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302547/can-mid-upper-arm-circumference-and-calf-circumference-be-the-proxy-measures-to-detect-undernutrition-among-elderly-findings-of-a-community-based-survey-in-rural-puducherry-india
#8
Kalaiselvi Selvaraj, R Jayalakshmy, Arjumand Yousuf, Arvind Kumar Singh, Gomathi Ramaswamy, C Palanivel
Introduction: Major proportion of the elderly with under nutrition is undetected in the community. One of the feasible ways to detect under nutrition among elderly would be screening in the field settings. in this study, we aimed to identify the utility of alternate anthropometric measures such as mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), calf circumference, and skin fold thickness in identifying under nutrition among elderly. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was done among elderly in one of the randomly selected subcenters...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299735/exposure-to-chinese-famine-in-early-life-and-the-risk-of-dyslipidemia-in-adulthood
#9
Xueling Xin, Weijing Wang, Hui Xu, Zongyao Li, Dongfeng Zhang
PURPOSE: Early life exposure to famine may affect the susceptibility to metabolic disorders including dyslipidemia. However, few studies explored the association between them in Chinese population. We aimed to evaluate the association between Chinese famine (1959-1961) exposure during early life and the risk of dyslipidemia in adulthood. METHODS: The study performed a historic cohort study and data were from China Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 2009. A total of 4843 subjects born between 1941 and 1966 were categorized into fetal-infant exposed group (N = 433), childhood exposed group (N = 2132), adolescence exposed group (N = 1140), and unexposed group (N = 1138), respectively...
January 3, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295806/analysis-of-individual-level-and-community-level-effects-on-childhood-undernutrition-in-malawi
#10
Peter Austin Morton Ntenda, Ying-Chih Chuang
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is a major global public health problem among children under the age of 5 years. We aimed to untangle the effects of a wide range of individual- and community-level socioeconomic factors on the risks of childhood undernutrition in Malawi. METHODS: We analyzed 6384 women-infant pairs from the 2004 and 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Surveys (MDHSs). The undernutrition status was assessed by three domains of stunted (height-for-age), wasted (weight-for-height), and underweight (weight-for-age)...
December 6, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290388/drosophila-perpetuates-nutritional-mutualism-by-promoting-the-fitness-of-its-intestinal-symbiont-lactobacillus-plantarum
#11
Gilles Storelli, Maura Strigini, Théodore Grenier, Loan Bozonnet, Martin Schwarzer, Catherine Daniel, Renata Matos, François Leulier
Facultative animal-bacteria symbioses, which are critical determinants of animal fitness, are largely assumed to be mutualistic. However, whether commensal bacteria benefit from the association has not been rigorously assessed. Using a simple and tractable gnotobiotic model- Drosophila mono-associated with one of its dominant commensals, Lactobacillus plantarum-we reveal that in addition to benefiting animal growth, this facultative symbiosis has a positive impact on commensal bacteria fitness. We find that bacteria encounter a strong cost during gut transit, yet larvae-derived maintenance factors override this cost and increase bacterial population fitness, thus perpetuating symbiosis...
December 26, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286159/maternal-chromium-restriction-induces-insulin-resistance-in-adult-mice-offspring-through-mirna
#12
Qian Zhang, Xiaofang Sun, Xinhua Xiao, Jia Zheng, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Fan Ping, Zhixin Wang, Cuijuan Qi, Tong Wang, Xiaojing Wang
Increasing evidence suggests that undernutrition during the fetal period may lead to glucose intolerance, impair the insulin response and induce insulin resistance (IR). Considering the importance of chromium (Cr) in maintaining carbohydrate metabolism, the present study aimed to determine the effects of maternal low Cr (LC) on glucose metabolism in C57BL mice offspring, and the involved mechanisms. Weaned C57BL mice were born from mothers fed a control diet or LC diet, and were then fed a control or LC diet for 13 weeks...
December 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280655/-impact-of-malnutrition-on-long-term-mortality-in-outpatients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#13
Juan Luis Bonilla Palomas, Antonio Luis Gámez López, Mirian Moreno Conde, María Cristina López Ibáñez, Patricia Castellano García, Carlos Javier Ráez Ruiz, Rocío Ruíz Quirós, Esmeralda Ramiro Ortega
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is common among acute heart failure patients and its prognosis impact has been established. The prognosis role of undernutrition among chronic heart failure patients is not known. Objetive:The aim of this study were to evaluate the influence of nutritional status on long-term mortality in patients with chronic hear failure. METHODS: 304 consecutively patients attended in our Heart failure Unit from November 2011 to November 2016 were prospectively analysed...
