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Undernutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919976/impacts-of-prenatal-nutrition-on-animal-production-and-performance-a-focus-on-growth-and-metabolic-and-endocrine-function-in-sheep
#1
REVIEW
Prabhat Khanal, Mette Olaf Nielsen
The concept of foetal programming (FP) originated from human epidemiological studies, where foetal life nutrition was linked to health and disease status later in life. Since the proposal of this phenomenon, it has been evaluated in various animal models to gain further insights into the mechanisms underlying the foetal origins of health and disease in humans. In FP research, the sheep has been quite extensively used as a model for humans. In this paper we will review findings mainly from our Copenhagen sheep model, on the implications of late gestation malnutrition for growth, development, and metabolic and endocrine functions later in life, and discuss how these implications may depend on the diet fed to the animal in early postnatal life...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918764/fragile-environment-seasonality-and-maternal-and-childhood-undernutrition-in-bangladesh
#2
Masuda Mohsena, Mahabub Hossain, Barnali Chakraborty, Abdul Bayes, A N Mahfuzur Rahman
This study assessed whether agricultural and household incomes were the same across different agro-ecological environments in Bangladesh. An in-depth analysis of the effect of unfavourable ecologies on maternal and child malnutrition was carried out. Data were from a longitudinal data set comprising a nationally representative data sample collected in 2014 and the Food Security Nutrition Surveillance Project (FSNSP) conducted in 2011 and 2012. Anthropometric indices were used to assess the nutritional status of mothers and under-five children...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911749/effect-of-participatory-women-s-groups-and-counselling-through-home-visits-on-children-s-linear-growth-in-rural-eastern-india-caring-trial-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Nirmala Nair, Prasanta Tripathy, H S Sachdev, Hemanta Pradhan, Sanghita Bhattacharyya, Rajkumar Gope, Sumitra Gagrai, Shibanand Rath, Suchitra Rath, Rajesh Sinha, Swati Sarbani Roy, Suhas Shewale, Vijay Singh, Aradhana Srivastava, Anthony Costello, Andrew Copas, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli, Naomi Saville, Audrey Prost
BACKGROUND: Around 30% of the world's stunted children live in India. The Government of India has proposed a new cadre of community-based workers to improve nutrition in 200 districts. We aimed to find out the effect of such a worker carrying out home visits and participatory group meetings on children's linear growth. METHODS: We did a cluster-randomised controlled trial in two adjoining districts of Jharkhand and Odisha, India. 120 clusters (around 1000 people each) were randomly allocated to intervention or control using a lottery...
October 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910328/non-governmental-organization-facilitation-of-a-community-based-nutrition-and-health-program-effect-on-program-exposure-and-associated-infant-feeding-practices-in-rural-india
#4
Veena Singh, Saifuddin Ahmed, Michele L Dreyfuss, Usha Kiran, Deepika N Chaudhery, Vinod K Srivastava, Ramesh C Ahuja, Abdullah H Baqui, Gary L Darmstadt, Mathuram Santosham, Keith P West
BACKGROUND: Integrated nutrition and health programs seek to reduce undernutrition by educating child caregivers about infant feeding and care. Data on the quality of program implementation and consequent effects on infant feeding practices are limited. This study evaluated the effectiveness of enhancing a nutrition and health program on breastfeeding and complementary-feeding practices in rural India. METHODS: Utilizing a quasi-experimental design, one of the implementing districts of a Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE) nutrition and health program was randomly selected for enhanced services and compared with a district receiving the Government of India's standard nutrition and health package alone...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904119/metrics-for-identifying-food-security-status-and-the-population-with-potential-to-benefit-from-nutrition-interventions-in-the-lives-saved-tool-list
#5
REVIEW
Bianca D Jackson, Neff Walker, Rebecca Heidkamp
Background: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) uses the poverty head-count ratio at $1.90/d as a proxy for food security to identify the percentage of the population with the potential to benefit from balanced energy supplementation and complementary feeding (CF) interventions, following the approach used for the Lancet's 2008 series on Maternal and Child Undernutrition. Because much work has been done in the development of food security indicators, a re-evaluation of the use of this indicator was warranted.Objective: The aim was to re-evaluate the use of the poverty head-count ratio at $1...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886425/enhanced-thymocyte-apoptosis-induced-by-maternal-undernutrition-in-late-gestation-results-in-declined-mature-t-cells-in-rat-fetal-thymus
#6
Wen Qu, Liang-Peng Ma, Hui-Yi Yan, Sha Liu, Han-Xiao Liu, Ting Chen, Li-Fang Hou, Jie Ping
This study was designed to observe the effects of maternal food restriction (MFR) on the development of fetal thymus in different gestation periods. Timed pregnant rats were randomized into 3 groups: CN (free access to standard chow throughout gestation), MFR0-21 (50% MFR throughout gestation), MFR0-14 (50% MFR from gestational day (GD) 0 to GD14, early-mid gestation). Results showed that MFR during early-mid period had few impact on the fetal thymus and T cell subpopulations. However, MFR throughout gestation resulted in thymic atrophy, deceased frequency of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) single positive (SP) T cells and enhanced thymocyte apoptosis in fetus...
August 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877337/parent-reported-indicators-for-detecting-feeding-and-swallowing-difficulties-and-undernutrition-in-preschool-aged-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#7
Katherine A Benfer, Kelly A Weir, Robert S Ware, Peter S W Davies, Joan Arvedson, Roslyn N Boyd, Kristie L Bell
AIM: To determine the most accurate parent-reported indicators for detecting (1) feeding/swallowing difficulties and (2) undernutrition in preschool-aged children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: This was a longitudinal, population-based study, involving 179 children with CP, aged 18 to 60 months (mean 34.1mo [SD 11.9] at entry, 111 males, 68 females [Gross Motor Function Classification System level I, 84; II, 23; III, 28; IV, 18; V, 26], 423 data points). Feeding/swallowing difficulties were determined by the Dysphagia Disorders Survey and 16 signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment...
September 6, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872036/decision-making-for-gastrostomy-after-70-years-old-a-prospective-study-about-26-patients
#8
Angéline Mey, Amandine Devun, Marc Roussier, Régis Gonthier, Thomas Celarier
Management of undernutrition is based on young adults analysis. However, enteral nutrition is mainly discussed in the elderly. The aim of this study was to analyse factors related to laying gastrostomy, in geriatrics. A prospective, descriptive study, was conducted in the Loire department, from 2014 to 2016, in geriatric and palliative units. All patients over 70 years who had a theorical indication of gastrostomy were included. Decision-making process was analyzed from data affecting the reflection. Patients were followed for three months...
September 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869072/mid-upper-arm-circumference-and-powell-tuck-and-hennessy-s-equation-correlate-with-body-mass-index-and-can-be-used-sequentially-in-gastrostomy-fed-patients
#9
Rita Barosa, Lídia Roque Ramos, Carla Adriana Santos, Marta Pereira, Jorge Fonseca
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Body Mass Index (BMI) is a simple and widespread method to assess undernutrition. However its use may be limited in bedridden patients. AIMS: 1) compare BMI, Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) and Powell-Tuck and Hennessy's regression equation for BMI (BMIPTH) in gastrostomy fed patients, 2) validate its correlation for sequential use and 3) select the best cut-off of MUAC and BMIPTH to predict risk of undernutrition. METHODS: Prospective study including adult patients who underwent endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)...
August 19, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867108/the-important-role-of-food-composition-in-policies-and-programmes-for-better-public-health-a-south-african-case-study
#10
Hettie C Schönfeldt, Nicolette Hall, B Pretorius
Most governments have committed to the set of Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations (UN) to be achieved by 2030. Subsequently the governments have drafted, or are in process of drafting, policies and programmes which aim to answer to these global requests. South Africa provides a unique case study: despite economic growth, undernutrition has not improved when compared to other industrialised nations, while at the same time, diet-related non-communicable diseases and obesity have exponentially increased...
January 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864983/epigenetic-influences-during-the-periconception-period-and-assisted-reproduction
#11
Akwasi A Amoako, Tamer M Nafee, Bolarinde Ola
The periconception period starts 6 months before conception and lasts until the tenth week of gestation. In this chapter, we will focus on epigenetic modifications to DNA and gene expression within this period and during assisted reproduction. There are two critical times during the periconception window when significant epigenetic 'reprogramming' occur: one during gametogenesis and another during the pre-implantation embryonic stage. Furthermore, assisted conception treatments, laboratory protocols and culture media can affect the embryo development and birth weights in laboratory animals...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857059/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-the-unfinished-agenda-in-the-world-health-organization-south-east-asia-region
#12
Indira Chakravarty, Animesh Bhattacharya, Saurabh K Das
Access to adequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) is essential for the health, well-being and dignity of all people. The World Health Organization South-East Asia Region has made considerable progress in WASH provision during the past two decades. However, compared with increases in coverage of improved drinking water, in some parts of the region, access to adequate sanitation remains low, with continued prevalence of open defecation. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have set ambitious targets for WASH services to be achieved by 2030...
September 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857056/health-risks-of-climate-change-in-the-world-health-organization-south-east-asia-region
#13
Kathryn J Bowen, Kristie L Ebi
Countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region are particularly vulnerable to a changing climate. Changes in extreme weather events, undernutrition and the spread of infectious diseases are projected to increase the number of deaths due to climate change by 2030, indicating the need to strengthen activities for adaptation and mitigation. With support from the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia and others, countries have started to include climate change as a key consideration in their national public health policies...