November 14, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277911/role-of-fetal-nutrient-restriction-and-postnatal-catch-up-growth-on-structural-and-mechanical-alterations-of-rat-aorta
#14
Perla Y Gutiérrez-Arzapalo, Pilar Rodríguez-Rodríguez, David Ramiro-Cortijo, Ángel L López de Pablo, María Rosario López-Giménez, Luis Condezo-Hoyos, Stephen E Greenwald, Maria Del Carmen González, Silvia M Arribas
Fetal undernutrition programs hypertension development, males being more susceptible. Deficient fetal elastogenesis and vascular growth is a possible mechanism. We investigated the role of aortic mechanical alterations in a rat model of hypertension programming, evaluating changes at birth, weaning and adulthood. Dams were fed ad-libitum (Control) or 50% of control intake during the second half of gestation (maternal undernutrition, MUN). 3-day, 21-day and 6-month old offspring were studied. Blood pressure was evaluated in vivo...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277418/maternal-undernutrition-during-early-pregnancy-inhibits-postnatal-growth-of-the-tibia-in-the-female-offspring-of-rats-by-alteration-of-chondrogenesis
#15
Tomoko Kimura, Kodai Hino, Tadaaki Kono, Atsushi Takano, Norihisa Nitta, Noritoshi Ushio, Shinjiro Hino, Ryuta Takase, Motoi Kudo, Yataro Daigo, Wataru Morita, Mitsuyoshi Nakao, Masato Nakatsukasa, Toshihiro Tamagawa, Ashiq Mahmood Rafiq, Akihiro Matsumoto, Hiroki Otani, Jun Udagawa
Epidemiological research has suggested that birth weights are correlated with adult leg lengths. However, the relationship between prenatal undernutrition (UN) and postnatal leg growth remains controversial. We investigated the effects of UN during early pregnancy on postnatal hindlimb growth and determined whether early embryonic malnutrition affects the functions of postnatal chondrocytes in rats. Undernourished Wistar dams were fed 40% of the daily intake of rats in the control groups from gestational days 5...
December 22, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276173/nutrimetry-bmi-assessment-as-a-function-of-development
#16
Jorge Enrique Selem-Solís, Alberto Alcocer-Gamboa, Mónica Hattori-Hara, Jonathan Esteve-Lanao, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adequate nutritional assessment is required to fight malnutrition (undernutrition and overfeeding) in children and adolescents. For this, joint interpretation of certain indicators (body mass index [BMI], height, weight, etc.) is recommended. This is done clinically, but not epidemiologically. The aim of this paper is to present "nutrimetry", a simple method that crosses anthropometric information allowing for bivariate interpretation at both levels (clinical and epidemiological)...
December 21, 2017: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259827/risk-factors-of-underweight-in-children-aged-6-59-months-in-ethiopia
#17
Deneke Tosheno, Yohannes Mehretie Adinew, Thilagavathi Thangavel, Shimelash Bitew Workie
Background: Undernutrition in early childhood has irreversible and long-lasting implications. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing risk factors of child undernutrition. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 642 households with mothers to children pairs aged 6-59 months selected by a multistage systematic random sampling method. Child anthropometric measurements on weight were recorded using standardized and calibrated weighing scales...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259485/prenatal-undernutrition-disrupted-the-sexual-maturation-but-not-the-sexual-behavior-in-male-rats
#18
Toshiya Matsuzaki, Munkhsaikhan Munkhzaya, Altankhuu Tungalagsuvd, Yiliyasi Mayila, Takeshi Iwasa, Kiyohito Yano, Rie Yanagihara, Takako Tokui, Takeshi Kato, Akira Kuwahara, Sumika Matsui, Minoru Irahara
Purpose: Exposure to various stressors, including psychological, metabolic, and immune, in the perinatal period induces long-lasting effects in physiological function and increase the risk of metabolic disorders in later life. In the present study, sexual maturation and sexual behavior were assessed in prenatally undernourished mature male rats. Methods: All the pregnant rats were divided into the maternal normal nutrition (mNN) group and the maternal undernutrition (mUN) group...
October 2017: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259078/astrovirus-infection-and-diarrhea-in-8-countries
#19
Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Saba Rouhani, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Mery Siguas Salas, Dixner Rengifo Trigoso, Dinesh Mondal, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, James Platts-Mills, Amidou Samie, Furqan Kabir, Aldo Lima, Sudhir Babji, Sanjaya Kumar Shrestha, Carl J Mason, Adil Kalam, Pascal Bessong, Tahmeed Ahmed, Estomih Mduma, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Ila Lima, Rakhi Ramdass, Lawrence H Moulton, Dennis Lang, Ajila George, Anita K M Zaidi, Gagandeep Kang, Eric R Houpt, Margaret N Kosek
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Astroviruses are important drivers of viral gastroenteritis but remain understudied in community settings and low- and middle-income countries. We present data from 8 countries with high prevalence of diarrhea and undernutrition to describe astrovirus epidemiology and assess evidence for protective immunity among children 0 to 2 years of age. METHODS: We used 25 898 surveillance stools and 7077 diarrheal stools contributed by 2082 children for enteropathogen testing, and longitudinal statistical analysis to describe incidence, risk factors, and protective immunity...
December 19, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246161/bioactive-lipids-are-altered-in-the-kidney-of-chronic-undernourished-rats-is-there-any-correlation-with-the-progression-of-prevalent-nephropathies
#20
Luzia S Sampaio, Paulo A da Silva, Valdilene S Ribeiro, Carmem Castro-Chaves, Lucienne S Lara, Adalberto Vieyra, M Einicker-Lamas
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition during childhood leads to chronic diseases in adult life including hypertension, diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Here we explore the hypothesis that physiological alterations in the bioactive lipids pattern within kidney tissue might be involved in the progression of chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Membrane fractions from kidney homogenates of undernourished rats (RBD) were submitted to lipid extraction and analysis by thin layer chromatography and cholesterol determination...
December 16, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
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