September 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855460/the-survival-prognosis-of-elderly-undernourished-inpatients-admitted-to-the-internal-medical-department-of-an-emergency-hospital-as-assessed-using-the-nutritional-screening-tool-conut-for-controlling-nutritional-status
#14
Mototaka Niwano
AIM: CONUT, a tool for "CONtrolling NUTritional status" assesses the nutritional status of a subject by taking into account their serum albumin level, total cholesterol level and total lymphocyte count. Elderly undernourished inpatients admitted to the internal medical department were divided into two groups, those who left the hospital and those who died in the hospital. The goal of this study was to analyze whether or not the CONUT score, serum albumin level, total cholesterol level and total lymphocyte count could predict the survival prognosis of elderly undernourished inpatients and to show the ratio of patients discharged with artificial hydration and nutrition (AHN)...
2017: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851533/in-utero-exposure-to-malaria-is-associated-with-metabolic-traits-in-adolescence-the-agogo-2000-birth-cohort-study
#15
George Bedu-Addo, Marie Alicke, Justice K Boakye-Appiah, Inusah Abdul-Jalil, Markus van der Giet, Matthias B Schulze, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Ina Danquah
OBJECTIVES: Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) contributes to fetal undernutrition and adverse birth outcomes, and may constitute a developmental origin of metabolic diseases in the offspring. In a Ghanaian birth cohort, we examined the relationships between MiP-exposure and metabolic traits in adolescence. METHODS: MiP at delivery was assessed in 155 mother-child pairs. Among the now teenaged children (mean age, 14.8 years; 53% male), we measured fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body mass index (BMI), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP)...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845075/big-numbers-about-small-children-estimating-the-economic-benefits-of-addressing-undernutrition
#16
Harold Alderman, Jere R Behrman, Chloe Puett
Different approaches have been used to estimate the economic benefits of reducing undernutrition and to estimate the costs of investing in such programs on a global scale. While many of these studies are ultimately based on evidence from well-designed efficacy trials, all require a number of assumptions to project the impact of such trials to larger populations and to translate the value of the expected improvement in nutritional status into economic terms. This paper provides a short critique of some approaches to estimating the benefits of investments in child nutrition and then presents an alternative set of estimates based on different core data...
February 2017: World Bank Research Observer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844809/-pulmonary-embolism-as-a-presentation-of-nephrotic-syndrome
#17
C Fraisse, M Nouvier, S Lainez, P Nesme, S Ernesto, G Devouassoux
BACKGROUND: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) in adults is defined by proteinuria>3g/24h or 50mg/kg/d, hypoproteinemia<60g/24h and hypoalbuminemia<30g/L. The final diagnosis is guided by the histopathology evidence when a renal biopsy is possible. The consequences of NS are multiple: high blood pressure, undernutrition, infections and a hypercoagulable state. OBSERVATION: We report the case of a patient presenting with thromboembolic disease, occurring in the absence of other thromboembolic risk factors, which revealed NS with spontaneously favorable evolution...
August 24, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843578/estimates-of-the-global-regional-and-national-morbidity-mortality-and-aetiologies-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-195-countries-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#18
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2015 provides an up-to-date analysis of the burden of lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs) in 195 countries. This study assesses cases, deaths, and aetiologies spanning the past 25 years and shows how the burden of LRI has changed in people of all ages. METHODS: We estimated LRI mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using a modelling platform shared across most causes of death in the GBD 2015 study called the Cause of Death Ensemble model...
August 23, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838293/is-lack-of-breakfast-contributing-to-nutrient-deficits-and-poor-nutritional-indicators-among-adolescent-girls
#19
Angeline Jeyakumar, Padmini Ghugre
BACKGROUND: Breakfast is considered the first and most important meal of the day. Missing the first meal may result in significant nutritional deficits, if not compensated in subsequent meals. AIM: To describe the nutrient intake through breakfast and to study its association with nutritional indicators among adolescent girls. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among adolescent girls ( n = 565) 16-18 years was carried out in urban slums of Pune, Maharashtra, India...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835303/mitotic-index-and-morphological-characteristics-of-ovarian-small-follicles-from-goats-submitted-to-nutritionally-unbalanced-regimens
#20
Davide Rondina, Vicente J F Freitas, Jamily B Bruno, Juliana J H Celestino, Regiane R Santos
The objective of this study was to assess the influence of nutritional regimens such as adequate feeding, restricted feeding, and underfeeding-refeeding on the follicle growth and development from caprine ovaries. Goats were divided into three different groups (n = 5 per group). For 24 weeks, goats received elephant grass plus concentrate to provide 1.5 (n = 5) and 0.72 (n = 10) times the energy requirements for maintenance of live weight. Underfed goats were subsequently refed for 6 weeks with the diet of the nourished group (1...
August 24, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
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